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JBEG8c8BOEHQb, cHU TEGOEH gEGEQUUWMO\XC9 MOQD8MEX8E 8Y IJGLHJMC "JGLH8B8MUBOX8E QSETUWXCY, [M8WUB
^U\BUG8H ^METUHBMOH8HL ^8dEBCE UHMOBGEX8b cOQHU Q GEHOGLXC9 8QYUTU9, BC\CBOE9CE ^UHMEWGEX8E9 B ^8dJ
T8IUMOQHJd8Y [M8WUB. @ QBb\8 Q `H89 BU\X8IGO XEUWYUT89UQHL 8\JcEX8b BU\9UeXUQHE] IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b WUGEE
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@ XOQHUbdE] MOWUHE UWUWdEX 98MUBU] U^CH, QBETEXO 98MUBOb G8HEMOHJMO 8 ^M8BETEXC ME\JGLHOHC
QUWQHBEXXCY 8QQGETUBOX8] ^U IJGLH8B8MUBOX8_ gEXXU[U QSETUWXU[U [M8WO BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] (Pleurotus
ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.), ^UGJc8BDE] B ^UQGETXEE TEQbH8GEH8E D8MUIUE MOQ^MUQHMOXEX8E B QHMOXOY $BMU^C, \88
8 0EBEMXU] 9EM8I8.
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+OMUTXU] .EQ^JWG8IE B QEGLQIUYU\b]QHBEXXU9 IUU^EMOH8BE #JXO ^UT 7JTO^EDHU9, [TE ^MU8\BUT8HQb WUGEE 2
HCQ. H [M8WUB B [UT 8 TUQH8[XJHC YUMUD8E ME\JGLHOHC. @ TOXXU] MOWUHE JcHEX B \XOc8HEGLXU] QHE^EX8 U^CH
IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] B @+..
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BHUMC 8QIMEXXE ^M8\XOHEGLXC T-MJ (. "UMUXg8, T-MJ (. "UMUXg8XE, T-MJ (. 0OWU \O IUXQJGLHOg8_ ^M8
U\XOIU9GEX88 Q QUQHUbX8E9 IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b QSETUWXCY [M8WUB B @+..
7UGLDOb cOQHL fUHU 8 M8QJXIUB, ^M8BETEXXCY B IX8[E, UM8[8XOGLXCE. kOQHL eE \O89QHBUBOXO 8\ MOWUHC
7OGOe, #_MIU, "UMUXg8, "UMUXg8XE, -\UX8XE, 5UH (Balazs, Gyurko, Koronczy, Koronczyne, Uzonyine, Toth,
1973).
4

KPATKAR HCTOPHR KYHBTHBHPOBAHHR C1EOBHBX FPHBOB
PA3PYHTEHEH PEBECHHB
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XO8WUGEE MOQ^MUQHMOXEXXU] IJGLHJMU] B QHMOXOY l[U-@UQHUcXU] \88 bBGbEHQb [M8W D88HOIE Lentinus
edodes (Berk.) Sing. (M8Q. 1), B EQHEQHBEXXCY JQGUB8bY ^MU8\MOQHO_d8] B )^UX88, "8HOE 8 TMJ[8Y QHMOXOY XO
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D88HOIE B )^UX88 QUQHOBGbEH 130 HCQ. , 40% IUHUMCY 8Q^UGL\JEHQb B QBEeE9 B8TE, O 60% B BCQJDEXXU9.
.O\BUTbH L. edodes TU XOQHUbdE[U BME9EX8 XO TMEBEQ8XE, MOQ^8G8BOb XO UHTEGLXCE WMJQI8 ^UBOGEXXCE TGb
`HU] gEG8 TEMEBLb 8 \OMOeOb TMEBEQ8XJ 98gEG8E9 [M8WO. #Gb QU\TOX8b WGO[U^M8bHXCY JQGUB8] TGb MUQHO
98gEG8b WMJQI8 JQHOXOBG8BO_H XOIGUXXU, XOIMCBO_H BEHIO98 8 ^UcBU]. "U[TO 98gEG8] YUMUDU MO\UBLEHQb,
WMJQI8 JQHOXOBG8BO_H B GEQJ; ^EMBCE ^GUTUBCE HEGO ^UbBGb_HQb XO X8Y cEME\ 2 [UTO. +EQ9UHMb XO TMEBXUQHL
IJGLHJMC `HU[U [M8WO, G8DL B ^UQGETXEE TEQbH8GEH8E WCG8 ^MUBETEXC MOWUHC ^U 8\JcEX8_ JMUeO]XUQH8 8
9UMfUGU[8cEQIU] YOMOIHEM8QH8I8 MO\G8cXCY MOQ `HU[U [M8WO (Nagai et al., 1962; g8H. ^U :OM8WUBU], 1971). mH8
8QQGETUBOX8b bBGb_HQb UQXUBU^UGO[O_d898 TGb QEGEIg88 L. edodes 8 MO]UX8MUBOX8b E[U DHO99UB. @
^UQGETXEE BME9b MO\MOWUHOX HOIeE 9EHUT IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b L. edodes B \OIMCHCY ^U9EdEX8bY XO U^8GIOY 8
M8QUBCY UHMJWbY, UWU[OdEXXCY `IQHMOIHU9 QUEBCY WUWUB (M8Q. 2). XOGU[8cXC9 UWMO\U9 D8MUIU
IJGLH8B8MJEHQb B )^UX88 TMJ[U] [M8W Armillaria matsutake Ito et Irnai 7UGLDUE c8QGU B8TUB [M8WUB
QO^MUf8HUB XO TMEBEQ8XE 8\TOBXO IJGLH8B8MJEHQb HOIeE B "8HOE, [TE MOQ^MUQHMOXEXO IJGLHJMO Volvanella
esculenta (Mass) Sing et Smith 8 WG8\IU[U I XE] B8TO V diplasia (Berk. et Br) Sing. @ ^M8MUTXCY JQGUB8bY `H8
[M8WC MO\B8BO_HQb XO ^UcBE, QUTEMeOdE] WUGLDUE IUG8cEQHBU MO\GO[O_d8YQb QJcLEB, ^UQIUGLIJ TGb 8Y
MO\B8H8b XEUWYUT89U ^UBCDEXXUE QUTEMeOX8E IGEHcOHI8 8 G8[X8XO.
(\ TMJ[8Y B8TUB TEMEBUMO\MJDO_d8Y [M8WUB XO #OGLXE9 @UQHUIE ("8HO], "UMEb) XO ^UBOGEXXCY TEMEBLbY
IJGLH8B8MJ_H (JT8XU JYU Aunculana auriculajudae (Fr) Quel (M8Q. >). 2QBUEXU HOIeE BCMOd8BOX8E Armillaria
mellea (Vahl ex Fr) Kumm XO QJWQHMOHE 8\ U^8GUI. #EHOGLXU MO\MOWUHOX 9EHUT IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b Pleurotus
cornucopiae (Pers) Rolland XO M8QUBCY UHMJWbY, U^8GIOY 8 QOYOMXU9 HMUQHX8IE hUGJcEXC ^UGUe8HEGLXCE
ME\JGLHOHC ^M8 ^U^CHIOY IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b GEHXE[U U^EXIO Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Fr) Sing et Smith (M8Q 4).
"OI QUUWdOEH =. @. :OM8WUBO (1971), B 000. B 30-E [UTC $. 0. "G_DX8IUBU] Q QUOBHUMO98 WCG8 ^MUBETEXC
JQ^EDXCE `IQ^EM89EXHC ^U BCMOd8BOX8_ GEHXE[U U^EXIO. @ IOcEQHBE QJWQHMOHO WCG8 8Q^UGL\UBOXC MO\G8cXCE
B8TC TMEBEQ8XC (UQ8XC, UGLY8, WEME\C, QUQXC, EG8). 2HME\I8 TMEBEQ8XC 3035 "$ TG8XU] BC9Oc8BOG8 B BUTE 8
\OMOeOG8 c8QHU] IJGLHJMU] 98gEG8b, IUHUMJ_ BXUQ8G8 B \OMJWI8 8G8 [XE\TO, QTEGOXXCE ^U UIMJeXUQH8 ^UGEXO.
>OHE9 [XE\TO \OIMCBOG8 IUMU] 8G8 TMOXIU], 8 \OMOeEXXC] UHME\UI TMEBEQ8XC ^U9EdOG8 B BEMH8IOGLXU9
^UGUeEX88 B QBEeEBCIU^OXXJ_ b9J XO MOQQHUbX88 0,5 $ UT8X UH TMJ[U[U. #MEBEQ8XJ \OIO^CBOG8 HOI, cHUWC XOT
^UBEMYXUQHL_ \E9G8 UQHOBOGQb UHME\UI TMEBEQ8XC TU 15 "$ BCQUHU]. hUcBJ UW8GLXU JBGOeXbG8, JcOQHI8
^UQC^OG8 QGUE9 U^8GUI TGb J9EXLDEX8b 8Q^OMEX8b BUTC. kEME\ 1 [UT ^UbBGbG8QL ^EMBCE ^GUTUBCE HEGO
GEHXE[U U^EXIO. 2TXOIU GJcD8E ME\JGLHOHC WCG8 ^UGJcEXC XE B UHIMCHU9 [MJXHE, O ^M8 IJGLH8B8MUBOX88 B
\OIMCHCY ^U9EdEX8bY, [TE 9UeXU ME[JG8MUBOHL BGOeXUQHL QJWQHMOHO. hGUTUBCE HEGO B `H8Y JQGUB8bY
^UbBGb_HQb cEME\ 7 9EQbgEB ^UQGE 8XUIJGbg88 TMEBEQ8XC.
hGUTUXUDEX8E ^MU8QYUT8H 2 MO\O B [UT B XOcOGE GEHO 8 UQEXL_. -MUeO]XUQHL HOIU] IJGLHJMC BCQUIOb,
HOI IOI Q UHTEGLXCY UHME\IUB TMEBEQ8XC QUW8MOG8 TU 6 %& [M8WUB \O UTXU ^GUTUXUDEX8E. (XUIJG8MUBOXXCE
UHME\I8 TMEBEQ8XC 9U[JH ^GUTUXUQ8HL 23 [UTO; ". mutabilis XE^M8YUHG8B I QJWQHMOHJ 8 YUMUDU MOQHEH XO
1UZ. 1 0HMKMVlR \RH] gPUf] WUU\]XR (Lentinus
edodes Berk.) Sign.) T] OTL` HUZ\VRTTl` KRPRVqRV.
1UZ. 2 0HMKMVlR \RH] gPUf] WUU\]XR (Lentinos
edodes (Berk.) Sing.) T] MOUHX]` U PUZMVl`
M\PdfL`, MfMg]_RTTl` nXZ\P]X\Mi ZMRVl` fMfMV.
5
TMEBEQ8XE MO\G8cXCY TMEBEQXCY ^UMUT. "JGLHJMJ GEHXE[U U^EXIO
9UeXU 8Q^UGL\UBOHL TGb 8QIJQQHBEXXU[U \OMOeEX8b ^XE] XO
GEQUQEIOY, cHU 89EEH \XOcEX8E TGb GEQXU[U YU\b]QHBO. @ ME\JGLHOHE
`HU[U XOMbTJ Q ^UGJcEX8E9 JMUeOb [M8WUB WJTEH ^MU8QYUT8HL
^UQHE^EXXUE W8UGU[8cEQIUE MO\MJDEX8E ^XE]. 0^UQUW
IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b K. mutabilis XO TMEBEQ8XE, OXOGU[8cXC] U^8QOXXU9J BCDE, TEHOGLXU MO\MOWUHOX 8
UQJdEQHBGEX B ^MU9CDGEXXCY 9OQDHOWOY B :#. (Luthardt, 1969). hU 9EHUTJ =_HYOMTO GEHX8] U^EXUI
BCMOd8BO_H 8 B k00.*.
@ QHMOXOY $BMU^C 8 0EBEMXU] 9EM8I8 B ^UQGETXEE TEQbH8GEH8E XO8WUGLDEE MOQ^MUQHMOXEX8E 8\ XOTMEBXCY
QO^MUf8HUB ^UGJc8GO IJGLHJMO BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] (Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.). hEMBCE U^CHC ^U
IJGLH8B8MUBOX8_ BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] WCG8 ^MUBETEXC B :EM9OX88 oOGLIU9 (Faick, 1917). @U BME9b I
98MUBU] BU]XC BEDEXIJ UWCIXUBEXXJ_ JQ8GEXXU IJGLH8B8MUBOG8 IOI TU^UGX8HEGLXC] 8QHUcX8I ^8HOX8b.
@CMOd8BOX8E ^MUBUT8G8 `IQHEXQ8BXC9 Q^UQUWU9: UHME\I8 TMEBEQ8XC \OMOeOG8 98gEG8E9 8 QUW8MOG8 B HEcEX8E
MbTO GEH JMUeO], ^UIO UHME\I8 XE MO\MJDOG8QL. hUQGE UIUXcOX8b I 98MUBU] BU]XC 8XHEMEQ I IJGLHJME BEDEXI8
UWCIXUBEXXU] UQGOW, 8 BCMOd8BOX8E EE ^MUBUT8GUQL B XEWUGLD8Y 9OQDHOWOY. ( G8DL Q 60-Y [UTUB B QBb\8 Q
^UbBGEX8E9 B @EX[M88 IMJ^XU[U ^MU9CDGEXXU[U ^MU8\BUTQHBO BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] XO 98MUBU9 MCXIE
^UbB8GQb Q^MUQ XO `HUH [M8W. 0E]cOQ BEDEXIJ UWCIXUBEXXJ_ IJGLH8B8MJ_H B @EX[M88, :#., o.:, 0p,
oMOXg88, (HOG88, hUGLDE, BQHM88, :UGGOXT88, pBE]gOM88 (Balazs et al., 1973; Ferri, 1970; Laborde, Delmas,
1974; Leiley, 1972, 1974; Pegeri, 1973; Schmaus, 1972; Steineck, 1973; Szudyga, 1973).
@ @+. JQHOXUBGEXU, cHU BEDEXIJ UWCIXUBEXXJ_ 9UeXU BCMOd8BOHL XO UQGOWGEXXCY TEMEBLbY ^JHE9
\OMOeEX8b 8Y EE 98gEG8E9 (Vessey, Toth, 1968; Vessey, 1969). 2IO\OGUQL, cHU XO8WUGEE ^M8[UTXC TGb MO\B8H8b
[M8WO HU^UGL 8 [MOW. " IUXgJ 60-Y [UTUB WCG \XOc8HEGLXU MOQ^MUQHMOXEX 9EHUT BCMOd8BOX8b BEDEXI8 B
^MU9CDGEXXU9 9OQDHOWE XO UHME\IOY (^XbY) (Luthardt, 1956; Vessey, 1969; Felbinger, 1973) #Gb `HU[U
8Q^UGL\J_H QMJWGEXXCE (\O 12 9EQbgO TU 8Q^UGL\UBOX8b) UHME\I8 QHBUGUB. #Gb UWEQ^EcEX8b XEUWYUT89U] TGb
MO\B8H8b 98gEG8b [M8WO BGOeXUQH8 TMEBEQ8XJ BC9Oc8BO_H B BUTE 12 TXb. kEME\ 12 9EQbgO ^UQGE
8XUIJGbg88 98gEG8] ^UGXUQHL_ ^MUX8\CBOEH QJWQHMOH. hUT[UHUBGEXXCE HOI89 UWMO\U9 UHME\I8 TMEBEQ8XC
^EMEXUQbH B IUXgE GEHO XO ^GOXHOg8_, MOQ^UGO[Ob 8Y XO MOQQHUbX88 2025 "$ TMJ[ UH TMJ[O, \OIO^CBOb XO 1/3 B
\E9G_. +O8WUGEE ^M8[UTXC TGb BCMOd8BOX8b BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] \OHEXEXXCE ^GOXHOg88, \Od8dEXXCE UH
^Mb9CY QUGXEcXCY GJcE]. hM8 HOIU] IJGLHJME 1 ' TMEBEQ8XC TOEH B QMETXE9 UIUGU 20 %& [M8WUB, ^M8cE9
XO8BCQD8] JMUeO] XO HMEHLE9 [UTJ BCMOd8BOX8b (Vessey, 1969).
(\BEQHEX 9EHUT BCMOd8BOX8b BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] XO QHBUGOY TEMEBLEB B HMOXDEbY (Masriera, 1970).
hU\TXE] UQEXL_ 8G8 \89U] UQGOWGEXXCE TEMEBLb (TG8XU] 120 "$, U^METEGEXXU[U T8O9EHMO) Q^8G8BO_H 8
JIGOTCBO_H B GEQJ, XOIMCBOb G8QHLb98 8G8 QUGU9U] TGb QUYMOXEX8b BGOeXUQH8 I 9U9EXHJ 8XUIJGbg88. @EQXU]
QHBUGC JIGOTCBO_H B HMOXDE8 8 ^MUBUTbH 8XUIJGbg8_. @ ^EM8UT ^M8e8BOE9UQH8 98gEG8b 34 9EQbgO
HMOXDEb TUGeXO WCHL \Od8dEXO UH ^Mb9CY QUGXEcXCY GJcE]. @ UIHbWME XUbWME QUW8MO_H JMUeO],
^UBCDEXXOb JMUeO]XUQHL UH9EcEXO XO BHUMU9 [UTJ IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b, XO HMEHLE9 [UTJ UXO \XOc8HEGLXU
QX8eOEHQb.
@ ^UQGETX8E [UTC BEX[EMQI898 JcEXC98 (Balazs, Gyurko, Koronczy, Koronczyne, Uzonyine, Toth, 1974)
MO\MOWUHOX 8XHEXQ8BXC] 9EHUT BCMOd8BOX8b BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] B IJGLH8BOg8UXXCY ^U9EdEX8bY B
HEcEX8E BQE[U [UTO XO Q^Eg8OGLXU9 QJWQHMOHE. #Gb IJGLHJMC 8Q^UGL\J_H gEGG_GU\XJ_ QMETJ, QUTEMeOdJ_
QHEMeX8 ^UcOHIUB 8G8 QHEWG8 IJIJMJ\C, QUGU9J, U^8GI8, UHMJW8 8 TMJ[8E 9OHEM8OGC. #Gb UWU[OdEX8b QMETC B
\OB8Q89UQH8 UH MEgE^HJMC TUWOBGb_H QUGUTUBCE MUQHI8, IMOY9OGLXJ_ 9JIJ, 9JIJ 8\ QE9bX YGU^cOHX8IO,
QUEBJ_ 9JIJ, IUQHXJ_ 9JIJ, QOYOMU\J 8 H. T. (\ HOIU] QMETC, IUHUMOb UWCcXU ^UTBEM[OEHQb ^OQHEM8\Og88,

* @ XOQHUbdEE BME9b QUBEMDEXQHBUBOX8E IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b ". mutabilis UQJdEQHBGbEH [MJ^^O, MJIUBUT89Ob
^MUf. +. (. oETUMUBC9 B 7EGUMJQQIU9 HEYXUGU[8cEQIU9 8XQH8HJHE.
1UZ. 3 0HMKMVlR \RH] U ZOMPl gPUf] 4dKUTM d`M (Auricularia
auricula-judae (Fr.) Quel.), XdHq\UVUPdRiMgM T] OMV]HRTTl`
KRPRVqL`.
1UZ. 4 0HMKMVlR \RH] U ZOMPl HR\TRgM
(Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Vahl. ex Fr.)
Kumm.), XdHq\UVUPdRiMgM T]
P]YHUJTl` VUK]` KPRVRZUTl.
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BCQOe8BO_H 98gEG8]. 2^H89OGLXOb HE9^EMOHJMO TGb MO\B8H8b 98gEG8b 2225C. hM89EMXU cEME\ 3 XETEG8
98gEG8] [JQHU ^MUX8\CBOEH QMETJ, ^UQGE `HU[U HE9^EMOHJMJ ^UX8eO_H 8 ^M8 ^UbBGEX88 \OcOHIUB ^GUTUBCY HEG
UWEQ^Ec8BO_H TUQHOHUcXUE UQBEdEX8E. hUQGETXEE \OB8Q8H UH BME9EX8 [UTO, 8QHUcX8IO QBEHO 8 `XEM[88. "OI
^MOB8GU, 8Q^UGL\J_H G_98XEQgEXHXC] QBEH, XO^M89EM G_98XEQgEXHXCE GO9^C TXEBXU[U QBEHO, ^UQIUGLIJ
BEDEXIO ^UGUe8HEGLXU MEO[8MJEH XO TXEBXU] QBEH, IMU9E HU[U, `H8 GO9^C XE ^UTU[MEBO_H BU\TJY B ^U9EdEX88.
#Gb MO\B8H8b ^GUTUBCY HEG BOeXUE \XOcEX8E 89EEH BGOeXUQHL BU\TJYO 8 QJWQHMOHO.
@U oMOXg88 B XOJcXU-8QQGETUBOHEGLQIU] QHOXg88 7UMTU JQ^EDXU 8QQGETJEHQb 8Q^UGL\UBOX8E IUMC TEMEBLEB
8 [UMUTQI8Y UHYUTUB TGb BCMOd8BOX8b P. Ostreatus. mHU ^U\BUG8H BCMOd8BOHL B WJTJdE9 8 TMJ[8E B8TC [M8WUB
XO XUBCY UQXUBOY 8 UTXUBME9EXXU MED8HL ^MUWGE9J Uc8QHI8 UIMJeO_dE] QMETC UH WCHUBCY \O[Mb\XEX8]
^JHE9 W8UGU[8cEQIU[U JX8cHUeEX8b ^MU9CDGEXXCY 8 [UMUTQI8Y UHYUTUB (Delmas, 1973, Delmas et al, 1974).
XOGU[8cXU BEDEXIE UWCIXUBEXXU] IJGLH8B8MJ_H HOIeE Pleurotus floridae Fovose, IUHUMC] UWMO\JEH ^GUTUBCE
HEGO ^M8 WUGEE BCQUI8Y HE9^EMOHJMOY.
>89X8] [M8W (Frammulina velutipes (Curt. ex Fr.) Sing.), ^MU8\MOQHO_d8] XO BQEY IUXH8XEXHOY \E9XU[U DOMO
XO TMEBEQ8XE MO\G8cXCY MOQHEX8], D8MUIU IJGLH8B8MJEHQb B )^UX88 8 XO U-BE 5O]BOXL (M8Q. 5). #Gb IJGLHJMC
8Q^UGL\J_H XE WUGLD8E QUQJTC, [M8WC BU BME9b QWUMO QX89O_H ^JcIO98. @ :UGGOXT88 WCG8 HOI eE ^MUBETEXC
U^CHC ^U IJGLH8B8MUBOX8_ F. velutipes, GJcD8E ME\JGLHOHC ^UGJcEXC ^M8 8Q^UGL\UBOX88 QMETC, QUTEMeOdE]
70% U^8GUI 8 30% M8QUBCY UHMJWE] ^M8 pH 5,6. hM8 HE9^EMOHJME 25C UH9EcEXU YUMUDEE MO\B8H8E 98gEG8b.
hUQGE ^MUMOQHOX8b Q^UM HE9^EMOHJMJ B QMETE QX8eOG8 TU 15C. 0WUM JMUeOb XOc8XOEHQb cEME\ 23 XETEG8.
+O YBU]XCY TEMEBLbY, UQUWEXXU XO EG8, MOQHEH U^EXUI QEMXC] (Naematoloma copnoides (Fr.) Karst), IUHUMC]
UWMO\JEH ^GUTUBCE HEGO MOXXE] BEQXU] 8 Q QEMET8XC QEXHbWMb ^U XUbWML @8HH (Witt, 1945), @8HH 8 :EXX8X[
(Witt, Henning, 1956) MEIU9EXTJ_H `HUH QSETUWXC] [M8W BCMOd8BOHL XO QHBUGOY EG8. - UQXUBOX8b QHOMCY QUQEX
9UeXU BQHMEH8HL [M8W-WOMOX (Sparassis crispa (Fr.) Fr.), IUHUMC] HOIeE 9UeXU BCMOd8BOHL XO TMEBEQ8XE YBU]XCY
MOQHEX8] (M8Q 6).


CHCTEMATHKA, MOP4OHOFHR, DKOHOFHR H BHOHOFHR BEEHKH
OBBKHOBEHHOH
@EDEXIO UWCIXUBEXXOb (Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.) UHXUQ8HQb I IGOQQJ Basidiomycetes ^UMbTIO
Agaricales QE9E]QHBO Polyporaceae (Singer, 1975).
"OI UH9EcOEH =. @. &8YO]GUBQI8] (1974), B Systema mycologicum m. oM8\O (Fries, 1821) ^M8BETEXU HM8
WG8\I8Y B8TO BEDEXUI: Agaricus ostreatus, A. salignus 8 A. pulmonarius Q XEIUHUMC98 8Y fUM9O98. @
^UQGETJ_d8Y MOWUHOY (Fries, 18361838, 1874) J^U98XO_HQb HE eE HM8 B8TO, XU U^8QOX8b TU^UGXEXC XUBC98
^M8\XOIO98 8 UH9EcEXO D8MUIOb 8\9EXc8BUQHL gBEHO 8 fUM9C 8Y IOM^UfUMUB. @ 1874 [. m. oM8\ BCTEG8G EdE
cEHBEMHC] B8T A. cornucopioides, UHXUQbd8]Qb I `HU] [MJ^^E.
"J99EM (Kummer, 1871) ^EMEBEG A. ostreatus 8 A. salignus B MUT Pleurotus. h8GOH (Pilat, 1935, 1951)
UH9EcEXXCE cEHCME B8TO UWSET8X8G B UT8X Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm. Q BUQL9L_ fUM9O98. 2TXOIU
fUM9C, ^METGUeEXXCE h8GOHU9, XE WCG8 ^M8\XOXC 98IUGU[O98, ^UQIUGLIJ ^M8\XOI8 8Y B ^M8MUTE ^METEGLXU
1UZ. 5 0HMKMVlR \RH] U ZOMPl YUiTUgM gPUf]
(Flammulina velutipes (Curt. Ex Fr.) Sing.)
1UZ. 6 0HMKMVlR \RH] U ZOMPl gPUf]-
f]P]T] (Sparassis crispa (Fr.) Fr.),
XdHq\UVUPdRiMgM T] KPRVRZUTR `VMmTl`
P]Z\RTUm.
7
^UG89UMfXC, BOM8OWEGLXC 8 UcEXL 8\9EXb_HQb B \OB8Q89UQH8 UH QJWQHMOHO 8 BXEDX8Y JQGUB8]. >8X[EM (1951,
1962 1975) `H8 B8TC MOQQ9OHM8BOEH IOI UT8X B8T Pleurotus ostreatus. #EXX8Q, 2MHUX 8 ;UMO (Dennis, Orton O.
Hora, 1960) `HUH B8T QXUBO MO\SET8Xb_H XO HM8: .. ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm., .. pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. 8 ..
cornucopiae (Pers.) Rolland, a P. salignus (Fr.) Kumm. ^EMEBUTbH B Q8XUX89 .. ostreatus. +OIUXEg &U\EM (Moser,
1967) `H8 B8TC ^METQHOB8G IOI .. ostreatus Q TBJ9b MO\XUB8TXUQHb98 (-var. salignus 8 -var. pulmonarius) 8 ..
cornucopiae.
@ UHEcEQHBEXXU] G8HEMOHJME HUeE ^U-MO\XU9J ^UX89O_HQb B8TC BEDEXUI 8\ MUTQHBO .. ostreatus. 7. h.
@OQ8GLIUB (1948) QBEHGUUIMODEXXCE BEDEXI8 Qc8HOG TBJ9b MO\XUB8TXUQHb98 .. ostreatus var. pulmonarius 8
var. cornucopiae, O HE9XUUIMODEXXCE UTX89 B8TU9 .. salignus. :. (. 0EMeOX8XO (1967) ^M8BEGO U^8QOX8E TBJY
B8TUB: .. ostreatus 8 .. salignus. =. @. @OQ8GLEBO (1971), QJTb ^U U^8QOX8_, UWSET8X8GO [M8WC Q ^M8\XOIO98 ..
salignus 8 .. pulmonarius B UT8X .. ostreatus. &. ). >EMUBO (1963, 1970), &. ). >EMUBO 8 0. h. @OQQEM (1972)
XO\BOX8b .. pulmonaruis, P. salignus 8 .. cornucopiae ^M8BUTbH B IOcEQHBE Q8XUX89UB .. ostreatus. =. @.
&8YO]GUBQI8] (1974) B HdOHEGLXU9 OXOG8\E B8TUB MUTO BEDEXIO 8\ MUTQHBO .. ostreatus ^M8\XOEH IOI YUMUD8E
B8TC .. otsreatus, P. pulmonarius, P. cornucopiae 8 .. citrinopileatus, a P. salignus MOQQ9OHM8BOEH IOI Q8XUX89 ..
ostreatus.
5OIUE ^UGUeEX8E B ^UX89OX88 B8TUB BEDEXUI 8\ MUTQHBO .. ostreatus, ^MU8\MOQHO_d8Y B 000., ^UWJeTOEH
XOQ ^M8BEQH8 IG_c TGb 8Y U^METEGEX8b, ^UQIUGLIJ ^M8 IJGLH8B8MUBOX88 BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] XEUWYUT89U
\XOHL ^METEGC BOML8MUBOX8b B8TO B EQHEQHBEXXCY JQGUB8bY.

Knmu pnn onpepeneuun nupon nemeuok us popc1na Pleurotus ostreatus,
npouspac1ammux n CCCP*

1 pGb^IO BC^JIGOb, MOIUB8XU-, JYU-, b\CIUB8TXOb, HE9XU- 8G8 QBEHGUUIMODEXXOb.
+UeIO WUIUBOb 8G8 `IQgEXHM8cEQIOb, IUMUHIOb, 8XU[TO UHQJHQHBJEH
2
1O pGb^IO BUMUXIUB8TXU-BTOBGEXXOb, QBEHGUUIMODEXXOb. +UeIO gEXHMOGLXOb 8G8
`IQgEXHM8cEQIOb, IUMUHIOb
3
2 pGb^IO 515 (30) "$ B T8O9EHME, [GOTIOb, [UGOb, HE9XUUIMODEXXOb, QEMOb, QEMU-
WJMOb, cEMXUBOHU-WJMOb, cOQHU Q WUGEE 8G8 9EXEE Q8\UBOHC9 UHHEXIU9, 8XU[TO ^M8
#G8HEGLXU9 ^MU8\MOQHOX88 BU BGOeXCY JQGUB8bY Q WEGUBOHC9 98gEG8OGLXC9
XOGEHU9. hGOQH8XI8 QEMUBOHU-WEGCE, WUGEE 8G8 9EXEE X8\WE[O_d8E, cOQHU TU
UQXUBOX8b XUeI8, BX8\J XEMETIU Q OXOQHU9U\O98. &bIUHL WEGOb, J 9UGUTCY
IOM^UfUMUB QUcXOb, Q BU\MOQHU9 BUGUIX8QHOb, Q \O^OYU9 UHQCMEBDE] 9JI8. 0^UMC
(7) 811 (14) X (3) 3,54,5 (5) $%$, g8G8XTM8cEQI8E, JTG8XEXXU-b]gEB8TXCE.
:M8W UWMO\JEH QMUQHI8 TU 30 8 WUGEE IOM^UfUMUB. kOdE BQE[U XO WJIE, HU^UGE,
UQ8XE, MEeE XO TMJ[8Y G8QHBEXXCY 8 YBU]XCY MOQHEX8bY.
.. ostreatus (Fr.)
Kumm.

* "G_c QUQHOBGEX [GOBXC9 UWMO\U9 XO UQXUBOX88 MOWUHC =. @. &8YO]GUBQIU[U (1974).
CRZ\M PMK] Pleurotus V ZUZ\RiR gPUfMV
2HTEG Mycophyta IGOQQ Phycomycetes
IGOQQ Ascomycetes
IGOQQ Basidiomycetes
IGOQQ Fungi imperfecti
hUMbTUI: Agaricales
Polyporaceae
MUT
Pleurotus
8
2O pGb^IO 310 "$ B T8O9EHME, QBEHGUUIMODEXXOb, WGETXU-UYM8QHOb, eEGHUBOHOb 8G8
^UcH8 WEGOb. hGOQH8XI8 QEMUBOHU-WEGCE, WUGEE 8G8 9EXEE 8\WE[O_d8E, WE\
OXOQHU9U\UB 8G8 eE UX8 BQHMEcO_HQb IMO]XE METIU. &bIUHL Q ^M8bHXC9 \O^OYU9.
0^UMC (7) 811 (12) X 3,34,5 $%$, g8G8XTM8cEQI8E, JTG8XEXXU-b]gEB8TXCE.
kOdE BQE[U XO WEME\E, MEeE XO TMJ[8Y G8QHBEXXCY 8 YBU]XCY MOQHEX8bY.
.. pulmonaris (Fr.)
Quel.
3 pGb^IO 410 (12) "$ B T8O9EHME, UYM8QHU-QEMUBOHOb, BCgBEHO_dOb TU WEGU].
hGOQH8XI8 WEGUBOHCE, Q BU\MOQHU9 [Mb\XU-eEGHUBOHCE, HEQXU MOQ^UGUeEXXCE,
X8\WE[O_d8E, UWMO\J_H J UQXUBOX8b QEHUcIJ, 8\METIO UXO UHQJHQHBJEH. &bIUHL
WEGUBOHU-QEMUBOHOb, Q \O^OYU9 UHQCMEBDE] 9JI8. 0^UMC 811 X 3,55 $%$,
g8G8XTM8cEQI8E, QGE[IO UBOGLXCE, JTG8XEXXU-b]gEB8TXCE. +O 8GL9UBCY, TJWE,
f8QHODIE 8 TMJ[8Y G8QHBEXXCY MOQHEX8bY.
.. cornucopiae
(Pers.) Rolland.
3O pGb^IO 46 (10) "$, IME9UBOHU-eEGHOb, G89UXXU-eEGHOb 8G8 eEGHOb, ^U\TXEE
BCgBEHOEH. hGOQH8XI8 cOQHCE, J\I8E, MU\UBOHCE, X8\WE[O_d8E Q OXOQHU9U\O98.
0^UMC 78 X 33,5 $%$, g8G8XTM8cEQI8E. &bIUHL WEGUBOHU-eEGHUBOHOb, WE\
UQUWU[U \O^OYO. "OI ^MOB8GU, XO 8GL9UBCY, MEeE XO TMJ[8Y G8QHBEXXCY MOQHEX8bY.
@ 000. 8\BEQHEX G8DL Q _[O #OGLXE[U @UQHUIO.
.. citrinopileatus
(Sing.) Sing.

RWRTX] MflXTMVRTT]L Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm. (M8Q. 79) (P. salignus (Fr.) Kumm., P. ostreatus
var. salignus (Fr.) Konr. et Maubl., P. revolutus (Kickx.) Gill., P. columbinus Quel, ap. Bres., P. ostreatus var.
columbinus (Quel.) Quel.).

hG U T U B C E H EGO UWMO\J_H UWCcXU WUGEE 8G8 9EXEE IU9^OIHXCE QMUQHI8 IOM^UfUMUB, B IUHUMCY
^UQGETX8E MOQ^UGO[O_HQb cEME^8gEUWMO\XU TMJ[ XOT TMJ[U9 8G8 MbTU9 WE\ IOIU]-G8WU JGUB89U]
\OIUXU9EMXUQH8, B IUG8cEQHBE UH XEQIUGLI8Y TU 30 `I\E9^GbMUB, 8\METIO ET8X8cXC98 `I\E9^GbMO98. +O
YOMOIHEM QMUQHIO \XOc8HEGLXU BG8bEH f8\8cEQIUE QUQHUbX8E QJWQHMOHO (QHMJIHJMO, ^GUHXUQHL 8 BGOeXUQHL
TMEBEQ8XC). $QG8 TMEBEQ8XO UcEXL MO\GUe8BDObQb, MCYGOb, YUMUDU XOQCdEXXOb BUTU], [M8WC UWMO\J_H
^GUHXUE IGJWXEB8TXUE UQXUBOX8E, UH IUHUMU[U ^JcIU9 UHYUTbH QMOBX8HEGLXU TG8XXCE, MOQD8Mb_d8EQb IBEMYJ
XUeI8. hM8 `HU9 UQXUBXOb 9OQQO IOM^UfUMO (TU 3/4 E[U UWSE9O) QUQMETUHUc8BOEHQb B XUeIE. "U[TO [M8WC
^MU8\MOQHO_H XO ^GUHXU], QGOWU MO\GUe8BDE]Qb TMEBEQ8XE, 8Q^UGL\Jb TGb MUQHO QGJcO]XCE dEG8 8
XOTHMEQXJHUQH8, UX8 UWMO\J_H ET8X8cXCE ^GUTUBCE HEGO 8G8 cOdE BQE[U WUGLD8E QMUQHI8 Q cEME^8gEUWMO\XC9
MOQ^UGUeEX8E9 DGb^UI. 2QXUBXOb 9OQQO IOM^UfUMO HE^EML QUQMETUHUc8BOEHQb, XE B XUeIE, O B DGb^IE.
pG b ^ I O 530 Q9 B T8O9EHME, WUGEE 8G8 9EXEE BC^JIGOb, XE^MOB8GLXU UIMJ[GOb, b\CIU-, JYUB8TXOb,
MOIUB8XUB8TXOb, [GOTIOb, [UGOb, BUGUIX8QHOb, 8XU[TO Q WEGUBOHC9 98gEG8OGLXC9 XOGEHU9, B XOcOGE MO\B8H8b
HE9XUUIMODEXXOb, ^U\eE QEMOb, QEMU-WJMOb, QEMU-IUM8cXEBOHOb, cOQHU Q Q8\UBOHC9 UHHEXIU9, B gEXHME
BCgBEHO_dOb.
hG O Q H 8 X I 8 WEGCE 8G8 WEGUBOHCE, MUBXCE, WUGEE 8G8 9EXEE HEQXU MOQ^UGUeEXXCE, B WUGLDE] 8G8
9EXLDE] QHE^EX8 X8\WE[O_d8E XO XUeIJ. - 9XU[8Y `I\E9^GbMUB, UQUWEXXU BCMUQD8Y B JQGUB8bY YUMUDE]
UWEQ^EcEXXUQH8 BUTU], B UQXUBOX88 ^GOQH8XUI cOQHU XOWG_TO_HQb OXOQHU9U\C (&8YO]GUBQI8], 1974).
+U eI O 28Y23 "$, `IQgEXHM8cEQIOb, WEGO ^GUHXOb, B UQXUBOX88 cOQHU BUGUQ8QHOb. kOQHU XOMbTJ YUMUDU
MO\B8HU], QMOBX8HEGLXU TG8XXU] XUeIU] BQHMEcO_HQb `I\E9^GbMC, 89E_d8E WUIUBJ_, EGE \O9EHXU XUeIJ,
1UZ. 7. 0HMKMVlR \RH] VRWRTXU MflXTMVRTTMm
(Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.), RZ\RZ\VRTTM
OPMUYP]Z\]I_UR T] OTR fdX].
1UZ. 8. 0HMKMVlR \RH] VRWRTXU MflXTMVRTTMm
(Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.), VlP]_RTTlR T] OTR
HUZ\VRTTMgM KRPRV].
9
8XU[TO UXO BUBQE UHQJHQHBJEH. @EMUbHXU, `HU QB8TEHEGLQHBJEH U ^GOQH8cXU] OTO^HOg88 TOXXU[U [M8WO
IUXIMEHXC9 JQGUB8b9 ^MU8\MOQHOX8b (&8YO]GUBQI8], 1974). @UGUQ8QHUQHL UQXUBOX8b XUeI8, IOI 8 UHQJHQHB8E
EE, XE JTOEHQb UWSbQX8HL `IUGU[8cEQI898 fOIHUMO98.
&b I U H L WEGOb, ^M8 OBHUUIQ8TOg88 XE 8\9EXbEHQb, QUcXOb, 9b[IOb, Q BU\MOQHU9 QHOXUB8HQb XE9XU[U
eEQHIUBOHU] 8 BUGUIX8QHU], O B XUeIE TOeE ^MUWIUB8TXU], Q \O^OYU9 UHQCMEBDE] 9JI8.
0 ^ U M U B C ] ^ U M U DU I WEGC] Q G8GUBC9 UHHEXIU9.
0 ^ U M C (7) 811 (14) X (3) 3,54,5 (5) $%$, g8G8XTM8cEQI8E, JTG8XEXXU-b]gEB8TXCE, [GOTI8E.
5PMXU OHMKMTMWRTUL. +O HEMM8HUM88 000. .. ostreatus ^GUTUXUQ8H Q 8_Xb ^U TEIOWML (M8Q. 10). @ _[U-
BUQHUcXCY MO]UXOY 0METXE] \88 ^M8 WGO[U^M8bHXCY TGb MUQHO [M8WUB 9EHEUMUGU[8cEQI8Y JQGUB8bY \89C
XOWG_TOEHQb MO\B8H8E IOM^UfUMUB EdE 8 B O^MEGE 9OE, TU XOQHJ^GEX8b eOMIU[U GEHXE[U ^EM8UTO. &OQQUBUE
(XE UWdEE) ^UbBGEX8E IOM^UfUMUB UHXUQ8HQb I UIHbWM_ Q UHIGUXEX8E9 XO 9EQbg B HJ 8G8 TMJ[J_ QHUMUXJ, IU[TO
QHOXUB8HQb ^MUYGOTXU 8 BU\9UeXC TOeE IMOHIUBME9EXXCE \O9UMU\I8.
5dfZ\P]\ TMEBEQXCE MOQHEX8b. @EDEXIO UWCIXUBEXXOb ^MU8\MOQHOEH XO ^XbY, BOGEeE, UQGOWGEXXCY 8
9EMHBCY QHUbc8Y TEMEBLbY, QJYUWUc8XOY, WMEBXOY, IUGUTOY 8 ^MUc8Y TMEBEQXCY QJWQHMOHOY. @EDEXIO
UWCIXUBEXXOb ^MET^Uc8HOEH G8QHBEXXCE MOQHEX8b, UTXOIU ^MU8\MOQHOEH 8 XO YBU]XCY.
1UZ. 9. RWRTX] MflXTMVRTT]L Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.:
"$%'%()* ,*$; . /"%1); ( .34'44; 6 647) ,18); ' 9$*8*:,)
;<,4;<$) >$?";4.
1UZ. 10. 5PMXU OHMKMTMWRTUL
VRWRTXU MflXTMVRTTMm
(Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.)
V 5551 (OM CU`]mHMVZXMid,
1974).
1UZ. 11. 1]ZOPMZ\P]TRTUR VRWRTXU MflXTMVRTTMm (Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm.) V
5551 (OM CU`]mHMVZXMid, 1974; Z KMOMHTRTULiU ]V\MPMV).
10
?RMgP]rUJRZXMR P]ZOPMZ\P]TRTUR. "UQ9U^UG8H. @QHMEcOEHQb XO BQEY IUXH8XEXHOY \E9XU[U DOMO, IMU9E
XHOMIH8TC. @ 000. 8\BEQHXO 8\ MIH8I8, EBMU^E]QIU] cOQH8, "OBIO\O, >O^OTXU] 8 @UQHUcXU] 08W8M8,
#OGLXE[U @UQHUIO, 0METXE] \88 (M8Q. 11).
@ EQHEQHBEXXCY JQGUB8bY BEDEXIO UWCIXUBEXXOb ^UQEGbEHQb XO UQGOWGEXXU] 8G8 9EMHBU] TMEBEQ8XE B
UQXUBXU9 IOI QO^MUf8H. 2^H89OGLXOb HE9^EMOHJMO TGb MUQHO 98gEG8b BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] 2627C. hM8
HE9^EMOHJME BCDE 30C MUQH EE ^MEIMOdOEHQb, ^M8 HE9^EMOHJME X8eE U^H89OGLXU] MUQH 8TEH 9ETGEXXU, O ^M8
5C ^MEIMOdOEHQb. #Gb MO\XCY fO\ e8\XEXXU[U g8IGO BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] XEUWYUT89O MO\G8cXOb
U^H89OGLXOb HE9^EMOHJMO: TGb MUQHO 98gEG8b 2627C, TGb fUM98MUBOX8b MUQHO ^GUTUBCY HEG 1415C. @
^MUH8BU^UGUeXUQHL WUGLD8XQHBJ BCQD8Y WO\8T8U98gEHUB BEDEXIO UWCIXUBEXXOb YUMUDU ^EMEXUQ8H
\O9UMU\I8. 0 XOQHJ^GEX8E9 \O9UMU\IUB ^GUTUBCE HEGO BEDEXI8 ^MEIMOdO_H MUQH, HBEMTE_H, O ^UQGE UHHE^EG8
8Y MUQH 9UeEH ^MUTUGeOHLQb. @EDEXIO UWCIXUBEXXOb UHXUQ8HQb I QBEHUG_W8BC9 B8TO9. :M8W, UQUWEXXU BU
BME9b ^GUTUXUDEX8b, XJeTOEHQb B WUGLDU9 IUG8cEQHBE BU\TJYO. 2^H89OGLXUE \XOcEX8E M+ QJWQHMOHO TGb
MO\B8H8b BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] 5,27,0, O TGb MUQHO 5,25,8.
@ HEcEX8E MbTO GEH ^MUBUT8G8QL 8 UWUWdOG8QL MO\G8cXCE XOWG_TEX8b, U^CHC ^U UTU9ODX8BOX8_
BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU]. " XOcOGJ 70-Y [UTUB UTU9ODX8BOX8E BEDEXI8 UWCIXUBEXXU] TUQH8[GU HEYX8cEQIU[U
JMUBXb, TUQHOHUcXU[U TGb ^MU9CDGEXXU[U IJGLH8B8MUBOX8b `HU[U B8TO. #Gb MOg8UXOGLXU[U ^MU8\BUTQHBO
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WUGLDEE IUG8cEQHBU 98gEG8b, cE9 8\BEQHXC9 IGOQQ8cEQI89 Q^UQUWU9 (Huhnke, Sengbusch, Zadrazil, 1973).
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QUYMOXbHLQb ^M8 HE9^EMOHJME 35C B HEcEX8E 2 GEH, XE JHMOH8B QBUE] OIH8BXUQH8 (Lemke, 1971, 1972).
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JBEG8cEX8E9 QMUIO YMOXEX8b (Stoller, 1962).
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(San Antonio, Shuh-Wei-Hwang, 1970).
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[G8gEM8XU9 B ^EM8UT \O9UMOe8BOX8b UIO\OGO WUGEE WGO[U^M8bHXUE BG8bX8E XO QUYMOXXUQHL 98gEG8b. hEMET
YMOXEX8E9 98gEG8] BCTEMe8BO_H ^M8 HE9^EMOHJME 5C B HEcEX8E 17 QJHUI. >OHE9 B 1- 8G8 2-98GG89EHMUBCE
QHEIGbXXCE O9^JGC ^U9EdO_H ^U 68 \EMEX, ^UIMCHCY 98gEG8E9, 8 TUWOBGb_H 0,5 $( QJQ^EX\8UXXU] QMETC.
hEMET \O9UMOe8BOX8E9 ^U9EdEXXCE B O9^JGC \EMXO Q 98gEG8E9 BCTEMe8BO_H ^M8 IU9XOHXU] HE9^EMOHJME B
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