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Chapter 16 The Civil War

The War Begins The War in the East The War in the West Daily Life during the War The Tide of the War Turns

Americans Choose Sides

1861 Fort Sumter
Federal outpost in Charleston, SC Attacked by Confederate troops Began the Civil War

The last ray of hope for preserving the Union has expired at the assault upon Fort Sumter Fort Sumter surrendered to Confederates

Choosing Sides
Map pg. 512
Pennsylvania, NJ and the states north of them rallied with President Lincoln NC, TN, VA & AK all seceded. Border states DE, KY, MD & MO
Slave states that did NOT join the Confederacy

Northern Resources
Advantages (write down 3)
More people (22 million. South had 5.5 million) Regions network of roads, canals, and railroads Strong economic growth

General Winfield Scott strategy Destroy the Souths economy with naval blockade of southern ports Gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the South

Southern Resources
Advantages (Write down 3)
Strong military tradition Farms provided food Only needed to defend South had difficult land to cross War was fought on Southern soil Cotton Diplomacy Idea that Great Britain would support the Confederacy because it needed the Souths raw cotton to supply its booming textile industry Didnt work. Great Britain already had enough cotton

Preparing for War

Volunteer Armies
Raised money Provided aid Ran emergency hospitals

Training the Soldiers

Union Blue uniforms

Confederates Gray uniforms

Had to learn how to battle, shoot rifles

War in the East

Thomas Stonewall Jackson Only unit that was able to hold their ground (Confederates) Union got weary. Retreated, but fog caused army to scatter. First Battle of Bull Run First major battle of the Civil War Confederate Victory Shattered Norths hopes of winning the war quickly

More Battles in VA
George B. McClellan
President Lincoln turned to him after Bull Run Assembled a highly disciplined force of 100,000 soldiers Army of Potomac Spent months training

Robert E. Lee (Confederates)

Willing to take risks and make unpredictable moves Launched Seven Days Battles Series of clashes that forced the Union to retreat from near Richmond

VA Battles
Lincoln ordered another General to march directly on Richmond
General John Pope

Second Battle of Bull Run

Gen. Jackson wanted to defeat Pope before they could join forces with Gen. McClellan Jackson V Pope 3 day battle First day Savage - Stalemate Second Day Heavy casualties on both sides Third Day Confederates crushed the Union (retreated) Huge victory

Battle of Antietam
Confederates moved up North
Lee divided the Army
Jackson Lee Tried to convince MD to support Confederates They continued to support the Union Obtained a copy of Lees battle plan

McClelland learned about the division of Confederates, but hesitated to attack

Gave the Confederates time to reunite

Battle of Antietam
Sept. 17 1862
Bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War And of US history 12,000 casualties for Union 13,000 casualties for Confederates

Union stopped the Confederates advancement in the North

Unions Naval Strategy

Union controlled the sea
Setup a blockade of southern ports
Prevented South from selling/receiving goods Seriously damaged the southern economy

South used ironclads

Ships heavily armored with iron Took control of Union ship, called it Virginia and turned it into an ironclad Easily sank two of the Unions wooden warships, while it received minor damage

Union Strategy in the West

Ulysses S. Grant - Union
Bold and relentless Focused on taking control of Mississippi River

Battle of Shiloh (April 6, 1862) Tennessee

Union Army gained greater control of Mississippi River Valley Both sides claimed victory, but Grant was the victor

Fall of New Orleans

Grants army moved down the Mississippi
Union Navy waiting to meet from the South New Orleans
Largest city of Confederates
Gateway to Mississippi River Fell to the Union after 5 days

Took Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Natchez, Mississippi

The Siege of Vicksburg

200 feet high
Farraguts (Union) guns had trouble reaching General Grant began the Siege of Vicksburg
May 1863
Starve the city into surrender Cut off the city Food ran out

July 4 - Surrendered

Far West Struggle

Union defeats Confederates in:
Colorado (Glorieta Pass) Arizona (Picacho Pass) Missouri

Battle of Pea Ridge (Arkansas)

Daily Life during the War

Abolitionists urged President Lincoln to free African American slaves
There is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights numerated in the Declaration of Independence the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Emancipation
Freeing of slaves

Wrote the Emancipation Proclamation

Order to free the confederate slaves

Slavery continued to exist in the loyal slave states
But became easier to escape

Loss of slaves crippled the Souths ability to wage war African Americans volunteered for war for the Union

Gave contrabands the right to join the Union Army in SC

Escaped slaves

54th Massachusetts Infantry

Consisted of mostly free African Americans Led a heroic charge of SC Fort Wagner Failed attempt, but most celebrated African American unit of the war

Growing Oppositions
Northern Democrats that opposed the war Sympathized with the South and opposed abolition

Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus

Constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment Without evidence or trial Angered Democrats and some Republicans

Growing Opposition
Northern Draft
Congress approved a draft (forced military service) $300 able to buy yourself out of military

Northern Democrats nominated George McClellan for President Election 1864

Lincoln won 212-21

Life of Soldiers & Civilians

On the Battlefield Prisoners of War
Packed into small camps Little shelter, food or clothing Starvation and disease Doctors and nurses saved many lives They didnt have medicines to stop infections Limbs were amputated without painkillers Disease such as typhoid, pneumonia tuberculosis Twice as many soldiers died of illnesses as died in combat

Life as a Civilian
Women, kids and old men worked in factories and farms North Economy boomed Women were the backbone Clara Barton Founded the American Red Cross

Tide of the War Turns

President Lincoln frustrated with McClellans lack of aggression
Replaced him with General Ambrose Burnside Favored a swift, decisive attacks

Union casualties 12,600 Retreated Confederates casualties 5,300 Burnside stepped down

General Joseph Hooker took command

Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville

General Hooker launched a full front attack (138,000)
Ordered about 115,000 to approach the confederate side Seemed to work, however, General Hooker was hesitant and took a defensive position at Chancellorsville Union Army cut in two when Lee and Jackson led an attack General Hooker retreated

Confederates won a major battle, but lost Stonewall Jackson

Killed by friendly fire

Battle of Gettysburg (7/1/63)

Key battle that finally turned the tide against the Confederates
Day 1
Lee believed his forces were invincible Take ground and prepare for next day

Picketts Charge Nearly 15,000 men marched slowly toward Union Union forced Confederate to retreat (7,500 casualties)

Day 4
Lee retreated 75,000 Confederates and 90,000 Union troops participated

Day 2
Battle for Little Round Top By end of day, Union forces held a strong defensive position

Day 3

Aftermath of Gettysburg
Turning point of the war
Great Britain and France refused to provide aid to the Confederacy Gettysburg Address
President Lincoln praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War

Wilderness Campaign in the East

Union troops launched the Wilderness Campaign
Series of battles designed to capture Confederate capital Richmond Successful, but was taking longer than hoped Putting Lincolns reelection hopes in danger

William Sherman
Destroyed southern railroads and industries Took over Atlanta Helped Lincoln get reelected Total War tactic as he moved to Savannah, GA Destroying civilian and economic resources

South Surrenders
Lees forces running low on supplies
Trapped by the Union
Nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, Lee said, and I would rather die a thousand deaths.

Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865)

Lee surrendered to Grant, ending the Civil War

Effects of the War

620,000 Americans lost their lives during 4 years of fighting
Ended slavery in the South Southern economy in ruins

Trouble continued in efforts to be united once again