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Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electrical potential difference (or voltage) or an induced e.m.f. in a conductor or across a conductor situated in a changing magnetic flux or when there is a change in magnetic flux linked with the conductor.

When Michael Faraday made his discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831, he hypothesized that a changing magnetic field is necessary to induce a current in a nearby circuit. To test his hypothesis he made a coil by wrapping a paper cylinder with wire. He connected the coil to a galvanometer, and then moved a magnet back and forth inside the cylinder. When you move the magnet back and forth, notice that the galvanometer needle moves, indicating that a current is induced in the coil. Notice also that the needle immediately returns to zero when the magnet is not moving. Faraday confirmed that a moving magnetic field is necessary in order for electromagnetic induction to occur. In this picture an ammeter is connected in the circuit of a conducting loop. When the bar magnet is moved closer to, or farther from, the loop, an electromotive force (e.m.f) is induced in the loop. The ammeter indicates currents in different directions depending on the relative motion of magnet and loop. Notice that, when the magnet stops moving, the current returns to zero as indicated by the ammeter. 1.

The strength of the induced e.m.f is proportional to the rate of change of the

magnetic flux.

2. In the figure below, a bar magnet is inserted into a solenoid. 3. When there is a relative motion between the magnet and the solenoid, the pointer of

the centre-zero galvanometer is deflected. This shows that an e.m.f. is induced in the solenoid. When the circuit is complete, an induced current is flowing through the galvanometer. Keep the magnet at rest and move the solenoid towards the magnet. The pointer of the galvanometer is also deflected.

4. No e.m.f is induced if the magnet is at rest outside or inside the solenoid: The magnet and the solenoid move with the same speed in the same direction.

5. The direction of induced e.m.f. (current) is reversed when the magnet is moved out

of the solenoid. 6. The magnitude of the induced e.m.f increases (greater deflection in the

galvanometer) when The magnet is moved more quickly

The number of turns in the solenoid is increased The strength of the magnet is increased Lenz’s Law

1. The direction of the induced current can be determined by Lenz’s Law. An induced current flows in a direction so as to oppose the change producing it.

2. The N-pole of a magnet is moving towards the solenoid as shown in the figure below. 3. The change that induces current is the N-pole moving towards the solenoid. According to Lenz’s Law, the direction of the induced current opposes the change producing it. To oppose the N-pole moving to the coil, the induced current must produce an N-pole at the end X. Hence, the direction of the induced current is as shown.

4. The N-pole of a magnet is moving away from the solenoid as shown in the figure below. 5. The change that induces current is the N-pole moving out of the solenoid. According to Lenz’s Law, the direction of the induced current opposes the change producing it. To oppose the N-pole moving out of the coil, the induced current must produce an S-pole at the end X.

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule.

1.

When a straight wire is moved inside a magnetic field and the magnetic field lines

are cut by the wire, induced current is produced. 2. The direction of induced current in the straight wire can be determined by using

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule or Dynamo Rule. If the thumb and the two first two fingers of the right hand are held at right angles to each other, with the forefinger pointing in the direction of the field and the thumb pointing in the direction of the motion, the middle finger will point in the direction of the current. Simple A.C. Generator

1. A simple a.c. generator consists of a coil rotating about an axis between the poles

of a permanent magnet as shown in the diagram below. 2.

When the coil rotates, the magnet flux through the coil changes and current is

induced in the coil.

3. The ends of the coil are connected to a pair of slips rings. The slip rings rotate with

the coil and are in close contact with two carbon brushes.

4. When the coil rotates, the ionduced current passes thrpough the brushes to an

external circuit.

5. The direction of the induced current changes every half rotation of the coil.

6. The induced current is maximum when the plane of the coil is parallel to the

magnetic field. There is no induced current when the plane of the coil is perpendicular

to the magnetic field. 7. The frequency of the induced current is the number of revolutions of the coil per

second.

8. The induced current can be increased by

Using a coil with more turns Using a stronger magnet or using a powerf ul electromagnet to make the fo\ield stronger

Winding the coil round a soft iron core so that the magnetic field is stringer Rotating the coil faster.  Increasing the speed of rotation of the coil will increase the frequency of the induced current as well. When the rotating speed is doubled, the frequency is also doubled.

2. ACTIVITY (50 MINUTES)

1. A bar magnet is rotated on a shaft near to a coil as shown below A cathode-ray oscilloscope connected to the coil indicates the induced e.m.f. Which

change does not increase the size of the induced e.m.f.?

(The direction of rotation of the magnet does not affect the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. It only changes the direction of the induced e.m.f. The turning speed of the

magnet, magnetic field strength and number of turns of coil will affect the magnitude

 of the induced e.m.f.) 2. The e.m.f. induced in a conductor moving at right angles to a magnetic field does

not depend upon

(The resistance of the conductor affects the induced current but not its induced e.m.f. Induced e.m.f depends on the length and speed of the conductor and the strength of the magnetic field. It is a constant if all these factors are not changed. However induced current depends on the resistence of the circuit. It varies if the resistance is not a constant evevn though e.m.f. remains the same.)

3. The diagram shows how the e.m.f. of a simple generator varies with time. What is the frequency and the maximum value of the e.m.f?

(Maximum e.m.f = peak voltage = 2V

Frequency = 1/period = 1/5 ms = 1/0.005 s = 200 Hz.

Maximum e.m.f is only the peak voltage but not the peak-to-peak voltage. The period of the e.m.f is the time taken for 1 complete cycle. 5 ms need to be change to 0.005 s.)

3. ASSESSMENT (40 MINUTES)

1. Which diagram correctly gives the direction of the induced current when the

magnet is moved as shown? In each case, the coil of wire is connected in a complete circuit.  2. A small coil is connected to a sensitive ammeter. The ammeter needle can move to

either side of the zero position. When the magnet is allowed to fall towards the coil,

the ammeter needle moves quickly to the right of the zero position. The magnet moves through the coil. How does the ammeter needle move as the magnet falls away from the coil?

A It does not move

C It moves quickly to the left of the zero position and then returns to zero

D It moves quickly to the right of the zero position and then returns to zero.

3.A small coil is connected to a galvanometer as shown below. When the magnet is allowed to fall towards the coil, the galvanometer pointer gives a momentary

deflection to the right of the zero position. The m agnet moves through the coil and as it falls away from the coil, the galvanometer pointer

A gives a continuous reading to the left

B gives a momentary deflection to the left

C gives a momentary deflection to the right

D gives a continuous reading to the right

4. The diagram shows a magnet moved into and out of a coil of wire. What describes the poles produced in the coil at X by the movement of the magnet?

 North pole in north pole out A N N B N S C S N D S S 5. The N pole of a bar magnet is pushed into a solenoid as shown in the diagram

below. An electromotive force is induced which moves the galvanometer needle to the left. Which action using the same end of the solenoid would produce a deflection in the same direction?

 A puulling a N pole out of the solenoid B pushing a S pole into the solenoid C pulling the solenoid away from a N pole D pulling the solenoid away from a S pole 6. Figure below shows two coils of copper wire wound on soft-iron rod. Each coil can

slide easily on the rod. Coil P is connected in series to a battery and a switch S. Coil Q

is connected to a sensitive centre-zero meter. As S is closed, adeflection is seen on the

meter for a short time, during this time the coils slide apart a little. soft iron rod (a) Explain briefly why there is a deflection on the meter. (b) State and explain what would you expect to onserve on the meter.

(c)

What would be the effect on the change you have described in (a) if the soft-iron

rod were removed and a wooden rod put in its place?

7. Figure below shows two coils of wire on a wooden core. Core P is connected to a

battery in a series with a switch. Coil Q is connected to a sensitive ammeter. When the switch is closed there is a short-lived deflection on the ammater. (a) In the figure above draw the magnetic field line pattern set up in and around coil P

when there is a current in coil P.

(b) What name is given to the effect which gives rise to a current in coil q when the

switch in the coil P circuit is closed?

(c) Explain why the direction of the short lived current in the coil Q circuit is from

right to left through the coil.

1. A According to Lenz’s Law, when the N-pole of the magnet is approaching the

coil, the N-pole of the magnetic field due to the coil must face the N-pole of the magnet in order to oppose the change. Use Right Hand Grip Rule to determine the direction of induced current.

2. C Use Lenz’s Law to determine the polarity of the induced manetic poles produced

by the induced current.

3. B Use Lenz’s law to determine the direction of the induced current in the coil. As

the magnet drops towards the coil, the top of the coil must produce a N-pole. As the magnet moves away from the coil, the bottom of the coil must now produced a N-

pole.

4. B Using Lenz’s Law the pole produced at X must oppose the motion of the magnet.

5. D Using Lenz’s Law when the N pole is pushed towards the solenoid, an N pole is

produced in the right end of the solenoid. If the solenoid is pulled away from a S pole, an N pole is also produced in the right end of the solenoid which means the deflection is in the same direction.

6. (a) When S is closed a current starts to flow through coil P which gives rise to

magnetic field lines which link coils P and Q. Due to this change in magnetic flux linkage, a current is induced in coil Q which registeres a deflection on the meter.

(b) When S is opened the current decreases to zero which leads to a rapid drop in the

magnetic flux linkage betwween coils P and Q. An induced current flows in coil Q in

the opposite sense to oppose this drop in the flux linkage. Consequently, a deflection in the opposite direction is registered on the meter and the coils slide towards each other a little.

(c) A much smaller deflection will be observed.

7.(a) (b) Electromagnetic induction (c) Due to Lenz’s Law the current must flow in the indicated direction so that an

opposing magnetic field is set up in Q to oppose the growing magnetic field in P that

is producing the induced current in Q.