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The report on the following pages is the outcome of six weeks training at the


The report is the outcome of the practical knowledge that we acquire during our

training. This report presents the brief summary of our industrial training.

I had the privilege of receiving such training at HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS


There could not be a better place to learn…


I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the management of

HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMETED for having given this opportunity

to carry out my training.

I am grateful to my esteemed guide Mr.Dy. General manger of instrument

department for his whole hearted cooperation and support.

I also acknowledge my gratefulness to Mr. Nirmaljeet Singh, training and

placement officer, H.E.C. Jagadhri, for giving me the opportunity to undergo

this training

And last but not the least, I would like pay my sincere gratitude to all the

employees of the HAL , LUCKNOW, for there valuable help and technical

support at various times.

The history of the Indian Aircraft Industry can be traced to the founding of
Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in December 1940 in association with
the erstwhile princely State of Mysore and late Shri Seth Walchand Hirachand,
an Industrialist of extra -ordinary vision. Govt. of India became one of its
shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. Hindustan
Aircraft Limited was merged with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft
Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur to form Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
on 01st October 1964.
Today HAL has got 16 production units and 9 research and design centers
spread out in seven different locations in India. Its product track record consists
of 12 types of aircraft from in house R &D and 13 types by license production.
HAL has so far produced over 3300 aircraft, 3400 Aeroengines and
overhauled over 7700 aircraft and 26000 engines.
HAL has engaged & succeeded in number of R & D programs for both the
military and civil aviation sectors. Substantial progress has been made in the
current projects like Dhruv -Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), Tejas-Light
Combat Aircraft (LCA), Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) and various military and
civil upgrades. The deliveries of Dhruv were effected to Indian Army, Navy, Air
Force and Coast Guard in March 2002, in its first year of production which is a
unique achievement.
HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs in the
manufacturing of satellite launch vehicles like PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch
Vehicle), GSLV (Geo Stationary Launch Vehicle), IRS (Indian Remote
Satellite) & INSAT (Indian National Satellite).
HAL has also two joint venture companies, BAeHAL Software Limited
and Indo- Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL). Apart from the two, other major
diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas turbine and Airport Services.
Several co-production and joint Ventures with international participation are
under consideration.
HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast
Guard and Border Security Force. Transport aircraft and Helicopters have also
been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company
has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having
demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.
HAL, has won several International & National Awards for achievements
in R&D, Technology, managerial performance, exports, energy conservation,
quality and fulfillment of social responsibilities. M/S Global Rating, United
Kingdom in conjunction with The International Information and Marketing
Center (IIMC) has awarded the “INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL
LEADERS 2003) LONDON, UK to M/s. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for
Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency. HAL was also presented the
in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, technology &
Innovation. At National level, HAL won the top award instituted- by SCOPE
(Standing Conference of Public Enterprises) -The "GOLD TROPHY" for
excellence in Public Sector Management.
The Company scaled new heights in the financial year 2002-2003 with a
turn over of Rs. 3120 Crores and export of Rs. 103.89 Crores.

“To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an

instrument for achieving self reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance
Aerospace equipment, civil transport aircraft, helicopter and missiles and
diversifying to related areas, managing the business on commercial lines in a
climate of growing professional competence.”

In the six decades, HAL has spread its wing to cover various activities in
the areas of Design, Development, Manufacture and Maintenance. Today HAL
has 16 production divisions spread over at Bangalore, Nasik, Koraput, Kanpur,
Lucknow, Korwa, Hyderabad and Barrackpore. These divisions are fully
backed by nine Design Centres, which are co-located with the production
divisions. These centres are engaged in the Design and Development of combat
aircraft, helicopter, Aeroengine, Engine Test Beds, Aircraft communication and
Navigation systems and Accessories of mechanical and fuel systems and
instruments. Its product track record consists of 12 types of aircraft from in
house R &D and 13 types by license production. HAL has so far produced over
3300 aircraft, 3400 Aeroengines and overhauled over 7700 aircraft and 26000
The current programme are series production of ALH and delivery to our
defence and civil customers, production of Jaguar, the deep penetration strike
aircraft, Dornier Do-228, Multi Mission Aircraft and LANCER the Light Attack
Helicopter and upgrades of MiG-21 BiS, MiG-27 M and Jaguar. With the
signing of Inter Governmental Agreement and General Contract the license
manufacture of SU MkI has been launched.
HAL is the major design partner for aircraft and system / equipment as
well as for system integration of Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) which
successfully completed the first block of flights.The new initiative in R & D
will include an Intermediate Jet Trainer ( IJT ), a trainer for the 21st century,
Light Observation Helicopter, replacement for Cheetah and Chetak Helicopter
and a Light Attack Helicopter, a follow- on project for ALH.Partnership for co-
production of ATR-42, an invitation from Airbus to participate in A-380 project,
and the new project to design and develop a Multirole Transport Aircraft (100
seater) are signs of growth for the largely military aircraft manufacturing
company in the commercially competitive aerospace industry.Design
capabilities, modern facilities and skills combined with competitive pricing and
prompt deliveries, make HAL a valuable partner for challenging programmes in
Aerospace and related fields.


The major products of the Division are:
• Undercarriage systems
• Wheels and Brake systems
• Hydraulic Systems
• Aircraft and Engine Fuel Systems
• Panel Instruments (Barometric and gyroscopic)
• Electric Power Generation and Control systems
• Environmental control systems.
• Flight Control Actuators
• Ground Support Equipment and test Rigs.

Main Customers

i)Indian Air Force, Army, Navy, Coast Guard, BSF

ii)Defence R&D Laboratories and Deptt of Space;

iii)Civil Aviation, State Govt., Ordnance Factories, Corporate Sectors;

iv)Flying Academies & Educational Institutions;

v)Airlines, Air Taxi, Air Cargo;

vi)Overseas customers for civil and military applications.

vii)Collaborators and Licensors.
Expansion of Nasik Division as Establishment of SUKHOI
2 Aircraft Manufacturing & ENGINE DIVISION at Koraput
002 Overhaul Division

Establishment of Airport Service Center for coordinating the

2000 operation of HAL airport -Bangalore

Establishment of Industrial &marine Gas Turbine Division for

1998 aero derivative gas turbines/industrial engines

Establishment of AEROSPACE DIVISION for

1988 structure of Aerospace Launch Vehicles

Establishment of KORWA DIVISION for Advanced

1982 Avionics


1 at Bangalore

Establishment of HELICOPTER Establishment of LUCKHNOW

1 DIVISION at Bangalore DIVISION for Accessories &


1 merging of 3 companies

Establishment of Aeronautics India LTD. At Nasik, Koraput & Hyderabad for

1 MiG Airframe, Engines & Avionics

Establishment of aircraft Establishment of Engine Division at

1960 Manufacture DEPOT at 1956 Bangalore
Kanpur for HS-748

1940 Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore


The Division was established in 1970 with the primary objective of

manufacturing systems and accessories for various aircraft, helicopters and
engines with a view to attain self-sufficiency in this field in the country. The
Division started with the manufacture of hydro-mechanical accessories and
instruments under license for Marut and Kiran aircraft. This was followed by
license manufacture of accessories for MiG-21 aircraft, Cheetah/Chetak
helicopters, Dornier and other defense applications. Additionally repair and
overhaul of Lucknow manufactured accessories as well as those fitted on
directly purchased aircraft, such as Mirage and Sea Harrier was undertaken. At
present, it is manufacturing, repairing and overhauling more than 800 different
types of systems and accessories under license. The range of items cover units
for hydraulics, engine fuel system, environment control system, pressurization
system, gyroscopic instruments, barometric instruments, electrical system
items, undercarriages, and electronic items. The number of licensors exceeds

From inception, the Division has laid emphasis on developing indigenous

capability through design and development of various systems and accessories.
This capability has culminated in indigenous design and development of a
variety of systems and accessories for the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA),
Advanced Light Helicopter (all versions i.e. Army, Airforce, Navy & Civil) and
Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT-36). The Division has also developed and has
made successful strides into the area of Microprocessor based control systems.
Design and Development capabilities include Environmental Control Systems
& Pneumatics, Fuel Management, Engine Fuel Control & aircraft fuel systems,
Microprocessor based Controllers, Hydraulic System & Power Controls,
Wheels and Brakes, Cockpit instruments and sensors, Gyroscopes, Electrical
Power Control Protection, Navigation and Display, Land Navigation, Ground
support equipment, Dedicated Test rigs, and Computerised test equipment. The
Division has diversified in other defence applications like tanks and armoured
vehicles for Army, and took commercial applications of Hydraulic items,
Gyroscopic Equipment, Special Purpose Test Equipment & Ground Support

The Division has also made steady progress in the area of Exports. The
range of products and services available for exports include:

1. Rotables and spares of Jaguar International and Cheetah (Lama), Chetak

(Alouette) Helicopters;
2. Ground Support Equipment for MiG 23, 27, 29 Mirage-2000, Jaguar, LCA, Su-
30, Sea-Harrier, Dornier DO-228, Avro HS-748, Cheetah, Chetak, MI-17, and
3. Repair and Overhaul of aircraft accessories of MiG series, Jaguar International,
Cheetah (Lama), Chetak (Alouette) and Dornier.
The Division today has a prime name in the aviation world and a number of
international companies are interested to join hands with it for future projects.

H.A.L. accessory division , Luknow is divided into three main factories namely
1. Mechanical Factory
2. Instrument Factory
3. Fuel Factory


This factory deals with the testing and assembly of electronics instruments
used in aircraft e.g. Altimeter,RMI, Gyro-magnetics compass , black box etc.

This INSTRUMENT FACTORY is further divided into four units which are as


» Clean room

In Clean room those subunits are assembled and tested that are sensitive to
dust, temperature and humidity. All these parameters are kept under control
because these can have adverse effect on their functional efficiency.
The required specification for the instruments assembled and tested are
different .so Clean room is further subdivided into three units. The following
chart is given for the classification of clean room.

ROOM ITEM Temp Humidity Dust Count AIRCRAFT

Limits R/H % Particle size
°C 0.5 µ/ft3

ROOM 1 Gyroscopic 15 to 25 ° C 45 -55 <100,000 MIG 21, 27,

Instruments CLASS C – AN – 32
of Russian UNMONITO
Origin RED

ROOM 2 Barometric 15 to 25 ° C 45 -55 <100,000 Kiran MK-

Instruments, CLASS B I&II, HPT-32,
Acceleromet Jaguar, AN-
ers, RPM 32, Mirage,
Indicator of Dornier, Avro
Western Aircraft,
Origin Cheetah,
Chetak, ALH

ROOM 3 Gyroscopic 15 to 25 ° C 45 -55 <10,000 Kiran MK-

Instruments CLASS A - I&II, HPT-32,
of Western MONITORE Jaguar, AN-
Origin D 32, Mirage,
Dornier, Avro
ya, Cheetah,

» Assembly and test shop 2 & 3

The major products of H.A.L. are fighter aircrafts. An aircraft comprises of
many small units or accessories, which play significant role in their successful
flight . any fault, may lead to an catastrophic end. Here comes the role of
assembly and test unit .it forms an integral part of any manufacturing unit. The
main instrument were KCN-2 compass system, flight data recorder, gyro
magnetic compass, fuel gauging system, radio magnetic indicator, millivolt
meter temperature indicator.
» Electromagnetic rotating shop (E.R.M)
In the E.R.M department of the instrument factory the assembly and
testing of the dc Starter Generators, AC Generator system, Constant speed
alternator, Regulators, Inverter, of the Russian and French origin. These
products are basically those products which takes the principle of the electro
magnetic rotating which can be elaborated as follows i.e., electrical energy is
converted into mechanical energy or vice versa. These products are of mig-21
& mig-27 aircrafts which is of Russian origin and jaguar aircraft is of France

» Ground land navigation system shop (G.L.N.S)

Ground land navigation system shop is one of the most different & unique
shop. As in this shop it manufacture the only ground land navigation system in
world. As due the different applicability of the gyros therefore these gyros have
been placed in the road transportation system which is used in ground e.g.
trucks, cars. The instrument which uses the property of any type of gyro and is
installed in road transportation system is known as ground land navigation
system. The Gyro land navigation system is an electronic navigation device
used for guiding any army vehicle to its destination point. The principle
objective of system is not only to ease the in more precise and quicker manner
whether in plains, hills or sand dunes, where there are no special remarks. In the
G.L.N.S shop it assembles and test the ground land navigation system of
Vijayanta tank

Instrument Systems

Just as in a car, there are instruments that monitor the engine, and
instruments that monitor the "flight" or drive. So in aircraft the same way we
can separate the gizmos, dials and whirligigs into two groups by function in any
aircraft. So these two group are as fowllows:

1. Engine Instruments
2. Flight Instruments

» Engine Instruments
Every car has an indicator to let you know when you need petrol. A red
light comes on if oil pressure drops, or oil temperature is increasing. There is a
gauge to tell you if the battery is charging. The general condition of the running
motor is available to the driver at all times. The same is true in an airplane.
Airplanes have added redundancy increasing the options if one system fails,
since you cannot pull over and call road-side service. Engine instruments in the
simple single-engine airplanes are:
• Fuel gauges
• Oil pressure
• Oil temperature
• Cylinder Head temperature
• Exhaust gas temperature
• Nainfold temperature
• Altimetere/genrator

For multi-engine airplanes, there is a complete set of these instruments for

each engine. That's why some cockpits look so confusing. These instruments
alert the pilot to engine operation and condition as the flight progresses.

The more complex the aircraft systems, the more instruments needed to
monitor the health of those systems. Aircraft with hydraulic systems have to
allow for redundancy and often have dual hydraulics with mechanical back up
capabilities all as individual indicators.
» Flight Instruments
As pilot flew there aircraft with only "needle, ball and airspeed". This is
refered to the compass, a level, and a speedometer or airspeed indicator. Now
these are still in use, but added with a few things to keep up with technological
advances and flight research. What does a pilot want to know? Airspeed,
altitude, heading, rate of turn, feet per minute in climb or descent, and the
attitude of the airplane as compared to the horizon.

These are the basic six instruments. Here's a review of the Basic Six
instruments found in the cockpit of any plane. Their position varies, but these
six are always there

Airspeed Altimeter Indicator

Directiona Turn
Indicator Indicator

Fig.1. The Basic Six Instrument inside any cockpit

Fig.2.The basic six

The flight instruments give the pilot feedback on the three axes and his
own skill and coordination. Instructors like to cover them up, just to see how
well a pilot can fly by the seat of his or her pants or strictly by "feel". The
instructors also like to place a "view limiting device" on the pilot to ensure that
the pilot is relying on the instruments alone and not using outside visual
references. Pilots must trust the instruments since the human body often gives
false sensations. That is why there are redundant instrument systems.
As these flight instruments were basically based on the principle of
GYRO. So also sometimes these are called GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS.

Gyroscopic Systems and Instruments

The gyro instruments include the heading indicator, attitude indicator and
turn coordinator (or turn-and-slip indicator). Each contains a gyro rotor driven
by air or electricity and each makes use of the gyroscopic principles to display
the attitude of the aircraft. It is important that instrument pilots understand the
gyro instruments and the principles governing their operation.



The primary trait of a rotating gyro rotor is rigidity in space, or

gyroscopic inertia. Newton's First Law states in part: "A body in motion tends
to move in a constant speed and direction unless disturbed by some external
force". The spinning rotor inside a gyro instrument maintains a constant
attitude in space as long as no outside forces change its motion. This stability
increases if the rotor has great mass and speed. Thus, the gyros in aircraft
instruments are constructed of heavy materials and designed to spin rapidly
(approximately 15,000 rpm for the attitude indicator and 10,000 rpm for the
heading indicator).
Fig.3. Universally Mounted Gyro

The heading indicator and attitude indicator use gyros as an

unchanging reference in space. Once the gyros are spinning, they stay in
constant positions with respect to the horizon or direction. The aircraft heading
and attitude can then be compared to these stable references. For example, the
rotor of the universally mounted gyro (See Universally Mounted Gyro figure,
on the right) remains in the same position even if the surrounding gimbals, or
circular frames, are moved. If the rotor axis represents the natural horizon or a
direction such as magnetic north, it provides a stable reference for instrument


Another characteristic of gyros is precession, which is the tilting or turning

of the gyro axis as a result of applied forces. When a deflective force is applied
to the rim of a stationary gyro rotor, the rotor moves in the direction of the
force. When the rotor is spinning, however, the same forces causes the rotor to
move in a different direction, as though the force had been applied to a point
90° around the rim in the direction of rotation (See the Precession Force figure,
below right). This turning movement, or precession, places the rotor in a new
plane of rotation, parallel to the applied force.
Fig.4. Precession Force

Unavoidable precession is caused by aircraft maneuvering and by the

internal friction of attitude and directional gyros. This causes slow "drifting"
and thus erroneous readings. When deflective forces are too strong or are
applied very rapidly, most older gyro rotors topple over, rather than merely
precess. This is called "tumbling" or "spilling" the gyro and should be avoided
because it damages bearings and renders the instrument useless until the gyro is
erected again. Some of the older gyros have caging devices to hold the gimbals
in place. Even though caging causes greater than normal wear, older gyros
should be caged during aerobatic maneuvers to avoid damage to the instrument.
The gyro may be erected or reset by a caging knob. Many gyro instruments
manufactured today have higher attitude limitations than the older types. These
instruments do not "tumble" when the gyro limits are exceeded, but, however,
do not reflect pitch attitude beyond 85 degrees nose up or nose down from level
flight. Beyond these limits the newer gyros give incorrect readings. These gyros
have a self-erecting mechanism that eliminates the need for caging.
» How a gyroscope works
Here is a pictorial of a simplified version of a gyro.


Instead of a complete rim, four point masses, A, B, C, D, represent the

areas of the rim that are most important in visualizing how a gyro works. The
bottom axis is held stationary but can pivot in all directions.

Fig.6. Fig.7.

When a tilting force is applied to the top axis, point A is sent in an

upward direction and C goes in a downward direction. Fig 5. Since this gyro is
rotating in a clockwise direction, point A will be where point B was when the
gyro has rotated 90 degrees. The same goes for point C and D. Point A is still
traveling in the upward direction when it is at the 90 degrees position in Fig 6,
and point C will be traveling in the downward direction. The combined motion
of A and C cause the axis to rotate in the "precession plane" to the right Fig.6
This is called precession. A gyro's axis will move at a right angle to a rotating
motion. In this case to the right. If the gyro were rotating counterclockwise, the
axis would move in the precession plane to the left. If in the clockwise example
the tilting force was a pull instead of a push, the precession would be to the left.
When the gyro has rotated another 90 degrees Fig. 7, point C is where
point A was when the tilting force was first applied. The downward motion of
point C is now countered by the tilting force and the axis does not rotate in the
"tilting force" plane. The more the tilting force pushes the axis, the more the
rim on the other side pushes the axis back when the rim revolves around 180
Actually, the axis will rotate in the tilting force plane in this example. The
axis will rotate because some of the energy in the upward and downward
motion of A and C is used up in causing the the axis to rotate in the precession
plane. Then when points A and C finally make it around to the opposite sides,
the tilting force ( being constant) is more than the upward and downward
counter acting forces.
The property of precession of a gyroscope is used to keep monorail trains
straight up and down as it turns corners. A hydraulic cylinder pushes or pulls, as
needed, on one axis of a heavy gyro.
Sometimes precession is unwanted so two counter rotating gyros on the
same axis are used. Also a gimbal can be used.


The property of Precession represents a natural movement for rotating
bodies, where the rotating body doesn’t have a confined axis in any plane. A
more interesting example of gyroscopic effect is when the axis is confined in
one plane by a gimbal. Gyroscopes, when gimbaled, only resist a tilting change
in their axis. The axis does move a certain amount with a given force.

A quick explanation of how a gimbaled gyro functions

Figure 8 shows a simplified gyro that is gimbaled in a plane

perpendicular to the tilting force. As the rim rotates through the gimbaled plane
all the energy transferred to the rim by the tilting force is mechanically stopped.
The rim then rotates back into the tilting force plane where it will be accelerated
once more. Each time the rim is accelerated the axis moves in an arc in the
tilting force plane. There is no change in the RPM of the rim around the axis.
The gyro is a device that causes a smooth transition of momentum from one
plane to another plane, where the two planes intersect along the axis.

A more detailed explanation of how a gimbaled gyro functions

Here it is explained that how much the axis will rotate around a gimbaled
axis. That is to say, how fast it rotates in the direction of a tilting force.
In figure 8, the precession plane in the gimbaled example functions
differently than in the above example of figures 1-3, and I have renamed it
"stop the tilting force plane". The point masses at the rim are the only mass of
the gyro system that is considered. The mass and gyroscope effect of the axis is
At first consider only ½ of the rim, the left half. The point masses inside
the "stop the tilting force plane" share half their mass on either side of the
plane, and add their combined, 1/4kg, mass to point mass A of 1/2kg. So then
the total mass on the left side is ½ the total mass of all 4 point masses, or 1kg.
The tilting force will change the position of point mass B and D very little and
change the position of point mass A the most. So we must use the average
distance from the axis of all the mass on the left-hand side.


The mass on the left side is 1kg. The average distance the mass is from
the "stop the tilting force" plane is 1/2 meter. Figure 9 shows a profile of the
average mass in the tilting plane and the average distance from the axis that the
mass is situated. We are concerned at how far the mass at the average distance
will rotate within the tilting plane when a given force is applied to the axis in
the direction indicated.
Point mass A is rotating at 5 revolutions per second. This means that it is
exposed to the tilting force for only .1 seconds. The tilting force of 1 newton, if
applied for .1 second, will cause the mass at the average distance to move .005
meter in an arc, in the tilting force plane. Since the length of the axis is twice as
long as the average distance of the rim’s mass, the axis will move .01 meter in
an arc. At the end of .1 second the point mass will be in the "stop the tilting
force plane" and all the energy transferred to point mass A is lost in the physical
restraint of the gimbal bearings.

The same thing happens when point mass A is on the right side of figure
4. Only now, the tilting force will move point mass A down, and the axis will
advance another .01meter. .01 meter every .1 second is not the whole story
because the mass on the right side of the gyro hasn’t been considered. The right
side has the same mass as the left and has the same effect on the axis as the left
side does. So the axis will advance half as much, half of .01 meter, or
.005meters. Both halves of the rim mass will pass through the stop the tilting
force plane 10 times in one second. Each time a half of the rim passes though
the "stop the tilting force plane", it losses all its momentum that was added by
the tilting force. The mass has to undergo acceleration again so we continually
calculate the effect that 1 newton has for .1 second on the rim mass at the
average distance, 10 times a second. So then; at the point that the 1 newton
force is applied, the axis will move 5cm per second along an arc. The gyro will
rotate at .48 RPM within the tilting force plane.

What considerations does the rim speed have on the distance that the axis
will rotate along an arc in the tilting force plane?
The gyro will rotate in the tilting force plane, half as fast if the rim speed is

What happens when the mass of the rim is doubled?

The gyro will rotate in the tilting force plane, half as fast if the rim mass is

How does the rim diameter effect rotation in the tilting force plane?
The gyro will rotate in the tilting force plane, half as fast if the rim diameter is

If left undisturbed, a gyro on the surface of the Earth would turn 360
degrees once every 24 hours. The top of the gyro would normally go westward.
But if the top axis were held so that it could not rotate from east to west, due to
precession, the gyro will rotate in the north and south direction depending on
the direction the rim is rotating. The gyro would turn due to precession until it
reaches 90 degrees with it's axis pointing north and south. Then it would be in
the same plane as the rotation of the Earth and gyroscopic precession would
stop. To get the gyro out of the Earth's rotational plain a small force could be
applied to the gyro axis and precession would put the axis back in the original
position. The 90 degree precession rotation would be much faster than the once
per 24 hours opposing forces rotation, but some gearing would probably still be
needed to run a generator. The generator would be mechanically linked to the
precession back and forth motion in one direction only so it will turn the same
direction all the time. The amount of energy needed to keep the gyro's rim
spinning and the energy needed to turn the gimbals back 90 degrees would
determine the overall efficiency.

This is NOT a free energy thing. The energy comes from the rotation of the
Earth and therefore the Earth rotational speed is slowed as energy is tapped
from a gyro-generator type machine. If this method of generating energy is used
to a great extent, days and nights would become longer. If this should happen.
let me be the first credited to use the term "rotation pollution" or "motion


Air or electricity supply the power to operate gyro instruments in light
aircraft. If the directional indicator and attitude indicator are air-driven (as they
generally are), the turn-and-slip indicator is electrically powered. The advantage
of this arrangement is that if the vacuum system (which supplies air) fails, the
instrument pilot still has the compass and the turn indicator for attitude and
direction reference, in addition to the pitot-static instruments.


Air-driven gyros normally are powered by a vacuum pump attached to
and driven by the engine. Suction lines connect the pump to the instruments,
drawing cabin air through the filtered openings in the instrument case. As the
air enters the case, it is accelerated and directed against small "buckets" cast
into the gyro wheel. A regulator is attached between the pump and the gyro
instrument case to control suction pressure. There is normally a vacuum gauge,
suction gauge (See the Typical Suction Gauge figure, below) or warning light.
Because a constant gyro speed is essential for reliable instrument readings, the
correct suction pressure is maintained with a vacuum pressure regulator.

Fig.10. Typical Suction GauGe

The air is drawn through a filter, to the instruments and then to the pump
where it is vented to atmosphere. The pilot should consult the aircraft operating
manual for specific information with regard to vacuum system normal operating
values. Low gyro rotation speeds cause slow instrument response or lagging
indications, while fast gyro speeds cause the instruments to overreact in
addition to wearing the gyro bearings faster and decreasing gyro life.

An electric gyro, normally used to drive the turn coordinator or turn-

and-slip indicator, operates like a small electric motor with the spinning gyro
acting as the motor armature. Gyro speed in these instruments is approximately
8,000 rpm.
Aircraft that normally operate at high altitudes do not use a vacuum
system to power flight instruments because pump efficiency is limited in the
thin, cold air. Instead, alternating current (a.c.) drives the gyros in the heading
and attitude indicators. The a.c. power is provided by inverters that convert
direct current to alternating current. In some cases, the a.c. power is supplied
directly from the engine-driven alternator or generator.

The purpose of the attitude indicator is to present the pilot with a
continuous picture of the aircraft's attitude in relation to the surface of the earth.
The figure (below) shows the face of a typical attitude indicator. It should be
noted that other attitude indicators differ in details of presentation.

Fig.11.Attitude Indicator

Pitch attitudes are depicted by the miniature aircraft's relative movement

up or down in relation to the horizon bat, also called the gyro or attitude
horizon. Usually at least four pitch reference lines arc incorporated into the
instrument. Two are below the artificial horizon bar and two are above.

The bank indicator, normally located at the top of the instrument, shows
the degree of bank during turns through the use of index marks. These are
spaced at 10° intervals through 30°, with larger marks; placed at 30°, 60° and
90° bank positions
The nose of the aircraft is depicted by a small white dot located between
the fixed set of wings or by the point of the triangle as in the figure (See the
bottom centre of the Attitude Indicator figure, above right). The sky is
represented by a light blue and the earth is shown by black or brown shading.
Converging lines give the instrument a three-dimensional effect.

The small knob near the bottom of the instrument is used for vertical
adjustment of the miniature aircraft. During straight-and-level flight the
miniature aircraft should be adjusted so that it is superimposed on the horizon

Once the artificial horizon line is aligned with the natural horizon of the
earth during initial erection, the artificial horizon is kept horizontal by the gyro
on which it is mounted. An erection mechanism automatically rights the gyro
when precession occurs clue to manoeuvres or friction. When the older-type
gyro tumbles as a result of extreme attitude changes, the rotor normally
precesses slowly back to the horizontal plane.

Even an attitude indicator in perfect condition can give slight erroneous

readings. Small errors due to acceleration and deceleration are not significant
because the erection device corrects them promptly; nonetheless, the pilot
should be aware of them (refer to the paragraphs below). Large errors may be
caused by wear, dirty gimbal rings, or out-of-balance parts. Warning flags (see
Attitude Indicator figure, above right) may mean either that the instrument is
not receiving adequate electrical power or that there is a problem with the gyro.

Principal Attitude Indicator Errors


During a normal coordinated turn, centrifugal force causes the gyro to

precess toward the inside of the turn. This precession increases as the bank
steepens; therefore, it is greatest during the actual turn. The error disappears as
the aircraft rolls out at the end of a 180 degrees turn at a normal rollout rate.

Therefore, when performing a steep turn, the pilot may use the attitude
indicator for rolling in and out of the turn, but should use other instruments
(VSI and altimeter) during the turn for specific pitch information.

As the aircraft accelerates (e.g., during takeoff), there is another type of
gyro precession which causes the horizon bar to move down, indicating a slight
pitch up attitude. Therefore, takeoffs in low visibility require the use of other
instruments such as the altimeter to confirm that a positive rate of climb is
established immediately after takeoff.


Deceleration causes the horizon bar to move up, indicating a false pitch
down attitude.


The heading indicator, shown in the figure below , formerly called the
directional gyro, uses the principle of gyroscopic rigidity to provide a stable
heading reference. The pilot should remember that real precession, caused by
maneuvers and internal instrument errors, as well as apparent precession caused
by aircraft movement and earth rotation, may cause the heading indicator to

In newer heading indicators, the vertical card or dial on the instrument face
appears to revolve as the aircraft turns. The heading is displayed at the top of
the dial by the nose of the miniature aircraft (see the figure to the right).
Another type of direction indicator shows the heading on a ring similar to the
card. in a magnetic compass.

Fig.12.Heading indicator
Because the heading indicator has no direction-seeking qualities of its
own, it must be set to agree with the magnetic compass. This should be done
only on the ground or in straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight when magnetic
compass indications are steady and reliable.
The pilot should set the heading indicator by turning the heading indicator
reset knob at the bottom of the instrument to set the compass card to the correct
magnetic heading. On large aircraft, this function is done using a compass
controller (See the Compass Controller figure, below).

Fig.13.compass System
The pilot of a light aircraft should check the heading indicator against
the magnetic compass at least every 15 minutes to assure accuracy. Because the
magnetic compass is subject to certain errors , the pilot should ensure that these
errors are not transferred to the heading indicator.
There are two types of rate and quality of turn indicators
1. The Turn Coordinator and

2. The Turn-and-Slip Indicator .

Both of these gyroscopic instruments indicate the rate at which the aircraft
is turning. The turn co-ordinator contains a miniature schematic aircraft to
shown when the actual aircraft is turning. The turn-and-slip indicator, on the
other band, has a vertical needle which deflects in the direction the aircraft is

The turn-and-slip indicator provides the only information of either
wing's level or bank attitude if the other gyroscopic instruments should fail.
This indicator is sometimes called the "needle and ball". This instrument, along
with the airspeed indicator, magnetic compass and altimeter, can assist the pilot
in flying through instrument weather conditions, even when it is the only gyro
instrument operating.
The turn needle of the turn-and-bank indicator gives an indirect indication
of the bank attitude of the aircraft. When the turn needle is exactly centred, the
aircraft is in straight flight. When the needle is displaced from centre, the
aircraft is turning in the direction of the displacement. Thus, if the ball is centred, a left
displacement of the turn needle means the left wing is low and the aircraft is in a left turn.
Return to straight flight is accomplished by coordinating aileron and rudder pressures.

The ball of the turn-and-bank indicator is actually a separate instrument,

conveniently located under the turn needle so the two instruments can be used
together. This instrument is best used as an indication of attitude. When the ball
is centred within its glass tube the manoeuvre is being executed in a
coordinated manner. However, if the ball is out of its centre location, the aircraft
is either slipping or skidding . The side to which the ball has rolled indicates the
direction of the slip or skid.

Fig.14.Turn and Slip Indicator

In a slip, the rate of turn is too slow for the angle of bank, and the lack of
centrifugal force causes the ball to be displaced to the inside of the turn. (To
correct, decrease the angle of bank, or use rudder to increase the rate of turn, or
both). In a skid the rate of turn is too fast for the angle of bank, and excessive
centrifugal force causes the ball to be displaced to the outside of the turn. (To
correct, increase the bank angle, or use rudder to decrease the rate of turn, or
In coordinated flight, the needle may be used to measure the rate of turn;
in a "standard rate turn", the needle is aligned with the left or right marker (dog-
house) and the aircraft will turn at the rate of 3° per second or 180° in one
minute. Hence, in these conditions, the needle indicates both direction and rate
of turn.
The answer to controlling and trimming an aircraft in straight and level
flight by means of the turn-and-bank indicator requires a return to basic control
principles - i.e., control yaw with the rudder and keep the wings level with
aileron. Therefore, when flying straight and level through the use of the turn-
and-bank indicator, prevent yawing with appropriate rudder pressure, and keep
the wings level with appropriate aileron pressure. The needle will not deflect
while heading is constantly maintained, since no turn exists.
In other words, control the ball with rudder since the ball moves parallel
to a plane passing through the rudder pedals, and control the needle with aileron
since the ailerons affect bank angle, a primary requirement for a normal turn.
It is important that both the needle and ball are used together. The
problem associated with using these instruments separately is that although the
ball will positively indicate that the aircraft is slipping or skidding, just which
one of these the aircraft is doing can only be determined by reference to the
needle. Furthermore, the needle will not positively indicate a bank attitude. An
aircraft could be in a bank attitude and yet the needle could remain centred or
indicate a turn in the opposite direction, if controls are not coordinated.

Most current aircraft have a turn coordinator that replaces the older turn-
and-slip instrument. A small aircraft silhouette rotates to show how the aircraft
is turning (see the figure below). When the aircraft turns left or right, the
aircraft silhouette banks in the direction of the turn. When the wing of the
aircraft silhouette is aligned with one of the lower index marks, the aircraft is in
a standard-rate turn 30°/sec.).

Fig.15. Turn Co-ordinator

This instrument also senses the roll rate because the gyro is tilted on its
fore and aft axis. The electric gyro is canted approximately 35°; therefore, the
miniature aircraft banks whenever the actual aircraft rotates about either the
yaw or roll axis. This freedom of movement enables the gyro to indicate
immediately when the aircraft is turning. After the bank angle for a turn is
established and the roll rate is zero, the aircraft symbol indicates only the rate of
The miniature aircraft moves independently of the ball or inclinometer.
The position of the ball indicates the quality of the turn. When the miniature
aircraft depicts a turn and the ball is not centred, it shows that the turn is not
coordinated (see black ball in figure on the right).
If the miniature aircraft is level and the ball is displaced to either side
(see ball in above figure on the right), the aircraft is flying straight but with one
wing low.
The pilot should understand the relationship of true airspeed and angle of
bank as it affects the rate and radius of turn. The Aircraft at Same Bank
Angle But Different Speeds figure (right) shows three aircraft flying with the
same angle of bank but at different airspeeds. The aircraft with the greatest rate
of turn is aircraft A. If two aircraft arc turning at the same angle of bank, the
slower aircraft has the shorter turning radius and also a greater rate of turn.

Fig.16. Aircraft at the same bank angle but different speeds

A common misconception is that faster aircraft will complete a 360° turn
in the least time. For example, a jet in a 20° bank flying at a true airspeed of
350 kts requires approximately 5.3 minutes to complete a 360° turn. Aircraft A,
with also a 20° bank but a true airspeed of 130 knots (kts), requires just two
minutes to complete a 360° turn.
The radius of turn also increases with an increase in airspeed, varying
with the square of the true airspeed. Therefore, because the speed of aircraft C
is about three times that of aircraft A, the turning radius of aircraft C is
approximately nine times that of aircraft A.
A gyrosyn compass system has a remotely located unit for sensing the
earth's magnetic field. It incorporates a gyroscope to provide stability. Electrical
power is required for its operation.
A variety of cockpit indicators may be driven by a gyrosyn compass
system, including fixed-card instruments, or moving-card indicators such as a
radiomagnetic indicator (RMI) or a horizontal situation indicator (HSI).
All gyrosyn compass systems have a set of basic components whose
operation is similar, regardless of the aircraft type:
The remote compass transmitter senses the earth's magnetic field. It is
usually remotely located to reduce aircraft magnetic disturbances. The sensing
element is pendulously suspended within a sealed bowl (fluid-filled to prevent
excessive swinging) and maintains a horizontal plane within a pitch attitude of
+30 degrees. During large changes in heading, airspeed or pitch the sensing
clement is displaced from the horizontal plan and produces erroneous signals.
These generally have little effect because of the stability provided by the gyro,
and a return to straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight again provides correct
orientation signals;
The gyroscope principle of rigidity in space is applied to retain a fixed
position during any aircraft turns. Turning motion of the aircraft about the gyro
is then electrically relayed to the heading indicator;
An erection torque motor is used to keep the gyro spin axis in a horizontal
The amplifier is the coordination and distribution center for all system
electrical signals. Remote compass transmitter signals arc phase detected to
resolve for the 180-degree ambiguity and arc sent to the slaving torque motor to
keep the gyro spins axis aligned with magnetic north-south. The amplifier also
provides high voltage to the slaving torque motor for any periods of fast
slaving; and

NOTE: Some gyrosyn compass systems are capable of non-slaved operation in

extreme northern or southern latitudes where the earth’s magnetic field is
distorted or weak. In this situation:
a.The remote compass transmitter does not-function;

b.The gyro must be oriented manually for heading and then serves as the only
directional reference;
c.Aircraft turning motion about the gyro is still relayed electrically to the
heading indicator; and
d.Some form of latitude correction is necessary to overcome the effects of
apparent precession.



The KC -2 compass system designed for installations in a fighter aircraft,
is employed for determining and indicating the aircraft heading, landing course
and radio station bearings as well as for feeding heading signals to the


The KC -2 compass system is a directional gyro operating without
gimbals errors with remote transmission of aircraft, headings to indicators and
consumers. Heading signals fed by the directional gyro are initially slaved with
the magnetic heading by means of the magnetic corrector. The compass system
makes it possible to determine the aircraft heading, relative and true bearings
of the radio station and to feed heading signals to consumers for solving
piloting, navigation, firing, bombing, etc. tasks.
Like most of the modern reading compasses, the compass system employs
the principle of combined operation of directional gyro and a heading selector
(corrector). This principle consists in the following: the used heading selector
(corrector) determines the aircraft heading relative to magnetic meridian and
presents the result for correcting heading signal picked up from the gyro.


The main purpose of remote controlled gyro horizon A D-1 is to ensure
the pilot of highly perceptible broad scale indication of position of aircraft in
wide range of angles of bank and pitch during retaining correct readings after
any evolution.
Visual indicator of gyro horizon A D-1 is the following system,
reproducing angles of bank and pitch in accordance with electrical signals fed
by distant located gyro horizon (gyro – pick – up). Use of remote transmission
of output signals permits to set some visual indicators from gyro pick-up in
action. Gyro pickup may feed electrical signals proportional to angles of rolling
and pitch not only on visual indicator of A D-1 but also on others available
instruments of these signals (altitude control, avigraph system, radar and so on)
on aircraft.


Modified vertical gyro 458 M develops electrical signals proportional to
the aircraft roll and pitch angles within 360° in all modes of operation and
maneuvers of the aircraft.

Operation of the 458M vertical gyro is based on the feature of a free gyro
to retain the direction of the rotor axis unchanged in space and the feature of a
pendulum to align itself with the true geographical vertical of the earth.
In flight, the present position of the true vertical is fixed by a liquid level
pendulum type switch employing the 11XM-9M elements. If the spin axis of
the gyroscope departures from the true vertical, the torque motors (torquers) of
the pendulum erection system develop torques on the axles of the outer gimbals
due to electrical signals proportional to the departure angles. The torques cause
the gyroscope spin axis to process toward the true vertical.
During aircraft maneuvering the axis of the gyroscope rotor retains its
vertical position and the housing of the vertical gyro, rigidly connected to the
aircraft structure, turns with respect to the rotor axis through angles equal to the
aircraft turn angles in roll and pitch. These angles converted into electrical
signals are transmitted through the synchro system either to a miniature aircraft
or to the card of the artificial horizon. The roll and pitch angles are taken off the
artificial horizon scales.
Due to the Earth rotation, friction of the axle of the outer gimbal,
unbalancing and other factors, the spin axis of the gyroscope departures from its
vertical. The errors caused by the above factors are eliminated by means of the
pendulum erection system. Besides, the vertical gyro is equipped with a special
follow up system which protects the gyroscope from tumbling at any
maneuvers of the aircraft.
To increase the accuracy of the roll and pitch during the aircraft
maneuvers, acceleration and decelerations; and to prevent action of the noon
gravitational forces tending to align the pendulum and the gyroscope spin axis
connected with it through the erection system with so called apparent vertical,
provision is made to cut out the gyroscope during turns by means of the bar
type erection switch connected in series with the contacts of erection cutout
switch as well as to cutout pitch erection system by means of the liquid switch
when longitudinal acceleration are imparted.




It is designed to provide continuous indication of the airspeed of aircraft. The
instrument is basically a differential air pressure gauge consisting of a twin
capsule assembly connected, via suitable linkage and gearing to pointers which
move over a circular dial calibrated in knots.
1 knot = 1.85 km/hour
When installed, the interior of the capsule is connected by a capillary tube to
the aircraft’s pitot pressure line while the exterior of the capsule is open to static
pressure via the aircraft static system. One side of capsule is secured to the
instrument frame, but the other side is free to move in response to pressure
differences and it is this movement which is transmitted to the pointers. The
instrument has two concentric pointer consisting of a fast and a slow hand. The
fast hand indicates on an outer scale which is calibrated 0 – 100 knots. The slow
hand moves over a inner or subsidiary scale and indicates hundreds of knots.


The Vertical Speed Indicators are sensitive to the rate of change of pressure
in the aircraft static air system and indicate by means of a pointer moving over
an integrally lit dial, the vertical component of aircraft speed. The scale, for
both climb and descent is linear over its first part and logarithmic over the
remainder and is calibrated in ft/min for group A indicators and m/s for group B
indicators. The other main difference between the indicators is in the type of
electrical connector fitted.

The purpose in an aircraft static system is proportional to the height of the
aircraft; therefore the rate of change of static pressure is proportional to he
vertical component of aircraft speed. The static system is connected directly to
the inside of the capsule, and via a calibrated is zero, but when the static
pressure changes the pressure difference cited is proportional to the rate at
which the static pressure changes. A pressure differential across the capsule
causes the capsule to expand or contract. Movement of the capsule is
transmitted via the rocking shaft assembly, sector gear and pinion to drive the
indicator pointer. Thus the position of the pointer represents the rate of change
of static pressure and the vertical component of aircraft speed.The ranging
spring block increasingly restricts the movement of the capsule as the pressure
differential across the capsule increases, to provide a non – linear response. The
response is chosen to retain readability at low rates of climb and descent.


Indicating accelerometers provide a visual indication of the acceleration
experienced in the vertical axis of an aircraft. The scale is calibrated in unit of
‘g’ the unit of normal gravitational acceleration. The accelerometers are housed
in a 2 ½ inch diameter case with detachable bezel. On KAE-0504/3, one corner
of the bezel is removed. The presentation comprises three concentric pointers
moving over a linearly divided scale. The front pointer registers the
instantaneous acceleration, and the middle and rear pointers register the
maximum positive (upward) and negative (downward) acceleration

An acceleration force acting upon a weight tends to cause the shafts to
rotate against the control spring. Symmetrical duplication of the shaft and
weights, ensure that rotation of the shafts is due to the vertical component of
acceleration only.
When the unit is stationary in its normal operating position, the front point
indicates the force due to the gravity as + 1 ‘g’ and the middle and rear pointer
indicates the maximum positive and negative acceleration experienced since
the reset button was last depressed. The eddy currents drag – cup provides
damping to ensure that higher frequency acceleration, due to vibration , are not


It indicates Mach number within the range of 0.4 to 0.85 Mach, at altitudes
between zero and +50,000 feet. The instrument mechanism is contained within
a square section metal case which is sealed at the front end by a flange and
glass assembly. At the rear the case is sealed by a gasket sandwiched between a
clamping plate and the rear cover. The rear cover carrier a 3 pin electrical
receptacle together with the pitot and static pressure inlet. The instrument is
fitted with a rotating lubber mark which can be adjusted by a setting screw
located in the case back plate. Four internal lamps with red filters, situated
behind the top corners of the flange provide illumination at the dial, lubber
mark and pointer. Each lamp is energized by a low voltage ac or dc supply
connected through the 3 pin receptacle at the rear of the instrument.



The gyro magnetic is a part of heading system. It is a bay mounted
equipment item which, in normal operation, provides gyro magnetic heading
from magnetic heading information supplied another unit in the system. It can
also, should the latter become defective, supply a directional heading. If the
gyro is defective it retransmits in the emergency mode the magnetic heading it
receives from the system.

The gyro magnetic compass is in the form of a combined cylindrical and
rectangular case. This case is attached to the aircraft at 3 points by shock
mounts. Two of these are secured to the lugs screwed to the bosses on the upper
half of the cylindrical section. The third is secured to the boss under the
rectangular section of the case.
A bonding strip is installed between a securing lug and a boss of the case
provides electrical connection between the case ground and the aircraft
structure on which it is mounted.
The cylindrical section forms a sealed compartment filled with a mixture
of helium – nitrogen gas and in which the directional gyro is installed. Its lower
surface is closed bya cover secured by 4 screws including two lead sealed
screws. The latter ensure that the gyro compartment will not be opened by
unauthorized personnel.
This compartment is filled with helium through a plug. The rectangular
section contains the electronic unit which groups all the electronic circuits of
the equipment. This unit is integral with the cover which is secured to the case
by six screws. To remove the electronic unit from its housing, it is
recommended to screw the special tool into 2 holes, tapped in the cover. On the
cover are the following components:

• A timer counter totalizing the gyro magnetic compass energization timer.

• The overhaul record plate giving the index of the modifications applied to the
unit and the date of the latest overhaul.

It uses a conventional directional gyro. The synchronous rotor motor is of the
hystersis type. Its speed is 24,000 rpm. The rotor is mounted in an elevation
gimbal slaved in such a way that it remains in the horizontal plane.

The heading information is delivered by the stator of two synchro Transmitters

whose rotors are connected in rotation with the azimuth gimbal of the gyro.

The operating mode of the gyro magnetic compass can be selected externally so
as to give the following heading information:
• Gyro magnetic
• Directional
• Magnetic


The Horizon is a gyroscopic flight instrument which provides a permanent
visual indication of the aircraft attitude, in the roll and pitch planes, with regard
to the local vertical. It thus makes up for the absence of fixed references
external to the aircraft.
The horizon is composed of a gyroscope the axis of rotation of which is
slaved to a position close to the local vertical, by means of a pneumatic system
with pendulum type erecting devices. This system is used to compensate the
apparent precession of the gyroscope, due to the rotation of the Earth, as well as
the spurious precessions caused by the various friction loads on the suspension
The instrument case, secured to the airframe, moves with regard to the
gyroscopic system which indicates the vertical. The aircraft attitude is indicated
to the pilot, by the relative position of the pointer linked to the gyroscope, and
of the model secured to the case.
When the aircraft dives the pointer indicates a displacement of the horizon
in the upward direction and inversely.
Similarly when the aircraft banks to the right, the horizon line rotates to
the left, and inversely. The amount of banking is indicated on the roll dial, by
the roll index.


The turn and slip indicators provide indication of the rate at which an
aircraft is turning about its normal axis, and an indication of slip arising from an
incorrectly banked turn. Rate of turn indicator is given by a pointer, actuated by
an electrically driven rate gyroscope, reading against a scale calibrated to
indicate three rates of turn (1, 2 and 3), in each direction.


a.) Turn Indicator

The turn indicator depends for its operation on a property of a rotating

gyroscope which may be stated as follows: if the spin axis of a rotating
gyroscope is itself rotated about a second axis (axis of turn) at right angles to
the spin axis, the gyroscope will exert a torque so as to cause rotation of
precession about a third axis at right angles to the other two. In straight flight,
the rotor’s axis tends to be held horizontal by the force exerted by the rate
spring and the pointer remains at zero. During a turn, the rotor precesses and the
gimbal rotates to a point at which the torque balanced by an equal and opposite
torque exerted by the rate spring, the displacement being related to the torque
and therefore to the aircraft’s rate of turn. The response rate of the instrument is
accelerated by the fact that he direction of precession is opposite to the
direction of turn; the rotation of the gimbal is transmitted to the pointer through
the gears which reverse the direction so that the rate of turn is indicated on the
appropriate side of the scale.

b.) Slip Indicator

Slip occurs when an aircraft’s vertical axis deviates from the direction of
gravity in straight flight, or apparent gravity, i.e. the resultant of actual gravity
and centrifugal force, during a turn. The aircraft’s longitudinal altitude here is
The ball in the slip indicator constantly gravitates to the ‘lowest’ point of
the curved tube so that the direction of gravity, actual or apparent, is indicated
by a line passing through the centre of radius of the tube and the centre of the
ball. The vertical axis of the aircraft is parallel to a line drawn through the
centre of radius and a centre datum on the dial.

During straight flight in the normal lateral attitude, or during a correctly

banked turn, the aircraft’s vertical axis is parallel with the direction of real or
apparent gravity (the aircraft’s angle of attack being disregarded) and the ball
remains at the central datum. When slip or skid occurs, the direction of gravity
deviates from the vertical axis and the ball is displaced from the central datum
in the direction of slip or skid by a related amount. Transient movement is
damped by the fluid in the tube.



It indicates the volume of fuel whatever available in the fuel tank of
helicopter and also alerts the pilot by giving him a visual warning, when the
fuel level falls below a certain limit. This system is designed by HAL, Lucknow
division and has been under production 1978.

The function of F.C.G is based upon the principle that the capacitance of
two concentric tubes (cylindrical in shape) is different when there is air in
between and when there i.e. aviation fuel, acting as dielectric in between the
gap. The capacitance increase or decrease as the level of fuel changes in the
gap. This change in capacitance is measured by meter.



(i) The unit consists essentially of a 3-phase step down transformer (T1) and
a rectifier circuit which produces a nominal 28 V dc output from a 200 V,
400 Hz 3-phase ac input.

(ii) The transformer has two 3-phase secondary windings one in delta
connected and other star connected to produce a 6-phase output. Each
secondary output is full-wave rectified by a 3-phase silicon diode rectifier
bridge. The interphase reactor (T2) balances the bridge rectifier outputs.
(iii) The 3-phase motor driven fan unit draws cooling air through the fin unit
and case. The contacts of the thermostats situated on the upper
fin are open under normal operating temperatures but should the fan unit
fail, the contacts close when a fin temperature of approximately 200.C is
reached thus providing an output signal on fan unit failure.

(iv) Radio interference suppression is provided by capacitors ( C1 to C11)

which are connected from each input, output and transformer secondary
terminal to chassis.

C.) Regulator

The regulator <12310-31> controls the energizing current of alternator
exciter, eddy current brake and of clutch in a way to obtain a 3-phase voltage
115/200 V + 2% and a frequency of 400 Hz + 1% of output alternator whatever
may be the delivered current by alternator.

The magnetic power supplies (through thyristors) the brake inductors and
alternator exciter; and its supplies are controlled by voltage regulation circuit
and frequency regulation circuit respectively. Voltage detection is carried out at
terminal stud network, while the frequency is detected on magnetic power. The
detected data (proportional to voltage or frequency) is compared to a reference
and the error signal thus obtained is amplified, in order to act on the circuits
controlling the inductor power supplies.The magnetic tachometer furnishes a
signal proportional to the drivng speed of vario-alternator, and this signal acts:-
• In the one part, a clutch circuit that controls the power supply of wound
• On the other hand, “accelerator frequency limiting” circuit that has the
purpose to discharge (if necessary) the alternator on frequency limiting
At last, the stabilized power supply is provided by magnetic power.


Radio magnetic indicator is a panel mounted air borne instrument that
provides the pilot with the following information:

A) Heading of the aircraft.

B) Relative bearing of a Radio station, and
C) Deviation from asset course

The heading operation is servo controlled, receiving signal either from

gyro magnetic, magnetic or directional heading mode from a gyrocompass as
desired by the pilot. A knob is provided to set the course, which is to be
followed. Bearing of the radio transmitting station is obtained by a signal from
the receiver unit of Automatic Direction Finder (A.D.F). The aircraft heading
indication is read on a circular dial against a fixed lubber mark on the unit.


This switching unit contains a pressure sensitive mechanism, an optical
sensing unit and an electronic unit. It operates integral relays at four pre –
determined indicated air speeds to provide an external information at each of
these airspeeds. The interior of the case is connected to static pressure whilst
the airspeed capsule of the mechanism is connected to pitot pressure.

Cyclic ratio of a pulse = On time/On time + Off time

(a) Air Speed Mechanism:
The air speed capsule is directly connected to pitot (P) pressure and is
surrounded externally with static pressure. It will expand in response to an
increased differential and contract in response to a reduced differential, thus
creating a linear movement of the free side of the capsule.

(b) Sensing Unit:

The PCBs of the sensing unit constitute four optical detectors which are
identical in operation. In the absence of an obstacle, the photo transistor
intercepts the infra – red radiation from the emitting diode, the relay
contained within the corresponding module of the electronic unit is then
energized normally.
Each of the four identical channels composed by the electronic and sensing
units can be functionally divided into four elements:- an oscillator, an optical
detector, an amplifier and a relay control circuit.

• The oscillator and its matching mechanism network provides a pulsating

current for the diode.

• Optical Detector: When the diode is fed by the oscillator, it emits an infrared
radiation which is intercepted by the phototransistor. The diaphragm
mounted on top of the phototransistor controls the width of the beam
intercepted by the photo transistor. This arrangement provides accurately
determined triggering speeds.

• The amplifier amplifies the obtained potential difference. The capacitor and
resistance network is used to provide good noise elimination and isolate the
amplifier from any D.C. voltage liable to occur, should the photo transistor
intercept undesired light.

• The relay is controlled by means of another transistor.


The G.C.P.U is a solid state device which can be directly fitted across the
dc generators, to give a regulated/stabilized dc output for all loading and speed
conditions. This unit also has facilities to indicate to the pilot over current and
under voltage conditions. The unit automatically disconnects the generator from
the aircraft dc bus bar and itself in case of over voltage. This unit replaces, the
existing carbon pile regulator and the over voltage protection unit. G.C.P.U

GCPU is fully solid state unit having 2 circuits one for regulation and the
other for protection. Even though these are encased in one box, their functions
are independent.
DC generator positive and negative voltages are supplied through the
connector to the radio interference suppression filters, which suppress the radio
frequency noise. These filter out the noise developed during ON & OFF of the
transistor switching. Output from filter goes through the over voltage protection
relay to the power transistor, the regulation and protection PCB’s and to the
starting relay. Starting relay is connected across the field and +G terminal. The
relay is operated by a transistorized circuit such that the relay contacts are
normally closed until the generator voltage builds up to a predetermined voltage
of 18 ± 1 volts. Above this voltage the circuit energizes the relay which opens
the circuit and the transistorized regulator takes over to control the generator.
The main power transistor is connected across +G of the generator and the field.
Forced commutation techniques is adopted so that transistor switches ON &
OFF, alternately at a fixed frequency of 500 ± 100 Hz which is totally
independent of individual generator characteristics. Since the field circuit is
highly inductive in nature a re-circulating power rectifier is connected parallel
to the field (between the field and – G terminal). This is done in such a way that
when the power transistor is ON and pumping current from the field, the re-
circulating diode (rectifier) remains off, and when the transistor switches off,
the diode takes over the slowly decaying field current due to the back e.m.f. of
the highly inductive field. The average of the transistor ON time over each
switching cycle determines the field current (Higher the ON time, higher is the
field current). A sensing circuit senses generator voltage and accordingly
controls the power transistor in such a way that if the generator voltage falls
below a preset voltage (nominally 28 V) the ON time increases. This in turn
increases the field current to increases the generator voltage and vice versa until
a balance state is achieved due to negative feedback.Protection circuit senses
generator voltage which if exceeds limit will disconnect the regulator from the
generator and also de – energize differential contactor which will immediately
disconnect the generator from the bus bar.

An over current annunciating circuit is provided to energize a doll’s eye.

When the generator load current exceeds its preset value for more than 3 ± 1
seconds, over current annunciating circuit senses the over current and de –
energizes the doll’s eye.An under voltage annunciating circuit is provided
which senses the generator voltage. It energizes an externally fitted magnetic
doll’s eye at normal conditions and de – energizes it when generator voltage is
below 23.2 ± .8 V and also remains in this condition for more tan 3 ± 1 seconds.

The unit not only regulates (control) a D.C. generator voltage, but also
protects the generator and the electrical system from any damage due to fault in
a circuitry totally isolated from regulator circuitry.
The G.C.P.U. is designed for fitment in any altitude and in any position with
any type of highly maneuverable military aircraft. It is not designed to be fitted
on the aircraft engine. Combined temperature, humidity and pressure tests,
tropical test, resistance to fungus growth test, radio interference, magnetic
interference tests constant and crash acceleration tests.It also provides
protection of itself as well as utilization equipment.G.C.P.U. is basically not
designed for the starting mode function of the Starter – Generator and is
recommended for functional use only during generation mode.

A.) Totalizing Fuel Flow Meter Type PTC1-1 (RTS)

It is designed for remote measuring the fuel contents in the fuel tanks of
one engine of the airplane in volume units by means of measuring the fuel
returning from the pipeline behind the PTCT50 transmitter into the service
tank (when the fuel pipelines and the tanks are in good order) and for
transmitting those information data into the K3A system.

The operating principle of the flow meter are based on the conversion,
realized by transmitter, of the fuel volumetric flow rate, Q, into a pulse voltage,
V1 which is in proportion to flow rate Q on the conversion and the power
amplification of the transmitter signal in the Amplifier (V2=KV1) and on the
indication of the fuel contents available in the plane tanks with the aid of the

Transmitter Amplifier Indicator

Fig.17. Block diagram of Fule Flow Indicator


The operating principles of the flow meter are based on the fact that the
fuel flowing helical impeller whose rotation speed is in proportion to the speed
of the flow and, hence, to the amount of fuel that flows through the fuel flow
transmitter. The impeller drives, through the reduction gear, the core of the
pulse – induction gear. The impeller of the main flow rate type PTCT50
transmitter is calculated in such a manner that a single pulse could correspond
to every 2.51 of the fuel that has passed through the transmitter. The transmitter
signal is fed to the input circuit of amplifier Y -4 located in the Y 2-1
amplifier; then this signal gets converted into rectangular pulses, power
amplified and supplied to the winding of motor P of the indicator.

The indicator P operates and turns, by one tooth, the ratchet – wheel
which is coupled to the pointer through the differential gear and the reduction

Since the number of revolutions of the pulse – induction gear core is in

proportion to the number of revolutions of the impeller, the number of
operations of motor P will be also in proportion to the number of revolutions
of the impeller, and hence to the amount of the fuel that has passed through the

B.) Flight Data Recorder

Purpose and working:

System records automatically 6 continuously changing parameters which


• Altitude
• Engine speed
• Aircraft speed
• Vertical acceleration
• Horizontal acceleration
• Turn Angle of stabilizer

Five single command signal,Eight single command signals superimposed

on Three continuously variable parameters, and timer line to indicate the time
on black and white aero photo film and preserves it in normal and crash
conditions for study and analysis of flight conditions.

In this, mechanical motion is converted into electrical signals and then it
is converted in to optical signals,. There is a fixed mirror in the vibrator which
moves accordingly to the moving light beam. The light beam is moved under
the effect of a permanent magnetic field and flux and shifts the light beam
accordingly. Now the mirror will move and thus light will move and thus
further the photographic film is printed.


The Gyro land navigation system is an electronic navigation device used
for guiding any army vehicle to its destination point. The principle objective of
system is not only to ease the in more precise and more quicker manner whether
in plains, hills or sand dunes, where there are no special remarks.

Besides instantaneous display of present vehicle position in terms of

Eastings and Northings coordinate to facilitate quicker movement, the
following indications are additionally provided.

“Approach Blip” indication, when the vehicle reaches within 1.2 km of the
destination point.

“Bearing Rotation” indication, when the vehicle reaches within 200 m (visible
range) of destination point.

The Ground Land Navigation System comprises four units together with one
Static Inverter as an A.C. supply source, two auxillary units and four optional
associated items.

Basic Units Major Function

1. Directional Gyro To supply vehicle Heading Signal

2. Land Navigation Computer To compute and display present vehicle
position c coordinates
and indicate vehicle’s Heading and
Bearing angle

3. Junction Box (a) To interconnect all units

(b) To control the Gyro
(c) To cater slope correction

4. Speed Pickup Unit To generate vehicles speed signal

Supply Unit:

1. Static Pickup Unit Type To supply A.C. power 115 V, 400

Hz, single – phase, 110 VA
Auxillary Unit:

1. Commander’s Control Unit To control the system remotely

2. Driver’s Repeater Unit Type To indicate vehicle’s ‘Heading’ to RMI-3

Optional (Associated Items)

1. Interconnection Harness Set To interconnect all the units within the

Vijayanta tank

2. Variable Position Cradle To protect computer from vibration

To read externally vehicle heading during day as well as night

Detailed Description of Important Instrument

Directional Gyroscope:
This unit supplies vehicles heading signal. The gyro rotor is spherical in
shape and supported in the inner gimbal ring, which fitted with osing the Gyro
motor. Gyro motor is three – phase induction motor driven at 24000 rpm.

Static Inverter:
It converts 28 V DC in to 115 V A.C., 400 Hz, single – phase output, 28 V
D.C. input coming from JBV is to feed through the RI filter to the control card
via one pole of the protective relay. Control card generates the oscillation with
frequency of 400 Hz. This signal is preamplified at a frequency of 400 Hz. This
signal is preamplified in Base drive card. The output of the power transistor
fixed on the chassis for power amplification. This gives 115 single – phase A.C.
Signal proportional to the output is fed to the protection card. The
protection card senses under voltage (D.C.), over voltage (A.C.) and overload.
If any of the above parameters goes beyond the specified limit it de-energizes
the protective relay cutting off supply to the base drive.

Land Navigation Computer:

It consists of eight subassemblies. 115 V A.C. is stepped down in
transformer base plate assembly and is fed to power supply card. Tuned A.C.
supply is given to base unit to generate A.C. signal for providing slow signal to
gyro through ven to generate resolved in sin θ /cos θ output signals.
28 V D.C. supply is given to power supply card to generate various D.C.
supplies required for PCB’s given from CCU and processed with feedback from
the Tacho – generator of the Heading Indicator. The resultant servo signal is fed
to the Heading indicator, which indicates the vehicle – heading angle.
Vehicle speed input signal is processed in the analog card with resolved
Sin θ/ Cos θ and RK signal to give incremental Easting and Northings distance
pulses CPE and CPN. These signals are divided by 10 in Digital card and sent
to heading indicator to have a selected clock pulse, which is again fed to Digital
card. Analog card generates the direction signals S/N and W/E, which are fed to
Digital card.
Depending upon the thumbwheel switch set (destination) position and the
displayed (present), the digital cards give the signals proportional to the
difference (H-P) E and (H-P) N. These signals proportional to the difference
(H-P) E and (H-P) N. These signals are sent to bearing card to generate E, N
output signals for bearing synchro to indicate bearing angle in the heading
indicator. To give approach indication the difference signals are processed and
output controls display blipping and bearing pointer notation for 1.2 km and
200 m range respectively.