You are on page 1of 128

..

..

2010

681.518.3, 514:681.323/043.3/
:
, - , ...,
..;
..., ..

18 .. , ..
- / ,
2010. 128 ., .

ISBN 978-5-93424-469-0
,
.

-
,
,
.
, , ,
- .

ISBN 978-5-93424-469-0

.. , .. , 2010

.................................................................................................. 3
............................................. 5
................................................................................................ 6
......................................................................................................... 7
1 ............ 9
1.1
............................................................................................ 9
1.2 . .................................................................................... 10
1.3 ........................... 14
2 .......... 22
2.1 , ............................................... 22
2.2 ........................... 30
2.3
......................................................... 32
2.4 .................................. 36
3 - ......... 38
3.1 , ............. 38
3.2 , ..................... 51
3.3
........................................................................... 55
4
-

.................................................................... 60
4.1 .................................................. 60
4.2
.............................................................................................. 62
4.3 ................. 70
4.4 ............................... 74
4.5
...................................................................................................... 76
5

............................................................... 86
5.1 .......................... 86
5.2 ............................. 92
5.3 ...................................................... 95
5.4 ..................... 97
3

5.5 ............................. 102


5.6 ............................................. 103
5.7 ................. 104
.............................................................................................. 106
.................................... 107
.............................................................................................. 114
1 Mathcad....................................... 114
2 .... 118
3 Mathcad........................................... 121
4
............................................................................... 126
5 ..................................... 127


;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
X (t ) ;
S x ( ) ;
o

S x ( ) ;

K x ( ) ;
g x ( ) ;
Lag k ( , ) k- ;
Leg k ( , ) k- ;
Drhk ( , ) k- ;

k ;
bk
;
;
;
1 ,... m ;
ent [ ] ;
M [ ] .


,
-
, , , , .
, , -

.. ().

- ,
, , , , , ,
, .
4.5 -201 , ... ..,
.
, .

- , ..., ..
, , , ..., .. .
:
, 443086, . , , 34, .. , , ,
..
e-mail:

sp@smr.ru

grafkinvv@yandex.ru


, , .

, .
.
.
,
. , ,
, , , .
, .
. , . ,
, .
, , , .. ,
. ,
, [46]. , , . , , , [46, 71].
, . , , . ,
,
,
. .
7

,
. ,
, ,
.

,

.
, , ,
.

. ,

- , .

(Mathcad, Matlab, LabView
), , :
,
. .

1
1.1

, [68]. , . , , , , . , ,
( ), . , , ,
[68].
, .

[34, 46, 74].
.
[74]. ,
.
:
.
,
, ,
[74].
, . ,
[71]. -
,
- , Gx ( ) . , ( , )
- [71].
9

,
() , Gx ( ) .
, , ,
[71]. , ,
, .
- [34]
g x ( , t ) =

( , t )e j d ;

K x ( , t ) = 2 g x ( , t )e j d .

(1.1)
(1.2)



. ,
,
, .
, ,
[72].

1.2 .

, [37].
( 1.1), ()
[37]. 1.1

. . , [70].
, , [71, 72].

,
10

, [72].

1.1
, X (t )
, M [X (t )] ,
X (t ) X (t ) = X (t + ) X (t ) .
X (t )
X (t ) , , . X (t ) , X (t ) . , X (t )
. , X (t ) t ,
X (t )
[70, 71].
[71] :
2
S x ( ) = M [[X (t + ) X (t )] ].
(1.3)
,
[70].

[70].

(, , ).

11

, , .
, K x ( ) . ,
X (t ) [71]
S x ( ) = 2[K x (0) K x ( )] .
(1.4)
X (t ) ( K x () = 0 ),

[74]
K x ( ) =

1
[S x () S x ( )] .
2

(1.5)

,
,
( 1.2). , S x ( ) M [X (t )] . , S x () = 2M [X 2 (t )] [71],
(1.5) K x ( ) .
S x ( )

K x ( )

2,8
2,3
1,8
1,3
0,8
0,3

-0,2
-0,7
-2,938 -2,285 -1,632 -0,979 -0,326 0,3264 0,9792 1,632 2,2848 2,9376

1.2 ( ) ()
,
, .

.
, 12

.. [31]. ,
(1.3) [37]:
1 N k 1
[x(i + k ) x(i)]2 ,
(1.6)

N k i =0
x(i ), x(i + k ) X (t ) i -
(i + k ) - ; N . ,
S x (k ) =

,
X (t ), Y (t ) , [70]
S xy (k ) =

1
N k

N k 1

[x(i) y(i + k )]

(1.7)

i =0

, X (t ) Y (t ) , ,
, . [70].
S x ( )
,
(1.8)
lim S x ( ) = 2 x2 .

,
S x ( ) =

S x ( )
.
S x ( )

(1.9)

, ,
[74]:

S x ( ) = 2 (1 cos )dG x ( ) .

(1.10)

dG x ( ) , :
( , + d ) [74].
g x ( ) =

dGx ( )
d

(1.11)

[74]. , ,
,
.
, X (t ) , t ,

13

- dG x ( )
[74].
, , [46, 71]:
g x ( ) =

sin
2
0

S x ( )
d ;

(1.12)

2 S x ( )
g x ( ) =
d .
cos
2
2 2 0
1

(1.13)

(1.12) , [71]
lim

S x ( )
S ( )
= 0 , lim 2 x
= 0,

(1.14)

(1.13) :
2 S x ( )
2 S x ( )
lim
= 0 , lim
= 0.


2
2

(1.15)

1.3
.
, ,
( ) . [45].
.. 1853
, [12].
.
(, )
, (, )
( approximo ) [39].
, [12]:
1. .
. , . c :
c=

b( f )
.
b( f * )

(1.16)

2. .
,
. 14

. () , .
3. , .
,
() f (t ) ,

(t i , t i +1 ) . , (t i , f (t i ) ) , .
. () f f *
.
.
: .
, [38]. ,
[18], ,
N

( ) = f (ti ) f * ( , t ) ,
2

(1.17)

i =1

, , .
(1.17) , .
( )
( ) min
(1.18)
r :
( )
= 0, j = 1,2,K, r ,
j

(1.19)


( ) j . r - .
, , ,
. ,
, [12]
n

a 0 + a1t + K + a n t n = a k t k

(1.20)

k =0

n .
15

, ,
,
.
, , .
[44].
, . .
, , ,

[51]. , .
(t ) (t ) (a, b ) (t ) [25],
b

(t ) (t ) (t )dt = 0 ,

(1.21)

(a, b ) .
, . ,
, , [51]. ( )
[0, ) ( :
, , , ).

( )
0

0, m n;
( ) n ( ) =
2
n , m = n,

(1.22)

n n ( ) .
( ) (a, b ) , , ,

b

0 < ( )d < .

(1.23)

(a, b ) , , , [73]

16

( )d , n = 0,1,2,K

(1.24)

( ) = 1 .
1.3 ,
.

X(t ) = SSP(t ) + f (t ) .
(1.25)
(1.25) SSP(t ) , K x ( ) = e cos(5 ) , f (t )
.

Correlation
function
Covariation
function

0,973
0,873
0,773
0,673
0,573
0,473
-2,9376 -2,3664 -1,7952 -1,224 -0,6528 -0,0816 0,4896 1,0608

1,632

2,2032 2,7744

1.3 ,
f (t ) = 0,006 t
1.3, , [46], (1.25), .
,
, [46].

.
17


. ,
,
, . , , [11]
S x ( ) = 1 cos(0,1 ) + 0,01 , (1.14) (1.15), ,

, (1.12) (1.13)
. 1.1 ,
[11];
1.4.
1.1


S x ( ) = 1 e 0.04
1
S x ( ) = 1 cos(0.1 ) + 0.01
2
S x ( ) = 1 cos(0.0314 )
3
S x ( ) = 0.0004 2
4
S x ( ) = ln (1 + 0.05 )
5
,
,
,
, , .
[58]
, ,
k

PLeg k ( ) = C C
s =0

s
k

1.4

s
k +s

x 1

.
2

(1.26)

[ 1,1]
PLeg k

2
.
2k + 1

(1.27)

()

18

[ 1,1] [0, k max ] , , . :


= ax + b x =

a =

k max
2

; b=

k max

b
a

(1.28)

, , [0, k max ] ,
k

PLegM k ( ) = C C
s
k

s =0

s
k+s

1 .
k max

(1.29)


dx =

d ,

k max

(1.30)

PLegM k ( ) :
2

PLegM k

k max
2k + 1

(1.31)

S x ( ) [46]
m

S a ( ) = k PLegM k ( )1( ) ,

(1.32)

k =0

m ;
1, 0 k max ;
1( ) =
0, .

(1.32) k ,
[46]
P =

k max

S x ( ) k PLegM k ( , )1( ) d = min ,


k =0

(1.33)


k =

k max

1
PLegM k

S x ( ) PLegM k ( , )d .

(1.34)

[46, 55]
P =

k max

S x ( )d

(1.35)

(1.32) (1.12)
g a ( ) =

k max


2
k =0

sin( )

PLegM k ( )
d

(1.36)

19

0, k = 0;
PLegM k ( )
s 1
= 1 k

s s

sCk Ck + s 1 , k > 0.

k max

k max s =1

(1.37)

r = k 1 , (1.37)
0, r < 0;
PLegM r ( )
s
= 1 r
Pr ( ) =

(
r + s + 2 )!

1 , r 0,

k max s=0 (r s )!(s + 1)!(s )! k max


n - (1.38)

0, r < n;

sn
r
.
Pr(n ) ( ) =


(r + s + 2 )!
1

1
,

r
n.

n +1

( k max ) s = n (r s )!(s + 1)!(s n )! k max

(1.38)
-

(1.39)

[31]
cos(a t )
I (t , a ) = Pr (t )sin (a t )dt =
a

r
E
2

(2i )
(t ) + sin (a t )
i Pr
(
)

2i
a
a
i =0

r +1
E

( 2i 1)
(t ) , (1.40)
i 1 Pr
(
)

2 i 1
a
i =1

E[n] n , (1.36)
g a ( ) =

[I (

2 k =0

k max

, ) I (0, )] .

(1.41)

1.5 ,
S x ( ) = 2(1 e cos(5 )) , , , , . ,
Mathcad, 1.

) ( ),
( )

) ( ),
( )

1.5

P = 0.0005 , , 20

, , , . , , , [0, ) [0, max ]

SPD =

sin

k max

S x ( )
d .

(1.42)

, , , P = 0.001 . , ,
1.1, , .

[46]:
m

S a ( ) = k k ( , ) ,

(1.43)

k =0

m ;

k ;
k ( , ) ( -

).
(1.43) ,
[46]
2

= S x ( ) k k ( , ) d = min ,
k =0

(1.44)

S ( ) k ( , )d .
(1.45)
2 x
k 0
(1.44)

k =

= S x ( )d k2 k

(1.46)

k =0

[46]
=

S ( )d

(1.47)

21

2
2.1


,
,
[46]. 2.1.
2.1
2
k ( , )
k (0, )
k

( ) s 2
Lag k ( , ) = (1) C
e
s!
s =0
k

s
k

Leg k ( , ) = ( 1) s C ks C ks+ s e ( 2 s +1)


s =0

Drhk ( , ) = (1) k s C ks C ks++1s +1e ( s +1)


s =0

1
2(2k + 1)

( 1)k

1
2(k + 1)

2.1 ,
,
, , , , , .
( 2.2),
.
1 , .
, , .
, ,
k ( 1)k . .
, .
, , (1.3), ( 2.1), .
22

:
lim k ( ) = 0 .

(2.1)

2.2
k ( , )

Lag 0 ( , ) = e

Lag1 ( , ) = e

(1 )

k 1
2k 1
Lag k 1 ( , )
Lag k 2 ( , )
k
k
Leg 0 ( , ) = e
Lag k ( , ) =

Leg1 ( , ) = e 2e 3
2k 1
k 1
1 2e 2 Leg k 1 ( , )
Leg k 2 ( , )
k
k
Drh0 ( , ) = e

Leg k ( , ) =

Drh1 ( , ) = 3e 2 2e

2k + 1
4k 2
k 1

Drhk ( , ) =
2
e
Drh
(

)
Drh
(

)
k

1
k

k + 1
4k 2 1
2k 1

S x ( )

0
0.37

0.37

2.1
,
. 23

,
2.2 ( , 2.1).
0.7

0
S x ( )

1.3
0.37

0.37

2.2
2.2, , .
( , 2.1).
.
,

S x ( ) = S x ( ) m s ,

(2.2)
ms , .

, ( 2.3).

, bk ,

o

S x (0) = bk k (0, ) .

(2.3)

k =0

24

bk :

m
m
o

1 = S x ( ) bk k ( , ) d + bk k (0, ) = min .
k =0
k =0

(2.4)

m
o

1
= 2 S x ( ) bk k ( , ) n ( , )d + n (0, ) = 0 ,
bn
k =0


2
2
2 n n + 2bn n + n (0, ) = 0 .
,
n (0, )
bn = n
.
2
2 n

(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)

2.3
(2.7) (2.3),
m

S x (0) k k (0, )

k =0
.
(2.8)
k2 (0, )

2
k
k =0
,

bn = n +

S x (0) k k (0, )
k =0
2
m
k

(0, )

2
k
k =0

n (0, )
.
2
n

(2.9)

25

(2.9)
bn = n + Cn ,
(2.10)
C n ,
2.3.
2.4 , 2.3, .
2.3
Cn

S x (0) k

k =0

m +1
o

( 1)n (2n + 1)
2(n + 1)

k =0

(m + 1)2
o

S x (0) k ( 1)
m

S x ( 0) k
k =0

(m + 1)(m + 2)

2.4

m
m
o2
o

1 = S x ( ) bk k ( , ) d = S x ( )d 2 bk k k
k =0
k =0

0
0

+ bk2 k .
2

(2.11)

k =0

26

, (2.10) ,
2.3, (2.11) .
:
m

(
0
)

k
n
o 2

m
m
1
1
=
0
n
+
1 = S x ( )d 2 k2 +

k = 0
(
1
)

m
+
k =0
0

2
m
m

o
o
S x (0) n

k S x (0) n
m
1
1 m 2 2 m
=
n
n=0
0
=
+

+ k +

(m + 1)
(m + 1)

k =0
k =0

k =0

(2.12)

(
0
)
S
n

o2

m
1
n=0
.
= S x ( )d k2 +
k =0
(m + 1)
0

:
m

(
0
)

n (1) n (1) k
S
x
m

k
o2
2
m
1
1
k
n=0

+
1 = S x ( )d
+
2

k = 0 (2k + 1)
(m + 1)
k =0
0

o
n

(1) k

(
0
)
(
1
)

S
x

k
n

2
m
m
1
1
k
n=0

+
+
+

2
2
(
)
+
+
2
1
(
1
)

k
m
k =0
k =0

m
o

S x (0) n (1) n

1
n=0

+
2
2
(m + 1)

(2.13)

(2.13) :
2

m
o
n

(
0
)
(
1
)

n
o2

1 m k2
n
=
0

.
1 = S x ( )d
+

2
(
)

m
+
2
2
1
2
(
1
)

+
k =0
0

(2.14)

(2.12) (2.14) ,
2 , ,
(1.26), 2 , (2.3).
, (2.15).

27

(
0
)
x

k
n
o2

2
m
m

1
1
n
=
0

+
k
1 = S x ( )d 2
+

(
)
+
+

+
k

m
m
1
(
1
)
(
2
)
k =0
k =0
0

1
+
2

m
o

(
0
)
x

k
n

1
m
k2
2 m
n
=
0

+
+

(
)
+
+
+
k

m
m

1
(
1
)(
2
)
k =0
k =0

m
o

S x (0) n

n=0

(m + 1)(m + 2)

(2.15)

m
o

n
(
0
)
x

o2

2
m
k
1
n=0
.
= S x ( )d
+

(
)
2 k = 0 k + 1 (m + 1)(m + 2)
0

1 = + 2

(2.16)

2.4.
2.4
2

o 2

1
S ( )d

k =0

o2

( )d

1
2

m
o

S x ( 0) n
n =0

(m + 1)

2
k

2
k

2
k

(2k + 1)
k =0

m
o
n
S x (0) n ( 1)
n=0

2
2 (m + 1)

o2

S
0

( )d

1
2

(k + 1)
k =0

o
S x (0) n
n=0

(m + 1)(m + 2)

[46, 58], ,
=

0
,

m. 2.5 2.7

o

S x ( ) = 2 1 e

cos( ) ms m, -

28

2.5
( )

2.6
( )

2.7
( )
29

, , = const , m = const , ,
.. . , , m [56]. , , , [58]. ,
, 2.5 [58, 61],
.
2.5

0,8

0,4
(2m + 1)
0,4
(m +1)

2.2
, ,
. . [46], , . :
o

k =0

k =0

S axy ( ) = k , 1( ) k ( , ) + k , 1( ) k ( , ) ,

(2.17)

1, > 0;
0, > 0;
1
1

1( ) = , = 0; 1( ) = , = 0;
2
2
1, < 0.
0 , < 0

(2.18)

(2.19) (2.20)
.
k , =
k , =

k ,

xy

k ,n

(2.19)

k ,

S ( ) ( , )d ;

S ( ) ( , )d .
yx

k ,

(2.20)


o2

= S xy ( )d k ,

k =0

2
k ,

+ k,

k =0

2
k,

(2.21)
30

, (2.17) , .
. o

S xy ( ) = 2 1 e ms , m , ,
ms , , M = 5000 ( 2.8).
,


(2.17).
.
m

1.5

S x ( )

0
0.5
1.4

1.4

2.8
, , m :
o

k=0

k=0

S axy( ) = k, 1( m )k, ( m, ) + k, 1( m )k, ( m , ) .

(2.22)

(2.22) :
k , =
k, =

k ,

S ( + ) ( , )d ;
xy

(2.23)

k,

k ,

S (
xy

) k , ( , )d .

(2.24)

:
o

k =0

k =0

S axy ( m ) = k , k (0, ) = k , k (0, ) =1 ,

(2.25)

31

k bk , (2.7). ,
,
o

k =0

k =0

S axy ( ) = bk , 1( m ) k , ( m , ) + bk , 1( m ) k , ( m , ) .

(2.26)

2.9
, ( 2.8),
m .
1.5

S x ( )

0
0.5
1.4

1.4

2.9

, m
(2.22)
.

2.3

. , . , : , [16, 17, 46].
(1.5), . , (1.5) ,
. (1.5) - [15], :
g x ( ) =

1 o
S x ( ) cos( )d .
2 0

(2.27)

, (1.26), (2.27)
32

g x ( ) =

1
2

k =0

k k ( , ) cos( )d =

1
2

k =0

Re Wk ( j ),

(2.28)

Re Wk ( j )
[46].
2.7 , . (2.28)
,
.
[71]:

g x ( ) =

2 0

S x ( ) =

S x ( )
.

sin( ) S x ( )d ,

(2.29)

2.6

g x ( )

cos

(1)

k =0

k cos[(2k + 1) ]

k 1

+
cos

cos

2
s

k
k

2 k =0 2k + 1
s =0

m
k 1

(1) k k cos k cos k + 2 s

k +1
2 k =0
s =0

2
arctg

n = arctg
(2n + 1)

(n + 1)

n = arctg

(2.29) [52]
k
1 m

(2.30)
k Ak ,s ( ) Bs ( , ) ,
2 k =0 s =0
Ak ,s ( ) Bs ( , ) 2.7.

g x ( ) =

2.7
Ak ,s ( )
Bs ( , )

s!cos s ( )

(1) s

k!
s
( k s )!( s!) 2

[sin (s ) sin ((s + 1) ) cos( )],

(1) s +1

( 1) k s +1

= arctg

(k + s )!
(2 s + 1)
( k s )!( s!) 2

(2 s + 1) 2 + 2

( k + s + 1)!
( s + 1)
( k s )!( s + 1)! s!

( s + 1) 2 + 2

1
2

(2.30) :
33

Ak ,s ( ) ,
, (2.1).
, m (
20-22 ), Ak ,s ( ) , ( 2.6). , , [2].
(2.29) .
,

k
1
Lag k ( , )


= Cks ( ) s s s 1e 2 2 s e 2 ,
(2.31)

s!

s =0
Lag k ( , ) k- , (2.29)


g x ( ) =

1
4 j

k =0

s=0

k C ks ( ) s
(2.32)


1
1

2
2
.

s
s
+
1
s
s
+
1
( + j ) ( + j ) ( j ) ( j )
2
2

2
2

2.10 ,
( ):
) =0,079; m=19;
) =0,067; m=22;
) =0,061; m=24

, ,

g x ( ) =

cos

2
= arctg .

(1)
k =0

k +1

k cos[(2k + 1) ] ,

(2.33)


.
(2.33) 2.11.

34

S a ( )

g x ()

2.11
( ):
) . =0,0003; m=170;
) ,
:

[71]:

S X ( ) = 2 [1 cos( )]g X ( )d .

(2.34)

,
[9], (2.34)

S X ( ) = 4 g X ( )d 2 e j + e j g X ( )d .

(2.35)

, [51]
m

g X ( ) = k k ( , ) ,

(2.36)

k =0

(1.26).
(2.36) (2.35):
m

k =0

s =0

S X ( ) = 4 k Ak*, s ( ) B s* ( , ) ,

(2.37)

Ak*, s ( ) Bs* ( , ) ,
2.8.
2.8
Ak*, s ( )
Bs* ( , )

(1)
s

s
k

(1) s +1 ksks + s

(1) k s +1 ksks ++1s +1

s +1

[1 cos

s +1

( ) cos((s + 1) )] ,


1
(2s + 1)

(2s + 1) (2s + 1)2 2 + 2


1
( s + 1)

( s + 1) ( s + 1)2 2 + 2

= arctg

35

2.12
.
S x ( ) = 2[1 e cos(0 )] ,
0 = 5 , = 1 .
1,126

Structure function

0,626
0,126
-0,374
-0,874
-1,374
-1,874
-2,9 -2,5 -2,1 -1,7 -1,3 -0,9 -0,5 -0,1 0,33 0,73 1,14 1,55 1,96 2,37 2,77
t

2.12 ,
,
, ,
.

2.4
,
, [46],
. (2.37),
[46, 71]

m
bk , 1( m ) k , ( m , ) +
k =0
m

+ bk , 1( m ) k , ( m , ) exp( j )d .
k =0

g xy ( j ) =

1
4

(2.38)

u = m ,
exp( j m )
g xy ( j ) =

b (u, )exp( ju )du +


k =0

k ,

k ,

0
m

+ bk , k , ( u, )exp( ju )du =
k =0

m
m

exp( j m )
=
bk , Wk , ( j ) + bk , Wk , ( j ) .
4
k =0
k =0

(2.39)
36


m
1
cos

m bk , ReWk , ( j) +
4
k=0
m
m
m


+ bk , ReWk , ( j) sinm bk , ImWk , ( j) bk , ImWk , ( j) ;
k =0
k =0


k=0
m
1
Imgxy ( j) = sinm bk , ReWk , ( j) +
4
k=0
m
m
m


+ bk , ReWk , ( j) + cosm bk , ImWk , ( j) bk , ImWk , ( j) .
k =0
k =0


k=0
Re gxy ( j) =

(2.40)

(2.41)

k =0
m

k =0
m

k =0

k =0

A( ) = bk , ReWk , ( j ) + bk , ReWk , ( j );

(2.42)

B( ) = bk , ImWk , ( j ) bk , ImWk , ( j ) ,

(2.43)


1
[A( )cos m B( )sin m ];
4
1
Im g xy ( j ) = [B( )cos m A( )sin m ].
4
Re g xy ( j ) =

(2.44)
(2.45)

2.9 Re Wk ( j ) Im Wk ( j ) [46]

Wk ( j ) = k ( , )e j d .

(2.46)

2.9

Re Wk ( j )
Im Wk ( j )
.

( 1)k cos cos(2k + 1)

k 1
1

cos k cos k + 2 s
(2k + 1)
s =0

( 1)k cos cos + 2 k 1


s
k
k
(k + 1)
s =0

( 1)k cos sin(2k + 1)

k 1
1

cos k sin k + 2 s
(2k + 1)
s =0

k
k 1
(
1)

cos k sin k + 2 s

(k + 1)
s =0

37

3 -
3.1
,

(2.4), :
k(1) =

k max

S x ( ) k ( , )d ,

(3.1)

k max .
, :

S ( ) k ( , )d ,
(3.2)
2 x
k
, , . , (3.1). { } , , (1.28),
(1)k = k(1) k =

k max

k( 2 ) = S x ( i ) k ( i, ), J max ,

(3.3)

J max = ent k max ;



i = 1,K, J max .


(2 ) = k( 2 ) k(1) .

(3.4)

k(3) = S x ( i ) k ( i, ), k max , N ,

(3.5)

N .

(3.3) (3.5), , ,
(3) = k( 3) k( 2 ) .
(3.6)
[58], (3.2), (3.4), (3.6), . ,
k

38

k
= (1) + (2) + (3) = k( 3) k .
(3.7)
(3.1)
, . , (3) .
, (3)
k

k , [58]. , ( ).
[20, 46],
, , , , [50] :
k

= S x ( ) k k ( , ) d ,
k =0

0
.

(3.8)

[46, 51],
2

= S x ( )d 2 k k k

k =0

+ k2 k

k =0

(3.9)

k = k k .

(3.10)

(3.10) (3.9) :
2

= S x ( )d 2 k k k k
k =0

= S x ( )d k2 k
k =0

+ 2 k 2 k k + k2 k

k =0

+ 2 k k

(3.11)

k =0

(3.11)
, :
= min + R .
(3.12)
.

M [ R ] =

k =0

2
k

[ ]

M 2 k ,

(3.13)
39

[ ]

M 2 k .

D R

o2
= M R ,

(3.14)

[ ]

R = R M R = k

k =0

D R = k

o2

o 2

n M .

k =0 n =0

[ ]}

M 2 k .

(3.15)

( [13]), k

, :
k


o 2 o 2 M k , k = n;
M k n =


0, k n,
m
m
o4
4
4
D R = k M k = 3 k 4 k .
k =0
k =0

o 4

(3.16)
(3.17)

[55] , (3.17),
(3.15), , :
k

D R = k

2
n 1 + 2
2

k =0 n =0

k n

(3.18)

(2.13), .
(2.14)
2

1 = S x ( ) bk k ( , ) d =
k =0

0
2

= S x ( )d 2 bk k k

k =0

(3.19)

+ b k .
2

2
k

k =0

bn = n + Cn ,
2

1 = S x ( )d 2 k k k

k =0

+
k =0

2
k

2
k

2 C k k k

k =0

+ 2 C k k k

k =0

(3.20)

2
+ C k2 k .
k =0

(3.10),
C = C k Ck ,
(3.20)

(3.21)

1 = S x ( )d k2 k
k =0

+ 2 C k
k =0

+ 2 k
k

k =0

+ 2 C k C k
k =0

+ 2 C k k
k

k =0

+ C k
k =0

2
k

+
k =0

2
Ck

(3.22)
2

k .
40

, (3.22)
= min + R + R1 ,
m

R1 = 2 C k k

+ 2 C k

k =0

+ 2 C k C k

2
k

k =0

+ C k

k =0

k =0

(3.23)

k =0

(3.24)

k .

2
Ck


R1

[ ]
+ 2 C M [ ]
m

M [ R1 ] = 2 Ck M k + 2 M C k +
k

k =0

k =0

R1 = 2 C k k k

[ ]
+ 2 ( M [ ])
+ ( M [ ]) .
m

+ C k + M

Ck

2
k

k =0

2
Ck

k =0

k =0

+ 2 C k Ck
k =0

Ck

2
Ck

k =0

k =0

k =0

Ck

(3.25)
;
+

(3.26)

2
Ck

o 2

R1 (3.27).
o 2

R1 = 4 Ck Cn k n k n +
k =0 n=0
m

+ 4 C M C
k =0 n=0
m

])(

])

C M C k n +

+ 4 Ck Cn C k C n k n +
k =0 n=0

[ ])(

+ 2C M 2C
k =0 n =0
m

2
Cn

[ ])

M 2C k n +
n

])

+ 4 Ck k C M C k n +
k =0 n=0
m

(3.27)

+ 4 Ck Cn k C n k n +
k =0 n=0
m

[ ])

+ 2 Ck k 2C M 2C k n +
k =0 n=0

(
+ 2 (
m

[
M [

])
])(

+ 4 C M C Cn C n k n +
k =0 n=0
m

k =0 n=0
m

k
o

[ ])

2
Cn

[ ])

M 2C k n +
n

+ 2 Ck C k 2C M 2C k n .
k =0 n=0

41

, , R , [13], o

C ,
k

n , C k Cn , k Cn : (3.28), (3.29), (3.30).

R1 , ,
[55], (2.31).
o2

M k , k = n;
M k n =


0, k n,
o

(3.28)

o2
o o M C k , k = n;
M C k C n =


0, k n,
o o
o o M k C k , k = n;
M k C n =


0, k n.

(3.29)

(3.30)

, C C , C , R1
(3.32).
k

D R1 = 4 C k2 2 k
k =0

[(
+ M [(
m

+ 4 C k2 2 k

k =0

[
M [ ])(

+ 4 M C M C
k =0 n =0

k =0 n =0

2
Ck

2
Ck

2
Cn

])(

+ 4 C k2
k =0

C M C

[ ])]

M 2C

2
k

])]

2
k

[(

+ 2 M C M C
k =0 n =0

(3.31)

])

])(

[ ])

2
Cn

+ 2 C k M Ck 2C M 2C k
n
n
k =0 n =0

])

[ ])

m m
o

2
2
+ 4 C k M k C M C k n +
n
n
n
n
k =0 n =0

m m
o

2
2
+ 2 C k M k 2C M 2C k n +
n
n
k =0 n =0

m m
o

2
2
+ 4 C n M C M C Cn k n +
k
k
k =0 n =0
k k

[ ])]

M 2C
2

2
k

n .

42

D R1 = 4 C k C n n k n k
k

k =0 n =0
m

[(

+ 4 M C M C
k =0 n =0
m

+ 4 C k C n C Cn Ck Cn k
m

k =0 n=0

[(

[ ])(

+ M 2C M 2C
k

2
Cn

])(

k =0 n =0

C M C

2
k

])

k =0 n =0

[ ])

+ 2 C k M k 2C M 2C k
n
n
k =0 n =0

[(

k =0 n =0

[ ])

2
Cn

m m
o

+ 2 C k M Ck 2C M 2C k
n
n
k =0 n =0

[ ])]

M 2C
2

])

])(

2
k

(3.32)

m m
o

+ 4 C n M C M C Cn k
k
k
k =0 n =0
k k

+ 2 M C M C

m m
o

+ 4 C k M k C M C k
n
n
n
n
k =0 n =0

+ 4 C k C n Cn k Cn k

])]

[ ])]

M 2C

+
2

n .


, m .
,
, . ,
m .
R [46],
3.1 3.3, k , .
: ,
; ms ,

;
+ 2

; 1 = arctg
2
Bk =

2 + 2 +


;
2

2 = arctg

cos(1 )

.
cos( 2 )
k

43

, . ,
25139-74 [41],

= max{ j }, j = 1, K, M ,
(3.33)
M , P . , P = 0,95 , 29, .
3.1 ()

S x

21 e

21 e

21 e

21 e

/ 2
k

2 ( 1) (2 ms )

+ / 2 + / 2

] m

(1 + )] m

(1 )] m

/ 2
2 ( 1) (2 m s )

+ /2 + /2
s

(1 + + 3)]

k
/ 2 2 + / 2


+ / 2 + / 2 + / 2
k 1

2 / 2 / 2
k

2 ( 1) (2 m s )

( + / 2) 2 + / 2

2k
/ 2

+

+ / 2 + / 2
k 2

4 (2 )
k

2 ( 1) (2 m s )

k +3
3 (2 + )

3 4
3 2 282 (1 + 2k ) + 2 2 2 (4k (k + 1) 7 ) + 644 +

ms
21 e

k 1

cos( ) m s


2 1 e
cos( ) + sin( )

ms

(
2(( 1) (2 m ) 2 B

2 ( 1) (2 ms ) 2 B k cos(1 ) cos(k2 (k + 1)1 )


k

cos(1 )(cos(k 2 (k + 1)1 )

sin(k6 2 (k + 1)6 1 )

2 ( 1) (2 ms ) 2 Bk cos(7 1 )(cos(k2 (k + 1)1 ) +



2 1 e
cos( ) sin( )

+ sin(k 2 (k + 1)1 )
ms

3.2 ()
o

S x

21 e

] m

1
s

2 (2 ms ) 2 (2k + 1) CksCks + s ( 1)
(2s + 1) +
s =0

44

3.2

S x

21 e

21 e

21 e

(1 + )] m

(1 )] m

(1 + + 3)]

s ( 2 s + 1) + 2

2 (2 ms ) 2 (2k + 1) CksCks + s ( 1)
((2s + 1) + ) 2
s =0

(2s + 1)
s

2 (2 ms ) 2 (2k + 1) CksCks + s ( 1)
2
((2s + 1) + )
s =0

s
2 (2 ms ) 2 (2k + 1) Cks Cks + s ( 1)
s =0

82 + 9 (2s + 1) + 3(2s + 1) 2 2

3((2s + 1) + )3

ms

s
2 (2 ms ) 2 (2k + 1) CksCks + s ( 1)
s =0


21 e
cos( ) m s

(2s + 1) +

2
2
((2s + 1) + ) +
k

s
(
)

2
2
m
2
(
2
k
1
)
CksCks + s ( 1)


s =0
2 1 e
cos( ) + sin( )

(2 s + 1) + 2

ms
2
2
((2s + 1) + ) +
k

s
(
)

2
2
m
2
(
2
k
1
)
CksCks + s ( 1)


s =0
2 1 e
cos( ) sin( )

(2 s + 1)

ms
((2s + 1) + ) 2 + 2

3.3 ()

S x

21 e

21 e
21 e

21 e

ms

] m

(1 + )] m

(1 )] m

(1 + + 3)]
2

1
k s

2 (2 ms ) 2 (k + 1) CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)
( s + 1) +
s =0

k s ( s + 1) + 2

2 (2 ms ) 2 (k + 1) CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)
(( s + 1) + ) 2
s =0

( s + 1)
k s

2 (2 ms ) 2 (k + 1) CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)
2
(( s + 1) + )
s =0

k s
2 (2 ms ) 2 (k + 1) CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)
s =0

2
8 + 9 ( s + 1) + 3( s + 1) 2 2

3(( s + 1) + )3

45

3.3
o

S x

k s
2 (2 ms ) 2 (k + 1) CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)
s =0


21 e
cos( ) m s

( s + 1) +

(( s + 1) + ) 2 + 2
k

k s
(
)

2
2
m
2
(
k
1
)
CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)


s =0
2 1 e
cos( ) + sin( )

( s + 1) + 2

ms
2
2
(( s + 1) + ) +
k

k s
(
)

2
2
m
2
(
k
1
)
CksCks ++1s +1 ( 1)


s =0
2 1 e
cos( ) sin( )

( s + 1)

ms
(( s + 1) + ) 2 + 2

,
k , R ,
29 , k .
,
,
, :
1. ;
2. N=5000;
3. ;
4. ;
5. ;
6. ;
7. ;
8. ;
9. k ;
10. ;
11. k ;
12. ;
13. ;
14. ;
15. k ;
46

16. 12-15 27 ;
17.
;
18. 7-17 ;
19. 3-18 N=2000 N=1000;
20. 2-19 .
, . , , , - . . , , , , , . 3.1. , ,
.

( 4). ,
, .

( , , ).


R R
, . 3.4 3.17.
,
. , k ,
(, (3.32)). 3.18 3.19 , :
= M [( M [ ])( M [ ])].
(3.34)
k

3.18 3.19 k n
, .
,
, , ,
. , k

47

, :
, k n .
k

3.1 ,

48

3.4 R

3.5 R

5000

0,0015
0,0009
0,0011

2000

1000

0,0021
0,0013
0,0022

0,0028
0,0029
0,0039

3.6 R

5000

0,0024
0,0023
0,0022

5000

0,0012
0,0011
0,0012

2000

1000

0,0029
0,0024
0,0018

0,0035
0,0033
0,0031

3.8 R

( S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) ms )
N

5000

0,0012
0,0016
0,0018

2000

1000

0,0034
0,0038
0,0031

0,0065
0,0069
0,0068

3.10 R
o
( S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) sin( ) m s )

5000

2000

1000

0,0039
0,0038
0,0039

0,0045
0,0052
0,0059

0,0017
0,0011
0,0013

2000

1000

0,0035
0,0039
0,0029

0,0045
0,0047
0,0046

3.7 R

( S x ( ) = 2[1 e (1 + + 2 2 3)] ms )

( S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 ) ms )
o

( S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + ) ms )

( S x ( ) = 2 1 e ms )

5000

0,0018
0,0011
0,0013

2000

1000

0,0031
0,0037
0,0029

0,0065
0,0052
0,0059

3.9 R
( S x ( ) = 21 e cos( ) + sin( ) ms )
o

5000

0,0013
0,0011
0,0018

2000

1000

0,0039
0,0029
0,0032

0,0059
0,0049
0,0065

3.11
o

R ( S x ( ) = 2 1 e

5000

0,0003
0,0002
0,0003

] m )
s

2000

1000

0,0004
0,0004
0,0005

0,0006
0,0005
0,0007

49

3.12

R ( S x ( ) = 2 1 e

5000

0,0002
0,0004
0,0003

3.13

(1 + )] m )

2000

1000

0,0004
0,0007
0,0006

0,0005
0,0009
0,0008

5000

0,0003
0,0003
0,0002

( S x ( ) = 2[1 e (1 + + 2 2 3)] ms )

0,0002
0,0002
0,0003

2000

1000

0,0005
0,0006
0,0004

0,0006
0,0008
0,0006

5000

0,0003
0,0004
0,0006

5000

2000

1000

0,0004
0,0005
0,0007

0,0007
0,0007
0,0009

0,0002
0,0002
0,0003

1000

0,0004
0,0006
0,0005

0,0006
0,0007
0,0006

cos( ) ms )

2000

1000

0,0008
0,0008
0,0007

0,0009
0,0009
0,0008

3.17 R
o
( S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) sin( ) m s )

( S x ( ) = 21 e cos( ) + sin( ) ms )

(1 )] m

2000

R ( S x ( ) = 2 1 e

3.16 R

5000

3.15

3.14 R
N

R ( S x ( ) = 2 1 e

5000

0,0003
0,0002
0,0003

2000

1000

0,0004
0,0004
0,0005

0,0006
0,0005
0,0007

3.18 k n

( S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + ) ms )
o

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

-0,001

-0,081

0,016

0,006

-0,002

-0,001

0,004

-0,001

-0,004

-0,005

-0,028

0,072

0,084

-0,003

-0,081

-0,004

-0,001

-0,014

0,014

-0,001

0,017

0,016

-0,005

-0,001

-0,01

-0,091

0,076

-0,005

0,006

-0,028

-0,014

-0,01

-0,001

0,012

0,002

-0,002

0,072

0,014

-0,091

-0,001

-0,007

-0,002

-0,001

0,084

-0,001

0,076

0,012

-0,007

-0,01

0,004

-0,003

0,017

-0,005

0,002

-0,002

-0,01

50

3.19 k n

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

( S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) ms )
9 10 11 12 13 14 15

-0,001

-0,005

0,022

-0,013

-0,007

0,075

0,011

-0,014

-0,001

0,004

-0,023

-0,003

0,049

-0,007

-0,005

-0,001

-0,045

-0,046

0,082

-0,006

0,061

-0,001

0,013

0,006

-0,022

0,03

-0,011

-0,017

0,023

-0,003

-0,005

-0,045

-0,012

0,013

0,011

-0,001

0,097

-0,001

0,013

-0,035

-0,022

0,039

-0,022

-0,019

0,004

0,022

-0,046

-0,012

-0,006

-0,029

0,008

-0,008

0,01

-0,014

0,095

0,093

-0,029

0,003

0,003

-0,003

-0,013

0,082

0,013

-0,006

-0,088

0,086

0,01

-0,017

0,018

-0,011

-0,003

0,02

-0,003

0,017

0,011

-0,007

-0,006

0,011

-0,029

-0,088

-0,007

-0,002

0,094

-0,091

0,005

-0,028

-0,009

0,069

-0,001

0,009

0,075

0,061

-0,001

0,008

0,086

-0,007

-0,007

0,002

0,028

-0,071

0,012

-0,001

0,004

0,001

-0,002

0,011

-0,001

0,097

-0,008

0,01

-0,002

-0,007

-0,012

0,007

0,053

-0,002

0,017

-0,007

-0,069

0,016

-0,014

0,013

-0,001

0,01

-0,017

0,094

0,002

-0,012

-0,008

-0,061

0,01

-0,013

0,07

0,004

-0,001

-0,001

0,006

0,013

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0,018

-0,091

0,028

0,007

-0,008

-0,005

-0,05

0,014

-0,001

0,002

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0,004

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0,095

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0,005

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0,053

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0,001

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0,002

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0,03

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0,093

-0,003

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0,012

-0,002

0,01

-0,05

-0,084

-0,081

-0,016

0,01

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-0,003

-0,011

0,039

-0,029

0,02

-0,009

-0,001

0,017

-0,013

0,014

-0,02

-0,081

-0,066

-0,027

0,01

0,049

-0,017

-0,022

0,003

-0,003

0,069

0,004

-0,007

0,07

-0,001

0,001

-0,016

-0,066

-0,006

-0,004

-0,007

0,023

-0,019

0,003

0,017

-0,001

0,001

-0,069

0,004

0,002

-0,014

0,01

-0,027

-0,006

-0,004

-0,005

-0,003

0,004

-0,003

0,011

0,009

-0,002

0,016

-0,001

0,095

0,002

-0,094

0,01

-0,004

-0,004

3.2 ,

, , M k ,
k

[ ]
M [ ]. 3.2 3.22.
k

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
1

2
5000

4
2000

1000

5000

4
2000

1000

3.2 (- 3.3 (o

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e ms )

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + ) ms )
o

51

0,06
0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
1

5000

2000

1000

5000

2000

1000

3.4 (- 3.5 (-

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
-0,01 1

0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
-0,01 1

5000

11 13 15

2000

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + + 2 2 3) ms )

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 ) ms )

1000

5000

11 13 15

2000

1000

3.6 (- 3.7 (o
, So x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) + sin( ) ms )
, S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) m )

5000

11 13 15

2000

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
-0,01 1

1000

5000

2000

1000

3.8 (- 3.9 (o

, S ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) sin( ) m )
,
S
ms )
x ( ) = 2 1 e

0,04

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

0,03
0,02
0,01
0
1

2
5000

4
2000

1000

2
5000

4
2000

1000

3.10 (-

3.11 (-

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + ) ms )

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 ) ms )

52

0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

0,04
0,03
0,02

5000

2000

0,01
0
-0,01 1 3

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21

5000
1

1000

3.12 (o
, S x ( ) = 2[1 e (1 + + 2 2 3)] ms )
0,04
0,03
0,02

2000
2

1000
3

3.13 (-

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) ms )
0,03
0,02
0,01

0,01
0
-0,01 1 3

0
1

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21

5000
1

2000
2

1000
3

0,03

0,02

0,02

0,01

0,01

5000

2000

0,03

0,02

0,02

0,01

0,01

5000

2000

1000

1000

5000

3.18 (, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 ) ms )
o

2000

0,03

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + ) ms )
0,04

3.17 (-

0,04

5000

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e ms )

1000

3.16 (-

3
1000

0,04

2
2000

0,03

9 11 13 15 17 19 21

3.15 (, S ( ) = 21 e cos( ) sin( ) m )

0,04

1
5000

3.14 (, S ( ) = 21 e cos( ) + sin( ) m )


o

3 5

4
2000

1000

3.19 (-

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e (1 + + 2 2 3) ms )
o

53

0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0
1

3 5
1
5000

9 11 13 15 17 19 21
2
2000

5000
1

3
1000

3.20 (o

3 5

, S x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) ms )

9 11 13 15 17 19 21
2000
2

1000
3

3.21 (, So x ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) + sin( ) ms )

, 3.2 3.22,
,
, (,
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
) , 5000
2000
1000
1
2
3
N 3.22 ( , S ( ) = 2 1 e cos( ) sin( ) m )


k (, ).
, k (2.5), m
[56] ( 3.23).
,
0,06
0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

m
mopt
0
3.23 :
1 ;
2
3.23 , mopt, ,
, . , 54


[58],
m .
[66] - . ,
.
3.24
, m = 30 ,
.


(

= 0.081 ),
[66] ( = 0.007 ),

3.24
[58].
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( )
, ,
3 ( Mathcad).

3.3

, . , [9, 26, 27].

[62].
g X ( )
, X (t ) .

55

,
[28]:
g X ( ) =

X (t )e

jt

dt.

(3.35)


gn =

1
N

N 1

xk e

2nk
N

(3.36)

k =0

n ; k ( 0 N-1).
, , , , , , , . , [14, 17, 26, 27, 28], , ,
,
( 3.20 ,
[28]).
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1
gn =
N

N 1

x W e
k =0

2nk
N

(3.37)

,
, [15, 46,
55]. , , , ,
[9, 14, 26, 27, 28],
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3.20

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0.42 0.5 cos(2k N ) +
+ 0.08 sin (4k N )
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(
)
)
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56

3.20

, Wk

0.54 0.46 cos(2k N )

0.281 0.521 cos(2k N ) +


+ 0.198 sin (4k N )



,
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:
;
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(3.38)

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sin( )
2
k =0

k ( , )
d

(3.39)

k ; k ( , )
; m ; .
(3.39) (3.38), [46], ,
3.21.
:
G(1 , 2 ) = G x ( 2 ) G x (1 ) , 57

.

.
3.21 ,

.
3.21
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1
2

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k

k =0

s =1

1
2

1
2

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= arctg

(1)
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( 2 s + 1)

k (1) s +1 C ks+ s C ks arctg

k s +1


C ks++1s +1C ks arctg

( s + 1)

, -,
( ,
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. 3.25.

3.25
58

,

( 3.22),

.
3.22


1.
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1. ,

2.

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59

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( , ), N t .

62

4.3
Generate. Process 2, .


[55] ( 4.5 W1(j)
).



.
[55]:
N
N
(4.2)
z n = ai vn i bi z n i .
i =0

g (t )
f (t )
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4.4

i =1

63

V (t )

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4.5
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4.6

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( 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4),

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64

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4.7
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4.1
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[n_0]

[n_1]

[n_N-1]

N-1

,
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4.2
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[NL]

[dt]

[SxR_0]

[SxR_1]

65

4.2

[SxR_N-1]

N-1

[SxL_0]

[SxL_1]

[SxL_N-1]

N-1
4.3

[df]

[R0]

[R1]

[R2]

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N-1

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: , , ).
4.4
[BasisR]
[AlphaR]

[mR]

[bR_0]

[bR_1]

66

4.4
[bR_m]

[BasisL]

[AlphaL]

[mL]

[bL_0]

[bL_1]

[bL_m]

[R0]

[R1]

[R2]

[R3]

[ErrMetR]

[ErrMetL]

[MList]

[XShft]

[XCntr]

[ErrSDR]
[ErrSDL]

Extract part :
, N s , , N t ( 4.8).
.
. . .
. N s , N t .

67

4.8
,
, .
( 4.8)
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.

68

4.9
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;
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Insert after
N t .
, , N t +1 .
Add at the beginning
;
Add to the end
;
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, .
69

4.3

.
( 4.10).
, .
(Reference point count), Define. ( 4.11).

4.10

( 4.11):
Upside down
S x S x (t ) = S x (t ) ;
Max to beginning
;
Normalize
[0,1];

70

Centre .
M [ S x (t )]
S x ( ) , *
Centre.
, , ,
4.11
.
( , , )
( 4.12). (m), , .

[ ms , mt ] ( 4.12), m . ( )
, *, - 4.12
m
( 4.12). * ,
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k bk ,
( bk

).

( 4.10):
2
;
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,
b

2
f (x )dx < .

(5.1)

L2 - f ( x ) L2 . , c f ( x ) L2 , c = const .
2. f (x ) ,

f =

2
f (x )dx .

(5.2)

,
f 0 , f = 0 , f ( x ) 1.
;
cf = c f , , f = f ;
2.
f +g f + g .
3.
L2 , ,
( f , g) = f g
f g L2 .
( f , g ) :
( f , g ) 0 , ( f , g ) = 0 , f = g ;
1.
2.
( f , g ) = (g , f ) ;
3.
( f , g ) ( f , h ) + (h , g ) .
A ( f , g ) , A . 86

, L2 .
L2 . , L2 .
3. f L2 f1 , f 2 , , > 0
N , n > N
f f n < , ..
b

lim [ f n ( x ) f ( x )] dx = 0.
2

(5.3)

.
4. f (x ) g ( x ) , [a , b] , ,
b

f (x )g (x )dx = 0 .

(5.4)

5. f (x ) , [a , b] ,
,
b

f (x )dx = 1 .

(5.5)

2
f (x )dx =
a

f (x ) =

f (x )
.
f

6. 0 ( x ) , 1 ( x ) , ,
[a , b] , ,
, . , { k ( x )} ,
b

1, k = n;
0 , k n.

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a

(5.6)

7. 0 ( x ) , 1 (x ) , ,
[a , b] , ,
:
b
k 2 , k = n;
(5.7)
k (x ) n (x )dx =
0 , k n.
(x )
, ,k (x ) = k .
a

87

8. { ,k (x )} f (x ) L2 .
b

k = f ( x ) ,k ( x )dx

(5.8)

f (x ) { ,k (x )}.
{ k ( x )} f (x )

k =

f (x ) k (x )dx .

(5.9)

9. f (x ) = k ,k ( x )
k =0

f (x ) { ,k (x )}.
,
f (x )
m

f m ( x ) = k ,k ( x ) ,

(5.10)

k =0

, .. f f m . (. 6),
f fm

m
= f ( x ) k ,k ( x ) dx = f
k =0

k2 .

(5.11)

k =0

.
,
m

k2

(5.12)

k =0

m ,

k2

(5.13)

(5.14)

k =0

k2 =
k =0

.
(5.14) (5.12)
lim f f m = 0.
n

(5.15)

, , f m ( x )
f ( x ) .
(5.12)
f fm

m
= f ( x ) k k ( x ) dx = f
k =0

k2 k .
2

(5.16)

k =0

88

10. { ,k (x )} , L2 .
. { ,k (x )} ,
f ( x ) g ( x ) L2
b

f ( x )g ( x )dx = ak bk ,

(5.17)

k =0

ak = f ( x ) ,k ( x )dx ,

(5.18)

bk = g ( x ) ,k ( x )dx .

(5.19)

a
b

.
. { ,k (x )} f ( x ) L2 , f (x )
{ ,k (x )}
E [a , b] , ..

k ,k ( x )dx .
f (x )dx =
k =0
E

(5.20)

11. { ,k (x )}, [a , b]
L2 , , L2
, { ,k (x )}.
. , { ,k (x )} ,
, .
12. [a , b] ( x ) . { k (x )} , [a , b] , ( x ) ,
b

k 2 , k = n;

0 , k n.

k (x ) n (x ) (x )dx =

(5.21)

{ k (x )} ( x ) -

k (x ) = (x ) k ( x ) . , k = k .

,
:
1. [a , b] ;
2. ;
3. k- ();

89

4. k- ;
5. k- ;
6. k- () ;
7. k- ;
8. k- ;
9.
;
10.
;
11.
;
12.
.
, 1-8
, 9-12 .
, , , .
. [8]:
d n [ ( x ) X n ]
1
,
(5.22)
n (x ) =
K n (x )
dx n
K n ; X n , n .

4.
,
[8], .
[a ,b] , .
, k (a ) k (b ) .
, (5.21).
2
, k
, 5.
.
1-
.

90

2- k ( x ) , (a , b ) .
, , .

.
5.1.2
1. k - :
1.1. ( )
.
1.2. . 1.1.
2. [a , b] . k - .
3. :
3.1.
(1.22). (k , m ) ,

( j = 0, k , i = 0, m ).
3.2. k - , , 5.1 5. .
(k, m ) , 3.1.
4. 1- ;
5. 2- .
6. .

5.1.3.
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCad.
4. MathCad.
5.
.
6.
.
7. [a,b]
k- .
8. .
9. k- ,
, 5.1 5.
.
91

10. 1- .
11. 2- .
12. .
5.1.4
1. ? ?
2. ?
3. ?
?
4.
? ?
5. ?
6.
? ?
7. 1- 2- . ?

5.2
:

5.2.1
, [0, )
[51]. , :
x = 1 ae c ,
(5.23)
; - , ; a , (. .5.2 5).
(5.23)
:

k 2 , k = m;
c
c
c
c
(5.24)
k (1 ae ) m (1 ae ) (1 ae )d (1 ae ) =
0

0, k m .

, :

92

k 2

, k = m;
c
c
c
c
k (1 ae ) m (1 ae ) (1 ae )e d = ac
0
0, k m .

(5.25)

(5.25) , k ( x ) :

k , f ( , ) = k (1 ae c ) (1 ae c )e

c
2

(5.26)

[0, ) ( , ) = 1

k,f

.
(5.27)
ac
k - 5.2 5.
, [51]:

k( 2,) = k , f ( , )d .

(5.28)

k , = k , f ( , )d = k , f .
(4 )

(5.29)

f
.

[0 , 1] ( x ) = 1
k

Dk ( x ) = C ks C ks++s1+1 ( 1)
s =0

k s

(1 x )

s
2

(5.30)

[0 , ) .
,
Dk ( 0 ) = 1 ,
(5.31)

1
1
, m = k;
2

(5.32)
Dk = Dk ( x )Dm ( x )( x )dx = k + 1
0
0 , m k .
(5.23) [0 , 1]
[0, ) x = 1 e 2 . (5.32) :
1

, m = k;

2
2
2
2 Dk ( 1 e
)Dm ( 1 e
)e ( )d = k + 1
(5.33)
0
0 , m k .
(5.33) , , [0, ) ( ) = 1 .

93

Dk ( , ) = e Dk (1 e 2 ) = C ks C ks++s1+1 ( 1 )k s e ( s +1) .

(5.34)

(5.32) :
1

, m = k;

Dk ( , )Dm ( , )( )d = 2 (k + 1)
0
0 , m k ,

(5.35)

( 1) .
= D ( , )d =
(k + 1)

(5.36)

s =0

(2 )

k ,

5.2.2
1.
k - :
1.1. k , 5, (5.25).
.
1.2. , , 5. . 1.1.
k - 2.
.
:
3.
3.1.
(5.27). (k , m ) ,
( j = 0 , k , i = 0 , m ) .
3.2. k - , , 5.
.
(k , m ) , 3.1.
, 4.
(5.28) (5.29). k( 2,) k(4,) k - . .
.
5.
5.2.3
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCad.
4. MathCad.
5. .
94

6. , , 5.
7. k- , , 5 .
8.
k- . k .
9. k- .
10. .
5.2.4
1.
?
2.
, ?
3.
?
4. ?
?
5. ,
?
6. ?
, .
7. ?

5.3

:

5.3.1
k- k max
:
k ( > k max , ) ,
(5.37)
,
.
,

, [ , ] .
5.1 k -
95

. ,
[0, k max ] 0.

5.1
[51]:
8
t =
,
(5.38)
k''
max

,
k''
max

.
:

(5.39)
n = ent k max + 0,5 ,
t

ent[ ] , k max k- , t .
5.3.2
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. = 0 ,02 , 0 ,05, 0 ,1 .
5. .
6. ,
k max
.
7. , , .
8. .
9. .
10. .
96

11. .
12. ( ,
, , ) .
13. . 1.4-1.12 .
14. . 1.3-1.13
.
15. . 1.2-1.14 .
16. k max = f1 (k / ) .
17. k max = f 2 ( / k ) .
18. t = f 3 (k / ) .
19. .
5.3.3
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCad.
4. MathCad.
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
5.3.4
1. .
2. ?
3.
?
4. ?

5.4
:

5.4.1
Lk ( , ) , Lk ( , )
Leg k ( , ) , Dk ( , ) (. 5.1) [63].
97

5.1 , ,
2
{ k ( , )}
k (0, )
k ( )

k! ( ) 2
e

Lk ( , ) =
(s!)2
s =0 (k s )!

Leg k ( , ) = Cks Cks+ s ( 1 )s e (2 s +1)

s =0

Dk ( , ) = Cks Cks++1s +1( 1 )k s e ( s +1)

s =0

1
2 (2k + 1)

( 1)k

1
2 (k + 1)

(. 5.2)

Wk ( j ) = k ( , )e j d
0

(5.40)

5.2
Wk ( j )

j / 2
1

j + / 2 j + / 2
k 1
(2s + 1) j
1

(2k + 1) + j s =0 (2s + 1) + j
k 1
1
j (s + 1)

j + (k + 1) s =0 j + (s + 1)

, 5.2, ,

[63]:
2
k 1 j 1 / 2 ( )
1
s
[ s (0, )] .
(5.41)
Wk ( j ) =

2
2
1 / 2 k ( ) + j s =0 j + 1 / 2 s ( )
(5.41)
2
2
k 1 j 2 ( ) 1
2 k ( )
s
[ s (0, )].
(5.42)
Wk ( j ) =

2
2
1 + j 2 k ( ) s =0 j 2 s ( ) + 1
(5.43)
2
2
tg s = 2 s ( ) , s = arctg 2 s ( ) .
2 k ( )
Wk ( j ) =
1 + jtgk

k 1

s =0

jtg s 1
[ s (0, )] =
jtgs + 1

k 1
2

= 2 k ( ) ( 1)k cos k exp j k + 2 s k (0, ) .

s =0

(5.44)

k 1
2
k
Re Wk ( j ) = 2 k ( ) ( 1) cos k cos k + 2 s k (0 , ) ;
s =0

(5.45)

98

k 1
2
k
Im Wk ( j ) = 2 k ( ) ( 1) cos k sin k + 2 s k (0 , ) ;
s =0

2
Wk ( j ) = 2 k ( ) cos k ;

k 1

k
s

k 1

s =0

k ( j ) = k + 2 s + ent
+ 0,5 .

s =0

(5.46)
(5.47)
(5.48)

. , , (5.44) (. 5.3).

k(2,) = k ( , )d = Wk (0, ) = 2 k ( ) [ k (0, )] .


2

(5.49)

5.3

k(2,)

2( 1)

1
(2k + 1)

( 1)k
(k + 1)


[61]:

( j ) d

(5.50)

Wm ( j ) max
Wm ( j ) ;

Wm ( j ) .
5.2.
2

99

Wm ( j )

Wm ( j ) max

5.2.
5.4.
5.4


4
(2m + 1)
2
(m + 1)
2

, [70]:
( 2 ) =

,
(5.51)
2
(2 )

(2 )

k =

( )d
k

(5.52)

k ( ) max
, , ,

= 0,02 uk(2 ) =

0.4

[61]:
=

0 ,2

(5.53)


, 2.5.
100

5.4.2
1. m = 0 4 = const
, (5.45)(5.48).
2. / = const
Wm* ( j ) = f1 (m / ) m=0-4.
2

3. m = const
2
W ( j ) = f 2 ( / / m ) .
4.
k - .
5. .
*
m

5.4.3
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCad.
4. MathCad.
2
5. Wm* ( j ) = f1 (m / ) m = 0 4 .

6. Wm* ( j ) = f 2 ( / / m ) .
7. k - .
8. .
2

5.4.4
1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?

5.5
:

101

5.5.1
2.1-2.2.
5.5.2
1. , -

{ k }k =0 ,...m . { k }k =0 ,...m .

( m / , )
.
k(4 )
, = 0 5 . (. 5.2).
3. ( 2 ) ( / m , ) , m = 2 6 , = 0 5 (

2. (1) (m / , ) =

, . 2.5-2.7; =

).

( / m , ) , opt .
(3 )
( / m, opt ) min(1) (m / , opt ) .
4. min

5. 1(3 ) ( / m , 1 ) , 2(3 ) ( / m , 2 ) , 1(1) (m / , 1 ) ,


2(1) (m / , 2 ) . 1 2 2.5.
6. , 2.3, = 1, = 5, 1 , 2 , opt , m = 5, 10 .
7. .
5.5.3
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCad.
4. MathCad.
5. .
6.
{ k }k =0 ,...m .
7. 1 2 .
8. (1) (m / , ) ( 2).
9. (2 ) ( / m , ) ( 3).
(3 )
( / m, opt ) min(1) (m / , opt ) ( 4).
10. min
11. 1(3 ) ( / m , 1 ) , 2(3 ) ( / m , 2 ) , 1(1) (m / , 1 ) ,
2(1) (m / , 2 ) ( 5).
102

12.
13.

( 6).
.

5.5.4
1. -

?
2.
?
3.
m ?
5.6666661
5.6

5.6.1
2.1-2.2.
5.6.2
1. , m { k }k =0 ,...m {bk }k =0 ,...m . { k }k =0 ,...m {bk }k =0 ,...m .

2. b(2 ) ( / m , ) , m = 2 6 , = 0 5 . b(2 ) ( / m , ) ,
opt .

)
( / m, opt ) b(2,min) (m / , opt )
3. b(1,min

)
(m / , opt ) .
(1,)min ( / m , opt ) (2,min

4. b(1,1) ( / m, 1 ) , b(1,2) ( / m , 2 ) , b(2,1) (m / , 1 ) ,

b(2,2) (m / , 2 ) . 1 2 2.5.
5. , 2.3, = 1, = 5, 1 , 2 , opt , m = 5, 10 .
6. .

103

5.6.3
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCAD.
4. MathCAD.
5. .
6.
{bk }k =0 ,...m , 1 2 .

7. b(2 ) ( / m , ) ( 2).
)
( / m, opt ), b(2,min) (m / , opt ), (1,)min ( / m, opt )
8. b(1,min

)
(m / , opt ) ( 3).
(2,min

9. b(1,1) ( / m , 1 ) , b(1,2) ( / m , 2 ) , b(2,1) (m / , 1 ) ,

b(2,2) (m / , 2 ) ( 5).
10. ( 6).
11. .

5.6.4
1. -

?
2. ?
3.
m ?
5.7
:

5.7.1
2.3-2.4.
5.7.2
1. , , , MathCAD,
, { k }k =0 ,...m
min ( , m ) (. 5.5).

104

2.
, .
3.
{bk }k =0 ,...m , .
4. k
. .
5. [ ] = f 2 (m / k ) .
6. .
5.7.3
1. .
2. .
3. , MathCad.
4. MathCad.
5. .
6. , .
7. .
5.7.4
1. -

?
2. ?
3.
? ?

105


:
1. ,
. , .
2.

.
3. . .

, .
MS Word MS
Excel.

106


1. Gasparov, M.S. High-frequency axial vibration in a combined pump unit with
gear stage [] / M.S. Gasparov, A.N. Kruchkov, L.V. Rodionov, E.V.
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19. , ..
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20. , ..
[] / .. //
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;
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XXXIV . : , 2008. . 129.
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// 2007: , . : -. -, 2007. .
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2009 . : , 2009. . 8-9.
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. 2007. - 15. . 123-127.


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[] / ..
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[] / .. , .. .: . . 1968. 256 .
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. [] / .. , .. .: ,
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[] / .. .: , 1979. 416.
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76. , .. n- [] / .. // .
- 1956. - T. 37(79). - 1. - . 141-196.
77. , .. n-
[] / .. , .. . . - 1953. - T.
90. c. 385-388.

113

1

Mathcad

114

115

116

117

1.1 ( = 1 )

1.05

0.8

Lag( 0 , a , t)

0.6

Lag( 1 , a , t)
Lag( 2 , a , t)

0.4

Lag( 3 , a , t)
Lag( 4 , a , t)

0.2

Lag( 5 , a , t)
0

0.2

0.5

0.4
0

10

15

1.05

20

25

30

30

0.5
Leg( 0 , a , t)
Leg( 1 , a , t)
Leg( 2 , a , t)

Leg( 3 , a , t)

Leg( 4 , a , t)
Leg( 5 , a , t)

0.5

1.05

1
0

0.5

1.5

1.05

2.5

3.5

4.5

5
5

0.8

Drh( 0 , a , t)

0.6

Drh( 1 , a , t)
Drh( 2 , a , t)

0.4

Drh( 3 , a , t)
Drh( 4 , a , t)

0.2

Drh( 5 , a , t)
0

0.2

0.5

0.4
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
t

3.5

4.5

5
5

118

1.2 ( = 0.5 )


1.05

0.8

Lag( 0 , a , t )

0.6

Lag( 1 , a , t )
Lag( 2 , a , t )

0.4

Lag( 3 , a , t )
Lag( 4 , a , t )

0.2

Lag( 5 , a , t )
0

0.2

0.5

0.4
0

10

15

1.05

20

25

30

30

0.5
Leg( 0 , a , t )
Leg( 1 , a , t )
Leg( 2 , a , t )

Leg( 3 , a , t )

Leg( 4 , a , t )
Leg( 5 , a , t )

0.5

1.05

1
0

0.5

1.5

1.05

2.5

3.5

4.5

5
5

0.8

Drh( 0 , a , t )

0.6

Drh( 1 , a , t )
Drh( 2 , a , t )

0.4

Drh( 3 , a , t )
Drh( 4 , a , t )

0.2

Drh( 5 , a , t )
0

0.2

0.5

0.4
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
t

3.5

4.5

5
5

119

1.3 ( = 1.5 )


1.05

0.8

Lag( 0 , a , t )

0.6

Lag( 1 , a , t )
Lag( 2 , a , t )

0.4

Lag( 3 , a , t )
Lag( 4 , a , t )

0.2

Lag( 5 , a , t )
0

0.2

0.5

0.4
0

10

15

1.05

20

25

30

30

0.5
Leg( 0 , a , t )
Leg( 1 , a , t )
Leg( 2 , a , t )

Leg( 3 , a , t )

Leg( 4 , a , t )
Leg( 5 , a , t )

0.5

1.05

1
0

0.5

1.5

1.05

2.5

3.5

4.5

5
5

0.8

Drh( 0 , a , t )

0.6

Drh( 1 , a , t )
Drh( 2 , a , t )

0.4

Drh( 3 , a , t )
Drh( 4 , a , t )

0.2

Drh( 5 , a , t )
0

0.2

0.5

0.4
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
t

3.5

4.5

5
5

120

3

Mathcad

121

122

123

124

125

4

4.1


.

1 x k x (k )
e (x e )
k!

PLag k ( x )

( 1) ((1 x )

2 k

PLeg k ( x )

k !2

PDirk ( x )

s
k

s!
s
k
s
s x 1
Ck Ck + s

s =0
2
s =0

(k )

PDrhk ( x )

( x )

C C
s =0

s
k

C
s =0

s
k

s +1
k + s +1

s +1
k + s +1

( 1) (1 x )

( 1)

k s

k s

s 2

1 x

s 2

4.2 0 5

126

5


5.1
2
(x )
k
.

ex
1
PLag ( x )
k

PLeg k ( x )

1
PDrhk (x )

2
PDirk ( x )

Lag k ( , )

Dirk ( , )

5.2


2
(
k (0, / )
a, c)

k
k ( , )
ln(1)
s

1,

1
s ( )
2
Ck
e
1

s =0
s!

C C ( 1) e (

Legk ( , )
Drhk ( , )

2
2k + 1
1
k +1
2
k +1

s
k

s=0

s
k +s

s +1
k + s +1

( 1)

s +1
k + s +1

( 1)

C C
s =0

s
k

C C
s =0

s
k

2 s +1)

k s

k s

(2 ,2 )

e( s+1)

(1,2 )

e ( s+1)

(2 ,2 )

1
2 (2 k + 1)
1
2 (k + 1)
1
2 (k + 1)

( 1)

1
1

127

,
,


.

345 , , 18
, 12 , 40
,
7


, 90
,

.. .

27 ,
2
,


, 16 ,
.