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290.300

: ..
..

2001

624.014(076)
38.547
54


. . . ..

--

.., ..
: 54 290.300/.:
.. , .. .-:,2001.-36 .
" " " "
.

.
.
" ".
624.014(076)
38.547



290.300
:

..
22.05.01.
6084 1/16. . . 3.
.-. . 2,00. 100 .

. . . 2,09.

.
432027, , , 32.
, 432027, , , 32.

. , 2001
.. , .. , 2000

-3
1. 1.
.............................4
2. 2.
.........................7
3. 3.
.............................................10
4. 4.
....................................11
5. 5.
.....................13
6. 6. .15
7. 7. .17
8. 8. ...........................18
9. 9. -
........................................19
10. 10. ...............................21
11. 11.
.......................25
12. 12.
.......................29
13. 13. ..........................32
14. 14. ......34
15. 15.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
16. 16. . . 36
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36

-41. 1

: 1. (b,t1,t2).
2. .
3. (M,N,Q).
1.
.

. 1.

. 1.


, . :
wf=N/(tminlw)Rwfc),
tmin- ;
Rwf- , . 56[1];
c - ,
. 6[1];
lw=b-2a - (. . 1).
, .
, , ,
, .
a=tmin.

-5 2. .

. 2.
. 2.



:
max

wf =N/(tminlw)+6/(tminlw)Rwfc).
3. .
. 3.

. 3.

-6 .

:
2
wf =M/Wwf=6/(tminlw)Rwfc).
.
wf=QSwf/(Iwftmin)Rwsc,
Rws - ,
Rws=Rs=0,58Ry,
Ry - ,
. 51[1].
Swf - ;

2

Swf=tminlw/8.
Iwf - .
3

Iwf=tminlw/12.

2

red=

wf+3wf,av1,15Rwf.

wf,av=Q/(tminlw) - , .
( )
. ( ) 1:5.
t2-t14 .

-72. 2

:
1. (N).
2. .

1. (.4).
. 4.
:
=N/(2Ryc)

b1=b-2,
=(1520), (3040)
, .

t1=A/b1.

-8 .

:
lwfN/(fkwfRwf),
f - , . 34[1];
kwf- ,
;
Rwf- , . 56[1].

lw=lwf/4.

. 12.6 12.6 [1].

lw

2. (.5).
. 5.

lwf=2(b-a).

-9-


kwf=N/(2f(b-a)Rwf)

=N/(2b1t1)Ryc
3. (.6).

. 6.
1.

,
Nfr=fkfRwflwr,

lwr=2(b-a).

Nfl=N-Nfr.
1.

-103. 3

:
1. (F).
2. (l).
3. .
. 7.

. 7.
(b).
, M=Fl Q=F. .
:
2

wf =M/Wwf=3/(fkwflw)Rwfwfc,
lw=(b-2t) - .

-11 :
2
wz =M/Wwf=3/(zkwflw)Rwzwzc,
z - , . 34[1];
wz- , .11.2.[1];
Rwz=0,45Run- ;
Run - ,
. 51[1].

wf,av=Q/(fkwflw)Rwfwfc.

wz,av=Q/(zkwflw)Rwzwzc.



:

2

red=

wf+wf,avRwfwfc;

red=

wz+wz,avRwzwzc.

4. 4

:
1. (d1,d2).
2. .
3. (t).
4. .
5. .

-12 . 8.

. 8.
b h . 39[1]
.
, . (Nb),
d1,

Nb=RbtAbn,
Rbt- ,
. 58[1];
Abn- , . 62[1].
, d2, . , ,
Nb=RbsbAns,

-13 Rbs - ,
.58[1];
b - , . 35[1];
A - , . 62[1];
ns - .
. , ,

Nb=Rbpbd2t,
Rbp - , . 59[1];
d2 - ;
t - , .
5. 5

:
1. (d).
2. .
3. (t).
. 9

. 39[1]. , , ,

.
-
n0,85, c=1,18n n0,85. =bt, n=bt-2d.

-14-

. 9.

,
:
N=2RyA ( Ac).
,
, , :
Qbh=RbhbAbn/h,
Rbh - , Rbh=0,7Rbun;
Rbun- , .61[1];
,n- , .36[1];
Abn - , .62[1];
b=0,8 - ,
n<5.

-15,
:
N=4Qbh.

:
P=RbhAn.

.

6. 6

:
1. / (q).
2. /2 (Ry).
3. (l).

8239-89* 14-1-24-72.
,
:
M=ql2/8.


Wtr=M/(1,1Ryc),
c - ,
. 6[1].
Wtr , f/w (Wn=Wx). . 66[1] "".

-16 :
=M/(cWn)Ry.
, ,
,
.
,
f/l=(5/384)qnl3/(EJx)[f/l],
Jx - ;
[f/l] - ,
. 19[2];
qn=q/1,2 - ;
- , .63[1].

.

. . .
8239-89*,
14-1-24-72, .
. ,
. .
,
. " ",
. " "
,
8239-89* 14-2-24-72.

.

.

-177. 7

:
1. / (q).
2. /2 (Ry).
3. (l).
4. .

. ,
.
. . ,
. . .
,
. " ",
. " " :
Hw - ;
Bf - ;
Tw - ;
Tf - ;
A - 2;
DET -
%;
DET1 -
%;
F - .

.

-188.

:
1. (hw).
2. (tw).
3. (bf).
4. (tf).
5. (l).
6. (no).
7. (f).
8. /2 (Ry).

.
, .
, .
,
. " ",
. " " :
-
/;
-
/;
- /.

.

-199. 9

:
1. (N).
2. (lef).
3. /2 (Ry).

.

,
tr=N/(R),
R - , . 51[1].
:
itr,x=lx,ef/;

itr,y=ly,ef/,

- , . 72[1]
.

.
.

:
- ;
Jx,Jy - ;
ix,iy - ;
ix =

Jx/;

iy=

Jy/;

x,y - ;
x=lx,ef/ix;

y=ly,ef/iy.

-20 ,
. 19[1]. . 72[1] f 0.
=N/(A) cRy.

.
- .

, , . . .
"STER 1" - . :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
,
. 8509-93.
.
"STER 2" - .
:
- 8239-89;
- 8239-89;
- 8240-89;
- 8240-89;
- 8240-89;
- 14-2-24-72;
- 14-2-24-72.

-21
( ),
.
"STER 3" - .
:
- 8239-89;
- 8240-89.

( ),
.

.

.

, ,
.
10. 10

:
1. (F1).
2. ().
3. (Ry).
,
.
(. 10)
20-30 . :
b > F1/t/Ry,
F1 - ,
;

-22R - ,
52 [1];
t - .
. 30-40 .,
.
, .
:
lw

>

F1/(wfwfRwfkf),

Rwf - , 56 [1];
wf - ,
11.2 [1];
wf - , , 34 [1];
kf- , 12.8[1]

F1 Hmax
:
Hmax=Mmax/ho,
ho - .
:
= F1/(t1h)<Rs
F1 - ,
;
t1 - ;
h - ;
Rs - ,
1 [1].

:
wf=F1/(2flwkf)<Rwfwf

-23 max , :
wf=Hmax/Awf+Hmaxe/Wwf,
- max 1.
, :
wf=v2wf+2wf<Rwfwf
,
20 ., ..
, .
(. 11) , .

max :
l = Hmax/(2fkfRwfwf),
f - , 0,8t;
t - ,
:
t = 0.5v3bHmax/(lRy),
b - ;
Hmax- , .
. , , ,
:
Qbh=H1/nAbhRbh/h,
n - ;

-24-

.10. .

. 11. .

-25Abh - , 62[1];
h - , 36[1];
Rbh -
:
Rbh = 0.7Rbun
Rbun - , 61[1].
11. 11

.
:
1. ().
2. (N).
3. (Ry).
4. (lx).
5. (ly).

(. 12)

:
=N(1,25+2,2/)/(Ryc),
=M/N - ;
- , .
hw=-2tf, hw tf
hw/tw=40-80.
:
Aw=hwtw.
:
Af=0,5(A-Aw).

-26 :
bf = Af/tf.
,
(Ix,Iy); ix= Ix/A,iy= Iy/A;
(W=2Ix/); x=lx/ix, y=ly/iy.

:
= x

Ry/E.

73[1] h 0.
m=eA/Wx.
mef=m.
mef=20, .
mef>20, .
74[1] e.
s =N/(eA).
. :
1) mx=m=5; c=/(1+mx); 10[1]
c=3,14 E/Ry.
2) mx10, c=1/(1 + mxy/b),
y - 72[1] y.
b :
7 0

1=(Iy/Ix)(/ly)2(E/Ry);
=8(lytf/((hw+tf)bf))2(1+0,5(hw+tf)tw3/(bftf3).

0,1<<40
j 0=2,25+0,07,
40<<400
j 0=3,6+0,04-3,510-52
1<0,85
b=1,
1>0,85
b=0,68+0,211<1
3) 5<mx<10
c=c5(2-0,2mx)+c10(0,2mx-1),

-27-

. 12. (a).

().
. 13. (). ().

-28 c5=/(1+5), 10[1].


c10=1/(1+10y/b),
b - , mx>10.
y>c, c=3,14 E/Ry,
c<2/(1++v(1-)2+(16/)(M/(N(hw+tf))2),
d 0=4(Ix+Iy)/(A(hw + tf)2);
=2+0,156Ity2/(A(hw+tf)2);
It=0,433biti3.
:
=N/(cyA)<cRy

, :
bef/tf<(0.36+0.1)

E/Ry.

, :
hw/tw<[hef/tw],
[hef/tw] 28[1].
.

=N/A+Mhw/2Ix;
1=N/A-Mhw/2Ix;
= (-1)/.

<0,5
>1,0

0,5<<1,0

hw/tw<[hef/tw]; [hef/tw] 27[1];


hw/tw<4,35 ((2-1)E)/((2-+ 2+42));
hw/tw < 3,8 E/Ry;
.

-2912. 12


:
1. (1,2).
2. (N1,N2).
3. (Q1).
4. (Ry).
5. (lx).
6. (ly).

,
, .
.
:
N1=N1y2/h+M1/h;
N2=N2y1/h+M2/h,
h, y1=y2=h/2.
. :
1=N1/(0,8Ry);
2=N2/(0.8Ry).
. 12.
:
A1,A2 - ,
I1y,I2y - ,
i1y,i2y - ,
I1,I2
- ,

-30i1,i2
- ,
z2
- .
:
ho=-z2,
y1=A2h/(A1+A2),
y2=h-y1.
:
N1=N1y2/h+M1/h,
N2=N2y1/h+M2/h.
:
-
1x=l1/i1, f1 - 71[1].
=N1/1A1<Ry.
2x=l2/i2, f2 - 71[1].
= N2/2A2 <Ry.
-


1y=l1y/i1y, 1y - 71[1].
=N1/1yA1<Ry.
2y=l2y/i2y, 2y - 71[1].
=N2/2yA2<Ry.


:
A=A1+A2;
ix= Ix/A;
x=l1x/ix;
y=l1y/iy;

Ix=I1+A1y12+I2+A2y22;
Iy=I1y+I2y;
iy = Iy/A;
x - 72[1].
y - 72[1].

:
Qfic=7,15106(2330-E/Ry)N/,
=x.

Q1 Qfic.

(Q)

-31 : Nd=Q/2sin , sin . . 13.


:
Ad=Nd/(0,7cRy)
, d - ;
iyo - .
: =l/iyo, -
72[1].
: =Nd/(Ad)<cRy.

, :
ef=vx+A/Ad1,
=10a/(l), a=lp , =ho, l=0,5l1.
Ad1=2Ad - .
: =ef Ry/E.
, :

m1=M1Ay1/(N1Ix),
m2=M2Ay2*/(N2Ix),

y2*=y2+z2-0,5t.
75[1] fe :
=N1/(eA)<cRy;
=N2/(eA)<cRy.

, .

-3213. 13


:
1. (N1,N2).
2. (Ry).
3. (Rb).
: Rb=Rb, Rb - ,
=1,25 - , .
:
A1 = N1/R ,

A2 = N2/R.


: = A/A , A - ; A=A1+A2 - .
:
=Ni/Ai<R.
, :

, (. 13.).
(/).
. 8.6. [3] a 0
, : = qa2,
q=. />2, 1=(q2)/8.

, . (1/1), . 8.7. [3]
:2=qa12, 1/1<0,5 , 2=q12/2.

- (),
: = qc2/2.
,
:

-33t=

6Mmax/cRy.

.
.
- :
q=(c+0,5a1+t).
. .
. (kf)
(f=0.7). ,
lw :
lw=N1/(kffRwfwf),
wf- .11.2 [1]; lw85nkffRwf.
h=lw/n, n- , .

Mmax=qB2/8.

=q/(ht)Rs;

Rs=0.58Ry.


=Mmax/WcRy,
W=th2/6.
,
kf=N1/(fRwfwflw).
. 38[1].

-3414. 14

:
1. (bf,tf,hw,tw).
2. (Ry).
3. (l).
4. - (q).
5. ([f/l]).
. :
(I);
(W);
(S).
()
(Q), .
,
:
max=RyW.
max<, , .
:

Qmax=RsItw/S.
Qmax<Q, , .
gf=1,2
E=2,1105 , - :
qmax=(384EI[f/l]/5l3)f.
qmax<q,
.

.

-3515. 15

:
1. .
2. (Ry).
3. (l).
, ,
.
:
- ();
- (ix);
- (iy).
:
lefx=l

lefy=l.


:
:
x=lefx/ix,
.72[1] fx;
:
y=lefy/iy,
.72[1] fy.

lx1=0,5lefx:
x1=lx1/ix,

. 72[1] x1.

:
N1=xARy,

N2=yARy,

N3=x1ARy.

-3616. 16

:
1. .
2. (Ry).
3. (h).
4. (N).

.
, ,
lef=h; y=lef/iy, 1 0 . 72[1] y Nmax=yARy.
Nmax<N, . , :
lef=h;
lefy=0,5h.
(Ix,Iy),
: ix= Ix/A;
iy= Iy/A.

y=lefy/iy.
: lx=lef /ix;
72[1] .
Nx=xARy,

Ny=yARy.

,
.

1. II-23-81*. . .-.: , 1990.-96.


2. 2.01.07.-85. .-.: ,
1986.-35.
3. . / ..
...