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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC

Ladder Logic Application

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Content
I. The Structure and Understanding of PLC.
▷ The Instruction and History of PLC.
▷ Digital Input Module.
▷ Digital Output Module.
▷ Terminologies of Ladder Logic.
▷ The Relationship between PLC Hardware and Software
▷ Numeric System of PLC.
▷ Karnaugh Map

II. Application Examples for Logical Command.

▷ Logical AND
▷ Logical OR
▷ Logical NAND
▷ Logical NOR
▷ Logical Exclusive OR
▷ 1 Scan-time Oscillator
▷ Self-Holding, 0 or 1 Dominant SR/RS Flip-Flop
▷ Detect Rising Edge / Falling Edge, Differentiation
▷ Dual action Pushbutton
▷ Trouble Acknowledge/ Reset

III. Application Example for Sequential Command.

▷ On Delay / Off Delay Timer


▷ One Shot Multi-vibrator
▷ Multi-Vibrator
▷ Speed Monitor using OFF Delay Timer
▷ Preventing Chattering Noise for Mechanical Contacts
▷ Finding Stable Value by TIME Filter from Analog Input Hunting
▷ Measuring Time for Continuous Production.
▷ Optimizing Surveillance Timer of Speed Monitor
▷ Surveillance of Motor Drive System
▷ Detecting Value Changed

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IV. Application Example for Flow Sequential Command.

▷ Sequence Control with BSFL Command


▷ Sequence Control with SFTP Command
▷ Call Subroutines and Return Processing
▷ Sorting Data of Table in Maximum Order

V. Application Example for MUX-DEMUX.

▷ Parallel Driving for 7 Segment Display


▷ Economic Discrete Input Multiplexing-Demultiplexing

VI. Application Example for Calculation Command.

▷ Analog Input/Output Module


▷ A1S68AD/ A1S68DAV,DAI Analog Input Module Set-up
▷ Scaling for Analog Input PV
▷ Schmitt Threshold ON-OFF
▷ Peak Value Hold
▷ On / Off Controller for Analog PV
▷ Analog Value Clamping, Limitation
▷ Bit Shift by Calculation Command
▷ Analog Drive Speed Control
▷ Finding Stable Value by SUM from Analog Input Hunting
▷ Drive Multi-stage Control by Encoder Feedback
▷ Ratio Control for Material Mixing
▷ Trickle Control for Truck Loading
▷ Rate Sampler for Single Counter
▷ Analog Scaling for X 0 Shifted Signal
▷ Analog Scaling for Y 0 Shifted Signal
▷ Piecewise for Proportional Non-Linear Curve
▷ Piecewise for Inverse Proportional Non-Linear Curve
▷ Linear Profiler

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VII. Application Example Data Manipulation Command.

▷ Clear to 0 Or Set to 1 All Bits


▷ Set All Bits to 1 by 2's Complement
▷ Binary Counter
▷ Assembling/ Disassembling of Bits
▷ Acceleration/Deceleration Control With Linearity for Set-point
▷ Individual ON/OFF Operation by Thumb-wheel Switch Set
▷ Ring Counter
▷ Display of Trouble Flag Number
▷ Que Buffer and First-in/First-out
▷ LIFO(Last In First Out) Using Stack Memory
▷ Load/Save Data for 2-3 Dimensional Database
▷ Data Save/ Sort/ Search for Optimization

VIII. Application Example for Computer Link Module.

▷ Non-form Communication for Computer Link Module


▷ CPU Direct Access via Computer Link Module
▷ CPU Access via Dedicated MODEM and Computer Link Module
▷ CPU Access via Dial-up MODEM and Computer Link Module
▷ Proface GP577R Touch Screen Access via Computer Link
Module
▷ Fix 32 Access via Computer Link Module
▷ Intouch 5.6 Access via Computer Link Module

Appendix

▷ MODICON Concept Version 2.1 PID Simulation Function Block Diagram


▷ Bit Division for MMI Analog tag
▷ SIMATIC TI545 PLC PID Simulation
▷ SIMATIC TI545 PLC vs Intouch 8.0
▷ Modicon E785 PLC vs Intouch 7.1 PID Simulation

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I. The Structure and Understanding of PLC.

▷ The Instruction and History of PLC.


▷ Digital Input Module.
▷ Digital Output Module.
▷ Terminologies of Ladder Logic.
▷ The Relationship between PLC Hardware and Software
▷ Numeric System of PLC.
▷ Karnaugh Map

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
The Instruction and History of PLC.

1. Specfication and Unit of PLC.


- PLC is an abbireviation of "Programmable Logic Controller".
. The existing relay control box can be replaced to PLC.
. PLC performs logic solving and circulating beginning and end of program in the memory.
- The background of PLC is that,
. The end of 1960s, GM(General Motor) Company announced conditions of electronic
sequential control equipment proposed to apply to automotive assembly line, and
equipment manufacturer developed and distributed sequential control equipment suited
to these conditions.
- The function of these PLC is that
. Sequence control
. PID control, Analog control, Positioning control.
- Most of PLC has
. Basic operation function like AND, OR Contacts and Timer/Counter operation
. Practical Application operation like Subroutine, SHIFT, MASTER CONTROL, DATA
Calculation.
In the beginning, PLC could perform simple control by program as logic controller, high
performance function like arithmetic operation, output device control, communication
function were added. Also PLC could guarantee and complement high reliability that relay
control box couldn't have and flexibility to modify control system. By this way, time and costs
to needed to perform inspection, test-run could be minimize and save. After the time, the
development of integrated software for the communication between PLC and Computer could
make user program easily and provided more familiar environment and ability to build site
monitoring using graphic and graphic processing for the data as well as ability to analyze
difficult process problem with collected datum and information. Recently PLC are
manufactured more compact and lower cost and applied to almost industrial fields. When
users control the machine or equipment with PLC, users ought to make a program so that
PLC can decide memory content of control algorism. The standards Methods of PLC
Programming are presented but there are many differences according to Manufacturers and
kinds. IEC 1131-3(International Electro-technical Commission- Standard for Programmable
Controllers-Part 3: Programming Languages) defined international standards of PLC
language as belows;
- LD(:Ladder diagram)
- IL(mnemonic :Instruction List)
- SFC(Sequential Function Charts)

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- FBD(Function Block Diagram)
- ST(Structured Text).
PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) consists of Input & Output Interface, Memory,
Programming terminal, CPU, Power supply structurally.

2. The structure of PLC


A. CPU Unit
The CPU part of PLC is similar to structure of PC(Personal Computer) and the function are
also same. The main part of CPU is consisted as belows;
- Micro Processor( CPU) - System Memory - Program Memory - Data Memory.
(1) Program method.
In-build Program type stores all Sequence Program in the memory and call individually,
CPU analyzes and executes program.
(2) Control method.
- Constant cyclic repetition execution method solves and performs program stored memory
from first to end sequentially and return to first.
- Interrupt control method solves and performs interrupt execution program when the
internal or external interrupt demands.
(3) I/O control method
First, Processor reads input status from input module, and base on this data, solves logic
program from first to end. Finally processor writes results calculated from logic solving to
output module. This job processing is called "SCAN". The polling for I/O modules will be
indirect method and it should be executed before execution of Program 0 Step. This method
is represented as belows;

Input Polling

LOGIC
SCAN

Output Processing

System Processing

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(4) Program Command
PLC command described in the specification is not for using CPU but for user command
designed by PLC manufacturer when user can make sequence program. Each command can
be different according to PLC manufacturer but it's not make so much different and function
is similar in every PLC's. Program command can be represented to two groups.
- Basic Command, Sequence Command : Basic Command is to perform sequence
diagram for relay circuits in the PLC, and consisted of basic logical operation
command like I/O Command for control signal, AND, OR.
- Applied Command : Applied Command provides various functions so that make
possible to perform transferring, calculation, comparison, data manipulation and
conversion, advanced sequential control program. By using applied command user
can save the programming and debugging time, use high speed, high performance
function.
B. Digital Input Unit
Digital input module of PLC is used to get the ON/OFF status from input device. This is
mainly used to get information from the machine. For each input device uses different power
consumption and different voltage when the pushbutton of operator panel and various kinds of
sensor is connected to input module, users should choose suitable input module to each input
devices.
Digital input module of PLC can be divided to DC input, AC input according to input voltage
type and isolated type or non-isolated type. The isolated type is meaning that there exists
photo-coupler at input part to isolate external and internal side and this is designed to endure
noise in the harsh industrial environment.
C. Digital Output Unit
Digital Output module of PLC outputs internal ON/OFF status of PLC and operates the
machine. Output devices can be connected are mainly lamps, magnet contactor, relays. After
magnet contactor(MC) and relay actuators are connected like motor or solenoid valve that can
operates the machine. For each output device uses different power consumption and different
voltage users should chooses the output module appropriate to output devices.
Digital Output module of PLC can be divided to relay output, transistor output, SSR(Solid
State Relay) unit according to output contact types.
D. Analog Signal
Analog value is meaning that physical quantity that varies continuously changing to time like
voltage, current, temperature, pressure, flow, velocity. Analog signal can not be connected to
computer or PLC that can connect only digital signal. So these physical quantities should
coverts to electrical signal like DC voltage, current and convert to digital amount again. Also
digital amount PLC inside should convert to analog signal to operate Servo-motor. DC/AC
speed control device that can be controlled by analog signal.
E. Analog Input Unit (A/D Converter)
This is for Analog/Digital conversion Unit and to use analog signal in the CPU. The principal

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to convert from analog value to digital value is represented as the figure shows that digital
value corresponding to analog voltage signal as below. The input voltage range, output bits of
A/D converter are different according to kinds. The resolution of AD converter is determined
by output bits.

256
Digital Value

102

0
0V 2V 5V
Analog DC Voltage

The resolution of AD converter is determined by formula as next.

Resolution ability = 2N (N = Output Bit Number)

Therefore, The resolution will be larger as larger as output bits and discriminal minimum
variation voltage can be expressed as next;
N
Analog voltage range(V) / 2 ( N = Output Bit Number)

For example, when analog input between 0-5V is converted by 8 Bits output, analog input
voltage is 2V, we can find digital value,
8
Resolution= 2 = 256
If analog input voltage varies from 0V to 5V, output digital value will be varied from 0 to 255.
discriminal minimum variation voltage to change Digital value is;
VIMIN = 5 / 256 = 0.019531 , and
Digital value= 2V / 0.019531V = 102.4 = 102

F. Analog Output Unit (D/A Converter)


This unit is for Digital/Analog conversion and used to output analog signal form CPU to
outside. The principal to convert from analog value to digital value is that output digital value
N
is corresponded to analog value. The resolution is proportional to the bit numbers to input(2 ),
the output digital value will be converted to analog value from 0V to maximum reference
voltage.
Let's find analog value corresponding to digital value 102 if analog value is 0-5V voltage, the
resolution is 256, the voltage difference is 5V. Therefore the variation of digital 1 results
variation of analog signal 0.019531V(5/ 256). and we find 102 x 0.019531V 2 V calculation
result.

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G. PID Control Unit
PID Control Unit has function of feed-back control so that system output make reference
voltage balance and maintain based on deviation between control variable and reference input,
recently this control type is mostly used in the industrial facilities.
(1) Proportional action - P Action
Controller Unit will control to decrease deviation between reference input and process
variable. At this time, when operation signal Z(t) is given, and if manipulated amount is
gotten, the relationship that manipulated quantities is proportional to operation signal Z(t)
is as belows;
y(t) = K Z(t)
We call this "Proportional action". And K, gain, will determine whether make
proportional action strong or weak.
If K, gain is high, the process variable will approach to reference signal rapidly, but
output can be fluctuated and this result make ill influence to total control stability. On the
contrary, if K, gain is low, the process variable will approach to reference signal slowly,
and there is possibility to that residual deviation occurs.
(2) Integral control action - I Action
Integral control action can be represented as action The variation velocity of manipulated
value given to control object is proportional to operation signal. Using this factor, we can
control integral control action. If integral time is longer, manipulated amount will be small
and the time to approach to reference signal is longer. On the contrary, if integral time is
shorter, manipulated amount will be large and the time to approach to reference signal is
shorter. The relationship of integral control action is as belows;
y(t) = K ∫ Z(t) dt
The integral control action is not used alone, by combination to P action or D action but can
be used to PI, PID action. The integral control action can eliminate residual deviation. If
integral time is to short, uncontrolled state can be occurred.
(3) Derivative action - D Action
Manipulated amount y(t) contributes to operation signal Z(t) by Derivative action.
Derivative action calculates manipulated value corresponding to deviation rate so that
suppress variation of deviation. The relation ship of derivative action is as follows;
y(t) = K dZ(t)/dt
Derivative action is not used alone, by combination to P action or D action but can be used
to PI, PID action. If derivative action is used to controller, process variable will approach to
reference signal rapidly and suppress the fast variation of process variable and external
disturbance.
(4) PID Control Unit
The relationship combined proportional, integral, derivative action described as above,
y(t) = K ( Z + 1/Ti ∫ Z(t) dt + Td dZ(t)/dt )

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PID Unit is not used alone, but used together with analog input unit and analog output unit.
H. High speed Counter Unit
The counter in the CPU has nearly scan time below several ms for the CPU is scanning the
program. For this reason, CPU cannot count the pulse shorter than this scan time. Therefore
high speed counter unit operates separately with CPU, counts pulse as dedicated I/O unit. Also
high speed Counter Unit has comparing output function between set value and present value of
counter. It provides up and down counter and is used to detect position like the CNC machine.
I. Positioning Unit
The positioning Unit is used for precise motor control like Servo-Motor, Stepping Motor. This
unit will be applied to positioning decision of X-Y table, provides various operation patterns
like constant speed, acceleration, deceleration.

3. Data Link Methods.


It is commonly demanded the PLC has data exchanges between distributed remote I/O group,
different PLC system, high level computer. The data link unit can reduce or eliminate I/O points
and bulk cable installation, intends to build distributed control, data centralization and
management, monitoring system. The data link unit has function for data collecting of PLC,
extended I/O group.

M anagem ent L evel

C e ll L e v e l

F ie ld L e v e l

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Digital Input Module

1. Types of Digital Input Module.


A. Digital Input Module of Sink Type .
For the digital Input Module of Sink Type, the current driving input point flows from pilot
signaler connected, like push-button switch, limit switch, proximity switch, to module inside,
the common point at the module will be N pole(N pole common). And if proximity switch is
connected, sensor Switch of PNP Open-Collector Type should be used. We calls this type
module Input Module of "Sink Type".

P24

Sink Type
A
Digital Input
Module

N24

B. Digital Input Module of Source Type.


For the source Type of Digital Input Module, the current already passes the wet point(for
example, photo-coupler) from power of P phase connected to module and flows to pilot
signaler connected to PLC input module, like push-button switch, limit switch, proximity
switch and the input point will be excited. the common point at the module will be P pole(P
pole common). And if proximity switch is connected, sensor Switch of NPN Open-Collector
Type should be used. We calls this type module input module of "Source Type".

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P24
Source Type
Digital Input
Module

N24

C. In case of that proximity switch of PNP Open-Collector Type is connected to sink type
digital input module .

P24
Proximity
Switch
PNP Open- Sink Type
ofCollector
PNP A
Open Digital Input
Type 의
Collector Module
근접Switch
Type
N24

N24

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D. In case of that proximity switch of NPN Open-Collector Type is connected to source type
digital input module .

P24
Source Type
Digital Input
Module
P24

Proximity
NPN Open-
Switch A
Collector
of NPN
Type 의
Open
근접Switch
Collector
Type N24

2. Digital AC Input Module.


For the Digital AC Input Module, additional rectifying circuit that from AC to DC and voltage
reducing circuit to fit to TTL or CMOS are exist in the input stage. The rest basic circuit is not so
much different with digital DC input module. Users should consider and select the sensor type
and common type of power in case of the digital DC input module.

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Digital Output Module
1. Types of Digital Output Module.
A. Sink Type of Digital Output Module.
For the Sink Type of Digital Output Module, the current from power source of P pole flows
output device like Relay, Solenoid Coil that move Actuators and the load are driven by
semi-conductor switching device in the PLC, the common point of load is + terminal(P Pole
Common) and semi-conductor switching device will be NPN Type. We calls this type module
output module of "Sink Type".

P24

A
Sink Type
Digital Output
Module

N24

B. Source Type of Digital Output Module.


For the Source Type of Digital Output Module. the power source of P pole already connects to
PLC output module, the output device like Relay, Solenoid Coil that move Actuators is driven
by semi-conductor of PNP type. In case of this, the current drives output device comes out
from PLC inside to loads, the common of loads is N pole (N Pole Common). We calls this
type module output module of "Source Type".

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P24

Source Type
Digital Output
Module A

N24

C. Digital Relay Output Module.


For the Digital Relay Output Module, the relay contact(dry contact) driven by electronic
circuits and miniature relay drives output devices. therefore there exists not polarities and we
can use DC or AC power source within a electric capacity of internal relay.

AC HOT

A
Relay Type
Digital Output
Module

NEUT

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D. Digital SSR Output Module.
Digital Relay Output Module can be used in the DC or AC, but Digital SSR Output Module
can not be used in the DC power source but can be used only AC power source.

AC HOT

A
SSR Type
Digital Output
Module

NEUT

This module includes TRIAC(a kind of semiconductor with large electric capacity) what we
call "SSR (Solid State Relay)", this semiconductor drives output device, once input signal
excites to signal gate, even gate signal is removed, turn-on state of SSR in the main driving
line will go on until main line current driving output device is ZERO. Therefore we cannot use
in the DC current that not to return to Zero current but can use in the AC current that crossing
zero voltage.

Gate 신호

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Terminologies of Ladder Logic

1. Terminologies of Ladder Logic.


A. Ladder Logic example

and

and

2. I/O Address and Instruction


A. Device I/O Address

Type of Device
Description Remarks
Address
External Input module address related to real hardware input Bit
X
Address module Address
External Output module address related to real hardware Bit
Y
Address Output module Address
Internal Internal Coil address used to contact and coil Bit
M
Address internally Address
Internal Coil address used to contact and coil
Internal Bit
L internally. Even power supply go out, Status of bit is
Address Address
maintained.(Retentive Coil)
Internal Bit
S Internal Coil address to perform sequential control
Address Address
Internal Communication Link relay when the data exchange Bit
B
Address among the several PLC's Address
Internal Internal Coil Address used as annunciator detecting Bit
F
Address external faults. Address
Internal &
Word address for calculating, manipulation, storing Word
D External
data, for using internally and externally Address
Address

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Device I/O Address can be divided to internal address and external address. The external is
allocated and related to real hardware I/O module, the internal address is used only in the
program logic.

B. Identification of Device I/O Address.


Device I/O Address consists of Identifier and decimal number or hexadecimal number. For
example,

X000, Y1F, M058, D103, N001

C. Allocation of Device I/O Address.


Allocation of Device I/O address to PLC Hardware can be performed as follows;
- Assigned X OR Y address sequentially.
- Started from first slot excluded CPU module.
- assigned memory address size that I/O modules needed.
DO 32pt
DO 16pt
DI 32pt
DI 16pt
POWER

NULL
UC24

C
P
U

X060-Y07F
Y040-Y05F
Y030-Y03F
X010-X02F
X000-X00F

3. Symbolization of Ladder Logic.


A. Power Rail Left
The Left side of ladder logic is starting point of power energy. This regards as start of control
power line of sequence circuit. Power flow can proceed from left side of ladder logic to right
side of ladder logic, from here, ladder logic(Instruction) like logical contact, sequential
command, data manipulation, calculation command can be built.
B. Power Flow
From Power Rail Left, each command and instruction can be built and this will make input
condition and decision making and execution. According to input condition, power flow will
pass to the right side along the possible routes. When reaching to output command, execution
will be perform. So command related to execution will be located in the right side.
C. Power Rail Right
This regards as end line of control power supply in the sequence and power flow will be ended
at this point.

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D. Rung
Rung can be represented to grouping of input condition and output task. If this group is
continuous, not separated, this group can be called " Rung".
E. Step
The step is represented to Word Number consisting of Instruction, and we can calculate total
program memory size.

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Relation between PLC Hardware and Software
1. In case of Digital Input Module.
The how act external electrical excitation to PLC inside ladder logic is represented as next. To
speak exactly, When we press the push-button switch connected to PLC input module, let'
consider what is happened to the PLC internal logic corresponding to the push-button switch
contact.
The figure as next is represented before pressing the push-button switch has A contact.

PLC External
PLC 외부 회로 Circuit PLC Internal
PLC 내부 LogicLogic
P24
Instruction
X000 Y010
X000

X000

Power Flow

Power Power
Rail Rail
N24 Left Right

The current from power P pole cannot flow to PLC input module address X000 because of
opening of pushbutton switch(NO: Normal Open state) in the electrical circuit. This is to say, at
the input point addressed to X000 of input module, there exists not external electrical excitation,
we can say this "Electrically Dry State". Otherwise, in the PLC inside, NO(Normal Opened)
contact of un-identified X000(not excited because of opening of pushbutton switch) can not
make power flow proceed, so this NO contact is electrically OFF state. But in the PLC inside,
NC(Normal Closed) contact of un-identified X000 can proceed power flow, so this contact is
electrically ON state.

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PLC
PLCExternal
외부 회로 Circuit PLC Internal
PLCLogic
내부 Logic
P24
Instruction
X000 Y010
X000

Power Flow

X000

Power Power
Rail Rail
N24 Left Right

Now by pressing the A contact of Push-Button Switch, there exists electrical excitation at the
X000 and we can say this "Electrically Wet State". In the PLC Logic, NO(Normal Opened)
contact of identified X000(excited because of closing of pushbutton switch) can proceed power
flow and change to closed state, so this NO contact is electrically ON state. But in the PLC
inside, NC(Normal Closed) contact of identified X000 can not make power flow proceed and
changed to opened state, so this contact is electrically OFF state.
Totally, we can say them as follows;

Electrical State Lamp Status


Contact state in the Possibility to pass
corresponding to PLC corresponding to PLC
PLC Internal Logic the Power Flow
INPUT point INPUT point
OFF NO(Normal Open) No
Electrically Dry State
OFF NC(Normal Close) Yes
ON NO(Normal Open) Yes
Electrically Wet State
ON NC(Normal Close) No

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2. In case of Digital Output Module.
The how act internal ladder logic variation to PLC outside hardware is represented as next in
case of Digital Output Module.

PLC Internal Logic PLC External Circuit


PLC 내부 Logic

Instruction P24
X000 Y010

X000 Y011

Y010
Relay 010
Source Type
Digital Output Relay 011
Power Power Module Y011
Rail Rail
Left Right
N24

If Y010 Coil Instruction in the PLC internal Logic is Energized, the Relay 010 connected to
addressed Y010 of Digital Output Module is also Energized. Otherwise if Y011 Coil Instruction
in the PLC internal Logic is De-energized, the Relay 011 connected to addressed Y011 of Digital
Output Module is also De-energized.

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Numeric System of PLC.

1. Numeric System and DATA

The numeric system based on 10(Decimal) is developed naturally and used generally but
considering logic system of ON and OFF state, this will be numeric system based on
2(Binary numeric system). In the computer system, binary numeric system based on 2
is generally used, and also 4,8,16 or 32 numeric system is used.

Base Name Data Unit


2 Binary Bit
8 Octal Nibble
10 Decimal Digit
16 Hexadecimal Byte
Numbering Systems

Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal


0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
2 10 2 2
3 11 3 3
4 100 4 4
5 101 5 5
6 110 6 6
7 111 7 7
8 1000 10 8
9 1001 11 9
10 1010 12 A
11 1011 13 B
12 1100 14 C
13 1101 15 D
14 1110 16 E
15 1111 17 F
16 10000 20 10
17 10001 21 11
18 10010 22 12
19 10011 23 13
20 10100 24 14
Numbers in Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal

In the each numeric system, even it's basic numeric system is different, existing real
value will not be changed. Now from here, let's consider for numeric system and
conversion between the different systems needed to understanding the instruction used
in the PLC(Programmable Logic Controller).

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2. Numeric System

A. Binary Numeric System

Binary number is commonly used in the computer. 1 digit of binary number will be
regarded as the state of 1 electric wire, if the voltage on the wire is ON state, it's bit
value is 1, if the voltage on the wire is OFF state, it's bit value is 0. If two wires
are used, bits will be generated asa well as wires number used. The following figure
is represented that 10 decimal number equivalent to each binary numbers, minimum
number is positioned from right side. Minimum number is 1, and position number is
0. The way to find from binary number to decimal number is changing the position
number to exponent number of 2 and converting to decimal number, adding all each
values. As this way, the conversion from other numeric system to decimal number is
possible.

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
2 =64 2 =32 2 =16 2 =8 2 =4 2 =2 2 =1

1 1 1 0 0 0 1

6
1(2 )= 64
1(25)= 32 In every numeric system, the
4
1(2 )= 16 LSD(Least significant digit) is
3
1(2 )= 8 located at most right side, the
2
1(2 )= 4 MSD(Least significant digit) is
1
1(2 )= 2 located at most left side.
0
1(2 )= 1
------
113

Conversion of a Binary Number to a Decimal Number

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Decimal number can be converted to binary number by dividing as next example. This
method is also applied to convert from decimal number to any numeric system. The
quota value after dividing decimal number by 2 will be MSD(Most significant
number), after dividing remained decimal number by 2 again will be next significant
digit fo binary number. With this way, until total number becomes zero final binary
number will be found.

to begin decimal
number 932

to binary
932 = 466 0 2(0.0)=0
(Base 2) 2
466
= 233 0 2(0.0)=0
2
233
= 116 5 2(0.5)=1
2
116
= 58 0 2(0.0)=0
2
58
= 29 0 2(0.0)=0 1110100100
2
29
= 14 5 2(0.5)=1
2
14
= 7 0 2(0.5)=0
2
7
= 3 5 2(0.5)=1
2
3
= 1 5 2(0.5)=1
2
1
= 0 5 2(0.5)=1
2

calculate
end

Conversion from Decimal to Binary

The binary number can be represented to BIT, BYTE, WORD. BYTE consists of 8
digits, WORD consists of 16 digits. And in order of LSD(Least Significant Bit), bit
will be positioned in order of right side. WORD consists of 2 BYTE, LSD(Least
Significant Bit)will be positioned in the right side.

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BYTE WORD
MSB LSB MSB LSB

01101011 0110101101000010
Most Least
Significant Significant
Byte Byte

Bytes and Words

Binary: 101.011

1(22)= 4 0(21)= 0 1(20)= 1 0(2-1)= 0 1(2-2)= 1/4 1(2-3)= 1/8

= 4+0+1+0+1/4+1/8 = 5.375 Decimal

Using a Boolean algebra, the calculation of binary number can be performed as next
shown;

Name Example Result


AND 0010*1010 0010
OR 0010+1010 1010
NOT 0010 1101
EOR 0010EOR1010 1000
NAND 0010*1010 1101
Shift Left 111000 110001
Shift Right 111000 011100
Boolean Operations on Binary Numbers
B. Calculation of binary number.

The calculation for the negative binary number needs for special calculation method,
the numeric system for negative binary number used generally is shown as next 3 type
method. One of them, Unsigned binary number can be used, represents only positive
number. When signed and 2's complement method is used, the maximum number can
be represented is reduced to half size. 2's complement method is generally used for the
calculation of addition and subtraction is simple and fast on the hardware and
software. In the PLC system, all of methods of calculation are used.

Signed binary numeric systems are shown as next. the MSD is used to sign Bit when
display negative binary number.

Decimal Binary Byte


2 00000010
1 00000001 cf: two 0 numbers exists
0 00000000
-0 10000000
-1 10000001
-2 10000010

- 27 -
Signed Binary Numbers
2's complement method to represent negative binary number are shown as next.
Basically if binary number to represent is positive number, binary number is
represented to normal binary number. But if binary number to represent is negative
number, after performing the complement calculation(inverting of all bits) for binary
number to represent and add 1 to it. Otherwise to get normal binary number from
negative binary number represented by 2's complement method, subtract 1 and
perform the complement calculation(inverting of all bits).

Decimal Binary Byte method to get negative binary number


2 00000010
1 00000001 1. find absolute number.
for -30 to 30=00011110
0 00000000 2. perform the inverting of all bits.
-1 11111111 00011110 becomes 11100001
-2 11111110 3. add 1 to it.
11100001 + 00000001 = 11100010
2s Compliment Numbers

2's complement method to represent negative binary number, comparing to signed


binary numeric systems, reserved zero of binary number isn't needed, so 2's
complement method is generally used for the calculation of addition and subtraction is
simple and fast on the hardware and software. In the all of PLC system, this method
are generally used.

Integer has limited range to represent by 16bit(1 word), the range is from -32,768 to
32,768. In the some case, the result of calculation can be out of range, then overflow
bit will be set.

01111111=127 10000001=-127 10000001=-127


+00000011=3 +11111111=-1 +11111110=-2
10000010=-126 10000000=-1 01111111=127
C=0 C=1 C=1
O=1(Error) O=0(No Error) O=1(Error)
Carry and Overflow Bits

- 28 -
C. Example of other numeric system.

other numeric systems are basically converted to binary number for mathematical
calculation and storage. 16(Hexadecimal) numeric system can be represented simply and
used generally, because of the inconvenience comparing to binary number that long
display consisted of 0 and 1. 8(Octal) numeric system is generally used, for calculation
of 8 unit is used to represent input and output. The conversion methods between
binary and hexadecimal, octal numeric system are shown as next;

3 2 1 0
16 =4096 16 =256 16 =16 16 =1

F 8 A 3

15(163)= 61440
2
8(16 )= 2048
1
10(16 )= 160
0
3(16 )= 3

63651

Conversion of a Hexadecimal Number to a Decimal Number

5724
=357.75 16(0.75)=12(C)
16
357
=22.3125 16(0.3125)=5
16
22
=1.375 16(0.375)=6 1 6 5 C
16
1
=0.0625 16(0.0625)=1
16

Conversion from Decimal to Hexadecimal

- 29 -
3. Binary Coded Decimal.

In the Binary Coded Decimal(BCD), four binary digits is required to represent to 1 digit
of decimal number. this is not a numeric system but one of method to represent
decimal number. 1 byte of binary can display value from 0 to 255, otherwise 1 byte of
Binary Coded Decimal can display value from 0 to 99. The method to represent Binary
Coded Decimal is shown as next. 16 binary digits is required to represent to 4 digit of
decimal number.

1 2 6 3 Decimal

0001 0010 0110 0011 BCD


A BCD Encoded Number

- 30 -
4. Data Characterization.

A. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

To handle character, not number, identification number are given to each character and
string. And we can store to memory and interpret again. ASCII (American Standard
Code for Information Interchange) is most generally used to character coding system
and represented as next table. This table represents not only character but also special
symbol and control code. At each codes, identification number are given, for example,
65 are given to character A.

ASCII Character Table

Char Hex Oct Dec Char Hex Oct Dec Char Hex Oct Dec Char Hex Oct Dec
Ctrl-@
00 000 0 Space 20 040 32 @ 40 100 64 ` 60 140 96
NUL
Ctrl-A SOH 01 001 1 ! 21 041 33 A 41 101 65 a 61 141 97
Ctrl-B STX 02 002 2 " 22 042 34 B 42 102 66 b 62 142 98
Ctrl-C ETX 03 003 3 # 23 043 35 C 43 103 67 c 63 143 99
Ctrl-D EOT 04 004 4 $ 24 044 36 D 44 104 68 d 64 144 100
Ctrl-E ENQ 05 005 5 % 25 045 37 E 45 105 69 e 65 145 101
Ctrl-F ACK 06 006 6 & 26 046 38 F 46 106 70 f 66 146 102
Ctrl-G BEL 07 007 7 ' 27 047 39 G 47 107 71 g 67 147 103
Ctrl-H BS 08 010 8 ( 28 050 40 H 48 110 72 h 68 150 104
Ctrl-I HT 09 011 9 ) 29 051 41 I 49 111 73 i 69 151 105
Ctrl-J LF 0A 012 10 * 2A 052 42 J 4A 112 74 j 6A 152 106
Ctrl-K VT 0B 013 11 + 2B 053 43 K 4B 113 75 k 6B 153 107
Ctrl-L FF 0C 014 12 , 2C 054 44 L 4C 114 76 l 6C 154 108
Ctrl-M CR 0D 015 13 - 2D 055 45 M 4D 115 77 m 6D 155 109
Ctrl-N SO 0E 016 14 . 2E 056 46 N 4E 116 78 n 6E 156 110
Ctrl-O SI 0F 017 15 / 2F 057 47 O 4F 117 79 o 6F 157 111
Ctrl-P DLE 10 020 16 0 30 060 48 P 50 120 80 p 70 160 112
Ctrl-Q DCI 11 021 17 1 31 061 49 Q 51 121 81 q 71 161 113
Ctrl-R DC2 12 022 18 2 32 062 50 R 52 122 82 r 72 162 114
Ctrl-S DC3 13 023 19 3 33 063 51 S 53 123 83 s 73 163 115
Ctrl-T DC4 14 024 20 4 34 064 52 T 54 124 84 t 74 164 116
Ctrl-U NAK 15 025 21 5 35 065 53 U 55 125 85 u 75 165 117
Ctrl-V SYN 16 026 22 6 36 066 54 V 56 126 86 v 76 166 118
Ctrl-W ETB 17 027 23 7 37 067 55 W 57 127 87 w 77 167 119
Ctrl-X CAN 18 030 24 8 38 070 56 X 58 130 88 x 78 170 120
Ctrl-Y EM 19 031 25 9 39 071 57 Y 59 131 89 y 79 171 121
Ctrl-Z SUB 1A 032 26 : 3A 072 58 Z 5A 132 90 z 7A 172 122
Ctrl-[ ESC 1B 033 27 ; 3B 073 59 [ 5B 133 91 { 7B 173 123
Ctrl- FS 1C 034 28 3C 074 60 5C 134 92 | 7C 174 124
Ctrl-] GS 1D 035 29 = 3D 075 61 ] 5D 135 93 } 7D 175 125
Ctrl-^ RS 1E 036 30 > 3E 076 62 ^ 5E 136 94 ~ 7E 176 126
Ctrl_ US 1F 037 31 ? 3F 077 63 _ 5F 137 95 DEL 7F 177 127

ASCII Character Table

- 31 -
In this ASCII Character Table, code number is used from 0 to 127, but more
complicated special figure symbol or international character are generally used and
handled. The character is combined to string and LF or CR code is located at the end
of line.

B. Parity

When data is transmitted or stored the error often happen. In the harsh environment, especially
in the factory or plants, there exists some mis-occurrence in the data transmission line and
telephone due to noise. To prevent to occur errors, parity bit can be added to end of data
frame to detect data transmission error. If error is detect after parity checking, the data will be
transmitted again or ignored.

Parity Bit is located at the additional 9th bit to data byte 8 Bit. When the data is encoded,
communication device counts active data bits number. And parity bit is calculated whether
total active data bits has odd or even number. Transmitted data byte is confirmed with parity
bit, whether total active data bits has odd or even number. If error is detect after parity
checking, the data will be ignored and re-transmission is required. There are two types of
parity check methods, odd parity check and even parity check.

Data Bit Parity Bit


Odd 10101110 1
Parity 10111000 0
Even 00101010 0
Parity 10111101 1

Parity Bits on a Byte

C. Check-sums

Parity Bit is favorable to combination of a few datum, otherwise Checksum is advantageous


for more complicate and large data transmission check. Checksum is simple algebraical sum of
total datum. Before perform a transmission, total bytes of datum is added. and this checksum is
sent with datum together. The checksum of received datum is calculated by addition and
checksum compared with checksum sent. If result of checksum comparing is concurrent, the
datum is accepted. The example of checksum calculation is shown as belows:

DATA
124
43
255
9
27
47
CHECKSUM
505

- 32 -
D. Gray Code

Parity Bit and Checksum is possible to check for every data values. Gray Code is used
to check data that should be accordance with binary order. Gray code is generally
used to measure angular value for encoders. The basic is that 1 bit changes once
when the binary number increase or decrease by 1. By this way, it's easier to check
the error of data bit. The example of Gray code is represented as belows:

Decimal Gray Code


0 0000
1 0001
2 0011
3 0010
4 0110
5 0111
6 0101
7 0100
8 1100
9 1101
10 1111
11 1110
12 1010
13 1011
14 1001
15 1000

Gray Code for a Nibble

- 33 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Karnaugh Map

1. Introduction of Karnaugh Map.

Karnaugh map makes possible to convert directly from complicated boolean algebra to
simplified boolean algebra without simplifying calculation using a truth table.

Before converting from truth table to boolean algebra, truth table can be shown as next.
Row and column can be determined form input variable. we may select arbitrarily which
variable will be used to row or column, we can find the same solution even Karnaugh
map are shown differently. The variables is assigned to both of row and column to
represent bit value considering also NOT. The assignment order of bits is the same as
00, 01, 11, 10. Describe bit status of true value for output variable A from truth table
to the Karnaugh map.

Step1 : Making of truth table for S,M,W,Q,A.


S M W Q A
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1

Step2 : Selecting SQ and MW, assign to input variable.


Step3 : According to input variable, write truth status to Karnaugh map.

MW(=00) MW(=01) MW(=11) MW(=10) M is common.


SQ(=00)
SQ(=01) All is in SQ row.
SQ(=11) 1 1 1
SQ(=10) W is common.

The Karnaugh Map

- 34 -
After written truth status to Karnaugh map, we can find typical identity of pattern for
1's(True state). When two or more bits exists on the in the same column or row, make
a circling these identity. Also after putting left side to right side or upper side to lower
side like a belt, two or more bits exists on the in the same column or row will appear.
this identity has to make circling.

These patterns is to be expressed to boolean algebra, the fact that all truth bits is
located at 3th line is meaning that SQ will be expressed to AND relation. Also in the
3th line, two pattern with common M and W exists. These pattern will be appeared to
relationship of boolean result and it can be converted to ladder logic.

Step4: Observe Map Pattern.

M is common.

All is in SQ row.

W is common.
Step5: Make boolean relation according to Pattern.
A = S*Q*(M+W)
Step6: Make Ladder Logic with this result.

Karnaugh map is alternative method that simplify the boolean algebra, is the way to
verify the calculation result of boolean algebra. In this example, there are four input
variables, two variables exists in row, also two variables exists in column. It is also
possible for more input variables, if 5 input variable exists, 3 input variables patterns
for row or column can be made like 000, 001, 011, 010, 110, 111, 101, 100. If
output variable exists two or more, Several karnaugh maps can be exist as well as
number of output variables.

- 35 -
2. Practical Example.

A. Express the following truth table to Karnaugh map.

A B C D Result
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

Result:
AB AB AB AB
CD 1 1 1 1
CD 1 1 0 1
CD 0 0 0 1
CD 0 0 0 1

B. Express to ladder logic after simplifying truth table using Karnaugh map.
A B C D X
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

- 36 -
CD

00 01 11 10
AB 00 0 0 0 0
01 0 0 1 1 X = BC
11 0 0 1 1
10 0 0 0 0

C. Simplify using next Karnaugh map.

CD CD CD CD
AB 1 0 0 1 B is true for all
AB 0 0 0 0 section.
AB 0 0 0 0
AB 0 1 1 0
B =(AD+AD)

D. Express to ladder logic after simplifying truth table using Karnaugh map.
A B C D X Y
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 0 1

- 37 -
For X
CD
00 01 11 10
00 0 0 0 0
01 0 0 0 0
AB
11 1 1 0 0
10 1 1 0 0

For Y

E. Express to ladder logic after simplifying truth table using Karnaugh map.

D E F G Y
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1

- 38 -
FG
00 01 11 10
00 0 0 0 0
01 0 1 1 0 Y = G(E+D)
DE 11 0 1 1 0
10 0 1 1 0

G. Express to ladder logic using Karnaugh map without finding relation of Boolean
Algebra.

ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC


DE 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
DE 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
DE 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
DE 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

AB ABCE Output=AB+ABCE

- 39 -
II. Application Examples for Logical Command.

▷ Logical AND
▷ Logical OR
▷ Logical NAND
▷ Logical NOR
▷ Logical Exclusive OR
▷ 1 Scan-time Oscillator
▷ Self-Holding, 0 or 1 Dominant SR/RS Flip-Flop
▷ Detect Rising Edge / Falling Edge, Differentiation
▷ Dual action Pushbutton
▷ Trouble Acknowledge/ Reset

- 40 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Logical AND

1. Ladder Logic example


Logical AND

X0 is Input Switch A and X1 Input Switch B. This Logic is equivalent to the next electrical
circuit.

Input Switch A Input Switch B

Pilot Lamp

In this circuit, Pilot Lamp Y10 is ON When Input Switch A and Input Switch B is closed state.
We call this circuit AND, the output state according to each input switch is represented as next
Truth Table and Boolean Equation.

A * B = C or A x B = C

Input Switch A X0 Input Switch B X1 Pilot Lamp Y10


0(OFF) 0(OFF) 0(OFF)
0(OFF) 1(ON) 0(OFF)
1(ON) 0(OFF) 0(OFF)
1(ON) 1(ON) 1(ON)

- 41 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Logical OR

1. Ladder Logic example


Logical OR

X0 is Input Switch A and X1 Input Switch B. This Logic is equivalent to the next electrical
circuit.

Input Switch A

Input Switch B Pilot Lamp

In this circuit, Pilot Lamp Y10 is ON When Input Switch A or Input Switch B is closed state.
We call this circuit OR, the output state according to each input switch is represented as next
Truth Table and Boolean Equation.

A+B=C
Input Switch A X0 Input Switch B X1 Pilot Lamp Y10
0(OFF) 0(OFF) 0(OFF)
0(OFF) 1(ON) 1(ON)
1(ON) 0(OFF) 1(ON)
1(ON) 1(ON) 1(ON)

- 42 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Logical NAND

1. Ladder Logic example


Logical NAND

X0 is Input Switch A and X1 Input Switch B. This Logic is equivalent to the next electrical
circuit.

Input Switch A

Input Switch B Pilot Lamp

In this circuit, Pilot Lamp Y10 is OFF When Input Switch A and Input Switch B is opened state.
But Pilot Lamp Y10 will be not OFF When only one of Input Switch A and Input Switch B is
opened state. We call this circuit NAND, the output state according to each input switch is
represented as next Truth Table and Boolean Equation.

A+B=C
Input Switch A X0 Input Switch B X1 Pilot Lamp C Y10
0(OFF) 0(OFF) 1(ON)
0(OFF) 1(ON) 1(ON)
1(ON) 0(OFF) 1(ON)
1(ON) 1(ON) 0(OFF)

This Logic is equivalent to the next ladder logic.

- 43 -
This logic is also represented as next Boolean Equation.

(A + B)= A * B = C or A x B = C

- 44 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Logical NOR

1. Ladder Logic example


Logical NOR

X0 is Input Switch A and X1 Input Switch B. This Logic is equivalent to the next electrical
circuit.

Input Switch A Input Switch B

Pilot Lamp

In this circuit, Pilot Lamp Y10 is OFF When Input Switch A or Input Switch B is opened state.
But Pilot Lamp Y10 will be ON When both of Input Switch A and Input Switch B is closed
state. We call this circuit NOR, the output state according to each input switch is represented as
next Truth Table and Boolean Equation.

A * B = C or A x B = C

Input Switch A X0 Input Switch B X1 Pilot Lamp C Y10


0(OFF) 0(OFF) 1(ON)
0(OFF) 1(ON) 0(OFF)
1(ON) 0(OFF) 0(OFF)
1(ON) 1(ON) 0(OFF)

- 45 -
This Logic is equivalent to the next ladder logic.

This logic is also represented as next Boolean Equation.

(A + B)= A * B = C or A x B = C

- 46 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Logical Exclusive OR
1. Ladder Logic example
Logical Exclusive OR

X0 is Input Switch A and X1 Input Switch B. This Logic is equivalent to the next electrical
circuit.

Input Switch A Input Switch B

Pilot Lamp

In this circuit, Pilot Lamp Y10 is ON When only one of Input Switch A or Input Switch B is
pressed. But Pilot Lamp Y10 will be OFF When both of Input Switch A and Input Switch B is
pressed or not pressed state. We call this circuit Exclusive OR, the output state according to each
input switch is represented as next Truth Table and Boolean Equation.

A+B=A*B+A*B=C

Input Switch A X0 Input Switch B X1 Pilot Lamp C Y10


0(OFF) 0(OFF) 0(OFF)
0(OFF) 1(ON) 1(ON)
1(ON) 0(OFF) 1(ON)
1(ON) 1(ON) 0(OFF)

- 47 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
1 Scan-time Oscillator

1. Ladder Logic example


1 Scan Oscillator

Output M100

The total scan time is 2 scan including on duty(1 scan)and off duty(1 scan).
2 Scan Oscillator

Output M100

The total scan time is 4 scan including on duty(2 scan)와 off duty(2 scan).
2. Explanation.
This 1 Scan Oscillator used special characteristic of PLC I/O batch processing that updates I/O
device and reference Image and solves logic. 2 scan oscillator also can be made using special
characteristic of PLC referring to I/O status table. The order of PLC logic solving proceed from
left to right and from top to bottom.

- 48 -
Scan-time 1st Scan 2nd Scan 3rd Scan 4th Scan 5th Scan 6th Scan 7th Scan
Contact M100 Pass Disconnect Pass Disconnect Pass Disconnect Pass
Solving Off Off Off On
Result of On On On
Coil M100

In case of 2 Scan Oscillator, I/O status table are as following.

Scan-time 1st Scan 2nd Scan 3rd Scan 4th Scan 5th Scan 6th Scan 7th Scan 8th scan
M100 On On Off Off On On Off Off
M101 Off On On Off Off On On Off
M102 Off On On Off Off On On Off

- 49 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Self-Holding, 0 or 1 Dominant SR/RS Flip-Flop

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
The self holding circuit is generally used and there are two type of self holding circuit, 0
Dominant Self Holding circuit and 1 Dominant Self Holding circuit. This circuit can be also
regarded as SR Flip-Flop and RS Flip-flop and has two inputs and one or two outputs. When
two input are 1(truth state), The next truth table are shown that output Y0 becomes 0 in case of 0
Dominant Self Holding and output Y0 becomes 1 in case of 1 Dominant Self Holding.

- 50 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Detect Rising Edge / Falling Edge, Differentiation

1. Ladder Logic example


Pulse Detection for Rising / Falling Edge

Time Chart
X0 X1

Y10 Y11

The scan times of Y10, Y11 are each 1 scan.

The equivalent circuit of PLS Y10.

The equivalent circuit of PLS Y11.

2. Explanation.
The scan time of output of PLS command is 1 scan time at the moment when input is ON(at the
rising edge). The scan time of output of PLF command is 1 scan time at the moment when input
is OFF(at the falling edge). These command is used to detect synchronized task for inputting
event.
The equivalent circuit can be used in PLC that PLS /PLF command is not supported, M100,
M101 is auxiliary contact.

- 51 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Dual action Pushbutton

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
In the above ladder logic, SET/RESET command has a function of Flip-Flop, adding it's inverted
output to the input of the SET/RESET, total circuit acts as Toggle Flip-Flop by excitation of PLS
M30. Whenever input X9 is excited(like pushbutton), Output M31 will repeat ON/OFF action.
Generally, Actuator has each ON switch and OFF switch, in this case, this switch can operate
ON/OFF action of output by 1 switch.

X9

M31

- 52 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Trouble Acknowledge/ reset

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
If Level low-low Trouble occurs, M100 is latched, pilot lamp Y20 blinks slowly. When
push-button switch X11 is pressed, M101 is latched, pilot lamp stop flickering action, keep on
being ON state. If trouble occurs again, acknowledge state is broken by PLS M102, annunciator
returns to initial state. If pushbutton X10 is pressed, trouble annunciating state is re-scanned.

- 53 -
III. Application Example for Sequential Command.

▷ On Delay / Off Delay Timer


▷ One Shot Multi-vibrator
▷ Multi-Vibrator
▷ Speed Monitor using OFF Delay Timer
▷ Preventing Chattering Noise for Mechanical Contacts
▷ Finding Stable Value by TIME Filter from Analog Input Hunting
▷ Measuring Time for Continuous Production.
▷ Optimizing Surveillance Timer of Speed Monitor
▷ Surveillance of Motor Drive System
▷ Detecting Value Changed

- 54 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
On Delay / Off Delay Timer

1. Ladder Logic
On delay Timer

X0

5 sec
Y10

Off Delay Timer

- 55 -
X1

Y11 5 sec

2. Explanation.
Timer function of Mitsubishi Melsec PLC is basically On Delay Timer. After Input X0 is
activated, output Y10 of On delay timer T50 will be ON after 5 sec. If T51 Timer is activated by
inverted input X1 and output Y11 is activated by inverted timer contact T51, Off Delay Timer
T51 is represented. Even X1 is OFF, output Y11 of timer T51 hold ON state during 5 sec.

- 56 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
One Shot Multi-vibrator

1. Ladder Logic
One Shot Timer

X0

Y10 5 sec

Re-triggerable One shot Timer

X1

Y11

2. Explanation.
One Shot Timer as described above consists of self holding logic and 1 timer. After Input X0 is
activated, output Y10 of timer T50 hold ON state during 5 sec. To perform Re-triggerable timer,
adding RST T50 Logic makes it possible.

- 57 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Multi-Vibrator

1. Ladder Logic

2. Explanation.
By inverted feedback of activated T51 timer at the initial time, this circuit begins oscillation. T50
Timer determines on duty time, T51 Timer determines off duty time. Real output Y10 uses T51
Flicker Contact, total blinking will be 1 sec.

Y10
0.5S 0.5S

- 58 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Speed Monitor using OFF Delay Timer

1. Ladder Diagram Example

Before Trouble Occurs.(Normal State)

After Trouble Occurred(Trouble State)

- 59 -
Proximity
Switch

MOTOR

2. Explanation.
Using a TOF(Off Delay Timer), we can monitor continuous revolution state of motor or rotator.
Whatever motor or rotator have any forms, by installation of proximity switch and actuator at
shaft of motor or rotator, continuous surveillance of speed or belt, bearing can be possible. We
can adjust the excitation period of proximity switch and actuator at the logic, this can be the
setting time of TOF(Off Delay Timer). To prevent happening of trouble, the excitation period
time of proximity switch and actuator is within a TOF Preset time so that power flow of trouble
logic isn't discontinuous.

- 60 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Preventing Chattering Noise for Mechanical Contacts

1. Ladder Logic

Chattering
Input X0

Filtered

Input M100

Chattering
Input X0

Considering +Edge

Input M101

- 61 -
2. Explanation.
For contact of mechanical Switches, if it becomes obsoleted, this will cause electrical transition
noise. These chattering noise will cause mal-function of the machine. This can be prevented by
PLC logic. Using a TON logic, the noise can be suppressed at the transition of rising edge of
electrical signal. Also using a TOF logic, the noise can be suppressed at the transition of falling
edge of electrical signal. But programmer should accept the result asynchronous timing signal
by delaying of TON and TOF.

- 62 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Finding Stable Value by TIME Filter from Analog Input Hunting

1. Ladder Diagram Example

A. Ratio Control Ladder Logic Example

2 Explanation.
Sometimes Analog Input value is hunted by noise or process problem to be impossible to find
comparing point. In this case this logic make hunting analog input value stable. It is possible to
make rapidly changing input value so dull by constant time increasing and decreasing. Time
constant should adjust to fit to site situation.

D500 : Simulated Input for Hunting


D20 : Time Filtered Input

- 63 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Measuring Time for Continuous Production.

1. Ladder Logic example


Example 1.

Example 2.

- 64 -
2. Explanation.
This program is for measuring of production time, total operation time is stored at D100-D103.
At below 60 sec, this will be cut down and not included to total operation time. To prevent this,
programmer should use time base of 1 second, not a 1 minute.

- 65 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Optimizing Surveillance Timer of Speed Monitor

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Drive system of AC General Motor has function of surveillance for operation state of magnet
switch and feedback signal of speed monitor of motion System. But for more delicate
surveillance of speed monitor, this example will be applicable.
M300 is Trouble Flag, this can be reset by Pushbutton Switch X0 at any time. T50 Timer is used
to maintain time until the motor has the normal speed and torque after overcome inertia.
At this time, T150 is OFF Delay timer by excitation of input X9 of proximity switch for
surveillance of speed monitoring .

- 66 -
At first, we make Dual Action Switch Logic to measure excitation period from the proximity
switch, let timers T151 AND T152 operate by it's A/B contact. T151 is regarded as odd
excitation period, T152 is regarded as even excitation period.

- 67 -
Using Falling Edge of M31, we store instant value of odd and even excitation period to D52
register. By using X3 pushbutton, when motor drive system is stable, this value can be reflected
to preset value of running surveillance timer.

- 68 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Surveillance of Motor Drive System

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
This example is for surveillance and operation of general Motor Drive System. For Manual
mode or Auto Mode, the things to have to be monitored and checked is the ON state of magnet
switch supplying power to motor and motor system is operated with normal speed within a set
time after magnet switch is ON. By this means, normal condition should be also checked
whether mechanical power transferring device of motor drive system is in good condition.
Driving belt, looseness of chain belt and speed reducer will be included.
Seeing ladder logic, after PLC Output Y10 is On, two timer will be operated. Before first timer is
done, Return Signal(X30) of magnet switch should be returned and cut the operation of T30

- 69 -
timer. Before second timer is done, Return Signal(X31) of speed monitor should be returned and
cut the operation of T31 timer. If it's not, cutoff of trouble flag M300, M301 cause motor trip by
timer operation.
The trouble flag in trip can be reset by pressing the reset pushbutton Switch. The preset value of
surveillance timer should be optimized during test-run.

PLC Output RST


Module
PLC Input
Module

Y10 Magnet
Return
Signal
X30
X31

Speed
Monitor
Return
Motor Fan Signal

- 70 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Detecting Value Changed

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Seeing command Move D100 D101 after M9036, Analog value 01(D100) is transferred to D101
to compare at next scan. At next scan if new Analog value 01(D100)is different with Analog
value 01(D101) stored at the previous scan, One shot timer annunciate that the value is changed.

- 71 -
IV. Application Example for Flow Sequential Command.

▷ Sequence Control with BSFL Command


▷ Sequence Control with SFTP Command
▷ Call Subroutines and Return Processing
▷ Sorting Data of Table in Maximum Order

- 72 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Sequence Control with BSFL Command

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Sequence Control generally can be performed by consisting of NO/NC Contact Coil and
programming of AND/OR/NOT. At this time, the ladder logic example of batch manufacturing
process that has constant processing cycle is shown.
Bit Shift command is initiated by energizing of X0 Input. After this each process step of Event

- 73 -
are proceeded by sensor or switch from the bit M48 to M54, total process cycle completes by
bits Shifting. At the end of ladder logic, [MOV H0 K4M40] is for initial reset and program
restart after 1cycle completion.

This sub-routine will be initiated by bit start of M49 from main logic and completed from the bit
M80 to M83. After completion of Sub-routine processing, program flow return to main logic by
energizing of M84 and all bits related Sub-routine Bit will be initialized.

- 74 -
Finally actuators are driven by M Coil.

- 75 -
3. Sequence Block Diagram

Belt Tool move


Material Conveyor Material To 1st
Reached Stop Reached Position

Belt
Conveyor Drill
Start Advance

Blower Drilling
Retract

Cleaning Blower Tool Drill


Advance Change Retract

- 76 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Sequence Control with SFTP Command

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Sequence Control generally can be performed by consisting of NO/NC Contact Coil and
programming of AND/OR/NOT. At this time, the ladder logic example of batch manufacturing
process that has constant processing cycle is shown.
Bit Shift command is initiated by energizing of X0 Input. After this each process step of Event
are proceeded by sensor or switch from the bit M48 to M58, total process cycle completes by
bits Shifting. At the end of ladder logic, [MOV H0 K4M40] is for initial reset and program
restart after 1cycle completion.

- 77 -
All bits will be initialized by energizing of M58 bit.

- 78 -
3. Sequence Block Diagram

Belt Tool move


Material Conveyor Material To 1st
Reached Stop Reached Position

Belt
Conveyor Drill
Start Advance

Blower Drilling
Retract

Cleaning Blower Tool Drill


Advance Change Retract

- 79 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Call Subroutines and Return Processing

1. Ladder Logic

In case that calling Subroutine 1

2. Explanation.
This example is to process sub-routine using a CALL/RET command. Subroutine is generally
used to substitute repetition of the same, will prevent to re-edit ladder logic and make logic
simple, save the program memory by reduce program step number.
X2 and X3 is to SET/RESET Y30 at each Subroutine of P1 and P2. If these two switch are ON
and X0 is ON, Y30 will be SET by calling subroutine1. If X1 is On, Y30 will be RESET by
calling subroutine2.

- 80 -
In case that calling Subroutine 2

- 81 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Sorting Data of Table in Maximum Order

1. Ladder Logic

- 82 -
2. Explanation.
Using a For/Next command, the ladder logic example that sort number in the data table by order
of maximum number. The outer loop of For/Next command is to store found maximum value to
new table D40-D49, The inner loop of For/Next command is to find maximum value. At this
time, Index Register z acts as Pointer of Sorted Table , Index Register v acts as pointer that take
out the data from table to sort. Also this Pointer substitute pointer value to D101 register for
storing zero value to register of maximum value already found.

The first part of his logic is to initialize all register value.

- 83 -
Data Table Before Sorting

Sorted Data Table

- 84 -
V. Application Example for MUX-DEMUX.

▷ Parallel Driving for 7 Segment Display


▷ Economic Discrete Input Multiplexing-Demultiplexing

- 85 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Parallel Driving for 7 Segment Display

1. Concept.
This Application Note is for simplifying of ladder logic to display BCD value to 7 Segment
Display units and minimize hardware to be used, using parallel Data line of 7 Segment Display
units and Latch Signal line.
2. Testing Equipments : Autonics 7 Segment Display Unit
3. 7 Segment Jumper setting:

Jumper Item Settings


Decimal/ Hexa-decimal Select Decimal
Latch Active High/Low Select Active low
Dynamic(Serial)/ Parallel Select Parallel

4. Schematic Wiring Diagram.


Melsec Discrete Output
Transistor DC24V 7 Segment Display Units

Y21 4 Data lines


Y22
Y23
Y24
8 8 8 8
4 Latch lines
Y25
Y26
Y27
Y28

5. Used Ladder logics


At first, Binary value to display is converted to BCD numeric system, this value is moved to each
register as much as 1digit, thrown to 4 data line via output module from Y21 to Y24 and latch
strobe signal is thrown to 7segment display. sequentially this action is repeated for 1 digit by
1digit.

M9038 , special contact, is ON for only 1scan when PLC start RUN , is used to make Data and
Strobe Train. The bit of D0 written by M9038 will be shifted to left side for 1 bit when m100 is
ON by SFL command. This bit will be moved from M0 to M15 and used data and strobe(latch)
output signal

- 86 -
Output from Y28 to Y2B is used to transfer data to 7 Segment Unit. If Data/ Strobe Train and
Move Logic is add, user can add any number of 7 Segment Unit as far as speed limit.

- 87 -
- 88 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Economic Discrete Input Multiplexing-Demultiplexing

1. Concept.
This Application Note is for simplifying and saving of digital input module. Each groups of pilot
signaler and sensing device with diodes installed is connected to digital input module. and power
common line of each group is connected to digital output module and driven with sequential
strobe. Synchronizing strobe of digital output, each group of signaler will give their data
information to digital input module and this will act as multiplexing with TDM(Time Division
Modulation). Otherwise in the PLC, synchronizing strobe of digital output, data information of
group of signaler from digital input module is stored in the buffer memory one by one and this
will act as de-multiplexing.

2. Schematic Wiring Diagram.


Melsec Discrete Input/Output
Transistor DC24V

Multi-input Group Signaler


Y2C
Y2D
Y2E
Y2F

X00
X01
X01
X02
X02
X03
X03
X04
X04
:: : : :
:
:: : : :
:: : 16 core : :
:
: : : :
:
:X16 : : :
X0F

3. Used Ladder Logics


The output from Y2C to Y2F is to output strobe for multiplexing sequentially, and 1 strobe is
needed per the group of multi-input. Multi-input group should consist of dry contact type
signaler like Push-button Switch, Limit Switch, Thumb-wheel Switch, semi-conductor type
signaler like proximity switch is not suitable for this application considering fast speed response.
The strobe output should be synchronized to data train in the ladder logic. In the practical

- 89 -
example, At first scan of PLC RUN start, Strobe train(MOV H2 K4M0) and DATA Train(MOV
H7 K4M16) is synchronized. The meaning of hexa-decimal value H2 and H7 is as next figure;

Strobe train M15 M0


0000 0000 0000 0010

Data train M32 M16


0000 0000 0000 0111

These data/strobe train are shifted by 1 bit when M9036 is scanned and thrown to common
power line of multi- input group. In the PLC, the data information of multi input group is accept
to internal coil group(M64-M79, M80-M95) by "Safe in time" action. This results simplifying
and saving of digital input module.

- 90 -
- 91 -
VI. Application Example for Calculation Command.

▷ Analog Input/Output Module


▷ A1S68AD/ A1S68DAV,DAI Analog Input Module Set-up
▷ Scaling for Analog Input PV
▷ Schmitt Threshold ON-OFF
▷ Peak Value Hold
▷ On / Off Controller for Analog PV
▷ Analog Value Clamping, Limitation
▷ Bit Shift by Calculation Command
▷ Analog Drive Speed Control
▷ Finding Stable Value by SUM from Analog Input Hunting
▷ Drive Multi-stage Control by Encoder Feedback
▷ Ratio Control for Material Mixing
▷ Trickle Control for Truck Loading
▷ Rate Sampler for Single Counter
▷ Analog Scaling for X 0 Shifted Signal
▷ Analog Scaling for Y 0 Shifted Signal
▷ Piecewise for Proportional Non-Linear Curve
▷ Piecewise for Inverse Proportional Non-Linear Curve
▷ Linear Profiler

- 92 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Analog Input/Output Module

1. Analog Input Module.


Analog input module is used to convert electrical continuous signal like voltage or current from
physical or chemical amount to quantified digital amount. There exists resolution in the
conversion processing from analog to digital. According to resolution the quality of analog input
module is determined and raw values after conversion are as follows at each output types;

The output type of


210 212 215
Analog Input Module
0-20mA (0-5V): without offset, unipolar
0~1023 0~4095 0~16383
4-20mA (1-5V): with offset, unipolar
204~1023 817~4095 1638~16383
0-10V: Elevated, unipolar
-1023~+1023 -4095~+4095 -16383~+16383
1-10V: with offset, Elevated, unipolar
-10V - +10V: Elevated, bi-polar

- 93 -
2. The External Circuit of Analog Input Module.
The external circuit of analog input module are consisted of power supply, signal transmitter that
make possible to convert physical or chemical amount to electrical continuous signal like
voltage or current.
The schematic diagram is as follows;
(In case of that Power Supply is connected to source of module)

(-) DC4-20mA A
Signal (+) Sink
Transmitter
(+) (+) (-) (-) Source
Shield
Power
Supply

Chassis
Shield

- 94 -
(In case of that Power Supply is connected to sink of module)

Power
Supply

(-) (-) (+)


A
Signal (+) Sink
Transmitter (-) Source
(+) DC4-20mA Shield

Chassis
Shield

3. Analog Output Module.


Analog output module is used to convert PLC internal numeric value to electrical continuous
signal like voltage or current. There exists resolution in the conversion processing from digital to
analog.

The output type of


210 212 215
Analog Input Module
0-20mA (0-5V): without offset, unipolar
0~1023 0~4095 0~16383
4-20mA (1-5V): with offset, unipolar
204~1023 817~4095 1638~16383
0-10V: Elevated, unipolar
-1023~+1023 -4095~+4095 -16383~+16383
1-10V: with offset, Elevated, unipolar
-10V - +10V: Elevated, bi-polar

- 95 -
4. The External Circuit of Analog Output Module.

DC4-20mA (+)
(+) Sink Signal
(-) Transmitter
(-) Source
Shield

Chassis
Shield

- 96 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
A1S68AD/ A1S68DAV,DAI Analog Input Module Set-up

1. Ladder Logic example


A. Analog Input Program.

(1) READ from A1S68AD using FROM Command.


N1: The first 2 digit when the head I/O number is allocated to A1S68AD in three digits of
hexa-decimal.
N2: Head address of buffer memory in which data is stored.
D: Head number of the device in which read data is stored.
N3: Number of words of read data.
(2) WRITE from A1S68AD using TO Command.
N1: The first 2 digit when the head I/O number is allocated to A1S68AD in three digits of
hexa-decimal.
N2: Head address of buffer memory in which data is stored.

- 97 -
S: Number or constant of head device in which data is stored.
N3: Number of words of write data.

B. Analog Output Program.

(3) READ from A1S68DAV/DAI using FROM Command.


N1: The most significant 2 digit when the head I/O number is allocated to A1S68DAV/DAI
is expressed as three digits of hexa-decimal.
N2: Head address of buffer memory in which date is stored.
D: Head number of the device in which read date is stored.
N3: Number of words of read data.
(4) WRITE from A1S68DAV/DAI using TO Command.
N1: The most significant 2 digit when the head I/O number is allocated to A1S68DAV/DAI
is expressed as three digits of hexa-decimal.
N2: Head address of buffer memory in which date is stored.
D: Head number of the device in which read date is stored or constant.
N3: Number of words of write data.

- 98 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Scaling for Analog Input PV

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Let Register D1 Raw Value 32767 ~ +32767 from Analog Input Module. When the electric
signal has a value between 10V ~ +10V, and Process Variable has a value between 1000rpm ~
+1000rpm, The "Scaling" is expressed as this value make value Register D1 return to process
variable. K constant of Long Decimal Format in the Double Precision Multiplication/Division is
defined as Scaling ratio. K1000 is defined value to scale raw value to Engineering Unit RPM,
dividing by input range after multiplying Engineering Unit is to prevent bad deformity of
resolution.

PLC 내부 Logic
+10 V Analog Input
Module +32767
* 1000
+10V~-10V
/ 32767

+1000 RPM +1000 RPM

Tacho
Generator

-32767
-1000 RPM -10 V -1000 RPM

- 99 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Schmitt Threshold ON-OFF

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
If analog value 01(D1) is value over than 800, the output Y10 is ON. If analog value 01(D1) is
value below than 600, the output Y10 is OFF. As this matter, transit ON-OFF control that
overlapped ON point and OFF point is called "Schmitt Circuit".

Y10

ON
OFF
600 800 D1

- 100 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Peak Value Hold

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
If new value Analog value 01(D100) is bigger than Analog value 01(D101) stored before, new
value Analog value 01(D100) is transferred to D101. Therefore, The highest value analog value
01 up to now is stored to D200.
Minimum peak Hold function is represented as next:

- 101 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
On / Off Controller for Analog PV

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
D100 is Scaled PV(Process variable), also temperature value in the tank. By means of comparing
command, if D100 is below than 70 ℃, Heating Coil is On. If D100 is value over than 80℃,
heating Coil is Off. Therefore, this system will have dead band of 10℃.

- 102 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Analog Value Clamping, Limitation

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
If new value Analog value 01(D100) is bigger than Analog value 01(D101) stored before and
this value is bigger than 1000 and is smaller than 5000, new value Analog value 01(D100) is
transferred to D101. Therefore, The analog value 01 smaller than 1000 and bigger than 5000 is
clamped.

to clamp only lower limit, the logic is as follow:

to clamp only upper limit, the logic is as follow:

- 103 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Bit Shift by Calculation Command

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Bit Shift can be performed by Bit Shift command, also by multiplying or dividing by binary
weight. In this example, dividing Hexadecimal value HFF00( Binary 1111 1111 0000 0000) by
32 results bit shifting to right side as 4 bits is shown. Also multiplying Hexadecimal value
H00FF(Binary (0000 0000 1111 1111) with 32 results bit shifting to left side as 4bits is shown.

- 104 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Analog Drive Speed Control

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
When the slow acceleration and deceleration of motor speed drive is performed, The next logic
can be shown. Acceleration is preset at D30, T50 and deceleration is preset at D31, T51 by
thumb-wheel switches.

- 105 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Finding Stable Value by SUM from Analog Input Hunting

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Ratio Control Ladder Logic Example

- 106 -
2. Explanation.
Sometimes Analog Input value is hunted by noise or process problem to be impossible to find
comparing point. In this case this logic make hunting analog input value stable. It is possible to
make rapidly changing input value so dull by sampling data at every constant period and storing
to Q buffer and calculating datum . And calculation can be perform by adding all sampled datum
and finding its average.

D500 : Simulated Input for Hunting


D200 D205 : Queue Buffer
D400 : Averaged Value for Simulated Input for Hunting

- 107 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Drive Multi-stage Control by Encoder Feedback

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Suppose stacker crane run on the rail in the warehouse. The logic is for this stacker crane is
controlled by motor drive of multi-stage speed control with encoder feedback.
D1 is corresponding to input Feedback of encoder. D3 is target position that stacker crane is
stopped. At that time of start, the position information will be stored to D110-D111 (double
precision Format). PLC calculates elapsed value(D120-121) of encoder and remained value to
target position(D130-131). This is useful when PLC get flags for multi-stage speed control at the
next logic.

- 108 -
After Stacker-Crane start, if the elapsed value of encoder is over than 5000, motor drive is
entered to 1st speed stage, if the elapsed value of encoder is over than 10000, motor drive is
entered to 2nd speed stage, if the elapsed value of encoder is over than 15000, motor drive is
entered to 3rd speed stage. And if the elapsed value of encoder is remained below than 15000,
motor drive is entered to 3rd speed stage, if the elapsed value of encoder is remained below than
10000, motor drive is entered to 2nd speed stage, if the elapsed value of encoder is remained
below than 5000, motor drive is entered to 1st speed stage.

Speed

Start Point Stop Point

- 109 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Ratio Control for Material Mixing

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Ratio Control Ladder Logic Example

- 110 -
B. Device Data Monitoring

2. Explanation.
In case of that blending and mixing control of liquid or powder by ratio should be performed,
this logic can be applied. For example, color combination of dyeing line or painting line,
ingredients mixing of foods or pharmacies, whatever it is weight or volume, this can be
performed to continuous or batch control.
At the ladder logic, If 5 component(D100-D104) is entered plasmo-nozzle or analog
valve(D200-D204) will be act by each ratio. The 100 percent scaling of analog valve is 4000 of
registers value.

FACTOR

FACTOR

FACTOR

FACTOR

FACTOR

- 111 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Trickle Control for Truck Loading

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Before Trickle Control

B. After Trickle Control

- 112 -
C. When reached to Full

2. Explanation.
For the Batch Control, loading of liquid or powder by measuring the volume or weight with
scale or encoder pulse signal is often performed. At this time, loading speed should be
maximized for job efficiency, but if loading valve is simply opened and closed, when the loading
action is about to end, the excessive loading sometimes happens. To avoid this malfunction,
Before the loading end, left several percent loading job, by opening valve quite little bit, this can
be prevented . This action is called trickle or drizzle control.

Loading speed
or valve open
state

Trickle Loading Weight


Point End

- 113 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Rate Sampler for Single Counter

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Counter Simulation Logic and Preparation for Rate Sample

B. Find Counter Difference For Plus Index Sector

- 114 -
C. Find Counter Difference For Minus Index Sector

D. Sampling Counter Rate

2 Explanation.
In case of that the rotator drives incremental encoder of simple counting (Uni-directional
Counting) for finding R.P.M.(Revolution Per Minute) of rotator, we can get simple count from
only 1 register, this value will be value from 32767 to 32767. To make calculation easier,
Adding +32767 to real count value for the minus value. By this way, we find the difference after
storing count variation during constant time, calculate sampled counting rate. In case of that,
sampling period should be shorter than 32767 counting time at the maximum speed of rotator.

- 115 -
- 116 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Analog Scaling for X 0 Shifted Signal

1. Ladder Diagram Example

2 Explanation.
When scaling for zero point shifted analog signal to X axis as figure shown is performed, the
formula as next can be applied.

(X-A) * C
Y= --------------------
(B-A)

A B

- 117 -
At this time each section and register allocation of X and Y can be shown as next:

X: D500
Y: D510

A: D2000 C: D4000
B: D2010

- 118 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Analog Scaling for Y Axis Shifted Signal

1. Ladder Diagram Example

2. Explanation.
When scaling for zero point shifted analog signal to Y axis as figure shown is performed, the
formula as next can be applied.

(C-B) * X
Y= -------------------- + B
A

- 119 -
At this time each section and register allocation of X and Y can be shown as next:

X: D500
Y: D510

B: D2000 A: D4000
C: D2010

- 120 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Piecewise for Proportional Non-Linear Curve

1. Ladder Diagram Example

2. Explanation.
The simplifying method of non-linear characteristic curve is the way that sectional dividing of
non-linear characteristic curve to be indicated piecewise. At any formula curve of non-linear
characteristic, if we accept its deviation, we can represent non-linear characteristic curve to
sectional linear curve.
At this ladder logic example, dividing non-linear characteristic curve into 2 section linear curve
and representing to math logic is shown.
When a proportional line is shown to mathematic formula, the expression is as next;

(E-D) * (x-A)
Y= -------------------- + E
(B-A)

- 121 -
At this time each section and register allocation of X and Y can be shown as next:

X: D500
Y: D510

A: D4000 F: D2000
B: D4010 E: D2010
C: D4020 D: D2020

- 122 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Piecewise for Inverse Proportional Non-Linear Curve

1. Ladder Diagram Example

2. Explanation.
The simplifying method of non-linear characteristic curve is the way that sectional dividing of
non-linear characteristic curve to be indicated piecewise. At any formula curve of non-linear
characteristic, if we accept its deviation, we can represent non-linear characteristic curve to
sectional linear curve.
At this ladder logic example, dividing inverse non-linear characteristic curve into 2 section linear
curve and representing to math logic is shown.
When a inverse proportional line is shown to mathematic formula, the expression is as next;

- 123 -
(F-E) * (x-A)
Y=[ (F-E) - -------------------- ] + E
(B-A)

At this time each section and register allocation of X and Y can be shown as next:

X: D500
Y: D510

A: D4000 F: D2000
B: D4010 E: D2010
C: D4020 D: D2020

- 124 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Linear Profiler

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Ratio Control Ladder Logic Example

B. Device Data Monitoring

- 125 -
C. Device Data Monitoring

2. Explanation.
This example shows linear profiler that Y Analog Output(D3000) varies to X time axis (D1000).
There are total 6 section that perform acceleration, constant speed, deceleration.

- 126 -
VII. Application Example Data Manipulation Command.

▷ Clear to 0 Or Set to 1 All Bits


▷ Set All Bits to 1 by 2's Complement
▷ Binary Counter
▷ Assembling/ Disassembling of Bits
▷ Acceleration/Deceleration Control With Linearity for Set-point
▷ Individual ON/OFF Operation by Thumb-wheel Switch Set
▷ Ring Counter
▷ Display of Trouble Flag Number
▷ Que Buffer and First-in/First-out
▷ LIFO(Last In First Out) Using Stack Memory
▷ Load/Save Data for 2-3 Dimensional Database
▷ Data Save/ Sort/ Search for Optimization

- 127 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Clear to 0 Or Set to 1 All Bits

1. Ladder Logic example


Logic Diagram 1

Logic Diagram 2

Logic Diagram 3

2. Explanation.
If the exclusive OR is performed for source register with destination register having the same
address to source register's, the result cause that all bits in the register makes to 0. Logic diagram
1 is shown before performing Exclusive OR, Logic diagram 2 is shown after performing
Exclusive OR, Logic diagram 3 is shown after performing Exclusive NOR, the result cause that
all bits in the register makes to 1.

- 128 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Set All Bits to 1 by 2's Complement

1. Ladder Logic

2. Explanation.
Generally 2's complement is performed for all the register, this results that makes opposite side
of the register, using this, we can makes all bit of the register to set to 1 as the ladder logic
example above.
There is data of Hex value HFF0000FF in the D100 and D101, by performing 2's complement,
inverted data H00FFFF00 is generated to D102, D103 registers. Also by performing AND
operation, this result that makes all bit of the register to reset to 0.

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Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Binary Counter

1. Ladder Logic example

2. Explanation.
Once X0 is excited, D100 is increased by 1. If we make this value moved to Discrete
Output(K4Y10). This can be regards as binary counter that the output has each binary weight
12
value. If D100 is increase to 2 , by [= HFFF D100] command, D100 is to reset. Therefore, this
can be regards as 212binary counter.

- 130 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Assembling/ Disassembling of Bits

1. Ladder Logic
Bits Assembling

- 131 -
Bits Disassembling

2. Explanation.
Assembly and disassembly of bits is represented as the example using FMOV and BMOV
command, there exists numbers from 1 to 4 in D100-D103. When we want these number to
output to 7 segment display device, we make these numbers Assemble and disassemble using
BMOV command.
If we want the number 1234 stored in D130 disassemble and move to each registers, FMOVE
command can be used.

- 132 -
Bits Assemble

D100 1
D101 2
D102 3
D103 4 4 3 2 1

Bits Disassemble

1 2 3 4 4 D130
K4Y20 / D120
3 D131
2 D132
1 D133

- 133 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Acceleration/Deceleration Control With Linearity for Set-point

1. Ladder Logic

2. Explanation.
When we give Analog Set-point to control program and set-point is rapidly changed, the control
system can be unstable or damaged. To prevent this, using a ramp function, set-point can be
made to linear signal, we can get stable control characteristic
D100 is raw analog set-point. is compared to filtered set-point D0. By bigger or smaller, filtered
set-point D0 can be increased or decreased by INCP or DECP command. Acceleration Rate and
Deceleration Rate can be determined by each timer.

- 134 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Individual ON/OFF Operation by Thumb-wheel Switch Set

1. Ladder Logic example

:
:

- 135 -
:
:

2. Explanation.
For proper operation, BCD Data of 2digit Thumb wheel Switch from X0 to X8 can be converted
to binary data. using DECO command, we can control from M100 to M124.
If Thumb wheel switch is set to 12, corresponding decoded M Bit will be M112 and
SET(Valve13 Cylinder).
Available M Bit Flag number will be 100sets(Cylinders of 100sets ).

- 136 -
Thumbwheel Switch
D100

1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

M115 M112 M100


0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

M124 M116

Using this M Bit Flags, several actuator can be control to on and off in manual mode. The logic
from Step23 to Step58 are dual action pushbutton logic, once X10 pushbutton switch is
activated, corresponding cylinder will be repeat on/off operation.

- 137 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Ring Counter

1. Ladder Logic

2. Explanation.
At initial scan of M9038, M0, first positioned coil of Ring Counter, will be set. By timer T50
having K10 period, Coil from M0 to M33 will be operated as Ring Counter. M9012 as Carry
Flag, this Escape Bit will be returned to set M0 coil.

T50
M0
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9
1sec
:
:
:
:
:

- 138 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Display of Trouble Flag Number

1. Ladder Logic

2. Explanation.
Trouble Flag of total 64 from M800 to M863 are registered to this logic. Trouble Number from
trouble flag will be displayed to 7 Segment Display Unit. Seeing logic at 33Step, this logic has
like the function. If M800 Trouble is occurred, The trouble number displayed at 7 Segment
Display Unit is 1. Also M804 Trouble is occurred, The trouble number displayed at 7 Segment
Display Unit is 5, M860 Trouble is occurred, The trouble number displayed at 7 Segment
Display Unit is 61.

- 139 -
Input X10~X13 is for simulation for trouble occurrence. In practical use, this should be replaced
to timer contact monitoring trouble, contact element determining defectives. Input X3 is acted as
trouble reset switch, set trouble flag.

- 140 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Que Buffer and First-in/First-out

1. Ladder Logic example


Logic Diagram 1

There are typical 2 memory Buffer, FIFO(First-in/First-out) and LIFO(Last-in/First-out). The


former is called Queue Buffer, the latter is called Stack Buffer.
For this example, the program of First-in/First-out is represented.
M40 is collective contact for all quality selection Push-Button Switch. If product is entered to
buffer area, product quality information is pushed to memory.

Logic Diagram 2

This logic is for drawing out the last saved quality information from Queue Buffer Memory

- 141 -
using a Index Pointer Z. At this time, Physical Buffer Area is located from M1 Roller Conveyor
to M2 Roller Conveyor.

Logic Diagram 3
This logic is to determining product quality and storing to Starting Memory to Queue Memory.

- 142 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
LIFO(Last In First Out) Using Stack Memory

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Ladder Logic Example

B. Device Data Monitoring

- 143 -
- 144 -
2. Explanation.
This PLC ladder logic represents LIFO (Last In First Out) operation of stack memory. By
energizing Input X0, the data of D500 Register is pushed to Stack Memory register having
starting address D200. By energizing Input X7, The datum 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 pushed
continuous are moved to D510 Register with POP operation. This ladder logic can be performed
simply by Index Register V, Z.

D500 : Source Data Register


D200 D205 : Stack Memory
D510 : Destination Data Register
XO : PUSH Operation
X7 : POP Operation

- 145 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Load/Save Data for 2-3 Dimensional Database

1. Ladder Diagram Example


A. Load Data for Simulation

B. Calculating Final Pointer for Load/Save from/to Database

- 146 -
- 147 -
C. Load/Save Data from or to Database

Monitoring Database Partially

D10 : Source Register to be input data at Database.


D20 : Destination Register to be output data from Database
D100 : Page Index Pointer
D110 : Row Index Pointer
D120 : Column Index Pointer
D230 : Final Cell Index Pointer
D1000 : Starting address of 1st Page Database
D1200 : Starting address of 2nd Page Database
D1400 : Starting address of 3rd Page Database
D1600 : Starting address of 4th Page Database
D1800 : Starting address of 5th Page Database

- 148 -
2. Explanation.
When process Data needs to be managed by cell unit, The memory space that data is saved and
loaded to or from 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional database is required. When various tags or
labels of Data are loaded or saved, this is to say, when the management or distribution of good
stock is performed in the PLC logic, we can refer to this logic.
If Input X0 is pressed, data is stored to database by final cell index pointer V that calculates
PAGE, column, row. In this example, data is stored to cell of database corresponding to page 2,
row number 4, column number 11.
If Input X1 is pressed, data is loaded from database by final cell index pointer V that calculates
PAGE, column, row. In this example, data is loaded to D20 from the cell of database
corresponding to page 2, row number 4, column number 11.

- 149 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC Ladder Logic
Application
Data Save/ Sort/ Search for Optimization

1. Ladder Logic example

This ladder logic example is to entry/save/sort/ load data to the data base memory to search
optimized data. Data register of PLC state RAM is used as Data memory space for database that
have 2 dimensional assignment.
The logic above is that Factor datum from D90 to D99 is entered from MMI is to be saved to
PLC memory having starting address D100. At this time, index pointer V is varied by INC
command.

- 150 -
Index Register V is the Pointer of 1st assignment element. D30 Register is the Pointer of 2nd
assignment element.
M80 will be the Save Button after MMI Value Entry.

- 151 -
The Logic above is for discrete control with MMI to sort the saved datum. M81 will be Search
Command Button from MMI, initialize for sorting by triggering of this button coil. D51 is
interlocking pointer to stop the sorting after counting sorted record up to 20 record from
data-base. D55 is interlocking pointer to stop the sorting after counting sorted record up to last
record from data-base.

- 152 -
This logic is that move datum to register from D80 to D89 by 1 record( 10 cell register ) with
starting address D100 from data-base for sorting.

- 153 -
This logic is that move datum to register from D80 to D89 by 1 record( 10 cell register ) with
starting address D100 from data-base for sorting.

- 154 -
At this time, we need to check whether record is within positive and negative tolerance getting
from D70 to D79 from the MMI. For this operation, we make threshold value form this by math
logic.

- 155 -
The positive threshold is made to register D60-D69, The negative threshold is made to register
D40-D49 for comparing with tolerance.

- 156 -
We determine by comparison flag if record placed to buffer from database is within tolerance.
The flags from M90 to M99 are by-pass flag to be selected from MMI for sorting.

- 157 -
When the determined Flag(from M200 to M206) are satisfied, this record is moved to sorted data
area(with starting address D8000).

- 158 -
This logic is for displaying sorted data table to MMI displaying table has 7 row's cells and 8
column cell. For the reason of space limitation of MMI table, we can't display all sorted datum to
MMI table and we should make a Scroll-up(M55), Scroll-down(M59) Key. In this logic, for the
saving area of Record is located from D200 to D299(total 20 records), the interlock is needed
after grasping the point number by comparison command before these flags. As the same way,
the interlock M40 is needed to limit moving operation when the last record saved is moved to
MMI buffer table after sorting operation is ended.

- 159 -
8 records, 800 cells will be moved from the data table with D8000 starting address after sorting
ended to the table with D300 starting address and end address D379.

- 160 -
This is the last part of the logic.

- 161 -
MMI Design Screen

- 162 -
VIII. Application Example for Computer Link Module.

▷ Non-form Communication for Computer Link Module


▷ CPU Direct Access via Computer Link Module
▷ CPU Access via Dedicated MODEM and Computer Link Module
▷ CPU Access via Dial-up MODEM and Computer Link Module
▷ Proface GP577R Touch Screen Access via Computer Link
Module
▷ Fix 32 Access via Computer Link Module
▷ Intouch 5.6 Access via Computer Link Module

- 163 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
Non-form Communication for Computer Link Module

1. Protocol: IA Robot protocol


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. Used message
Test Protocol: ?99TST0123456789@@(CR)(LF)
5. ETC.
(1) Transmission method: Half Duplex type (DTR/DSR Control: Don't use CD Signal)
Cf: DTR/DSR Control or X on/off Control
(2) Need to set at the buffer memory address 10BH

- 164 -
6. Used Ladder logics
Used ladder logics are as bellows ;

- 165 -
- 166 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
CPU Direct Access via Computer Link Module

1. Testing Software :GPPWin


2. Module의 Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. ETC.
Transmission Method: Full Duplex (X on/off Control)
5. Used Ladder logics
- Inserted slot of UC24-R2 : Don't care.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.
- Located station no. : Station 0
- Transmission Setup on Online menu of PC Loader.

- 167 -
PC Side: Com1, 9600 Baud
PLC Side: UC24 RS-232 Module 9600bps, odd parity, 1 stop bit.

6. Schematic Diagram.

Melsec A2SH CPU

C U
P C
U 2
4
GPPWin

- 168 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
CPU Access via Dedicated MODEM and Computer Link Module

1. Testing Software :GPPWin


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. Used MODEM: Dedicated Line MODEM-96-LS-CTS.


5. Used MODEM Setting

- 169 -
6. GPPWin Setting
(1) PC Side; COM1, 9600 bps
(2) PLC Side; 9600 bps, 1 Stop bit, Odd parity, Using Sum-check, 10 sec Time-out delay.
Via UC24, Host Target, Module Unit no. 1.
7. ETC.
- Inserted slot of UC24-R2 : Don't care.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.
- Located station no. : Station 0
8. Schematic Diagram
Melsec A2SH PLC

C U
P C
U 2
4
GPPWin
4 WIRES

MODEM MODEM

COM1

- 170 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
CPU Access via Dialup MODEM and Computer Link Module

1. Testing Software :GPPWin


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. Used MODEM: US Robotics 56k FAX MODEM.


5. Used MODEM Command String: AT&F &D0 &K0 Q1 E0 S0=1 &W

AT : Instructs modem that command follow


&F : Reset modem parameter to factory defaults
&D0 : Ignore DTR( Data Terminal Ready)
&K0 : Disable data compression 9US Robotics modem only)

- 171 -
Q1 : Suppress results code
E0 : Echo off
S0=1 : Set auto answer on 1 ring
&W : Save Settings to Non volatile RAM

6. Settings of Used Dial-up Software PROCOMM

7. GPPWin Setting
(1) PC Side; COM1, 9600 bps
(2) PLC Side; 9600 bps, 1 Stop bit, None parity, Using Sum-check, 15 sec Time-out delay.
Via UC24, Host Target, Module Unit no. 0.
8. ETC.
- Inserted slot of UC24-R2 : Don't care.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.
- Located station no. : Station 0
9. Schematic Diagram

Melsec A2SH PLC


P
W C U
R P C
U 2
S 4
P
GPPWin
Phone Lines

MODEM MODEM

COM1

- 172 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
Proface GP577R Touch Screen Access via Computer Link Module

1. Testing Software : Proface GPP


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. ETC.
Transmission method: Full Duplex (DTR/ER)
5. Used Ladder logics
- Inserted slot of UC24-R2 : Don't care.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.
- Located station no. : Station 0

- 173 -
Melsec A2SH CPU

C U
P C
U 2
4
GP577R

- 174 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
Fix 32 Access via Computer Link Module

1. Testing Software :Fix 32 MMI Software


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. ETC.
Transmission method: None
5. Used Ladder logics
- Inserted slot of UC24-R2 : Don't care.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.
- Located station no. : Station 0

- 175 -
Melsec A2SH CPU

C U
P C
U 2
4
Fix 32

6. Settings up of Fix MMI Software


(1) Set-up installed Mitsubish MelsecA Serial Communication Driver as follows;
Invoke SCU by entering to Application> Configuration.

- 176 -
(2) Confirm Mitsubish Melsec A Communication Driver as follows;

(3) Invoke the MIT Driver and Set-up as I/O Server as follows;

- 177 -
(4) Establish the opening COM1 Serial COMM parameter.

- 178 -
(5) Design and draw as what you want and define MACRO and tag names.

- 179 -
(6) Run "View" task if you confirm the performance.

- 180 -
Mitsubishi Melsec PLC A1SJ71UC24-R2 RS-232C
Application
Intouch 5.6 Access via Computer Link Module

1. Testing Software :Intouch 5.6 MMI Software


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. ETC.
Transmission method: None
5. Used Ladder logics
- Inserted slot of UC24-R2 : Don't care.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.
- Located station no. : Station 0

- 181 -
Melsec A2SH CPU

C U
P C
U 2
4
Intouch

6. Settings up of Intouch 5.6 MMI Software


(1) Invoke Mitsubish MelsecA Serial Communication Driver.
(2) Enter Menu Configure> Port Settings>. And set up Serial Communication
parameter as follows;

(3) Enter again Configure> Topic definition>. And set up I/O Server as follows;

- 182 -
(4) Invoke Window maker. Enter Menu Specials> DDE Access Name>. And setup
parameter as follows;

- 183 -
Appendix

▷ MODICON Concept Version 2.1 PID Simulation Function Block Diagram


▷ Bit Division for MMI Analog tag
▷ SIMATIC TI545 PLC PID Simulation
▷ SIMATIC TI545 PLC vs Intouch 8.0
▷ Modicon E785 PLC vs Intouch 7.1 PID Simulation

- 184 -
MODICON Concept Version 2.1
Application
PID Simulation Function Block Diagram Example

1. Function Block example

2. Description.
The PID function is actually controlling the process simulated by this logic. The process
simulator is comprised of two Lead/Lag function that act as a filter and input to a delay queue
that is also a Concept CLC_PRO function block. This arrangement is the equivalent of a
second-order process with dead time. The solution interval for the DELAY queue is set at
1000ms with a delay of 5 interval-i.e. 5s.
The LLAG Filters each have lead term of 4s and lag terms of 10s. The gain for each is 1.0.

In process control terms the transfer function can be expressed as;


(4s+1)(4s+1) e^-5s
Gp(s)= --------------------
(10s+1)(10s+1)
3. PID parameters.
The PID controller is tuned to control this process at 20.0 using the Ziegler-Nichols tuning
method. The resulting controller gain is 2.16 equivalent to a proportional band of 46.3 percents
The integral time is set at 12.5 s/repeats/min). The derivative time is initially 3s, then reduced to
0.3s to de-emphasize the derivative effect.

- 185 -
Bit Division for MMI Analog tag
by Script Text

Sub Script1()
While 1
Val1 = GetTagVal("WORD1")
if ( Val1 >= 32768 ) then
SetTagVal "PL15", 1
Val1=Val1 - 32768
else
SetTagVal "PL15", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 16384 ) then
SetTagVal "PL14", 1
Val1=Val1 - 16384
else
SetTagVal "PL14", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 8192 ) then
SetTagVal "PL13", 1
Val1=Val1 - 8192
else
SetTagVal "PL13", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 4096 ) then
SetTagVal "PL12", 1
Val1=Val1 - 4096
else
SetTagVal "PL12", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 2048 ) then
SetTagVal "PL11", 1
Val1=Val1 - 2048
else
SetTagVal "PL11", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 1024 ) then
SetTagVal "PL10", 1
Val1=Val1 -1024
else
SetTagVal "PL10", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 512 ) then
SetTagVal "PL9", 1
Val1=Val1 - 512
else
SetTagVal "PL9", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 256 ) then
SetTagVal "PL8", 1
Val1=Val1 - 256
else

- 186 -
SetTagVal "PL8", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 128 ) then
SetTagVal "PL7", 1
Val1=Val1 - 128
else
SetTagVal "PL7", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 64 ) then
SetTagVal "PL6", 1
Val1=Val1 - 64
else
SetTagVal "PL6", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 32 ) then
SetTagVal "PL5", 1
Val1=Val1 - 32
else
SetTagVal "PL5", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 16 ) then
SetTagVal "PL4", 1
Val1=Val1 - 16
else
SetTagVal "PL4", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 8 ) then
SetTagVal "PL3", 1
Val1=Val1 - 8
else
SetTagVal "PL3", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 4 ) then
SetTagVal "PL2", 1
Val1=Val1 - 4
else
SetTagVal "PL2", 0
End if
if ( Val1 >= 2 ) then
SetTagVal "PL1", 1
Val1=Val1 - 2
else
SetTagVal "PL1", 0
End if
if ( Val1 = 1 ) then
SetTagVal "PL0", 1
else
SetTagVal "PL0", 0
End if
Wend
End Sub

- 187 -
SIMATIC TI545 PLC
Application
PID Simulation
1. Used Software

- 188 -
2. PLC Configuration

- 189 -
3. PID Configuration Screen

4. System Function Program.

- 190 -
- 191 -
5. PLC Ladder Diagram

- 192 -
- 193 -
6. PID Status Values.

======== Address Comments ========

V100: LEAD/LAG1 Input of PID Simulator


V200: LEAD/LAG1 Output & LEAD/LAG2 Input of Simulator
V300: LEAD/LAG2 Output of Simulator
V301: 1st 0.1ms Delayed Value
V302: 2nd 0.1ms Delayed Value
V303: 3rd 0.1ms Delayed Value
V304: 4th 0.1ms Delayed Value
V305: 5th 0.1ms Delayed Value
V306: 6th 0.1ms Delayed Value
V310: Integer PV at PID Loop Outside
V320: Integer SP at PID Loop Outside
V340: Integer MV at PID Loop Outside
V312: Engineering PV Value at PID Loop Outside
V322: Engineering SP Value at PID Loop Outside
V342: Engineering MV Value at PID Loop Outside
V090: 1st Set-point Move
V092: 2nd Set-point Move

- 194 -
SIMATIC TI545 PLC vs Intouch 8.0
Application
Communication setup

1. Testing Software :Intouch 8.0 MMI Software


2. Module Dip switch setting:

3. Cable interconnection

4. ETC.

Transmission method: None


Used Ladder logics
- TI545 CPU should be in RUN state.
- There was no ladder logic to be needed for setting up the communication.

TI545 CPU
I
/ T
O I
5
4
5
Intouch

- 195 -
5. Settings up of Intouch
A. Executes TIDIR .EXE and Invoke Settings>Communication Port Settings.

B. Enter menu New, Define "TIPLC" and Set Topic Definition.

C. Set TIDIR Topic Definition.

- 196 -
D. Set menu Server Settings

E. Invoke InTouch Windows maker and enter Main Menu>Specieals. Define "Access
Names".

F. Modify "Access Names". Leave Node Name to blank if system is stand-alone.

- 197 -
G. Make New Tags selecting Access name to "PLC1".

- 198 -
In case of defining Integer Tag, Result is as below.

In case of defining Real Tag, you will add period after following Item number last.
Result is as below.

H. Result of communication between TI545 CPU and Intouch 8.0 through serial cable.

- 199 -
- 200 -
Modicon E785 PLC vs Intouch 7.1
Application
PID Simulation and Communication setup

1. Testing Software :Intouch 7.1 MMI Software MODSOFT V2.6.

2. CPU Port1 communication memory setting:


Address No.: 19,600 bps, RTU 8data bits, 1stop bit, Even parity,

3. Cable interconnection

4. ETC.
Transmission method: None

5. Used Ladder logics


- E785 CPU should be in RUN state.
- There was used PCFL ladder logic to be needed for PID simulation.

Modicon E785 CPU

9
8 I
4 /
- O
E
7
Intouch
8
5

- 201 -
6. Settings up of Intouch
A. Executes MODBUS .EXE and Invoke Settings>Communication Port Settings.

B. Enter menu New, Define "MODBUS" and Set Topic Definition.

- 202 -
C. Set "Server Setting" as belows.

D. Invoke InTouch Windows maker and enter Main Menu>Specials. Define "Access
Names". Leave Node Name to blank if system is stand-alone.

- 203 -
E. Make New Tags selecting Access name to belong to "PLC1".

- 204 -
F. Result of communication between E785 CPU and Intouch 7.1 through serial cable.

- 205 -
7. Setting up PCFL Ladder Logic in E785 for PID Simulation.
A. PCFL Ladder Logic1.

B. PCFL Ladder Logic 2.

- 206 -
C. Lead/Lag PCFL Ladder Logic.

D. Delay PCFL Ladder Logic

- 207 -
E. AOUT PCFL Ladder Logic

- 208 -
F. AIN PCFL Ladder Logic

G. Lookup PCFL Ladder Logic

- 209 -
H. Mode PCFL Ladder Logic

I. Ramp PCFL Ladder Logic

- 210 -
J. AOUT PCFL Ladder Logic

K. PID PCFL Ladder Logic.

- 211 -
J. Used PLC Software MODSOFT V2.6.

- 212 -
If you have any question, feel free contact me as belows
cmsongkr@yahoo.co.kr M.P.: 82-16-236-6416
REMARK:

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REMARK:

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REMARK:

- END -

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