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Surface area of an elbow, S = 2 D R (/180),

where,
D = Elbow outside diameter
R = Radius of elbow
= Angle of elbow, in degrees
L = Length of center line of elbow = 2 R (/360)
= Constant = 22/7 = 3.14 (created by Ancient Egyptians)
Derivation of equation: S = D L = D (2 R)(/360) = 2 D R (/180)

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