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. English in Prac tice, . , , - . . , - . , , , . ., . - , , , , , , . . . (Units), , Iheir is/are, m u c h /m a n y - little/few , , . . . , , , , , . , , . , , , , , . - , , .


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, . , "", (Sections). U nits , Sections , . Sections . , )' , , , (, ). - . ( ) , ! ! - . , , . , , . . , , , , : . , (Present, Past, Future, Future in the Past), : ' '!' Continuous, Simple. , Simple Indefinite i^cex . )! , , , .
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Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Future Simple Future Continuous Future in the Past Simple Future in the Past Continuous Present PciTccl Simple Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple Pasl Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Simple Future Perfect C ontinuous Future in the Past Perfect Simple Future in the Past Perfect Continuous

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was writing will write will be writing would write would be writing has written lias been writing had written had been writing will have written will have been writing would have written would have been writing

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PART I GRAMMAR EXERCISES


UN IT 1 SENTENCES WITH THERE IS (are)5 Exercise 1. Give shoit answers to the following ques tions. A. P a t t e r n : Is there any water in your cup? Yes, there is. (No, there isnt.)

1, Is there any ink in your pen? 2. Is there any milk in the bottle? 3. Is there any bread on the plate? 4. Is there any cheese on the table? 5. Is there any wine in your glass? 6. Is there any water in the jug? B. P a t t e r n: Are there any books on the table? Yes, there are. (No, there arent.)

1. Are there any pencils on the table? 2. Are there any apples on the apple-tree? 3. Are there any children on the river? 4, Are there any flowers in your garden? 5. Are there any pine-trees in the forest? 6. Are there any plates on the shelf? . I . Is there any tea in your cup? 2. Are there any slugs in your garden? 3. Is there any paper in this box? 4. Are there any frogs in the pond? 5.1s there any butter on the plate? 6. Are there any flowers in the vase?

Exercise 2. Ask questions according to the pattern. P a t t e r n: There is a pencil in my bag. What is there in your bag? A. 1. There is a table in the corner of the room. 2. The re is a big flowerpot on the table. 3. There is a picture on the wall. 4. There is a window in the front wall. 5. There is a jug on the shelf. 6. There is a chair by the window. B. 1. There are some flowers in the vase. 2. There are some boats on the river. 3. There are some trees in my aarden. 4. There are some books on the shelves. 5. There i are some cats in this house. 6. There are some glasses on the table. Exercise 3 . Ask questions according to tlie pattern. P a t t e r n: There is a little girl in the room. Who is there in the room?

1. There is a boy in the yard. 2. There are two w o men in the street. 3. There is my aunt in the sitting-room. 4. There are some students in the corridor. 5. There are some teachers in the hall. 6. There is a pretty girl by the window. 7. There are my parents in the next room. 8. The re is a little boy on the sofa. 9. There is an old man on the com er of the street. 10. There is a young girl in the gar den. 11. There are some people in the car. 12. There are some school-boys on the playing ground.

Exercise 4. Ask questions according to the pattern. P a t t e r n : There is a black cat on the sofa. What kind of cat is there on tlie sofa? J . There is a red flower in the vase. 2. There is a blue vase on the table. 3. There is a white dog on the carpet. 4. There is an English book on the table. 5. There is an old apple-tree in the garden. 6. There are some red apples on the plate. 7. There are some beautiful flowers in the vase. 8. There is some hot milk in the cup. 9, There is some cold water in the glass. 10, There is a big stain on his shirt. 11. There are some little mice on tlie floor. 12. There is a white flower in her hand. Exercise 5. Ask questions according to the pattern. P a t t e r n : There are two pencils m the box. How many pencils are there in the box? i. There are four glasses on the table. 2. There live pencils on the desk. 3. There are three cats on the sofa. 4. There are two dogs in the garden. 5. There are six chairs in the room. 6. There are ten people in the hall. 7. There are several boys on the ice, 8. There are three girls on the platform. 9. There are two kittens on the carpet. 10. There are four men in the car. 11. There are seven apples on the dish. 12. There are many children in the yard.

Exercise 6. Extend the statements according to the patterns. Make use of the nouns in the margin. A. P a t t e r n: There is a cat in the room. dog There is a cat in the room, there is no dog there. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. B. There There There There There There There There is a cup on the table. is a jug on the shelf. is a plate on the table. is a pencil on the book. is some butter on the plate. is some tea in the pot. is some milk in the bottle. is some sugar on the table. a lass bottle saucer pen cheese coffee water salt

P a t t e r n : There are some books notebooks on the table. There are some books on the table, there aire no notebooks there. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. There There There There There There There Til ere are are are are are are are are some pencils in the box. two chairs in the room, some flowers on the table, some boys in the yard, two cats in the garden, three glasses on the table, several spoons in the box. two knives on the plate. pens arm-chairs girls dogs cups spoons

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with suitable noun phrases: a big dog; some little plates, some fresh milk, some cheese, a new ballpoint pen, some children, a little mouse, a blue vase, two pictures, some English books, a white cat, ten red apples, some pretty girls, a red rose. 1. There is ... in the yard. 2. There are ... on the table. 3. There is ... on the shelf. 4. There is ... in the bottle. 5. There are ... in the park. 6. There is ... on the floor. 7. There is ... on the bed. 8. There are ... on the wall. 9. There is ... on the plate. 10. There are on the dish. 11. There i s ... in my pocket. 12, There are ... on the dancing-floor. 13. There are ... on the shelf. 14. There is ... in the garden. Exercise 8, Transform the following sentences accor1 1mj- In (he pattern. P a t t e r n: 1 have an English book in my bag. There is an English book in my bag. 1. She has many books in her study. 2. I have beau tiful llowcis in my garden. 3. He has some mistakes in his dictation. 4. I have Iwo kittens in the kitchen. 5. She has much water in her garden, (i. We have some meat in the kitchen. 7. She has a very good arm-chair in her room. 8. They have a new TV set in their cottage. 9. He has an old computer in his office. 10. They have a little garden around their country house. 11. I have a new gas-stove in my flat. 12. She has a blue vase on the table.

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Exercise 9. Add question tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow students answer these ques tions. P a t t e r n: There is a bright lamp on his table. There is a bright lamp on his table. isnt there? Yes, there is. (No, there isnt.) I. There is a cake on the plate. 2. There is a cat on the carpet. 3. There are some children in the garden. 4. There are some people in the street. 5. There is a flower in the glass. 6. There are some apples on the table. 7. There is snow in the street. 8. There are some cups on the shelf. 9. There is a mouse on the floor. 10. There is a cat under the bed. 11. There are some girls by the window. 12. There is milk in the bottle. UNIT 2 MUCH, MANY, LITTLE, FEW Exercise 1. Answer the following questions according to the pattern. A. P a t t e r n : Are there many books in this bookcase? Yes, there are rather many. (No, there arent. There are few.)

1. Are there manv chairs in the room? 2. Are there many flowers in the vase? 3. Are there many spoons on the table? 4. Are there many windows in your flat? 5. Are there many trees in your garden? 6. Are there many child ren in the hall?

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P a t t e r n : is there much snow in the street? Yes, there is rather much. (No, there isnt. There is very little.)

1. Is there much milk in the jug? 2. Is there much bread 0 1 1 the plate? 3. Is there much wine in the bottle? 4. Is there much water in your glass? 5. Is there much coffec in your cup? 6. Is there much butter on the plate? . 1. Are there very many benches in the park? 2, Is there much tea in the pot? 3. Are there many trees in your street? 4. Ls there much sugar in the sugar-pot? 5. Are there many desks in your classroom? 6. Is there much chalk on the teachers table? Exercise 2. Insert suitable nouns: apples, books, boys, bread, flowers , grass, leaves, time, snow , sugar, water (2). 1. I have too much ... in my tea. 2. He has little ... today. 3. You have veiy many ... in your room, 4. There is too little ... on the table. 5. I have few ... in my garden. 6. There is little ... on the square. 7. There are not many ... on the trees. 8. There is very much ... in this well. 9. We have too few ... in our class. 10. There is much ... on the ground. 11. There is little ... in this ditch. 12. There are many ... on the plate. Exercise 3 . Insert correct forms of the verb to be. 1. There ... not many people in the street. 2. There ... too m uch w ater in the ditch. 3. T h ere ... to o little ink in my pen. 4. T h ere ... few boys on the playground. 5. There ... very many birds on the tree. 6. T h ere ... too little milk in the bottle. 7. There ... only few desks in the classroom. 8. T here ... so m uch fresh air here!

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9. There ... little grass in his garden. 10. There ... many children on the ice. 11. There ... m uch paper on her desk. 12. There ... little sand on the beach. E xercise 4. Insert m uch, m any, little , few , a little, a few. 1. There is so ... snow on the roof. 2. He has ... English books. 3. There are too ... flowers in this vase. T ake ... for your wife. 4. G ive me ... b u tte r, please. 5. Pass me the jug, please. There is too ... milk in my coffee. 6. There are very ... pies on tlie plate. Take ... for your children. 7. Now there is quite ... water in the river. 8. Look' There are so ... people on the ice! 9. Open the window! There is so ... air in the room. 10. I have very ... books. You may take ... of them . 11. Give me ... cheese, please. 12. I cant drink this tea. There is too ... sugar in it. Exercise 5. Translate into English.

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10, . 11. . 12. . Exercise 6. Translate the following questions into English and answer them. L ? 2. ? 3. ? (packet) 4. ?
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C. 1. His book is as interesting as mine. Yum h;nr is as black as hers. 3. Her watch is as good as Ins I. I heir family is as large as ours. 5. Our flat is as modem as theirs. 6. Your task is as difficult as mine. 7. Youi dress is as pretty as hers. 8. My watch is as slow as yours. 9. Their feet are as wet as ours. 10. Our books arc as easy as theirs. 11. His answer is as polite as hers. 12. Your welcome is as hearty as theirs. 13. Her father is as angry as mine. 14. My hair is as grey as yours. D. 1. Her smile is as pleasant as her sisters. 2. His welcome is as heaity as his wifes. 3. Our flat is as com fortable as our parents. 4. His beard is as long as his brothers. 5. Their task is as difficult as their friends. Exercise 5. Give full answers to the following ques tions. A. 1. Is the film as interesting as the book? 2. Is it as cold today as yesterday? 3. Is the air as fresh here as at the sea-side? 4. Are they as young as you? 5, Are his sisters as beautiful as his m other? 6, Are your brothers as tall as your father? 7.. Are they as careful as their
bi o t h e r ?

as I o n / , as (hat o n e ? 2. Is this story I .. 111 ,1 1 m'. Is t h e n n e w Mat as comfortable I he o l d o n e ? 4. Is this forest as thick as th at one? 5. this path as narrow as that one? 6. Is this trunk as heavy that one? 7. Is this boy as strong as the tail one? 8. this dress as short as the green one?
It. I I . llii.1 . mad

as as Is as Is

. 1. Is your jacket as warm as mine? 2. Is his book as easy as hers? 3.1s your house as far as theirs? 4. Is my box as heavy as his? 5. Is their path as narrow as ours? 6. Is her hair as black as yours? 7. Is their family as large as hers? 8. Is your garden as beautiful as theirs? 9. Are your 16

feet as wet as mine? 10. Are your rooms as light as hers? 11. Are his friends as good as yours? 12. Are their marks as excellent as his? 13. Are your kittens as pretty as mine? D. 1. Is her dog as big as her fathers? 2. Is his health as good as his wifes? 3. Is their book as interesting as their friends? 4. Are the boys marks as good as his sisters? 5. Are their compositions as interesting as their friends1? 6. Are your eyes as grey as your m others? 7. Are her dresses as short as her friends? 8. Are your days as busy as your husbands? Exercise 6. Pick out suitable phrases to complete tlie following sentences. Read the sentences aloud. A. as red as a rose, as clever as a man, as brave as his father, as high as a mountain, as pretty as her sister, as busy as a bee, as bad as his phonetics, as clear as the bell, as diligent as he, as fu n n y as anecdotes, as blue as the sky, as bright as a butterfly. 1, This girl is ... . 2. This flower is ... . 3. My dog is ... . 4. The boy is ... . 5. These houses are ... . 6. He is ... . 7. Her eyes are ... . 8. Their stories are ... . 9. Her lips are ... . 10. His brother is .... 11. His voice is ... . 12. His reading is ... , B. as interesting as that one, as long as that one, as beautiful as that one, as large as that one, as high as that one, as tall as that one, as pretty as that one, as difficult as that one. 1. This question i s ... . 2. This road i s .... 3. This boy is ... . 4. This room is ... . 5. This book is ... . 6. This mountain is .... 7. This girl is .... 8. This garden is ... .

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C. as lovely as mine, as dirty as yours, as h e a v y as < >urs, as short as mine, as interesting as theirs, as big as hers, as deep as mine, as funny as theirs, as foolish as vours, as excellent as theirs, as little as hers, as beautiful as theirs. as sweet as his, as interesting as ours.

1. Her jacket is ... . 2. Their mistake is ... . 3. Hi hands are ... . 4. Your story is ... . 5. Our lessons arc ... . 6. My children are ... . 7. Their luggage is... . 8. His marks are ... . 9. My dog is ... . 10. Their work is .,. . 1 1. Her cat is ... . 12. Our garden is ... . 13. His voice is 14. Her singing is ... . D. as sad as her m other s, as good as my friend's, as noble as his father's, as excellent as their parent's, as sweet as her sister v, as new as his brother v . 1.

His suit is ... . 2. Her eyes are ... . 3. Her voic is ... . 4. His face is ... . 5. My watch is ... . 6. Their health is ... . Exercise 7. Translate into English. A. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . . 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7.

, . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . . 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , , 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . . I. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . Exercise 8. Complete tlie following sentences making use of the pattern as + adj. + as . 1. H er composition S ... . 2. This tree is ... . 3. His hair is ... . 4. My dress is ... . 5. Her brother is ... . 6. His sister is .... 7. Her handwriting is . 8. My phonetics is ... . 9. This rose is ... . 10. His love is ... . 11. This road i s ... . 12. Your kitchen is .... 13. My study is ... . 14. Their dining-room is ... . 15. Her watch is ... . 16. Her parents are ... . 17. Their voices are ... . 18. My friends are ... . 19. His children are ... . 20. The flowers in my garden are .... 21. The rooms in my flat are ... . 22. In spring days are .... 23. Her mistakes are .... 24. Your hands are ... . 25. His eyes are ... . 26. Her lips are ... . 19

Exercise 9. Read each of these p h ra sc s ;11 u i I N ot so black as soot; not so bright as lire, ( \< > lliin as paper; not so dry as hay; not so red as blond; nni so white as.snow; not so cold as ice; not so grey ;is \irrl; not so yellow as gold; not so far as the moon; no! so hiavo as a lion; not so high as a mountain; not so green as the grass; not so quick as a cat; not so clear as the sky: not so lovely as the forest; not so clever as his father; not so bright as his friend. Exercise 10. Build ten phrases of your own by ana logy with those given in the previous exercise. Exercise 11. Read the following sentences aloud. Translate them into Russian. A. 1. Girls are not so brave as boys. 2. Coats are not so short as dresses. 3. Cats are not so clever as dogs. 4. Boys are- not so polite as girls. 5. Old houses are not so comfortable as new ones. 6. Bushes are n o t so tall as trees. 7. She is not so pretty as her sister. 8. He is not so young as his wife. 9. His brother is not so tall as he. 10. Her sister is not so gay as she. 11. The evening is not so warm as the day. 12. The film is not so interesting as the book. 13. This girl is not so attentive as her neighbour. 14. Spelling is not so easy as reading. B. 1. This rose is not so red as that one. 2. This room is not so dark as that one. 3. This flat is not so comfortab le as that one. 4. This pencil is not so sharp as that one. 5. This book is not so interesting as that one. 6. This way is not so long as that one. 7. This puppy is not so big as that one. 8. This boy is not so tall as that one. 9. This apple is not so sweet as that one. 10. This dress in not so fine as that one. 20

C. 1. My sister is not so young as yours. 2. Her hair is not so black as mine. 3. Her books not so difficult as his. 4. Their garden is not so large as mine. 5. My dress is not so short as hers. 6. Her task is not so easy as theirs. 7. Your library is not so rich as ours. S. His voice is not so deep as yours. 9. Her father is not so famous as his. 10. His dog is not so clever as theirs. 1 1. My children are not so bright as hers. 12. Their mistakes are not so bad as ours. 13. Your neighbours are not so nice as theirs. 14. His pupils are not so noisy as mine. 15. Their class rooms are not so clean as yours. D. 1. His hair is not so long as his brothers. 2. Her task is not so difficult as her friends. 3. My work is not so important as my husbands. 4. Her voice is not so sweet as her sisters. 5. Their flat is not so lovely as their friends. 6. Their library is not so rich as their parents. 7. His work is not so interesting as his wifes. 8. Her flat is not so large as her neighbours. 9. My pronunciation is not so good as my teachers. Exercise 12. Give full answers to the following ques tions. A. 1. Is she not so pretty as her mother? 2. Is it not so cold today as yesterday? 3. Is he not so clever as his brother? 4. Is she not so diligent as her sister? 5. Is your friend not so tall as his father? 6. Are they not so busy as you? 7. Are the lessons not so interesting as the lectures? 8. Are their friends not so hard-working as they? 9. Are the cats not so clever as the dogs? B. 1. Is this book not so interesting as that one? 2. Is this road not so long as that one? 3. Is this picture not so beautiful as that one? 4. Is your new dress not so long as the old one? 5. Is this rule not so difficult as the previous
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one? 6. Is his old flat not so light as the new one? 7. Is the red pencil not so hard as the green one? 8. Is the long road not so dirty as the short one? C. 1. Is her task not so difficult as mine? 2. Is their work not so good as ours? 3. Is your milk not so Hot as hers? 4. Is her welcome not so hearty as his? 5. Are their bags not so full as ours? 6. Are our answers not so ready as theirs? 7. Are his days not so busy as hers? D. I. Is his work not so interesting as his fathers? 2. Is her hat not so lovely as her friends? 3. Is my task not so easy as my sisters? 4. Is her hair not so long as her m ot hers? 5. Is our flat not so comfortable as your friends? 6. Are his eyes not so black as his b ro th e rs? 7. Are their rooms not so light as their parents? 8. Are their appletrees not so big as their neighbours? Exercise 13. Pick out suitable phrases to complete tlie following sentences. Read the sentences aloud. A. so white as snow, so busy as his brother, so quick as the cat, so young as my cousin, so tall as the tree, so fu n n y as the kitten, so blue as the sky, so fa r as the sun, so fu ll as the cup, so tall as my aunt, so little as her sister, so bright as the sun, so cold as the morning, so warm as the sand. 1. The puppy is not .... 2. The sea is not .... 3. The m oo n is not ... . 4. She is not ... . 5. T he clouds are n o t ... . 6. 1 am not ... . 7. The dav is not .... 8. Mv m o th e r is not .... 9. He is n ot ... , 10. T he glass is not ... . 11. Tlie dog is not ... . 12. The bushes are not ... . 13. The water is not 14, The moon is not ... .
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B. so thin as that one, so heavy as that one, so beautiful as that one, so big as that one, so red as that one, so dark as that one, so large as that one, so clever as that one, so dull as that one, so short as that one. 1. This string is n o t ... . 2. T his book is not ... . 3. This film is not ... . 4. This trunk is not .... 5. This park is not ... . 6. This dog is not ... . 7. This house is not ... . 8 . This field is not ... . 9. This rose is not ... . 10. This suit is not ... . C. so old as his, so pretty as ours, so difficult as yours, so fa r as hers, so interesting as mine, so big as hers, so black as yours, so fam ous as theirs, so large as mine, so bright as his, so noisy as mine, so fu ll as yours, so comfort able as ours, so grey as his. 1. His book is n o t ... . 2. O u r house is not ... . 3. Her cat is not ... . 4. My father is not ... . 5. Your eyes are not ... . 6. Your family is not .,. . 7. Our puppy is not ... . 8. His dog is not ... . 9. My mother is not ... . 10. Her ideas are not .... 11. Their children are not ... . 12. Your flat is not ... . 13. My glass is not ... . 14. Their task is n o t ... . D. so fu ll as his sister s, so thick as his son !v , so pretty as my sister's, so bright as his fr ie n d s, so rich as his parents ', so large as their friends so long as her sister s, so clever as her brother s, so modern as our frie n d s , so long as her mother !v . I, His children are not ... . 2. Our flat is not ... . 3. My dress is not ... . 4. Her dog is not .... 5. Their family is not ... . 6. Her hair is not .... 7. His library is not .... 8. Her Lips are not .... 9. Her jacket is not ... . 10. His hair is not ... . 23

Exercise 14. Translate into English. A. I. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8, , , 9. , . 10. , . , 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7, , . 8, , . B. 1, , . 2. , . 3, , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , , 11. , . 12. , . 13. , . . 1. , . 2. , , 3. , . 4. , . 5. ,
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. 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . Exercise 15. Complete the following sentences maIcing use of the pattern so + adj. + as . 1. H er face is not ... . 2, Their marks are not ... . 3. His watch is not ... . 4. My children are not .... 5. My friend is not ... . 6. His hands are not ... . 7. Your phone tics is not .... 8. The days are not .... 9. Their flat is not ... . 10. T he apple-trees are not .... 11. Her dress is n o t ... . 12. H er eves are not .... 13. My kitchen is n o t ... , 14. My notes are not ... . 15. Y our ring is not ... . 16. O ur friends are not ... . 17. H e r hair is not .... 18. Their parents are not ... . 19. This flower is not ... . 20. The trees in the park are not ... . 21. My dog is n ot ... . 22. H er cheeks are not ... . 23. O ur flat is not ... . 24. Her feet are not ... . Exercise 16. Insert as ... as or so ... as. 1. He is ... kind to me ... you. 2. His voice is disagreeable ... his face. 3. She is not ... clever .,. her friend. 4. Her face is ... pleased ... tlie face of the woman at the gate. 5. In all the country-side there is no garden ... lovely ... his. 6. The king i s ... b la c k ... ebony. 7. The Sphinx is ... old ... the world. 8. She is ... agile ... a jungle cat. l). I am going to be ... good ... my grandfather. 10. Rela tives are never ... good ... friends. 11. No one is ... pretty ... she. 12. The woman is ... clever ... her husband. 13. This stuff is not ... good ... that one. 14, The sea is not ... blue ... the sky. 15. She is ... pink and white ... a milkmaid. 25

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Section 2
T h e C o m p a r a t iv e a n d tiie S u pe r la tiv e D e g r e e s

Exercise I. Form the degress of comparison of the following abjectives. . A. Tall, green, new, short, great, warm, young, light, cold, full, thick, long, sweet, poor, small, clear, quick, free. fresh, high,

B. Heavy, early, easy, hearty, happy, naughty, merry, dirty, pretty, fmmv, lovely, angry, busy, lazy, clever, slender, bitter, simple, noble, stable, able, narrow, yellow, polite, concise, complete, sincere, severe. C. Famous, active, wicked, forlorn, serious, stupid, splendid, immense. D. Beautiful, general, careful, interesting, outstan ding, pleasant, favourite, attentive, wonderful, com fortable, excellent. E. Good, bad, little, many, far, near, old.

Exercise 2 . Translate into English. . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . . , , , , , , , , , , , , , . 26

Exercise 3. Write down the comparative and the su perlative degrees of the following adjectives. A. High, light, cold, tall, full, thick,, quick, young, deep, sweet, weak, slender, clever, narrow', yellow. B. Big, sad, red, flat, fat, mad, hot, thin, wet, fit. late, white, nice,

C. Fine, brave, pale, large, simple, able, noble, stable, free.

D. Heavy, hearty, early, tiny, lazy, angry, busy, happy, dry, shy, sly, lovely, dirty, funny, pretty, grey, gay. E. Good, bad, little, far, near, old.

Exercise 4. Translate into English and spell correctly. . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . . , , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , .


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Exercise 5. Read each of these phrases aloud paying special attention to the phrase stress. Translate them into Russian. stronger than death fresher than air whiter than snow colder than ice father than the stars 27 older than the world hotter than the sun wiser than a snake sweeter than a song

more more more more more more more more more more

wondeifi.il than life immense than space splendid than fine weather thrilling than a detective story beautiful than the stars comfortable than an easy chair generous than a noble heart serious than an old professor attentive than a good pupil pleasant than a summer day

Exercise 6. Build ten phrases of your own by analogy with those given in' the previous exercise. Exercise 7. Read the following sentences aloud and translate them into Russian. A. 1. He is blighter than his brother. 2. She is taller than her sister. 3. The kitten is gayer than the puppy. 4. His eyes are blacker than coal. 5. Her forehead is whiter than snow. 6. Her lips are redder than a rose. 7. The day is warmer than the morning. 8. August is hotter than Sep tember. 9. April is milder than March. 10. His reading is better than his spelling. B. 1. This box is heavier than that one. 2. This house is higher than that one. 3. This boy is cleverer than that one. 4. This road is longer than that one. 5. My old dress is lovelier than the new one. 6. Her blue hat is prettier than the green one. 7. The new street is broader than the old one. 8. This book is m ore interesting than that one. 9. He is more attentive than his neighbour. 10. She is more serious than her sister.

28

<' 1. My health is worse than his. 2. Your face is paler ' Inn hers. 3. His flat is larger than ours. 4. Her coat is ' inner th an mine. 5. Our river is deeper th a n theirs. My son is smaller than hers. 7. This room is colder Hi.in ours. 8. His hair is blacker than mine. 9. Your task i. easier than his. 10. My glass is fuller than yours. I I. His voice is deeper than yours. I). 1. Their fiat is larger than their m others. 2. Their library is richer than their parents. 3. Our task is easier ihan our friends. 4. His feet are larger than his fathers. Her children are younger than her sisters. 6. His 11 den is more beautiful than his neighbours. 7. Your inry is more wonderful than your brothers. 8. My flat is comfortable than my fathers. Exercise 8 . Read the sentences aloud and translate i hem into Russian. . 1. Her answer is the best. 2. This apple is the swreeirsl. 3. My bag is the heaviest. 4. This flat is the largest, v His room is the warmest. 6. This road is the dirtiest. I. 1. This is the best answer of all. 2. She is the pretti est girl of the group. 3. He is the best friend of mine. She is the most stupid of our girls. 5. He is the most famous of our writers. 6. He is the most outstanding of nur poets. 7. This is the most interesting book of all. a. She is the busiest of the family. 9. Tiiey are the dearest friends of my parents. 10. This is the most favourite book nf hers. . 1. This is the shortest way to the tram-stop. 2. This poem is the longest in the Reader. 3. This news is the most exciting in the world. 4. This story is the most interesting in the book. 29

Exercise 9. Give full answers to the following ques tions. A. I. Is your sister taller than you? 2. Is m y room warm er than yours? 3. Is his flat larger than his sister's? 4. Is she prettier than her mother? 5. Is he stronger than his father? 6. Is honey sweeter than sugar? 7. Is this path narrower than that one? 8. fs he cleverer than his brother? 9. Is she more stupid than her sister? 10. Is he more attentive than his neighbour? 11. Is your flat m ore com fortable than mine? B. 1. Is his work tlie best? 2. Is this bag the heaviest? 3. Is this m onth the hottest? 4. Is this path the shortest? 5, Is he the brightest boy of the group? 6. Is she th e pretti est girl o f the group? 7. Is he the best friend o f yours? 8. Is he the most outstanding writer of the world? 9. Is this the most favourite film of his? 10. Is this the most interest ing play of the season? 11.I s he the worst student of the fa culty? 12. Is this the coldest room in the house? 13. Is this story the longest in the book? 14. Is this the shortest way to the station? Exercise 10. Translate into English.

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. . 8. . 9. , . 10. - . 11. - . 12. . 13. . 14. . 15. . 16. , . 17. ;. 18. 30

i . 19. . 20. . 21. . . 22. , . , . 24. it.! , . . 25. . 26. . 27. . Exercise 1L Fill in the blanks witli the comparative or superlative degree of the adjectives in the margin. 1. She is ... w om an in the world. His pride is ... pait of Iris nature. 3. 1 ihink you are ... than any one else. 4. The "Id Prince is ... stag in the whole forest. > . I dont know a ... lad than his grandson. < * . His cheeks are ... than any one elses. Now they are going at a ... pace. ". He i s ... partner I can think of 9. You ... man in the world. 10. The June ) [ass is ... than the boy. 11. The last of ihem is ... than any of the others. 12. I pond my ... hours with you. 13. This deer Inoks ... and ... than the others. 14 . They rein ... than the rest. 15. And now ... veil of all is heard. It is coming from a roup of boys. 16. That is ... thing, it is than anything else. 17. He says it is one of... times he knows of. 18. Every month his life is growing ... . 19. The park seems even ... than before. 20. He has no doubt that his grandfather is ... of elderly gentlemen. 21. The old stag looks
3i

lovely strong pretty big fine red fast bad kind tail big happy tall, proud pretty, wild good, good serious interesting beautiful generous

... than tlie others. 22. By dav the deer are ... and ... than at night. 23. Its one of ... of all the beaches. 24. Love is ... than Philosophy and ... than Power.
w v1

powerful careful, nervous safe, wise mighty

Exercise 12. Answer the following questions. 1. Is Leningrad as big as Moscow? Is it bigger than Moscow? It is not so big as Moscow', is it? It is as big as Moscow, isnt it? Which is bigger, Leningrad or Moscow? Moscow^ is the biggest of the two, isnt it? Which is the biggest of the two? 2. Is your sister as tall as you? Is she taller than you? She is not so tall as you, is she? She is as tail as you, isnt she? Who is taller, your sister or you? Who is the tallest of the two? 3. Is this road as short as that one? Is it shorter than that one? It is not so short as that one, is it? It is as short as that one, isnt it? Which road is shorter, this or that one? Which is the shortest road of the two? 4. Is Newton as famous as Einstein? Is Newton more famous than Einstein? Newton is not so famous as Einstein, is he? Newton is as famous as Einstein, isnt he? Who is more famous, Newton or Einstein ? Who is the most fa mous of the two? 5. Is the moon as far as the sun? Is the sun farther than the moon? The sun is not so far as the moon, is it? The sun is as far as the moon, isnt it? Which is farther, the sun or the moon? Which of the two is the farthest? Exercise 13. Translate into English. 1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. ?
32

. 8. . 9. , ? 10. , . II. . 12. , . 13. tie . 14. ; , . 15. . 16. (. 17. ? 18. , . 19. , , . , . 20. . 2 1. , . 22. ? 23. . 14. , . 25. , . Exercise 14. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the phrases italicized.

1. My sister is six years older than 1. 2. Our new house is five storeys higher than, the one we lived in be fore. 3. I am seven centimetres taller than my brother. 4. She is three years younger than her husband. 5. 1 w o n t buy this pair of shoes, it is ten dollars dearer than the pair you have bought. 6. L e ts take this way, its miles shorter than that one. 7, This stuff is some dollars cheaper ilian the one you have got on you. 8. Take this piece of string, its about two metres longer. 9. The tem perature is rising. It is already four degrees higher than it was in the morning. 10. This rucksack is some kilos heavier than mine.

.! 1 0 5

33

... than the others. 22. By day the deer are ... and ... than at (light. 23. Its one of ... of ail the beaches. 24. Love is ... than Philosophy and ... than Power.

powerful careful, neivous safe, wise mighty

Exercise 12. Answer the following questions. I. Is Leningrad as big as Moscow? Is it bigger than Moscow? It is not so big as Moscow, is it? It is as big as I Moscow, isnt it? Which is bigger, Leningrad or Moscow? j Moscow is the biggest of the two, isnt it? Which is the i biggest of the two? 2. Is your sister as tall as you? Is she taller than you? She is not so tall as you, is she? She is as tall as you, isnt she? Who is taller, your sister or you? Who is the tallest of the two? 3. Is this road as short as that one? Is it shorter than that one? It is not so short as that one, is it? It is as short as that one, isnt it? Which road is shorter, this or that one? Which is the shortest road of the two? 4. is Newton as famous as Einstein? Is Newton more famous than Einstein? Newton is not so famous as Einstein, is he? Newton is as famous as Einstein, isnt he? Who is more famous, Newton or Einstein ? Who is the most fa mous of the two? 5. Is the moon as far as the sun? Is the sun farther than the moon? The sun is not so far as the moon, is it? The sun is as far as the moon, isnt it? Which is farther, the sun or the moon? Which of the two is the farthest? Exercise 13. Translate into English. I. . 2. , . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. ?

. 8. *. 9. , ? 10. ! , . 11. . 12. , . 13. . 14. , . 15. . 16. ! . 17. l ? 18. i , . 19. , , \ . , . 20. . 21. , . 22. ? 23. . 24. , . 25. , . Exercise 14. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the phrases italicized. 1. My sister is six years older than 1. 2. Our new house is five storeys higher than the one we lived in be fore. 3. I am seven centimetres taller than my brother. 4. She is three years younger than her husband. 5. I w o n t buy this pair of shoes, it is ten dollars dearer than the pair you have bought. 6. L e ts take this way, its miles shorter than that one. 7. This stuff is some dollars cheaper ill an the one you have got on you. 8. Take this piece of string, its about two metres longer. 9. The tem perature is rising, ft is already four degrees higher than it was in the morning. 10. This rucksack is some kilos heavier than mine.

1 (1 5 ,4

33

Exercise 15, Translate the following phrases into Russian. Insert suitable ones into the sentences given below. Five years older, two months younger, ten miles shor some metres longer, eight dollars cheaper, twenty dolto dearer, some degrees higher, fo u r degrees lower, three kh heavier, seven pounds lighter, three metres wider, a mb-e narrower. 1. This street is ... than that one. 2. My son is ... than . 3. She is ... than her husband. 4. The road through tic fields is ... than the road through the forest. 5. Today th etemperature is ... than yesterday. 6. This bag is a b o u t... than that one. 7. My room is ... than yours. 8. This dress is... than that one. 9. This piece of road is ... . 10, The temperatute o f the water is ... today. 11. Her coat is ... tlm yours. 12. I am ... than you. Exercise 16, Translate into English. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. , . 5. , . 6. . 7. . 8. , , . 9. : . 10. 586 . 11. 2 700 . 12. , .

34

E xercise 17. Build som e sen ten ces o f you; own using the following phrases. Two years younger, five months older, ten kilometres lo n g e r , three inches shorter, fo u r pounds lighter, some kilos heavier, ten degrees lower, ten degrees higher, some dollars . hcaper, a kilometre wider, about two metres narrower. Exercise 18. Translate the following phrases into Rusi;m. Insert suitable ones into the sentences below. \. Three times as wide, fo u r times as deep, five times as int/row, twice as big, ten times as clever, twice as strong, :r/i times as fascinating, twice as hot, many times as long. 1. The lake we have just crossed is ... as the one we lossed yesterday. 2. Now' the road seemed which ilways happens when you are dead tired. 3. The streets in ilie new district were ... as in the old one. 4. Have you seen ilie newr film? To niv mind it is ... as the one vou took me to last week. 5. Take care! This cup is ... as that one. 6. Tom boasted that he was ... as mvself. 7. She was ... as her husband, thats why everybody sought her advice. 8. This house is ... as that one. 9. The canyon before them was ... .i t h e one they had so successfully got over the day before,
*

I. H a lf as strong, h a lf as large, h a lf as wide, h a lf as :\ood, h a lf as long; h a lf as long again, half as quick again, hi',If as heavy again. 1. Now he seemed ... as lie used to be before his ill ness. 2. Little by tittle the road became ... as it was early in i he morning. 3. At last the days g o t ... as they were in sum mer. 4. The river here is ... as it is in our part of the world, v The old park was ... as the new one. 6. Due to the lack of proper training she is ... as she has been. 7. My bag was
35

... as tlie bag she was carrying on her shoulder. 8. Now the way seemed ... . Exercise 19. Translate into English. j

A . 1. . 2. . 3, ! , . 4. ] , . 5. ] , -. 6. -] , .] 7. . 8. ] , . 9. , ] . ] . 1. , ] . 2. . 3. -j . 4. -1 . 5. . 6. ] . 7. -] . 8. , , . 9. . 10. ] . 11. . 12. . ]

Exercise 20. Build some sentences of your own ma- i king use of tlie following phrases: two times as dear, three'1 times as old , fo u r times as wide, several times as good, j many times as slow, twice as h c f, ten times as long , twi- \ ce as quick, ten times as witty , three times as heavy.

36

Exercise 21. Insert the forms older,


!d i S t .

elder, oldest,

I. What is y o u r ... brother? 2. My sister is two years ihan I. 3. Mary is the ... of the three sisters. 4. He is the hoy in our group. 5. Moscow is one of the ... towns in "in country. 6. Her ... sister is five years ... than she. 7. lie is the ... of the twro of them. 8. He is the ... of the two i!hers. 9. This is the ... oak-tree in the whole park. 10. 11 is ... than any of the trees in the wood. 1 1. My father is Mian yours. 12. Uncle Billy was the ... man in the village. I v Children are supposed to be always polite to their ... . I 1 You see, she is my ..., so H I have to consult her first. I - Though I am ... than he, still he is my... . Exercise 22. Translate into Emglish using the words: /, too, quite, much, rather, far, by far, wherever i1< 111 ired.. 1. . . *> . . i.i , . | . .. . m.ih . 2. . <> i I . . .'. . > . . | ' . . (. 3. . (. . . *I. . , . - , . . , . | , . . *

37

. . 4. < . . . . , . ] , . , : . , . . U N IT 4 THE VERB Section 1


P rese n t S im p le

Exercise I. Give short answers to the following queffl tions. A. P a t t e r n : Do you know him? Yes, 1 do. (No, I d ont.)

1. Do you like her? 2, Do you often see her? 3. Di you work here? 4. Do you skate? 5. Do you take youi bath in the morning? 6. Do you go to bed late at nightl B. P a t t e r n : Does he work here? Yes, he does. (No, he d o esn t.)

1. Does he like me? 2. Does lie often com e to se< you? 3, Does your brother live here? 4. D oes he kno about it? 5. Does your friend get up early to o ? 6. Doe: your husband tell you everything? 38

< I. Do your friends call on you on Sundays? 2. Does . ( friend know your brother? 3. Do you switch off the lij'lit when you leave the room? 4. Does your sister like urli weather? 5, Does your grandma wear her slippers II home? 6. Do you know my sister? 7. Does your father '< at the Institute? 8. Do you take a shower in the >\ niing? 9. Does your sister learn English at school? id. Does she like her school? 11. Do your parents watch I V in the evening? 12. Does youv sister watch it too? Exercise 2. Give short answers to the following quesIII HIS.

P a t t e r n : You come home early, d o n t you? Yes, I do. (No, I dont.)

I. You live in this street, d o n 4 you? 2. You work ii our Institute, d o n t you? 3. You like this family. > 1 1 i*t you? 4. You get up very early, dont you? 5. You a- them veiy often, dont you? 6. You leave home veiy <;iiv. d o n t vou?
* +

li.

P a t t e r n: He gets up rather late, doesnt he? Yes, he does, (No, he doesnt.)

1. Your husband works in the morning, doesnt he? 2. Your brother lives at home, doesnt he? 3. He loves his wife, doesnt he? 4. Your father takes his bath in the m orning, doesnt he? 5. He gets up at seven, doesnt he? 6. Your grandfather lives in Moscow, doesnt lie? 39

Exercise 3. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then ask your fellow-students to answer thesi questions. P a t t e r n : She works at a factory. She works at a factoiy, doesnt she? Yes, she does. (No, she doesnt.)

1. You get up when the alarm-clock rings. 2. Youi m other sleeps badly. 3. You go to the Institute in thi m orning. 4. Your parents come back hom e veiy late; 5. Y our m o th er loves her grandchildren a little to much. 6. It often rains this summer. 7. Your grandpa' rents like your husband veiy much, 8. He lives in thi| street. 9. Your children read English. Exercise 4. Give short answers to the following ques tions. A. P a t t e r n: You do nt get up early, do you? Yes, I do. (No, I dont.)

1. You dont get up at six oclock, do you? 2. Yo1 d o n t like her, do you? 3. You d o n t read very much, do you? 4. You dont go to the theatre very often, do you1 ^ 5. You dont work here, do you? 6. You dont wear yo1 coat, do you? B. P a t t e r n: He doesnt work here, does he? Yes, he does. ( No, he doesnt.)

40

1. Your husband doesnt know her, does he? 2. Your IMother doesnt do his morning exercises, does he? 3. He doesnt come home early, does he? 4. He doesnt live here in longer, does he? 5. Your husband doesnt call on your parents very often, does he? 6. He doesnt like me, does lie? Exercise 5. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow-students answer these quesi ions. P a t t e r n: She doesnt study Spanish. She doesnt study Spanish, does she? Yes, she does. (No, she doesnt.) 1. Your sister doesnt study English. 2. Your friends I.tift have dinner at tlie Institute. 3. Your little sister iih'sirt take her bath in the morning. 4. Your mother doesnt cook in the evening. 5. Your parents d o n t often i'o to the theatre. 6. It d o esn t often snow this winter. Your brothers dont dine at home. 8. They dont have upper at home. 9, Your sister doesnt ring you up often imw, 10. It doesnt rain much this autumn. Exercise 6. Give short answers to the following quesis beginning them with so according to the pattern. \ P a t t e r n : I come home early, and what about you? (and you?) So do I.

1. I get up at seven o clock, and what about you? 1 1 go to the Institute every day, and what about you?
41

3. I often go to the theatre, and you? 4. We often come home late, and you? 5. I often see her in the library, and what about you? 6.You often go to the skating-rink, and what about your brother? P a t t e r n : I like her very much, and what about him? (and he?) So does he. 1. You often call on your parents, and what about your brother? 2. Your wife likes to swim, and what about her sister? 3. You know them well and what about Nick? 4. Mrs Smith likes them very m uch, and what about her daughter? 5. They get up very early, and what about their son? 6. Nel.lv studies verv well, and your sister? Exercise 7. Add question-tags to the following state ments according to the pattern and let your fellow-students answer these questions. P a t t e r n: She likes a hot bath. She likes a hot bath, and what about vou? (and you?) So do I. 1. You always take a cold shower. 2. My son walks his dog in the park. 3. My children like to play with the cat. 4. They always watch TV in the evening. 5. Y our hu sb an d often goes to M oscow. 6. His sons 42

come to see him rather often. 7. Your sister gets up very early. 8. I like to take a hot shower. 9. Nick likes i walk in the park. Exercise 8. Give short answers to the following ques tions beginning them with neither. A. Pattern: I dont come home early, and wliat about you? (and you?) Neither do 1.

1. I d o n t get up early, and you? 2. I d o n t come home late, and what about you? 3. She doesnt go to bed until twelve o clock, and you? 4. She doesnt like to watch TV, and you? 5. They d o n t go to the skatingrink, and you? 6. 1 d o n t often go to the theatre, and you? Pattern: You dont know him well, and wliat about your friend? (and you friend?) Neither does lie.

I. You d o n t like t h i s m an. and what about y husband? 2. You d o n t call on the Smiths, and what .ibout your friend? 3. You d o n t want to go to the the atre, and what about your daughter? 4. Your friend doesnt get up early, and her daughter? 5. Your sister doesnt work there any more, and her friends? 6. T h e y d o n t live in Moscow, and their son?

43

Exercise 9. Add q u e s tio n -ta g s to the following statem ents acco rding to the p a tte r n and t h e n let y o u r fellow-students answer these questions. ? a t t e r n: You d o n t like him. You do nt like him, and wat about your husband? (and your husband?) Neither does he.

1. Betty doesnt take a hot shower. 2. You do cook at home. 3. She doesnt live in Leningrad. 4. Your mother doesnt live in the country. 5. Your brother doesnt like this boy. 6. His sister doesnt go to the South in sum mer. 7. She doesnt do her morning exercises. 8. Your m other d o esn t like cats. 9. I d o n t like such weather. 10. You never walk in the park on evenings. Exercise 10. Add question-tags to the following state ments according to the patterns to exercises 7 and 9. Then let your fellow-students answer these questions. L Nick takes a shower in the morning. 2. Nelly doesnt come home very late. 3. I do nt like such wet weather. 4. My sister learns English. 5. Our father works very much. 6. She doesn't like him. 7. I often come here. 8. You often walk here. 9. We don t dine at home. 10. You get up veiy early. 11. She often comes to see them. 12. I never see him there. Exercise 11. Answer the following questions. A. 1. Who helps you to prepare your lessons? 2. Who cooks dinner for you? 3. Who wakes you up in the morning? 4. Who gets up at eight o clock? 5. Who takes a shower? 6.Who comes home early in the evening? 44

. 1. When do you get up? 2. When do you leave home? 3. When do your classes begin? 4. When do you leave the Institute? 5. When does your friend com e to see you? h. When does your brother get up? 7. When does your mother come home? 8. Where do you wash? 9. Where do vou study? 10. Where do you sleep? 11. Where does your mother cook? 12. Where does your father read his papers? ! 3. Where does your friend live? 14. How many books do you read a month? 15. How many books do you take from Ihe library? 16. How many letters do you write? 17. Wliat hooks do your friends read? 18. What shower does your imother take? 19. Wliat do you do in the morning? 20. What does your father do in the evening? 21. What does your mother do in the kitchen? 22. What do your friends do at the Institute? 23. What do you do at the library? Exercise 12. Put questions to all parts of the sen tence.

I. My sister gets up very early. 2. TV programme begin at ten o clock. 3. Our family does not go to tlie <nuntry in summer. 4. At home Tommy wears his new slippers. 5. His parents work at a factory. 6. Late at night Tom walks his dog in the park. 7. There is a cup of hot tea on the kitchen table. 8. My sister has two little 'hildren. Exercise 13. Think of questions for which the follo wing might be answers. 1. He gets up at seven o clock. 2. It is my mother. i. He does his morning exercises. 4. He does them in the morning. 5. She gives lessons in English. 6. She gives (hem to my sister. 7. Tom is my brother. 8. In the mor ning he takes a cold shower. 9. She has a dog. 10. Mary is a stu d e n t. 1 1. T h ere is som e w ater in the bottle. 12. They live in Moscow.
45

Section 2
P r e s e n t C o n t in u o u s

Exercise 7. Say what is going on in each of the pic tures. Make use of the verbs: to rain, to ring, to switch on, to get up, to wash, to take, to clean, to cook, to switch on, to lay, to cut, to bring in, to drink, to eat, to read, to smile, to collect, to look, to p u t on, to clear. It is seven o clock

It ... The alarm clock ... Nelly ... N ic k ... It is a quarter past seven

Nelly ... Nick ... a bath. Mr Smith ... his teeth. Mrs Smith ... breakfast. 46

It is half past seven

N i c k ... the radio. Nelly ... the table. M r Smith ... bread. Mrs Smith ... breakfast. It is a quater to eight

Nick ... tea. Nelly ... a roll. Mr Smith ... the newspaper. Mrs Smith ... at them. It is eight o clock

Nick ... his books. Nelly ... at herself in the mirror. M r Smith ... his coat, Mrs Smith ... the table.
47

Exercise 2. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47 answer the following questions. I. I t s seven o clock. I. W hat is Nelly doing? 2. What is Nick doing? II. I t s a quarter past seven. 1. What is Nelly doing? 2. What is Nick doing? 3. What is Mr Smith doing? 4, What is Mrs Smith doing? III. It is half past seven. 1. W hat is N ick doing? 2. W hat is N elly doing? 3. W h at is M r Sm ith doing? 4. What is Mrs Smith doing? IV. It is quarter to eight. 1. W hat is N ick doing? 2. W hat is N elly doing? 3. W hat is M r S m ith doing? 4. What is Mrs Smith doing? V. It is eight o clock. 1. W h at is N ic k doing? 2. What is Nelly doing? 3. What is Mr Smith doing? 4. What is Mrs Smith doing? Exercise 3. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47 give short answers to the following questions. I. It is seven o clock. 1. Is it raining? 2. Is the alarm -clock ringing? 3. Is Nelly switching on the light? 4. Is Nick getting up? II. It is a quarter past seven. 1. Is Nelly getting up? 2. Is Nick cleaning his teeth? 3. Is Mrs Smith washing? 4. Is M r Smith cooking breakfast? I'll. It is half past seven. 1. Nick is switching on the radio, is n t he? 2. Nelly is laying the table, isn t she? 3. Mrs Smith is bringing in the breakfast, isn't she? 4. M r Smith is cutting bread, isnt he?

IV. It is a quarter to eight. 1. Nick isnt wash is he? 2. Nelly isnt drinking tea, is she? 3. Mr Smith isnt

'"-I ing ill the mirror, is he? 4. Mrs Smith isnt eating a .- ,, she?

V. It is eight oclock. I . Nick is collecting his book i a i lie? 2 Nelly is eating her roll, isnt she? 3. Mr Smith 14iuing on his coat, isnt he? 4. Mrs Smith is smiling at H i- . isnt she? Exercise 4. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47 1 1 - - .hort answers to the following questions beginning them '' ll ll ,V fj. P a t t e r n: ft is seven o clock. I am getting up. And what about Nick? (And Nick?) So is he. It is a quaiter past seven. 1. Betty is washing, and li.ii about Nelly? 2. Im taking a bath, and what about Nn'k? 3. Kitty is cleaning her teeth, and what about Mi Smith? 4. I am cooking breakfast, and Mrs Smith? ' Ann is washing , and Nelly? 6. Tom is taking his bath, I Nick? 7. M r Benns is cleaning his teeth, and Mr '.iniih? S. am is cooking breakfast, and Mrs Smith? Exercise 5. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47 rivv short answers to the following questions beginning them 'Mih neither. P a t t e r n: It is seven oclock, I am not washing, and what about Nick? (And Nick?) Neither is he.

49

It is half past seven. I. Nelly is not switching on the radio, and what about M r Smith? 2. Nick is not taking his bath, and Nelly? 3. N ick is not cutting bread, and Mrs] Smith? 4, Betty is not laying the table, and Nick? 5. Nell; is not cutting bread, and you? 6. Mrs Smith is not readinj the newspaper, and you? 7. Mother is not switching on the radio, and Mrs Smith? 8. I am not looking at myself i: the mirror, and Nelly? Exercise 6. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47] give short answers to the following questions beginning the with so or neither. It is eight oclock. 1. Bob is collecting his books, am what about Nick? 2. Roy is not washing, and what about) Nick? 3. Kitty is not drinking tea, and what about Nelly? 4. Betty is looking at herself in the miiTor, and what aboul Nelly? 5. Mr Johnson is putting on his coat, and what about Mr Smith? 6. Mrs Pratt is not cooking breakfast, and Mrs Smith? 7, M r Johnson is not cutting bread, aiii M r Smith? 8. Mrs Pratt is clearing the table, and Mrsj Smith? 9. Nick is collecting his books, and Tom? 10. M Smith is not washing, and you? 11. Mrs Smith is not] washing, and you? Exercise 7. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47] give short answers to the following questions and extend] them according to the pattern. P a t t e r n: it is seven oclock, Is Nick washing? No, he is not. He is getting up.

I. It is a quarter past seven. 1. Is Nelly switch on the light? 2. Is Nick getting up? 3. Is Mr Smith cutting bread? 4. Is Mrs Smith getting up?
50

II. It is half past seven. 1. Is Nick laying the table? 1 Is Nelly washing? 3. Is Mr Smith cleaning his teeth? I Is Mrs Smith taking a bath? III. It is a quarter to eight. 1. Is Nick cutting in cad? 2. Is Nelly drinking tea? 3. Is Mr Smith eating a mil? 4.1s Mrs Smith reading a newspaper? IV. It is eight oclock. 1. Is Nick clearing the table? Is Nelly collecting her books? 3. Is Mr Smith looking I I himself in the mirror? 4. Is Mrs Smith putting on her
11; 11 ?

Exercise 8. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47 . ' ivr short answers to the followmg questions extending them ording to the pattern. P a t t e r n: ft is seven o clock. Are Nick and Nelly drinking tea? No, they arent. Nick is getting up, while Nelly is switching on the light.

I. It is a quarter past seven. 1. Are Nick and Nel ii nitig up? 2. Are N ick and Mr Smith taking a shower? ' Are Nelly and Mrs Smith drinking tea? 4. Are Nelly and Mi Smith laying the table? 5. Are Nick and Mrs Smith I*inking at themselves in the mirror? 6. Are Mr and Mrs ' anith washing? IT. It is a quarter to eight. I. Are Nick and Nelly *niiing bread? 2. Are N ick and Mrs Smith bringing in ihr breakfast? 3. Are N ick and Mr Smith watching TV? I Are Nelly and Mr Smith doing their m orning exeri i .cs? 5. Are Nelly and Mrs Smith clearing the table?

51

Exercise 9. Looking at the pictures on pages 46, 47 ] answer the following questions according to the pattern. 1 P a t t e r n : It is seven oclock. What are Nick and Nelly doing? Nick is getting up while Nelly is switching on the light. I. It is half past seven. I. What are Nick and Nelly ! doing? 2. What are Mr and Mrs Smith doing? 3. What are ] Nick and Mr Smith doing? 4. What are Nelly and Mrsj Smith doing? 5. What are Nick and Mrs Smith doing?! 6. What are Nelly and M r Smith doing? j II. It is eight o clock, 1. What are Mr and Mrsj Smith, doing? 2. What are Nick and Nelly doing? 3. What] are Mrs Smith and Nelly doing? 4. What are Mr Smith] and Nick doing? 5. What are Mrs Smith and Nick doing?] 6. What are Mr Smith and Nelly doing? j Exercise 10. Answer the following questions. j

1. Where are you doing to? 2.What is she looking at?] 3. What are you telling them about? 4. Where are youj coming from? 5. W hom are you looking for? 6. Whom] are they speaking to? 7, What are you asking me about? 8. W hom are you thinking about? 9. Whom is she speaking with? 10. What is she dreaming about? 11. Whose children] is she looking after? 12. What are you talking about? Exercise 11. Put questions to the paits in italics. j

1. 1 am going to my friend. 2. They are talking aboutj the weather. 3. He is speaking with his sister. 4, 1 am looking at this beautiful girl. 5. She is telling me about heA children. 6. They are looking for their dog. 7. They are 52

> -iiing from the theatre. 8. He is speaking to the dean. 1 She is dreaming about the warm sea. 10. I am asking you your exams. II. She is thinking of her new friends. I She is looking for her cat. Section 3
P r e s e n t S im p le - P r e s e n t C o n tin u o u s

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. Where are you going to? 2. Do you often go to the ilu-atre? 3. Look into the window - what do you see outitic? 4. What are you looking at? 5. You are reading an I iifdish book, arent you? 6. You read many English books, -Innt you? 7. You dont like such films, do you? 8. Which ihese films do you like best? 9. Whom are you going to >nv ite to your party? 10. Why do you have your mackinn>:,h on? Is it raining? 11.1 d o n t remember this girl, and \<mi? 12. Are you really sleeping or just pretending to? 13. uiow her brother perfectly well, and what about you? . Who is singing in the next room? 15. How many pages (ll ) you read a day? 16. Why doesnt your sister come to () in parties? Exercise 2. Insert the Present Simple or the Present < ontinuous forms of the verbs in the margin. I. a) It is seven o clock. 1 ... , ... my bed, ... and ... to ihe kitchen to have my breakf.isl.

to get up, to make, to wash, to go

b) It is seven oclock.. 1 ... . Nelly ... her bed. F ath er ... . Mother ... to the kitchen to cook breakfast .
53

to get up, to make, to wash, to go

2. a) It is eleven o clock. I ......... a book, and ... to read. b) It is eleven oclock. 1 ... , the teacher ... to me, Mary ... to write on the blackboard. 3. a) It is evening. I ... into the room, ... TV, ... in a low ea sy chair and ... watching the pro gram. b) It is evening now. I ... into the room. Father ... TV, Mot her ... , G randm a ... in an ea sy chair. 4. a) It is a hot afternoon. Bob ... to the bank of the river, ... Iris things, ... into the water and ... his dog. b) It is a hot afterno on. Betty ... to the bank of the river. Some girls ... their things, oth ers ... into the water. Bob,who is already in the water, ... his dog. 5. a) It is five o clock. Mother ... a yellow cloth on the table, ... out the blue cups, ... the cake, and ... out hot tea. b) It is five o clock. M o t her ... a yellow cloth on the table. Nick ... out the blue cups, Father ... tiie cake, Nelly ... out hot tea.

to stand up, to take, to begin to read, to listen, t begin to walk, to switch to sit down, to beg'

to walk, to watch, t sew, to sleep

to come, to take off, to jump, to call

to come, to take off, to jump, to call

to put, to get, to cut to pour

to put. to get. to cut to pour

6. a) At six o clock I ... to walk dog in the park. b) It is six o clock now . to wraik I . my dog in the park. Exercise 3 . Trabslate into English using the Present -imple or the Present Continuous Tense. 1. . 2. in-. . 3. I . 4. . . 5. <! . 6. I . 7. , - . 8. , . II , ; ;: , ;'-!, , - , . 10. ; ? - . 11. : ? 12. ? S ection 4
P resen t P erfect S i mple

Exercise /. Read aloud and translate into Russian uving special attention to the adverbial modifiers of time. 1. She is so happy today. She has never been so hap> \ 2. He is not serious, and never has been. 3. I have i1v needed too many friends. 4. I have never heard this 1.1me before. 5. I know her views on the subject. She has told them to me. 6. She walked in saying Jim lias just iMived to see us off. He is standing on the dock . 7. 1 i.ivc just had a terrible fright. 8. She has ju st gone out.
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9. Nobody has ever had such good luck. 10. I love her more than 1 have ever told you. 11. She has not come down yet. 12. I d o n 4 think he has yet arrived. 13. What his real nam e is no one has discovered as yet. 14. ( have not seen him since eleven this morning. 15. My dear, the world has changed since my young days. 16. I have known him since he was born. 17. Where have you been since last Thursday? 18. How quiet you have been all this time! 19. 1 love this country - this is my home. Ive lived here for forty years. 20. Where lias she been all these years? 2 1 .1 h av e b een out o f tow n for so long! 22. You have always been far too clever. 23. You know, 1 have always loved him, 24. I suppose you have read the paper this m orning? 25. I have had four wonderful adventures this morning. 26. f have never been quite happy with you. 27. My dear, I am so pleased you have come at last! 28, Go! Go at once! You have done vour worst now! 29. I have often remembered your words this year.
* j

Exercise 2. Give short answers to the following ques- I tions. P a t t e r n: Have you read the paper today? Yes, 1 have. (No, I havent.) I. Has the alarm -clock rung? 2. Have you turned off the tap? 3. Has she switched off the light? 4. Has lie put on his m ackintosh? 5. Have you taken y o u r u m brella? 6. Have th e rivers frozen? 7. Has the thaw, begun? 8. Has the rain stopped? 9. Have you ever been to Moscow''? 10. Has she ever called you up? 11. Have they never met? 12. Has he never called on you? 13. Ha-;
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ve they just arrived? 14. Have you just returned? 15. Have you seen her since the sum m er? 16. Have they lived in Moscow since 1960? 17. Have you always lived here? 18. Has she always been weak? 19. Have you known them long? 20. Has she worked here long? 21. Have you seen her today? 22. Have they com e this m orning? 23. Has he left tonight? Exercise J. Give short answers to the following ques tions. P a t t e r n: The rain has stopped, hasnt it? Yes, it has. No, it hasnt. 1. The- snow has stopped, h asn t it? 2. The rain lias begun, hasnt it? 3. You have switched off the light, liavent you? 4. She has called this morning, hasnt she? > You have seen her today, havent you? 6. She lias 11 ways lived in Petersburg, hasnt she? P a t t e r n: The rain hasnt stopped yet, has it? Yes, it has. No, it hasnt. 1. She has not turned off the tap, has she? 2. i i f t fallen asleep, have I? 3. You havent seen him \> i . have you? 4. She hasnt returned yet, has she? 5. We li.ivcn't met since the spring, have we? 6. You h av ent 'vii h er since the sum m er, have you?
57

Exercise 4. Add question-tags to the following statements and then let your fellow students answer these ques tions.

P a t t e r n : 1. You have often seen him of late. You have often seen him of late, havent you? Yes, I have. (No, I havent.) 2. She hasnt seen him of late. She hasnt seen him of late, has she? No, she hasnt. (Yes, she has.) You have always been strong. 2. She has never ,ved in Moscow. 3. The alarm -clock has already rung. 4. 0,1 haven't been to the pictures tonight. 5, She has ] J ever ln;en strong. 6. You have already finished school. ' li'as iust come. 8. It hasn't rained this m orning; 9 Tv ' hey have often met this year. 10. She hasn't called me L 1 P today. . They have just returned. 12. You haven't] lead th e paper this morning. Exercise 5. Give short answers to the following ques-j hotis beginning them with so. P a t t e r n: He has finished his work, and what about you? (and you?) So have I. I . You have read the paper this morning, and wh; ^ m other? 2. You have washed your hands, an^ What *bout Tom? 3. Nelly li as got up already , and Nick^ 58
i

4. N ina has made her bed, and you? 5. Father has gone for a walk, and w'hat about the children? 6. I have seen this film, and you? Exercise 6. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow students answer them. P a t t e r n : Mary has seen him today. Mary has seen him today, and what about you? (and you?) So have 1. 1. Father has already gone off. 2. Nelly has l*vted her books. 3. Nick has already cleaned his teeth. I f have already taken the medicine. 5. We have just '-n.jrned from tlie park. 6. Tlie children have been to the I'b Uires today. 7. My sister has always admired this actor. i iiave seen three films,this week. Exercise 7, Give short answers to the following quesiuuis beginning them with neither. P a t t e r n : She hasnt finished her book, and what about you? (and you?) Neither have 1. !. He h asn t yet come home, and what about his i.ii Iut? 2. I havent seen him this week, and vou? 3. I ha' li i read this book, and Marv? 4. She hasnt called on these days, and what about her husband? 5. I havent' i' id todays paper yet, and you? 6. She hasnt been away (m i .( week, and her husband?

Exercise 8. Add question-tags to the following state ments according to the pattern and let your fellow students answer these questions. P a t t e r n: \ havent been there since the winter 1 havent been there since the winter, and what about you? (and you?) Neither have i. 1. I havent seen them since the summer. 2. Y o u * havent told anybody about it. 3. She has not yet come. 4. I ha-ven4 seen him for ages. 5. 1 havent chosen my I topic. 6. I have never dreamed about it. 7. I have never * seen her of late. 8. She hasnt called on you this month. . 9. I havent been there since last year. 10, I havent seen her these days. Exercise 9. Answer the following questions. A. 1. Who has just called? 2. Who has given you the \ book? 3. Who has left behind this umbrella? 4. Who has < helped you to manage this work? 5. Who has paid for the i dinner? 6. Who has offered him this work? 7. Who has j been in my study? 8. Who has upset the glass? 9. Who has spilled the milk? 10. W ho has written the composition? 11. Who has switched off the light? 12. Who has taken my towel? 13. Who has read this book? 14. Who has answered i all the questions?

B. 1. What books have you read this month? 2. What films has she seen this week? 3. How many pages have you read already? 4. How m any films have they seen of late? 5, How many trees have they planted? 6. How many letters have you written tonight? 7. How many English books has j
60

lie read this year? 8. Where has he lived all this year? '> Where have you been since last year? [0. Where has she nrked this mouth? 11. W here have you been so long? I Where have you been all day long? 13. How long have \ <ui known her? 14. How long has she been here? 15. How long havent you been in your native town? 16. How long h ive you tried to get in touch with her? i 1. Why have you chosen this topic? 2. Why havent \>u read this book? 3. Why has she changed so much of I.>ic? 4. Why hasnt she prepared tea? 5. Why havent you ut the cake? 6. Why hasnt she laid the table? 7. Why ti.ivent you asked her to tea? 8. Why havent they taken him to the pictures? 9. Why have they quarrelled? 10. Why II isnt she come? 11. Why have you come so late? 12. Why have: you asked them to dinner? Exercise 10. Put questions to all parts of the sentence. 1. He has told us of his good fortune. 2. I have found my son now. 3. 1 have put his things in the room next to . ins. 4, The cat has been asleep most of the day. 5. She has lived in Petersburg for five years. 6. Her husband has never seen this awful letter. 7. 1 have written a line to vour mother to tell her your good news. 8. 1 have fi n is h e d my waiting for today. 9, The trees have thrown off i heir yellow leaves. Exercise 11. Think of questions for which the follow ing might be answers. 1. Mary has cooked wonderfur cake. 2. He has "one home. 3. She hasn't seen him since the summer. 4. Re has given her a beautiful rose. 5. The alarm-clock has st rung. 6. She has put her umbrella into the corner.

61

7. It has b e g u n thawing today. 8. The boy has broken tl icicle. 9. S h e has changed her name. 10. Maiy hi brought h im borne. 11. She has brought home a whii kitten. 12. S h e has always tried to stop him. E xercise 12. Reply to the following commands sayi that you hav e already done what is required. P a t t e r n : Switch off the light! I ve already switched it off. 1. G e t o u t of bed! 2. Put on your shoes! 3. Wa: your face! 4. Turn on the cold water tap! 5. Take shower! 6. G e t dressed quickly! 7. Turn off the hot wati tap! S. T ak e o ff your coat! 9. Do your morning exercise! 10. Air y o u r room! 11. Make your bed! 12. Put on yoi slippers! 13. Do your lessons! 14. Switch on the T 15. Put v o u r room in order! E xercise 13. Supply subordinate clauses with the ver in the P resent Perfect Simple. 1. I d o n t know why (she - not to come). 2. She as; why (you - n o t to lay the table). 3, I d like to know why (hi - not to an sw er my letter). 4. Tell me why (you - to quar rel). 5. She doesnt say why (she - to refuse to take till! work). 6. I c a n t guess why (they - to part). 7. She wani to know w h e re (they - to go to). 8. I wonder where (the; - to live all t h a t time). 9. He cant say where (the dog - 1 < appear from). 10. I just ask where (you - to be since Iasi Saturday). 11. Please, tell me how long (you - to live i] this town). 12. I wonder how long (she - to work at ouj Institute). 13. 1 w onder w hat (she - to learn about it) I -I Hr asks w h at (you - to cook for supper). 15. I d like t
62

1111 *\v what (to happen to the cake). '' 1 1.11 (she - to do to him).

16. She doesnt say

Exercise 14. Choose suitable remarks for each of the iii merits on the left side of the page. I It is dark. ' Its time to get up. ; It is cold. I I he day is dull. The streets are quite white. i- I he streets are muddy. She feels so tired. Oh. the water is so hot! ,f i dont hear his steps. I' ! am tiot tired any v more. I I 'Look! The ground is like iron! I ' i dont see my cup. The alarm-clock has rung. Well, he has put on his slippers. It has frozen. She has not slept tonight. O f course you arent, you have taken a shower. A thick fog lias spread over the city. A heavy snow has fallen. It has rained since the very morning. Winter has come. Sure it is. Ive turned on tlie hot water tap. The thaw has begun. Ive taken it to the kitchen.

Exercise 15. Combine the following words and wordf i'.mips into sentences paying special attention to the posi tion of adverbs.

1. Everything, she, has, discovered. 2. She, m l :irt. in two, has cut. 3. Yet, has, she, not left, her mom. 4. Once, only, has, there, been, lie. 5. Just, mil', he, told, about his friend, has. 6. Up to town. ;* > 11 e . your outfit, she, to buy, has. 7. Never, this wKTched thing, has, he, seen. 8, About this, from town. 63

come, I, have, you, to tell. 9. Often, spoken, has, us, he, on the subject. 10. Returned, have, sooner, expected, than, I. 11. Never, loved, in the world, ha1 but you, I, any one. 12. To follow his advice, at I; have, you, made up your mind. 13. Has, since tin days, she, improved, greatly. 14. Some folly, has, ne' in her life, she, done? 15. Have, all this time, my bo* had, you! 16. Here, to tell me, have, about your par come, you? Exercise 16. Translate into English using the Presi Perfect Simple. 1. ? 2. ? 3. . 4. , 5. ! . 6. . 7. ? 8. Gj . 9. . 10. ,: 11. . 12. ? 13. ? 14. | 15. . 16. ; . 17. ? 18. ? 19. . 20. ^ ? Exercise 17. Answer the following questions using phrases in the margin and putting their verbs in the Presei Perfect Simple. P a t t e r n: Where is Mary? to go home She has gone home.

64

Where is your son? Where are your fi'iends? Where is your pen? Where is the chalk? Where is your pencil? h Where are your books? Where is vour rubber? Why arent you writing? Why arent you reading? Why arent you singing? Why d on t you hand in your exercise? Why dont you clean the blackboard?

to go to school to leave for the m o u n tains to leave it behind to put it on the table to break it to put them into my bag to lose it to lose my pen to leave my book behind to catch cold not to write it not to wet the duster

Section 5
P a s t S im p l e

Exercise 1. Give short answers to the following quesmns. . P a t t e r n : Did you see him in Moscow? Yes, I did. (No, I didnt.)

1. Did she come home late yesterday? 2. Did you get .-quainted with him at the paity? 3. Did you tell your husband about your new acquaintance? 4. Did you invite vour new friends to your party lask week? 5. Did it rain vi-sterday? 6. Did it thaw on Sunday?

!.i . N b 1 0 5 8

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P a t t e r n : Was he at home in the evening? Yes, he was. (No, he wasnt.)

1. Was he at the pictures in the evening? 2. Was s] at the party with you? 3. Was she a good cook? 4. Was a doctor? 5. Was she a nurse? 6. Was it cold in tl morning? C. P a t t e r n: Did you have many friends in the camp! Yes, I did. (No, I didnt.)

J . Did you have much spare time yesterday? 2. Di she have a dog? 3. Did your wife have a headache afti the party9 4. Did your grandparents have many childre: 5. Did the children have a bath in the evening? 6, Did thi have many lessons on Wednesday? D. 1. Did it snow at night? 2. Were you out in evening? 3. Did you go to the skating-rink on Saturda; 4. Was your father very busy last week? 5. Did you ha1 many English lessons last year? 6. Were your friends wil you at that unhappy time? 7. Did your wife like that fil; 8. Did you meet her after the film? 9. Were you at ho: on Sunday? 10. Did she have many mistakes in her li dictation? 11. Was your wife pleased with your present 12. Did it thaw at night? Exercise 2. Give short answers to the following que: tions. A. P a t t e r n : She asked them to tea. didnt she? Yes, she did. (No, she didnt.) 66

1. You cam e h o m e early last night, ' You met him at the pictures, didnt you? In - about her children, didnt you? 4. You ner in time, didnt you? 5. She met them luliit she? 6. He wore a mackintosh then, .

d i d n t you? 3. You asked came to din in the street, didnt he?

P a t t e r n : She was there too, wasnt she? Yes, she was. (No, she wasnt.)

1. At n ig h t the g ro u n d was like iron, w a s n t it? He was late for dinner yesterday, w asnt he? 3. The i veiling was warm, w asnt it? 4. The w eather was bad wsterday, w asn t it? 5. They were pleased to see you, "i-rent they? 6. They were absent yesterday, w erent ihry? P a t t e r n: She had a dog, didnt she? Yes, she did. (No, she didnt.)

1. You had a dinner party yesterday, d id n t you? 1 Y ou had a car last year, d id n t you? 3. You had many English books once, d idnt you? 4. She had a 'laughter, d idn t she? 5. He had many friends then, didnt he? 6. He had a watch, d idnt he? Exercise 3. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow-students answer these quesi ions, P a t t e r n: She came yesterday. She came yesterday, didnt she? Yes, she did. (No, she didnt.) 67

1. It stopped raining only at 10. 2. You were glad see your daughter at last. 3. The snow began an hom ago. 4. You had a good dinner. 5. The icicles sparkled i] the sun beautifully. 6. At the party he was with his wife; 7. The children had an evening party yesterday. 8. The; went to the party with their parents. 9. Your parents hai guests yesterday. 10, You were there too, 11. Tlie guesi left late at night. 12. You went for a walk rather early i] the morning. jExercise 4. G ive short answers to the following ques tions. A. P a t t e r n : She d id n t ask then to tea, did she? Yes, she did. (No, she did n t.)

1. She d i d n t call on them yesterday, did she? 2. She d id n t attend school last weer, did she? 3, Sh d id n t cook in tlie m orning, did she? 4. You d i d n t as; her about it yesterday, did you? 5. You d id n t see m; brother there, did you? 6. You d idn t ring them up. diyou? B. P a t t e r n: She wasnt at the party, was she? Yes, she was. (No, she w asnt.)
i'

1. She w asnt at h o m e last night, was she? 2. She! w asnt ill yesterday, was she? 3. He w asnt pleased tqj see them , was he? 4. You w e re n t right then, were you?: 5. You w e re n t happy with him, were you? 6. She w asnt] absent from school yesterday, was she? C. P a t t e n: She had no children, did she? Yes, she did. (No, she d id nt.)
68

1. They had no children, did they? 2. You had no yesterday, did you? 3. She had no guests that M-iiing, did she? 4. W hen she was a girl she had no i" is, did she? 5. I had no mistakes in my last comi",sition. did I? 6. When it began raining she had no mackintosh on, did she? Exercise 5. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow' students answer these quesI U > I I S .

1. They w e re n t late for the train. 2. It d id n t ra \esterday. 3. He had no voice in his youth. 4. Your iiicnds d i d n t know abou t it. 5. They d i d n t co m e to l i e r tea-party. 6. Jo hn and Kitty w erent happy to r e ! her. 7. In the sum m er they had no parties. 8. Her -log w asn t clever. 9. He d id n t come back. 10. It ilidnt thaw last night. 1 1. W hen you met him, he had is m ackintosh on. 12. Your little son skated on the lond yesterday. Exercise 6. Give short answers to the following ques(ions beginning them with so.

P a t t e r n : I read this book last year, and what about you? (and you?) So, did I.

1. I saw this film yesterday, and w h at ab out you? 2 . I met him at the station, and you? 3. 1 got up at seven oclock, and you? 4. I did my morning exercises veiy early, and you? 5. He helped them with their work, and wliat about you? 6. She saw him last Sunday, and you?
69

P a t t e r n : She was at home at that time, and what about you? (and you?) So was I,

1. She was in Moscow last month, and what aboi her husband? 2. He was a student at that time, and brother'? 3. You were at the party, and what about yoi friend? 4. O f course you were tired, and what about you] father? 5. She was very beautiful, and her sister? 6. I w; cold, and you?
C.

P a t t e r n : He had many friends, and what about you? (and you?) So did I.

1. They had a party yesterday, and you? 2. She hai three daughters, and her sister? 3. I had a headache then,] and wliat about you? 4. We had bad weather last monthj and you? 5. They still had some time yesterday, and you? 6. My grandma had three sons, and yours? D. 1. They did enerything very well, and you? 2. My] daughter was very tired in the evening, and yours? 3. I hai three lessons on Tuesday, and you? 4. She liked the pictun very much, and what about her husband? 5. I liked hi: wife, and you? 6. She was a beautiful woman, and he: younger sister?

70

Exercise 7. Give short answers to the following quesfKins beginning them with neither, \. P a t t e r n : I didn't see him in Moscow, and what about you? (and you?) Neither did I.

1. He didnt come to their party, and what about his wife? 2. She did not read this book in the sum m er, and vou? 3. I didnt see him there last night, and what about wiu? 4. I didnt hear his voice, and you? 5. He didnt call iliem up last week and you? 6, I didnt do this exercise at ilie lesson, and you? P a t t e r n : I wasnt well last week, and what about you? (and you?) Neither was I. 1. I w a sn t with them then, and what about Tom ? \ She wasnt at the party, and you? 3. He wasnt clever, and his brother? 4. You werent ill at that time, and what about your family? 5. She wasnt pretty, and her sister? h. { wasnt there yesterday, and you? P a t t e r n: She had no time yesterday, and what about you? (and you?) Neither did I.

1. I had no guests yesterday, and you? 2. At tha moment \ had no money about me, and you? 3. She had
71

no friends there, and what about her husband? 4. Hi* had no cigarettes about him, and you? 5. My parent had no pets, and yours? 6. They had no time yesterday and you? D. i. She d i d n t answer th e ir questions, and h< 2. She w a s n t th e re yesterday, and you? 3. I didn* ask th em to com e, and you? 4. He had no tim e yestei day, and w hat ab out Jo h n ? 5. You d id n 't know h< h u sb a n d , and y our brother? 6. They w e r e n t preseni and th e ir friends? Exercise 8. Add question-tags (and what about ..J to the following statements and then let your fellow studenj answer these questions. 1. 1 liked her very much. 2. I had no time on Sunj day. 3. She was very lovely. 4. She came in time. 5. Shi d id n t say a wrord. 6. She wasnt in the kitchen the: 7. She was veiy clever. 8. I didnt like him. 9. She sai beautifully. 10. I had two lectures yesterday, l i . Shi wasnt at home yesterday. Exercise 9. Answer the following questions, A. I. Who asked you about it? 2. Who came homi early that night? 3. Who worked with him? 4. Win spoke to that man? 5. Who gave him a cup of tea afte: dinner? 6. Who answered all the questions of the test paper? 7. Who asked him to that dinner? 8. Who sa1 him at the pictures? 9. Who picked up her bag? 10. Wh was in Moscow with you? 11. Who had my book? i 2. Wh' was there?

72

1 5 . 1. When did you see him? 2. W hen did it stop rai ning? 3. When did they come? 4. Where did you live last Mimmer? 5. Where did you see them? 6. Where did they . to in January? 7. How many books did you read last month? 8. How many films did you see last week? 9. How many letters did you write to your parents in summer? 10. What books did v vou read last term? 11. What films did * you see last year? 12. What dress did she wear at the party? . 1. Why did you come yesterday? 2. Why did you call him up? 3, Why didnt she answer my letter? 4. Why did you say all that? 5. Why did you buy that book? 6. Why didnt you ask her to dinner yesterday? 7. Why didnt she come to your party? 8. Why didnt she give me her book? Why didnt she call on them? 10. Why didnt she ask me about it? , 1, What did she look for in your room? 2. What did vou and Tom speak about last night? 3. Where did lie go to last Sundav? 4. What did she ask vou about when vou met? 5. What did you think of when you saw' them in our town? 6. Whose children did she look after? 7. What did you read on Sunday? 8.What did you do in the morning? Exercise 10. Put questions to all parts of the sen tences.

1. We finished our fish. 2. Soon the maid cam forward with the second course. 3. She put it on the table in front of Mike. 4. He put down the carving knife. 5. She carried the meat into the kitchen. 6. For a few minutes he stroked the dogs ear. 7. Two children ran out of the door of the house. 8. The carriage rolled on and on between the great beautiful trees. 9. People talked about him at dinnertables. 10. She kept him by her side a great part of the evening.
73

Exercise 11. Think of questions for which the folio wing might be answers.

1. I saw them yesterday. 2. She told me about h tea-party. 3. She knew nothing about it. 4. I wanted ti go to the pictures tonight. 5. She came back just a minuti ago. 6. She left it in the kitchen. 7. She came from thi Caucasus. 8. I met him at the theatre. 9. They cami after dinner. 10. She stayed with them for a month! 11. It was M arys brother, 12. He asked me to give hi your telephone number. Exercise 12. Finish the following sentences usinj the phrases in brackets and putting their verbs into the Pas^ Indefinite Tense, 1, When she lived at hom e, she ... . (to be very un-;j happy) 2. When I got to know her, she ... . (to work a^ a typist) 3. Last week we ... , (to have a picnic on tfo bank of a beautiful river) 4. Last m outh they ... . (toj retu rn from th eir tiip ) 5. .In J u n e g ran dm a and the] kids ... . (to go to the country) 6. in 1996 I ... . (to be^ in England) 7. Last sum m er all of us ... . (to go to to urist cam p) 8. O ne Sunday m o rn in g I ... . (to wake' up at five o clock) 9. While they were at supper,,] her husb and ... , (to tell m e th at he needed my a d vice) 10. About three m onths ago their daughter ... . (to marry a sailor) 11. Two days ago they ... . (to ha ve a quarrel) 12. A m inute ago she ... . (to say som e thing different)

74

Exercise 13. Join the following sentences by means < > f the conjunctions in the margin. Give two variations where possible. Pattern: when She got my letter. She returned home. 1. She got my letter when she returned home. 2. When she got my letter she returned home.

. The alarm-clock rang. I got up. 2. Tea was ready. She called the guests into the dining-room. 3. He received an invitation. He went to their party. 4. It got colder. The children went home. 5. [ walked into the hall. I saw Mary.
6 . They played in the garden. It grew' dark.

when

7. He worked very much. He got tired. 8. She cleaned the room. Every piece of furniture shone. 9. They walked in the park. It began raining. 10. He fell in love with her. He sawr her. 11. They stopped talking. The teacher came in, 12. They left. It stopped snowing, 13. They went home. They learned the news. 14. Mother poured out tea. I cut bread and butter. 15. She prepared her lesson. Mother cooked supper. 75

till

as soon as

while

Exercise 14. Translate into English.

1. , .;] 2. , ! . 3. -1 . 4. | . 5. . 6. | . 7. ] . 8. ! ? 9. , ! . 10. , | . 11. , | . 12. \ . 13. ? 14. 3 . 15. j . 16. 1 ? - . 17. , i 18. ? 19. : . 1 Section 6
P r e s e n t P e r f e c t S i m p l e - P a st S i m p l e

Exercise 1. Give two answers to each of the questions, one in the Present Perfect Simple, the other in the Past Simple using appropriate adverbials from the brackets. P a t t e r n : When did he call? (yesterday, not yet) He called yesterday. He has n o t called yet.

j I j ]

76

1. When did she come? (an hour ago, this morning) 2. W hen did you see her? (two m onths ago, this m onth) 3, When did you meet? (in April, never) 4. W hen did he ring you up? (in the evening, just) 5. When did the alarmclock ring? (a minute ago, not yet), 6. When did you get up? (at seven o clock, just) 7. When did the weather change? (in the evening, today) 8. When did it begin snowing? (at about ten o clock, just) 9. When did he ask her to come to tea? (last week, this week) 10. When did lie return? (at noon, not yet) 11, When did it stop raining? (some time ago, not up to now) 12. When did it all happen? (a moment ago, just) Exercise 2 . Give short answers to the following q u estions and then extend them using tlie Past Simple and supplying appropriate adverbials from the list below. Some time ago, a moment ago, last week , some days a g o , last year, the other day, a few minutes ago, about an hour ago, at night, in the morning, yesterday, at the party, i n summer, about five minutes ago , a minute ago. P a t t e r n : Have you cut the cake? Yes, I have, I cut it ten minutes ago.

1. Have you laid the table? 2. Has she poured o lea? 3. Has he ever taken you to the pictures? 4. Has your grandma visited you? 5. Have you ever been to the Crimea? 6. Have you met them of late? 7. Have you finished your composition already? 8. Has it stopped raining? 9. Has it stopped snowing? 10. Has he called you up? II. Has he seen this film too? 12. Has he introduced her to his pa rents? 13. Have you ever stayed with your grandparents? 14. Has the lecture begun? 15. Has the telephone rung?
77

Exercise 3. Insert the Present Perfect Simple or the ? Past Simple form of the verbs in brackets. Change the po- | sition of adverbs if necessary. 1 1. a) 1 ... this book when I was a child. J b) I ... this book; it is rather interesting, (to read) I 2. a) I ... him in the summer. 1 b) I ...him since the summer, (not to see) I 3. a) The building of the new theatre ... last spring. 9 b) The building of the new theatre ... already, (to 1 begin) 1 4. a) I ... the letter yesterday. I b) I just ... the letter, (to post) J 5. a) She ... everything in the evening. | b) At last she ... everything; now she can go to 4 bed. (to do) j 6. a) My watch was all right at 9. but at 10 it ... . 1 b) My watch was all right at 9. but now i t ... . (to I stop) j 7. a) Last year he ... in the very centre of the city, j b) He never ... in the very centre of the city, (to 1 live) j 8. a) He ... the Hermitage two days ago. j b) I already ... the Hermitage, now I want to go to I the Russian Museum, (to visit) j 9. a) He ... a moment ago. a b) He just ... . (to leave) I 10. a) I ... to the dean during the break. I b) I ... to the dean as yet. (not to speak) I 11. a) They ... on Sunday. 1 b) Ring them up, they ... . (to return) ] 12. a) Yesterday the weather ... . j b) Put on your coat, the weather ... . (to change) 1 78 I

Exercise 4. Insert predicates in the Present Perfect Simple or in the Past Simple and other missing paits of tlie sentence using the phrases in brackets. A, 1. The doctor ... today, (to visit ten o f his patients) 2. His brother ... that day. (not to go to the pictures) 3. It ... the day before yesterday, (to rain heavily) 4. The pro fessor ... two days ago. (to examine him) 5. He ... the other day. (to call on us) JB . 1. The tourists ... this week, (to arrive here) 2. Mot her ... that week, (to take the children to the Zoo) 3. My husband and I ... last week, (to be at the theatre) 4. The children ... a week ago. (to come from the country) 5. My aunt ... for a week, (to stay with us) C. 1. She ... this month, (to take eight lessons in English) 2. They ... that month, (to return from England) 3. His elder brother ... last month, (to meet them at the pictures) 4. I ... a month ago. (to speak to the dean) 5. She ... for a month, (not to be in town) D. I. Her husband ... this year, (to graduate from the Institute) 2. Their friends ... that year, (to live in the Crimea) 3. She ... last year, (to miss many lessons in French) 4. They .,. a year ago. (to get acquainted) 5. She ... for a yeaj'. (to stay in England) Exercise 5. Finish up the sentences choosing appro priate adverbial modifiers from the brackets.

1. My cousin did not ring me up ... . (at 10 o clo since 10 o clock) 2. 1 have not seen him at home ... . (at dinner time, since dinner time) 3. He did not say a word about it ... . (at the beginning of supper, since the begin ning of supper) 4. I have been here ... . (yesterday, since
79

yesterday) 5. It snowed heavily ... . (on Sunday, since Sunday) 6. They have travelled at tlie Caucasus ... . (in September, since September) 7. My little child has been ill ... . (in summer, since summer) 8. My children have studied English (last year, since last year) 9. He wrote his last book ... . (in 1970, since 1970) [0. They did not know anything about each other ... . (when they met, since they met) 11. The child was frightened ... . (when he saw the doctor, since he saw' the doctor) 12. My elder sister lias lived in the country ... . (when she graduated from the Institute, since she graduated from the institute) Exercise 6. Translate into English using the Present Perfect Simple or the Past Simple. 1. ? 2. ? 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. ? 9. . 10. , , . 11. . 12. . 13. , . 14. . 15. , . 16. . 17. . 18. . 19. .

Section 7
P a s t C o n tin u o u s

Exercise 1. Give fill I answers to the following qucs! ions.

1. What were you doing when 1 rang you up? 2. What was she writing when mother entered the room? 3. Whom was she speaking to when I saw her? 4. What were you looking for when I opened the door? 5. What were they laughing at when I came in? 6. What were you listening to when the tape-recorder broke? 7. What were they doing when it began raining? 8. What was she doing when the light went out? 9, What was she doing when the fire began? 10. What was she eating when 1 brought in the breakfast? 11. What were you playing at when 1 called you home? Exercise 2 . Give full answers to the following ques tions. I . W h at were you doing while I was w ashing up? 2. What were you reading while 1 was writing my composi tion? 3. What was N ick doing while Nelly was washing? 4. What was mother doing while Nick was taking his bath? 5. What was father doing while Nelly was laying the table? 6. What was mother doing while the children were eating their breakfast? 7. What was Nelly doing while Nick was drinking tea? 8, What was Nick doing while Nelly was look ing at herself in the mirror? 9. What was Nelly doing while father was putting on his coat? 10. What was mother doing while they were leaving home? 11. What were you doing while it was raining? 12. What were you doing while the children were sliding on the ice?

81

Exercise 3 . Think of questions for which the following might be answers. 1. At seven o clock he was just getting up. 2. At time I was seeing my guests off. 3. At ten o clock she w; walking her dog. 4. When I saw him he was opening thp door of your house. 5. While Nelly was washing Nick was( taking his bath. 6. She was pouring out tea when I brought! in the cake. 7. It was raining heavily since morning tillnight yesterday. 8. When the telephone rang they wen dancing in the sitting-room. 9. While mother was greetingthe guests Nelly was cutting bread and butter. 10. When the bell rang they were all sleeping. 11. In the kitchen she was hurriedly cooking dinner. 12, They were having a wallc in the park. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions according to the pattern. Make use of the phrases in the margin, but think of suitable subjects for each of the subordinate clauses. P a t t e r n: When did you come? to dance I came when they were dancing.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

When When When When When When

did you cut finger? did you switch off the light? did the alarm-clock ring? did you meet him? did she leave? did it begin raining?

7. When did he ring you up? 8. When did she- arrive? 82

to cook dinner to leave home already to get up to walk in the park to dance to wash up after dinner to cook scones for my teaparty i to have dinner <

1 When did you see him last time? . When did you catch cold? i . When did you break the plate? When did she break her arm?

to leave after our dancing-party to air the room to cany the dishes into the kitchen to slide on the frozen pond

Exercise 5 . Translate into English. 1. , ? 2. , . 3. . 4. i-i , . 5. . 6. . 7. , . 8. , ; . 9, , . 10. , . II. , 1 [" . 12. , Iia . Section 8
P a s t S im p l e - P a s t C o n t in u o u s

Exercise /. Fill in the blanks with the Past Simple or the Past Continuous. 1. A few minutes later a young man ... . (to arrive) 2. But one fine morning as she ... in her room, someone ... at the door, (to sit, to knock) 3. He ... over to the window and ... out. Rain ... heavily on the grass, (to walk, to look, to fall) 4. And he ... out of bed, and ... a cold bath, and
83

... himself, and ... himself, and ... himself in cold water because there was no time to wait for the hot. (to spring, to have, to wash, to dress, to shave) 5. Eveiybody ... after her as she ... . (to look, to pass) 6. You speak English very w e i r 5, said Camilla. She ... past him at Robert, (to look) 7. Watching her he had the feeling, that she ... a part, (to play) 8. W hen he ... in, she ... in a big a rm chair by the window, (to come, to sit) 9. He ... something but I ... him well, (to cry, not to hear) 10. I into the kitchen. Tom ... bread and butter, Mary ... a cloth on a little table by the window, (to come, to cut, to put) Exercise 2. Translate into English. 1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. , . 5. . 6. , , . 7. , . 8. . . 9. , . 10. , . 11. , . 12. , . 13. . 14. , - . 15. . 16. - . 17. , , . 18. : , , .

84

Section 9
P a st P e r f e c t S im p l e

Exercise 1. Give short answers to the following ques tions. ]. Had you washed up before the children came hack from their walk? 2. Had the children returned from the skating-rink before it grew dark? 3. Had the rain stop ped before they came back from school? 4. Had you writ ten to your parents before you left for England? 5. You had seen your brother before you went to tlie Institute, hadnt you? 6. She had gone to bed before you switched off TV, hadnt she? 7. You hadnt looked through your composition before you handed it in, had you? 8. She hadnt read the whole of the book before she returned it to the library, had she? 9. I h a d n t seen them on the platform before the train started, and you? 10. I had come before their lessons were over, and you? 11.1 hadnt washed up before the children returned, and you? 12. I hadnt cooked dinner before the family assembled, and you? Exercise 2. Transform the following before-oXauses into after-clauses and vice versa, changing the tense of the verbs accordingly. P a t t e r n : M other had returned before 1 went for a walk. Mother returned after f had gone for a walk. 1. The rain began after we had come from the In stitute. 2. She had fallen asleep before her family re85

turned from the pictures. 3. She had cooked the cake be fore the guests came. 4. Father rang up after I had finish ed my lessons. 5. I cam e h o m e after it had grow: dark. 6. They had gone to the skating-rink before the sno1 stopped. 7. She poured out tea after her husband h taken the cake from the oven, 8, The storm had stopper before they left the village. 9, They had left the tow: before the war began. 10. I visited them after they hai got their new flat. 11. He went to bed after he had dorij everything. 12. She had washed up before the childra came from the pictures. jExercise 3. Join following pairs of sentences substitute ing the Past Perfect Simple for the Past Simple in one of thi clauses according to the sense. Make use of the conjunc' tions: after, before, when, till, until. P a t t e r n: They came. She finished her work. They came after she had finished her work. 1. The children returned from school. Mother cooke dinner. 2. They went for a walk. It stopped raining, 3. The frosts began. She made winter things for he: children. 4. I waited. She did the room. 5. He took hi bath. His wife laid the table for breakfast. 6. Nick left foi school. Nelly was ready, 7. The children fell asleep. T h parents came back from the pictures. 8. Mother waited, The children wrent to the skating-rink, 9. The bell rang. H < went to bed. 10. She called on them. They went to th< pictures. 11. They came to the skating-rink. The sno' began, 12, It grew' dark. The children went home.

Exercise 4 . Translate into English. I. , '-. 2. .. 3. , . 4. [ . 5. , . 6. -, . 7. 1 } . 8. |, . 9. . 10. , (to turn grey). 11. i-., 1990 . 12. \ , ip;iMMa. 13. , . . , . 15. , . 16. i d: , . 17. , - - , . ! !> . > . Section 10
P a s t C o n t in u o u s - P a s t P e r f e c t S im p l e

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the Past Conti nuous or Past Perfect Simple forms of the verbs in brackets. 1, He ... already ... the door and ... the key. (to reach, i iurn) 2. She ... some more steps, and ... at the water, (to walk, to look) 3. The man ... heavily. He ... all the way Imm his house, (to breathe, to run) 4. She ... at last, and now ... something to her mother, (to calm down, to
87

whisper) 5. The children ... crying, and ... frightfully at each other, (to stop, to look) 6. She ... dinner and ... now leisurely ... her cigarette, (to cook, to smoke) 7. Now they ... , and ... the hills, (to stop, to survey) 8. They ... at each other, trying to make out what ... . (to look, to hap pen) 9. By that time they ... already ... about ten miles and ... worse and worse, (to go, to feel) 10. Now he ... with his fiancee. Apparently they ... . (to dance, to return from abroad) 11. His parents, who ... two weeks before ... . (to leave, to return) 12. She ... where he ... her. (to stand, to leave) E xercise 2. Think of situations in which you could give two different answers to each of the following ques tions: one with the verb in the Past Continuous, the other with the verb in the Past Perfect Simple. Think of suitable conjunctions for each of your answers, Make use of the phrases in the margin. P a t t e r n: When did he come? 1. He came when we were having breakfast. 2. He came after (when) we had already had breakfast, 1. When did you meet him? 2. When did 3. When did room? 4. When did 5. When did 6. When did he call on them? you come into the she ask you about it? you tell her about it? the children return? to turn the corner of the street just to have dinner to ring off to quarrel to cook dinner to have dinner

7. When did they go for a walk? 8. When did it begin raining? 9. When did you notice this man? 0. W hen did you lose your bag? 1. When did she ring you up? 2. When did he return?

to begin snowing to get ready to leave to come up to my house to get out of the bus to do the rooms to go to bed

Exercise 3. Supply subordinate clauses with the verbs cither in the Past Continuous or the Past Perfect Simple. Oive two variations wherever possible. 1. Mary arrived w hen . . . . 2. I met the children when . . . . 3. She called on me after . . . . 4. She watched. Iier son while . . . . 5. They w e n t to the cinem a after ... . (i. 1 didnt know that ... . 7. Who told you that ...? 8. My husband returned as soon as ... . 9. The tourists reached the liver when ... . 10. She called me up and asked what ... . 11. They told me about your illness after . . . . 12. I wonder w hat.... Section 11
F u ture S im p l e

Exercise 1. Give short answers to the following ques


tions.

A.

P a 11 e r n: Will it rain tonight? Yes, it will. (No, it w o n t.)

1. Will it snow today? 2. Will it thaw tomorrow? 3. Will lie do it for me? 4. Will he ring you up? 5. Will he tell them about it? 6. Will they come too? 89

B.

Patter

n: Will you come? Yes, I shall. (No, I shant.)

h Will you ring me up? 2. Will you see her home? 3. Will you give me some supper? 4. Will you help her? 5. Will you stop all this? 6. Will you come home late? C. 1- Wil] they start tomorrow? 2. Will you give that letter to her? 3. Will she come in time? 4. Will you see them tomorrow? 5. Will she stay with us? 6. Will you go to th e pictures wit.li them? 7. Will it be warm in June? 8. WiH you cook my favourite cake? 9. Will they help me? 10. Will you give me some milk? 11. Will he call too? 12. Will you have a good rest in the summer? Exercise 2. Give .short answers to the following ques tions. A. P a 11 e r n: He will come tomorrow, wont he? Yes, he will. (No, he wont.)

1. She will do it herself, wont she? 2. Tlie weather will be fine tomorrow, w ont it? 3. The days will get longer ve ry s o o n , wont they? 4. It will rain in the evening, w ont it? 5. Your parents will soon return from abroad, w ont they? 6. Soon she will become quite a beautiful girl, w ont she? B. P a 11 e r n: You will come veiy soon, wont you? Yes, 1 shall. (No, I shant.)

1. You will carry the box, w ont you? 2. You will like that fur, wont you? 3. You will like fishing, w o n t you? 90

4. You will listen to the nightingale, w ont you? 5. You will catch that butterfly for me, w o n t you? 6. You will go to Ihe skating-rink with me, w o n t you? Exercise 3. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow students answer these ques tions. P a t t e r n: She will come soon. She will come soon, w ont she? Yes, she will. (No, she w ont.) 1. She will fail to catch the dog. 2. You will write this letter for me. 3. He will play ball with his sisters. 4. You will ski in the afternoon. 5. You will have a hot bath. 6, They will have plenty of time on Sunday. 7. The horse will eat some hay. 8. His sisters will laugh at him. 9. You will cook a nice dinner. 10. They will soon hear the news. 1J . You will introduce me to her. 12. She will give us a cup of hot tea. Exercise 4. Give short answers to the following ques tions. P a t t e r n: He w ont come tonight, will he? No, he w o n t. (Yes, he will.) j. He w on t be afraid of the snake, will he? 2. He w o n t fail to catch the fish, will he? 3. The dog w ont bark at me, will it? 4. The rat wont bite me, will it? 5. The hare w o n t run away, will it? 6. The horse won't throw him off, will it? 91

P a t t e r n : You w o n t see him, will you? No, I shant. (Yes, I shall.) I. You wont fail to catch that fish, will you? 2. You wont tease the cat, will you? 3. You w o nt be afraid of the wolf, will you? 4. You w o n t ride this horse, will you? 5. You w ont say a word of it, will you? 6. You w o n t write to her, will you? 7. You w o n t do it, will you? 8. You wont go there will you? . 1. The weather w ont change soon, will it? 2. You wont dance, will you? 3. The rain w o n t stop, will it? 4. You w ont be late, will you? 5. It w o n t stop snowing, will it? 6. You w ont be cruel to her, will you? 7. The tigers w o n t come here, will they? 8. He w o n t win, will he? 9. You w ont do it, will you? 10. The cows wont butt, will they? 11. You w o n t play with them, will you? 12. Mother w ont come soon, will she? 13. You w ont be absent long, will you?

j ] j j j j \
j

Exercise 5. Add question-tags to the following state ments and then let your fellow-students answer these ques- : tions. j Pattern: She will come tomorrow. She will come tomorrow, w ont she? Yes, she will. (No, she w ont.)

1. We shall see each other tomorrow. 2. She spend summer in Leningrad. 3. She w o n t come tonight. 4. You w o n t be angry with me. 5. Your friends will be there too. 6. It will rain in the evening. 7. I shall get the j ticket too. 8. You will be kind to me. 9. It w o n t snow ]

tonight. 10. You w ont tell her about it. 11. They will arrive tomorrow. 12. Your brother will be present too. Exercise 6. Answer the following questions beginning your sentences with so and neither. 1. She will come in the evening, and what about you? 2. We shall not go to the forest, and what about your friends? 3. He will go to the Zoo, and what about his little sister? 4. I shall never part with my pet, and you? 5. He wont be afraid of the crocodile, and what about his young est sister? 6. I shant see much of them this summer, and she? 7. I shall be frank with them, and you? 8. He will find lime for it, and what about them? 9. They will be back in a few minutes, and your friend? 10. 1 shall not stay here a minute, and you? 11. He w o nt drink the milk, and you? 12. i ll buy some fish, and you? Exercise 7. Answer the following questions. 1. Who will go to the wood? 2. Who will gather mushrooms? 3. Who will gather berries9 4. Who will go and see the elephant? 5. Who will give the rabbit some ;uass? 6. Who will call in the dog? 7. What will you do in rhe Zoo? 8. What will you see in the country? 9. What will they see in the forest? 10. What will you write her sister about? 11 .What will you give your son on his birthday? 12. What will she call her cat? 13. What books will you take from the library? 14. What cake will she cook? 15. What dress will you put on? 16. What text will they read? 17. How many pages will you read for tomorrow? 18. How many trees will they plant in spring? 19. How much milk will she drink? 20. Where will you go in the summer? 21. Where will you live next year? 22. When will she go to the country? 23. When will they go for mushrooms? 24. When will he come back from the wood? 25. How' long will they stay in the forest? 26. How long will you work with him? 93

Exercise 8. Put questions to all parts of the sentenci

1. He will not deceive you. 2. 1 shall leave th soon. 3. She will try to stop it. 4. We shall not retu; here till afternoon. 5. He will thank you for it sondj day. 6. S h e ll not leave the boy. 7. I shall waste words. 8. Youll find it out veiy soon. 9. A great deal power will lie in his hands. 10. He will always think f< others as well as for himself 11. I shall come back to yd in a few days. 12, The dog will return to his master. E xercise 9. Finish up th e following s e n te n o using the phrases in brackets and referring their verbs tj the future. P a t t e r n: Next year he ... (to go to England). Next year lie will go to England, 1. Tomorrow his brother and he ... (to come to see us) 2. In the morning the doctor ... (to visit your child). 3. Nexl summer our family ... (to live in the country). 4. On Sun day my children ... (to go to the Zoo). 5. In the summer a] the students of our group ... (to work in the country). 6. I: the evening all of them ... (to gather in the club). 7. To night my neighbours ... (to come to tea with me). 8. In week their group ... (to start for the mountains). 9. Nexl spring we ... (to graduate from the Institute). 10. O: coming home he ... (to switch on TV). 11. The day aftei tomorrow my mother and I ... (to go shopping). 12. Ver soon I ... (to go to the sea-side).

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Exercise 10. Think of questions for which the follo"m g might be answers. i. 1 1 stay here for about a week. 2. For your iniihday I ll give you a nice little brooch. 3. My dress will I" ready in time for the ball. 4. I 1 1 leave them at my nit ice. 5. Tomorrow they will already be in Omsk. 6. She will not be back till late at night. 7. He will give me a red m vsc. 8. The rest of them will copy the verse. 9. Ill put i hr books on the table. 10. Shell come in a dav or two. II. I ii never do it again. 12. H ell go to the pictures.
*

Exercise 11. Read the sentences and translate them info Russian. 1. So, my son, w ell have to stay where we are 1re safe here. 2. I think 1 shall have to go and explain it I* * her. 3. 1 cant help you, youll have to get up yourself. I. "Oh, well , he thought, Ill have to ask my mother Lest . 5. I think I shall be able to show myself worthy of it. r ; shall never be able to talk as you do. 7. Will you get .ill right and be able to fly again, or will you always be a bit > h a crock? 8. Now we shall be able to have all sort of interesting discussions. 9. But you see, you just w ont be ihlc to take that good express train to London. 10. Do you i link youll be able to get to the bottom of it? 11. The boy will be permitted to visit you. 12. You see, Tin sure youll be allowed to have that big ball. Exercise 12. Refer the predicates in italics to the fuinre. Make other changes if necessary. P a t t e r n : He can do it today. He will be able to do it tomorrow.

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1. Eveiybody can sec that. 2. Now I can finish my* play. 3. Wait. going to look for a better place w h e r e we can talk. 4. Im going up where I can get the sunshinej 5 . 1 can take the things off the table. 6. I menu you can give9 anyone anything. 7. L tOh, I can do it myself, answered! the boy. 8. 1 can scarcely describe what the difference is.} 9. You can give some money to her now - enough to pay! Her rent. 10. I can resist everything except tem ptation.! 11. It is really one of the few houses in London where 1 can\ take Agatha. 12. Here is some money. Its for you, so yoim can pay the rent. 13. Mother knows where we are. Lets ! stay here. She can find us when she comes back. 14. Get ! up! You must get away , my son. 15. You must tell me what I I did. 16, I think I must go and explain everything to h e r.j 17. You must kiss me on the lips, for I love you. 18. W ei have been too lax. We must make an example. 19. All! You# must be at home for me. 20. Arthur, you must let me staym for five minutes. 21. Robert, you must stop this! 22. O f! course you must help me in this matter. 23. 1 must go to I her. 24. It must be done somehow. 25. I must go back - no; I can't go back. 26. You must have this place at once. 27. Now you may go and look at tlie toys. 28. May I have it just now? 29. May I pull that little table over here to your chair? 30. You may call me Jim. 31. May I give it to h e r ' this moment? 32. I may come tonight, m ayn't I? 33.You may go there after dinner. 34. He may do as he chooses! now with his life. i Exercise 13. Translate into English. 9

1. . 2. . 3. , ! . 4. I . 5. ! . 6. ?! 96

? 8. . 9. , |\, ? 10. ? 11. , ? 12. ? 13. : ? 14. ? 15. . 16. 10 in , . 17. ? 18. , i 9. , . 20. , . 21. . 22. , . Exercise 14. Give full answers to the following ques tions making use of the phrases in the margin. P a t t e r n : What will you do when to go to the you have spare time? pictures When I have spare time I shall go to the pictures. to go home 1. What will you do when the lectures are over? 2. What will she do when she graduates to work at school from the Institute? . 3. What will he do when he comes home to have dinner tonight? 4. Where will they go when summer comes? to the country 5. Where will they live when they are mar in Moscow ried?
4 . U )5N

.Tv j

97

6. What shall we do after we pass the exam? 7. What shall we do before we go to the library? 8. How long will you stay here before you leave for the Caucasus? 9. What will you do if you d o n t get tickets for the new' play? 10. What will vou do if vou have much spare time on Sunday?
+ w

to go to the cinema to have a cup of tea about ten days to go somewhe re else to have a long walk in the co unt ly to read a page or two of this novel to ring them up the next dav

11. What will you do if you come too early? 12. What will she do if she doesnt find them at home?

Exercise . 15. Join the following sentences beginning the subordinate clauses with the conjunctions in the margi n P a t t e r n: I shall do everything, when I shall be free. 1 shall do everything when I am free. 1. He will come. He will return from the country. 2. We shall get there. It will be dark. 3. She will buy this coat, She will have enough money, 4. They will tell you everything. They will come to see you.

when

98

5. She will tell you about her job. She will ring you up. 6. I shall write you all about the children. 1 shall settle there. 7. He will begin studying Spanish. He will know English well. 8. I shall give him some milk. He will wake up. 9. She will call you up. She will be through with her lessons. 0. 1 shall take the children for a walk. It will stop raining. 1. You will like her. You will see her. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1 shall do nothing. 1 shall see you. We shall reach home. It will begin raining. I shall show you everything, f shall leave. M o th er will prepare dinneer, She will go to her work.

as soon as

after

before

16. I shall cook a cake. You will wash up. 17. She will cut the cake. I shall pour out tea. 18. I shall find the way to the tigers. You will admire the wolves. 19. I shall wait here. She will come. 20. 1 shall read. I shall fall asleep. 21. The alarm-clock will ring. He will wake up. 22. She will not get up. Somebody will wake h e r.

while

till

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23. 24. 25. 26.

She will not come. They will invite her. He will not touch his food. You will go away, until She will not come. You will ask her. I shall stay here. You will help me with my work.

27. I shall buy the stuff. I shall get my money today. 28. She will ring you up. You will leave your telephone number for her. 29. She will look quite beautiful. She will cut her hair short. 30. It will be a blow to me. They will separate.

if

Exercise 16. Supply appropriate principal clauses making use of the phrases in the margin. J . When she is back home ... 2. When he is here ... 3. When she is married ... 4. As soon as I graduate from the Institute ... 5. As soon as winter is over ... 6. If 1 see him on the beach ... 7. If he doesnt do it at once .. 8. If she telephones me tonight... 9. Unless you are careful 1 ... 10. Until vou are serious ... 11. So long as he behaves ... 12. As long as 1 live ... 13. ... when it gets dark. 14. ... unless she returns. 15. ... till it is too late. 16. ... if you hurry a little.
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to cook dinuer to help me with my luggage to have a flat of her own to leave for the country to start for the mountains to be greatly surprised to consider him a coward not to find me at home to get into trouble not to listen to vou to let liini stay at the table to remember about it to camp not to see her to wait for him to catch the train

Exercise 17. Supply appropriate subordinate clauses uiking use of the phrases in the margin. 1. I shall see you off if ... 2. I shall see you as soon as ... 3. They will call you up when ... 4. You will change your mind after ... 5. He will understand every thing even before ... 6. I shall wait till ... 7. They will stay in Petersburg until ... S. She will leave very soon u n less ... 9. I shall not disturb you while ... 0, I shall buy this bear for you when ... 11. 1 shall not see you till ... 12, She will see her grandma before ... to be through with my work to come to the Institute to settle everything to tell you everything to know all the facts to receive the letter to return from her trip to happen to her to work at your paper to get some money to pass your exam to leave for Moscow

Exercise 18. Insert the Present Simple of the Future Simple of the verbs in the margin. 1. I ... till spring ... . 2. You ... all about it later when you ... bigger, 3. I ... very lonely when you ... . 4. Well, as soon as I ... from Vienne, I ... you know the result. 5. We ... to wait till they ... to us.
101

to to to to to to to

wait, to come find be feel, to be gone hear let have, to come

6. When I ... this I ... him. 7. If you ... me run back here, turn round and run as fast as you can. 8. If you ... what I ask you, I ... you very handsomely, 9. I ... i f ) ... . 10. An hour ... before the sun ... up. 11. If that woman ... my threshold, I ... her across the face, 12. Here is the reddest rose, in all the world. You ... it tonight next to your heart, and as we ... together it ... you how I ... you. 13. How' happy they ... when I ... back. 14. You ... my son as long as I ... . 15. It ... a big thing if it ... out all right.

to see, to remember to see

to do, to pay to weep, to choose to pass, to be to cross to strike to to to to wear dance tell, to love be, to come

to be, to live to be. to turn

Exercise 19. Classify subordinate clauses in the fol lowing sentences and insert the Future Simple or the Present Simple of the verbs in the margin. 1. I d ont know when she... . 2. We shall all miss him when he ... away. 3. When he ... , Ill see him alone. 4. Youll make a mistake if you ... me. 5. I wonder if they ... me go at all. 6. I ll let you know in a minute if I ... you again.
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to come to be to come not to believe to let to want

7. Nobody knows when they ... back. S. When you ... away, think of me some times. Im not sure if I ... to fmd it, but I m very grateful anyhow. 0. I dont know when I ... again. 1. She will not dance with me if I ... her a red rose. 2. Ask her if she really ... it.

to be to be to be able to come not to bring to mean

Exercise 20. Answer the following questions and exicnd them according to the pattern. Make use of the idverbials in brackets. P a t t e r n: Do you study Spanish? (next year) No, { dont, but have to next year. 1. Do you cook for yourself? (when m other leaves tor Moscow next week) 2. Does he do his room him self? (in a day or two) 3. Do you study French? (next year) 4. Do you read many English books? (when I pass on to the 4 th course) 5. Does he work? (when he lives in i he countiy next year) 6. Do you often see your parents? (tomorrow for they d o n t feel well) 7. Does he take these pills? (if he doesnt feel better) 8. Does your daughter attend school? (when she is seven) 9. Do you spend m u ch time at the Institute? (in a m onth w hen the (erm comes to an end) 10. Does your father often go to Moscow? (soon w hen he becomes the head of the office) 11. Does your wife work (when the baby is a little older) 12. Does your wife sew? (when we have a baby)

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P a t t e r n : Do you read English? No, I d o n t, but I ll be able to by the end of the term.

1. Do you often go to the pictures (when the summi comes) 2. Do you read much? (when I have more spai time) 3. Do you sing? (when I learn how to do it) 4. Docj your b ro th er study G erm an? (when he is a little oldei 5. Does your sister often see you? (during her vacatio] 6. Do you often go to the country? (in summer) 7. Doi he swim? (if somebody teaches him) 8. Do you spe; English? (by the end of the year) 9. Does he speak French' (before the term is over) 10. Can she come today? (tomor row) 11. Can your brother do it? (when he is throu) with his work) 12. Can you help me to wash up? (a litt) later) Exercise 21. Translate into English.

1. , . 2. , . 3. , ] ? 4. , : . 5. , ] , 6. , ) , . 7. , , . 8. , . 9. , . 1 , . 11. ] . 12. ] - , , , . 13. , , , !


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, . 14. , , , , , , i- . Section 12
F uture i n the P a s t S i m p l e

Exercise L Read the sentences and translate them into Russian. Pay special attention to the forms in italics. 1. I never thought I should have a car. v2. fl said I was sorry and hoped she would soon be hefter. 3. Every body thought it would be over in six monthsjf 4. He was young and hoped that hard work would do great things for him in the future. 5. He said he could not stay because his wife would wait for him. 6. I thought that that very night she would tell the whole story to her father. 7. She said she would dance with me. 8. The boy understood that his papa would never come hack , that lie was dead. 9.1 told her that you didnt know about .their departure and that I should tell you. 10. She didnt know what their next step would be. 11. Nobody could foresee what she would do. 12. She didnt tell me when she would be back. 13. Did they warn you that the way would be dangerous? 14. Who told you that Father w ouldn t agree? 15.1"Why didnt she tell anybody that she would not stay for the week-end? Exercise 2. Translate into English.

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , , 5. , . 6. , 115

. 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . 11. , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. , ? 15. , ? E xercise 3. Add subordinate clauses with the F u ture in the Past Simple to the clauses in the left-hand column, making use of the phrases in the left-hand co lumn. 1. She said 2. They thought 3. I supposed 4. Jack realized 5. I was afraid 6. She promised 7. They were sure 8. I expected 9. She hoped 10. They did not expect 11.1 didnt promise 12. He decided (she) to come home late (they) to finish everything in time (they) to miss classes again (he) to be late for the train (Mary) to fail her last exam (ail of them) to be present (they) to be back by Monday (everybody) to be pleased (nobody) to miss her (you) to be so punctual (I) to tell you the truth (he) never to come to that place again

106

Exercise 4. Finish up the sentences using the Future in the Past Simple. 1. She said that she ... . 2. He thought that you ... , 3. She hoped that they ... . 4. I didnt know that you ... . 5. He knew that we ... . 6. He realized that they ... . 7. She understood that ... . 8. I was afraid that ... . 9. They suspected that ... . 10. He was sure that .... 1 1. I knew that ... . 12. She told me that ... . 13. Did you know that they ... . 14. Didnt they remember that ... . 15. Didn't you make up your mind when you ... . Exercise 5. Read the sentences aloud paying special attention to (he forms in italics. Translate the sentences into Russian. [. He said lie would do it when he came back. 2. 1 hoped Id be free as soon as the exams were over. 3. He was sure he would pass the exam if he worked hard enough. 4. I realized Id be late if I lingered a little longer. 5. They agreed that they would start as soon as the exams were over. 6. He thought he would be able to do everything if he had time. 7. She promised she would, come and see me before she left for London. 8. They said they would go on with the game after it stopped raining, 9. She said she w ouldnt come to their party unless T o m apologized. 10. I hoped !d be able to get back before it began raining. 11. She asked me to let them in whenever they came. 12.He thought he would be able to work in tlie garden till it grew dark.

107

Exercise 6. Supply subordinate clauses by translating the phrases in the right-hand column into English.

when

I did not know what thev would do

if

Exercise 7. Translate into English. 1. , , . 2. , , . 3. , , . 4. , , . 5. , , ? 6. , , . 7. , , . X . > 1 , , I|,. , , . . 10. , , >* 'in in . 11. ,
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, . 12. , , . 13. , , . 14. , , . 15. , , , (6. , , . 17, , , ? 18, , , ? Section 13


S e q u e n c e T en ses

Exercise /. Read the sentences aloud. Sav whether the verbs in italics denote actions simultaneous with the action in the principal clause, prior to it, or following it. Translate the sentences into Russian.

I. ! didnt remember what they had told me. 2. said he1'/ done everything. 3. Did you know your friend had told them all? 4. I hoped youV/ never mention the fact again. 5. Did they know he was a stranger here? 6. Eve rybody thought they were a happy couple. 7. He decided that Y d he afraid of him, 8. People said he actually lived there, but nobody had ever seen him. 9. Did he explain what had made him come there? 10. I suspected that lie would try to escape. 11. Slie hoped the job wouldn t take all her time. 12. I didnt know she was so touchy. 13. He suspected the rascals were somewhere nearby and would try to attack again. 14. The doctor said he had consulted you about the matter. 15. But I knew he was pleased with his daughter and would let her do whatever she chose. 16. 1 waited knowing that Jim would come for me. 17. Why did
109
t

he say he didn't know you? 18. Why did you say you had never seen her before? 19. Why didnt you tell them youV be back quite soon? 20. 1 believed he was unable to hide his feelings. Exercise 2. Translate into English.

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , ? 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . . , . 12. , ? 13. , . 14. , , , . 15. , , . 16. , ? 17. , , , . UN I 5 REPORTED SPEECH Exercise L Use reported speech instead of direct speech. Change the pronouns and adverbs if necessary.

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A.

P a t t e r n: She says, "I get up at seven. She says (that) she gets up at seven ] 'Hes my friend. 2. She works in a typewriting office.1 1 3. The room looks clean and tidy. 4. His name is Jack. 5. We must be there at five. 6. [ can help you. 7. It was cold in the room. 8. I was there myself. 9. 1 liked him and always felt sorry for him. 10. We first met at the pictures. 1 1. Thev asked me to com e to di nner tomorrow. 12. Youve torn your stocking. 13. Youll find everything in tlie kitchen 14. H es told me all. 15. H ell never marrv vour daughter/' 16. not joking. 17. Im reading for my lirst exam now. 18. He was passing by when it happened. 19. They were watching TV at the tim e. 20. She isnt in at the m om ent. 21. Im not hke my brother. 22. Brothers and sisters arent always alike. 23. He doesnt get on with his stepma. 24. You don t seem to realize youve grown up. 25. He didnt tell me anything. 26. 1 cant see you. 27. You m ustnt say such things. 28. I wasnt at hom e. 29. He hasnt seen the film. 30. Ill not be able to com e. Ill

She savs,

a t t

11:

She says. "What is he9 She asks (me) what he is


* ? 1

She says,

1. Who is this girl? 2. What is it all about? 3. What kind of job is this? 4. What was it? 5. What colour is your new' hat? 6. Mow much did you pay for it? 7. How many exercises do you do at home? 8. When wii! they return? 9. What will they call their son? 10. Where have you been all this time? 11. What can I do to make you stay a little longer? 12. Where must she go? 13. When did it all happen? 14. How did you get to know them ? 15. What does she do? 16. Where do you live? 17. When did they wake you up? 18. Whom did you meet at the pictures? 19. Where am I? 20. Who lias done all this? 21. Who can help m e? 22. Who must do the job? 23. Who is going to give a talk? 24. Who will come to your party? 25. Why are you crying? 26. How are they getting on? 27. How shall we get out of here? 28. Why don't you answer? 29. Why didn' lyou tell me about it at once? 112

30. Why cant you do it yourself?' 31. What drinks didnt they hke? 32. "Who isn't going hiking? C. V a t t r n: He says, "Are you a doctor? He asks (me) if/whether I am a doctor. 1. "Is it all right? 11 ^ 2. "Is it still snowing? 3. Am I wrong? 4. Must I answer at once? 5. Can you help me? 6. May I use your text-book? 7. Will you come to tlie disco? 8. Was she there too? 9. Have you ever been here? tO. Has he told you the truth? 1!. Will you stay a little longer? 12. Do you get up at seven? 13. Does she know what has happened? 14. Did you tell her about the accident? 15. Did you meet her in Moscow? 16. Do we start early tomorrow? 17. ' i s n t it hot today? 18. Wasnt I right? 19. C an't I do something for you? 20. Won't you see them on Sunday? 21. Didnt she see you yesterday? 22. D o ifi you know my brother? 23. D idnt I tell you about it before? 24. D o n t they agree? 25. M ustht we stop?
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Me savs.

Exercise 2. Convert into reported speech. Use sui table verbs and nouns (or pronouns) from the lists below. Verbs; to tell, to order, to command, to persuade, to remind, to invite, to forbid, to warn, to advise, to ask, to beg, to implore. Nouns: Tom, Mary, the boy, my friend, lus guest, the manager, both o f them. Mother, one us part her, my son, her daughter, me, her, him, them, you, us. A. Pattern: He says, Stop talking. He tells them to stop talking.

He says,

1. Get up!1 2. Come over here, please. 3. Switch off the light, please. 4. Get out of here, please. 5. Please take off your hat and coat. 6. Listen, please! 7. Please wake me up at eight. 8. Turn off the tap at once, please. 9. Please get me a pencil. 10. Please have a piece of cake. 11. Call me Jack. 12. Please have some tea. 13. Give me my papers, please. 14. Call the man in. please. 15. Please help yourself. 16. Open your books, please. 17. Stop crying. 18. G o to the blackboard, please. 19. Let me have any job.

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P a t t e r n: He says, Please dont be upset. He asks Mary not to be upset. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Please dont go. D o n t come nearer! Dont switch off the power, please. Dont wake me up so early, please. Please d o n t be late. Dont laugh at them, please. Please dont call him Bob. Dont be afraid. Dont tease the dog, please. Please d o n t tell Mother about it. Please d o n t ask me any questions. Dont annoy me, sir.

He says,

Exercise 3 . Translate into English. . , . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.


115

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. , 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. . . 1. 2. -
3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
116

9. , 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Exercise 4. Use reported speech. Pay special atten tion to the tenses. Change the pronouns and adverbs if ne cessary. A. 1. I t s a lie, said the boy. 2. She began, On the whole your answer was quite satisfactory. 3. He said, not going to argue with you. 4. She remarked, Ive only just returned and d ont know anything as yet. 5. At last she managed to say, You see, in quite satisfied with what Ive seen. 6. I m glad there is someone in the world who is quite happy, muttered the man. 7. 1 dont know what to d o , complained the boy. 8. T onight 1 go to London, said tlie man. 9. I cannot do th a t, snapped the girl. 10. I was there last year, said the boy smiling happyly. 11. afraid theyll laugh at m e, said the girl miserably. 12. 1 w ont talk to you for all the gold of the ' world, cried she in despair. 13. You m ustnt talk to me hke that, said the teacher. 14. I m not your enemy, you can rely on m e, said the boy softly. B. 1. What are you doing here? he cried. 2. Why are you weeping? asked the woman. 3. But where is your com panion? he inquired. 4. And what are the duties of a devoted friend? asked he. 5. Who is there? asked the frightened doctor. 6. What do you want, Hans? asked 117

the Miller. 7. What are you going to do now? said his lather. 8. W hen will you leave me alone? cried the girl. 9. "What are you laughing at? inquired the child. 10. Where have you been ail these months? asked his friend. 11. When were you last in the city? said the man. 12. What did she see there? wondered the nurse. 13. How long will it take you to get here? asked she anxiously. 14. Why are you here? Where have you come from? W'hen will you leave us? muttered the poor devil in dismay. C. 1. Is the story about tigers? the boy said. 2. Was lie very disappointed? inquired the girl. 3, Wasnt 1 quite light?1 cried the man. 4. 4s that the end? said lie. 5. Have you seen the comet yet? asked he eagerly. 6. Is there anytliing I can do for you? asked the man. 7. W'iil you come and have dinner with us some day? lie said to the man. 8. Have you been here long? said the woman. 9. A ren't you speaking about yourself? wondered the girl. 10. W o n t she come at all? asked the poor lad. 11, Isnt it too late now7 lie said rudely. 12. Must 1 go at once? cried the man. 13. Will you be there too? he asked eagerly. 14. Was your son at home last night? inquired the stranger. 15. Had he actually left by mid night? asked the policeman. Exercise 5. Use reported speech. Choose suitable nouns and pronouns from the list below. The hoy, the girl, o n e s sister, o n e s son. the teacher, the dean , one's neighbour, rhe children, Jack , Betty, the nurse, Father, o n e s friend , me, you, him, her, us, them. A. P a t t e r n : Come in, please, said he. He told the man to come in
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1. Tell me the truth, said Mother. 2. Stop, stop! implored the boy. 3. Come here, said the girl. 4. Lo ok at the sky! cried the man. 5. Hurry up! said F ath er. 6. Wake me up early tomorrow, said (. 7. Read this, please, said he angrily. 8. Come n e a r e r / whis pered the voice. 9. Please listen, to m e , asked the girl. 10. Get out of the room! shouted the man. 11. Plea se tell me all about it, said her friend, 12. O pen the box, please, said the boy. 13. Read the text, please said the teacher. 14. Give me your hand, please, said the girl. B, P a t t e r n: D ont stop, said lie. He told the children not to stop.

i . D ont mutter, please, said the teacher. 2. Plea se d on t tell Auntie about it, implored the girl. 3. D ont be absurd, said Jack. 4. D o n t touch me! cried Jane. 5, Please d o n t go. asked the little man. 6. " D o n t smoke here, please, said the woman, 7. D o n t let the children play in the street, said Father. 8. D o n t leave me alone for long, said the boy. 9. D ont let the dog go! cried the boy. 10. D o n t be so foolish, said the girl calmly. Exercise 6. Translate into English. ,

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1', ?/ ; ,

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Exercise 7. Finish up the sentences. I . She said that they ... . 2. I wondered if lie ... . 3. 1 just wanted to know whether you ... , 4. She asked me when I ... . 5. He ordered them ... . 6. They begged him not ... . 7. The teacher wondered what the students ... . 8. The secretary asked the visitor what she ... . 9. The young man told his friend where he ... . 10. The manager told the secretary not ... . Exercise 8. Compose three-sentence dialogues accor ding to the patterns. A. P a t t e r n : - Im busy. - What did you say? - 1 said I was busy.

1, My boy is a good son. 2. Ive just seen them all. 3. She has never been to London. 4. leaving. 5.Well be late for classes. 6. I saw them last week. 7. 1 d ont know his name. 8. We must hurry. 9. I cant see anything inside. 10. I havent got your answer yet. I 1. She has to work overtime tomorrow night. 12. Everything is line. 13. There isnt much time left. 14. Youll like her if vou know' her. 15. 1 .1 tell yon everything when you come. 16. H ell help you as soon as hes through with his own work. 17. You may be present too. 18. She wasnt at the institute yesterday. 19. Ill phone you the moment I m in. P a t tern: Whats his name? What did you say? I asked what his name was.

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1. Who is this girl? 2. W hats your brother? 3. W do you come from? 4. When will you be back? 5. What are they doing here? 6. How long has he stayed in here? 7. What colour have you chosen? 8. When will you see them? 9. Is the boy one our students? 10. W ere you in the room at tlie time? 11. Who has broken the window? 12. Did he phone you yesterday? 13. Where did she spend her holiday? 14. Can you tell me who it was? 15. Must I answer their questions? 16. Why didn't you say a word about his failure? 17. Will you be back soon? 18. Will they tell you what actually happened yesterday? 19. D ont you know where your children are at the moment? 20. How much time is still left?
C.

P a t t e r n: - Begin at once, please. - What did you say? - I told you to begin at once

1. Sit down, please. 2. Open your books, please. 3. Guess what I have here. 4. Please tell me your name. 5. Please give me your hand. 6. D ont open that letter. 7. D o n t interfere, please. 8. Please tell m e the truth. , 9. Answer my question, please. 10. Run! D o n t stop! 11. Stay where you are. 12. D o n t go, please. 13. Stop talking. 14. Let me see your license. 15. L e ts come in. j 16. Lets go home.

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P A R T II LEXICAL EXERCISES
FAMILY Dialogue 1 Kate: Aim: Kate: Lena: Kate; Lena: Hello, Ann! Hello, Kate! H av en t seen you for ages! Meet my fellow student Lena. How do you do! Glad to meet you, Lena. Are you from St.Petersburg? N o, I m from Moscow. My family lives there now. Do you live in the hall of residence or rent a room? Neither. I live at my sisters. She has a mce three-room flat not far from the centre ot the city. You are lucky. Is your sister married? Oh, yes. She is married and has a daughter already. What is her husband? He is a manaeer. And is your sister also a manager? Oh, no, she is a teacher of English. Is she fond of her job? I suppose, she is. She is fond of children and is very good at handling them. A nd are you fond of St. Petersburg, Kate? Yes, I am. All my family lives in St. P eter sburg. And is it a large family?
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Kate: Lena: Kate: Lena: Kate: Lena: Kate: Lena:

Kate: Lena:

Kate: Lena: Kate: Lena: Kate: Lena: Kate:

Rather. We are five: my parents, a grand mother, my younger brother and me. Does your grandmother work9 No, she is a retired pensioner. She is over sixty. But site does a lot of housework. Is vour brother still at school? Yes, he is. He is leaving school this year. He is seventeen. What is he going to be? His dream is to be an actor. He is a great theatre-lover. Dialogue 2

Alice: Jane: Alice: Jane: Alice:

Jane: Alice:

Jane: Alice:

Jane:

Good evening, Jane! Good evening, Alice! What are you going to do? Nothing special. Lets go for a walk. The weather is wonder ful. With pleasure. I like to be in the open. Lets go to Summer Gardens. It must be lovely there now. Alice, what do you usually do after classes? You see, I live rather far from the Institute and it takes me about an hour to get home. 1 have dinner, then do my homework. And what do you do in the evenings? If there is a good film on in our local cine ma-house, I go to the pictures. In good weather I go for a walk in the park. Some times I go to the theatre. By the way, do you know my triend Lena? I m sorry to say, but I dont.
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Alice:

Jane:

Well, she is a good guitar player. S om e times she comes to our place and its really a treat to listen to her playing. Come and see us some day, say. next Sunday? Thanks, most willingly.
Ex ercises

Exercise h Answer the following questions. I. Have you a family? Is it large or small? How m any are you in the family? Are you all great friends? 2. Does your mother work? What is she ? Is she fond of her job? 3. W hat is your father? How old is he? Is he your mothers senior? 4. Have you a sister or a brother (or both)? W hat is your sister? W h a ts her nam e? How old is she? 5. Your brother is a student, isnt he ? What is he going to be? Is he your senior or junior? 6. Are you m arried? W ho are you m arried to? Have you any children? 7. Have you many relatives? Where are th ey 7 8. Your mothers sister is your aunt, isnt she? And what is your m others brother? 9. Have you grandparents? Are they retired pensioners? How' old are they? 10. Have you any nieces or nephews? Are you fond of them ? Do you often see them? Exercise 2. Answer the questions according to the example. E x a m p I e: - Is your brother a student or a schoolboy? - Neither. He is an engineer. I. Is your mother a teacher or a doctor? 2. Are vou seventeen or nineteen? 3. Does vour father woik at
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a factoiy or in the office? 4. Do you study French or Spanish? 5. Are you from Moscow or from Minsk? 6. Are you a doctor or a pianist? 7. Is your friend a student or a teacher? 8. Do you like to play hockey or tennis? 9. Do you usually watch T V or read newspapers in th e ev e nings? 10. Is your sister married to a manager or to a professor? Exercise 3. Ask questions so that the sentences below could be answers. 1. I m from Kiev. 2. We are four in the family: parents, my brother and me. 3. Jm twenty. 4. Neither. She studies English. 5. My mother is a housewife. She keeps house. 6. It tak es me 20 m inutes to get to my otfice. 7. I like to watch TV in the evening. 8. Yes, I have, I ve rather m any relatives. 9. They are retired pen sioners. 10. My friend is going to be a manager. 11. She lives in the hostel. 12. They are four in the room. 13. Yes, they are. They are all good friends. Exercise 4. Ask your fellow students: ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... if she (he) has a family of her (his) own. if she (he) lias children. if she (he) is a student. if she (he) studies English. if her (his) family is large. how old she (he) is. if she (he) has a sister or a brother. if her sister (brother) is her senior or junior. if her (his) parents are in St. Petersburg. what her (his) father (mother) is. where her (his) father (mother) works.
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.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

if her (his) sister is a schoolgirl. if her (his) brother is a doctor. how old her (bis) brother is. if she (he) has any other relatives. if she (he) is fond of them. what her (his) aunt is. what her (his) uncle is.

Exercise 5 . Complete the story given below filling in the blanks. My name is ... . f live in ... . I am ... years old. My family is rather ... . We are five. My father works at ... . He is ... . My mother works at . She is ... . My grandmother is ... years old. She doesnt work. She is ... . My younger sister goes to school. We are all great friends. We like to spend our spare time together. In the evening father mother grandmother ..., my sister I ... . Sometimes
W'C g o ... .

Exercise 6. Mix and match. 1. I am going ... 2. They are going ... 3. My brother is going ... 4. You are going ... 5. She is going ... 6. 7. 8. 9. Are you going ... Is your father going ... Is your husband going Are your friends going 127 to read a book to read a G e rm a n n ew spaper to watch TV to help mother about the house to help him to do his ho m ework to speak English to play the piano to visit my relatives to knit a cap

SO . I'm not going ... 1J. My sister is not going ... 12. They are not going ... 13. My grandmother is not going ... 14. Alice is going ...

to listen to tlie ta p e -re rder to cook dinner to do the flat to wash up to water the llowers

Exercise 7, Answer the following questions. 1. What are yon going to do in the evening? 2. What is your sister going to be? 3. When are you going to visit your friends? 4. W hat are you going to knit? 5. W hat film are you going to see? 6. W hat book are they going to read? 7. When are you going to speak to her? 8. What is he going to do after classes? 9. Where are they going to live? 10. What is she going to watch on TV? 11. What language are you going to study? 12. When is he going to come back? 13. When are you going to ski? Exercise 8. Ask your fellow students according to the example. E x a m p 1 e: to switch on the TV set Will you switch on the TV set, please? To make tea; to clean the room; to water the flo wers; to air the room; to switch on the light; to help you with the cooking; to give you the newspaper; to wash up; to cook breakfast.

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Exercise 9. Make up a dialogue using the following words and expressions. havent seen you for ages: meet my friends; not far from; to be lucky: to be good at; to go to tlie pictures; by the way; sorry to say; it's a treat; say; most willingly. Exercise 10. Complete the following sentences. I. My mother is good at ... . 2. Its a treat to ... . 3. Ann is lucky. She has ... . 4. Lets go to ... on Sunday. 5. By the way , do you know ... ? 6. Sorry to say, but ... . 7. Come to our place ... on Saturday. 8. Will you sing this song ... ? 9. ... my friend Nick. He is a doctor. 10. My sister is very good at ... . Exercise 11. Change the sentences according to the example. E x a m p 1 e: I like music. - Im fond of music. I dont like sweets. - Im not fond of sweets. 1. I like flowers. 2. She likes dogs. 3. They like rainy weather. 4. My friend likes English. 5. Kate likes G e rm a n . 6, T hey d o n t like a u tu m n . 7. Do you like cats? 8. Does your father like skiing? 9. I like hockey. 10. My cousin likes sport. Exercise 12. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1. My family is n ot large. We are four ... the family. My mother works ... school. She is a teacher ... English. My father is an engineer. He works ... a factory.
5
Nh 105n

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My parents are fond .... spoil. My sister is 22. She is two years ... my senior. 2. ... the way, do you know Peter? He is ... Siberia. He is fond ... his native parts. He says that Siberia is w onderful. He is very good ... w in te r sports. 3. W hat are you going to do ... Sunday? L e ts go ... the p ictures or ... the th e a tre . A new film i s our local cinem a-house. 4. M eet my friend Kate. She lives ... the hostel. 5. What place are you ... ? 6. My married sister lives ... her mothers-in-law. 7, Do you help your mother ... the house? 8. The weather is lovely, lets go ... a walk. 9. W hat do you like to do ... rainy weather? - I like to watch TV or listen ... good music. 10. ... classes they are going to visit their friend who is ill Exercise 13. Answer tlie questions according to the examples.

A.

E x a in p 1 e: She is a doctor, and you? So am 1.

1. She is fond of music, and you? 2. They are goo at sport, and their friends? 3. She is 21, and her sister? 4. You are a manager, and Peter? 5. Alice is English, and Mary? 6. She is good at knitting, and you? 7. They are fond of English, and you?

B.

E x a m p 1 e: I like to read, and you? So do I.

I. My elder sister works at school, and you? 2. I like to spend much time with my family, and you? 3. He [ikes to walk in the park, and his wife? 4. Kate
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works at a factory, and Alice? 5. She likes to watch TV in the evening, and Peter? 6. I help my m other about the house, and you? 7. She plays the p ian o very well, and her sister? C. Example: 1 have a sister, and you? So have I.

1. She has a family of her own, and you? 2. We have a flat, and they? 3. Kate has a son and a daughter, and Lena? 4, My friends have a car, and you? 5. We have a pet, and they? 6. He has a house of his own, and you? 7. They have English books, and she? Exercise 14. Translate into English. I. . . 2. . . 3. . . 4. ? - . - ? - . 5. ? - . - ? - . 6. ? - . - ? - . 7. ? - . - ? - . Exercise 15. Answer the questions according to the examples.

A.

E x a m p ! e: She is not a doctor, and you? Neither am 1.

1. She is not twenty yet, and you? 2. They are not from Kiev, and their parents? 3. Kate is not fond of cats, 131

and her sister? 4. We are not teachers yet, and you? 5. I m not married, and you? 6. My grandm other is not a retired pensioner, and what about your grandmother?

B.

E x a m p i e: She doesnt know this song. And you? Neither do I.

1. She doesnt like sweets, and you? 2. They d o n t study Spanish, and their friends? 3. I dont like rainy weather, and you? 4. We d o n t read English books yet, and they? 5. H e d o esn t play hockey, and his brother? 6. She d o e s n t com e to see us on weekdays, and her m other?

C.

E x a m p 1 e: She has no friends, and Kate? Neither has Kate.

1. We have not many English books, and you? 2. have no relatives in M oscow, and you? 3. A nn has no TV set at home, and Jane? 4. Mary has no aunts, and Alice? 5. Peter has no tape-recorder, and Nick? 6. They have no house, and you? Exercise 16, Translate into English. 1. ? - . - ? ( ). 2. . - ? - . 3. . - ? - . 4. ? - . - . 5. . ? - .
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Exercise 17. Insert the missing parts o f the d ia lo gues. 1 . Ann: Hello, Lena. Glad to meet you. Where are you going? Lena: ..................... Ann: What film is on? Lena: ..................... 2. Ann: Hello, Lena. Havent seen you for ages. How are you getting on? Lena: ..................... Ann: And what is your husband? Lena: ..................... Ann: How old is he? Lena: ..................... Aim: What place is he from? Lena: ..................... Ann: Are you fond of your mother-in-law? Lena: ..................... Exercise 18, Translate into English. 1. . , . . . . 2. ? - , . . - . 3. , ? . - . . - . 4. , ( )? ? - . . 5. . - ? - 133

- (fam ous traveller). (to enter) (d ep a rtm en t of geography) . Appendix 1. Read and translate the text. An English fam ily We shall speak about an English family. It is a veiy big family. In fact there are really three families. Read about them and then make a ja m ilv tree. Alice and Arthur Heath are grandparents. Theyve got one son - Harold. They live with Harold and his wife. Arthur Heath is 70 years old. He had his birthday last week. Fred Beaumont is a widower. He spends a lot of time with his grandchildren. Bertha Beaumont died in 1990. The Beaumonts had two daughters - Jean and Betty. Jean married Harold Heath. Theyve got three children - one girl and two boys. Harold Heaths father used to work on the railways, but Harold works for a car manufacturer. Bettys husband is John King. T h e Kings have four children. T he n am es o f the children are Shirley, Jolmny, Christine and baby Sandra. Elizabeth Heath is 16, and she is still at school. She is studying for her exams. Her favourite subject is Spanish. David and Paul Heath are Arthur H eath grandsons. David spends a lot o f tim e with his grandfather. They love trains, and old TVlr. H eath is always telling David about the railways in the old days.
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Robert King is Betty K ings nephew. His father G eorge is J o h n K in gs b ro th e r. R o b ert has a wife G w en and a little daughter Tracey who is going to be two years old next month. R obert K in g s sister m arried A lan M arshall last year. They went to their wedding in an old bus. Brian King loves cars. Brian is still at school. He doesnt like school much. He wants to leave school and work in a garage. Brian is fifteen, and so h e s going to leave school next year, He loved his sisters wedding. He rode in an old bus and learnt about its engine. 2. Draw the family tree of this family and speak abo ut each member of the family. 3. Read and learn by heart. How is your How is your How is your How is your And how are mother? She is fine, thanks. father? He is fine, thanks. sister? She is fine, thanks. brother? He is fine, thanks. you? I am fine too. Thank you.

I have a father, I have a mother, I have a sister, I have a brother, Father, mother, sister, brother Hand in hand with one another.

How do you do, Hatty? How do you do? I hope you are well, Hatty. I hope you are too.
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Breakfast in the morning, Dinner in the day, Tea comes after dinner, Then comes time to play, Supper in the evening When the sky is red, Then the day is over And we go to bed.

Magic crystal, tell me true: In the future what will I do? Will I be a writer? No, you w ont. Will I be a doctor? Yes, you will. (a teacher, a sailor, a pilot, a singer, a soldier, a dancer, an actor, a worker). List of words and word combinations /. Names o f Relationship mother - father - daughter - son - grandmother - grandfather - brother - sister - aunt - uncle - cousin - () mother-in-law - , father-in-law - , 1 iew - 136

niece - sister-in-law - , brother-in-law - , stepmother - stepfather - stepson - stepdaughter - 2. Professions teacher - doctor - engineer - driver - book-keeper - worker - shorthand typist - - lawyer - , manager - painter - builder - actor - , actress - cook - architect - pianist - () pilot - typist - clerk - , plumber - banker - secretary - policeman - saleswoman -
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Word combinations to meet somebody - - to be from some place - to live in a hall of residence - to rent a room - to be m arried to sm b. - ( ) - ( -) to be single - () to be fond of - -, to be good at smth. - to make coffee (tea) - () to switch 0 11 (a TV, radio set) - ( , ) to air the room - to wash up - ( ) to cook meals - to do ones room - to water flowers- to keep house - to do housework - no to leave school - to be ... years old - - I m twenty - to be ones senior (junior) - () - it takes ... to get to - ( ), ... It takes me half an h o u r to get to my office - , by the way - sorry to say - , 138

Sorry to say but I d o n t know this man. - , Its a treat - , I t s a treat to listen to his songs - lets say - , Come and see me, lets say, on Sunday - , , FLAT Dialogue 1 Ann: Alice: Ann: Alice: Ann: Alice: Ann: Alice: I say, Alice, have you got a flat of your own? Its my parents flat, but I have a room of my own. Is the fiat large? Rather. We have three rooms, a kitchen, a hall and a bathroom. Are there ail modem conveniences in the flat? Yes, there are. There is hot and cold water, centra! heating, gas and electricity, of course. What is your room like? My room is not veiy large, but veiy comfor table. There is not much furniture in it. On the left, there is a sofa and a small table near it, at the window' there is my writingdesk, in the right-hand corner there is a dressing - table. Near it there is a wardrobe where I keep my clothes. Where do you keep your books? There are bookshelves over the sofa. Have you got a TV set? Yes, we have, but it is in the living-room where we usually sit in the evenings. 1 39

Aim: Alice: Ann: Alice:

Dialogue 2

Kate: Pete: Kate: Pete: Kate: Pete: Kate: Pete: Kate: Pete:

Kate: Pete: Kate: Pete:

Kate:

Pete, have you moved to a new fiat? Yes, we have. Our new address is: 16 Lesnaya Street, flat 22. Is it far from the centre of the city? It takes me about forty minutes to get to the University by bus. What floor is your flat on? Its on the fourth floor. There are nine store ys in the house. Is there a lift? Of course, there is. How many rooms are there in your flat? There are two rooms, a kitchen, a hall and a bathroom in it. One room is 16 sq.m, and the other is 12 sq.m. The kitchen is rather large, it serves as a dining-room, Are you on the phone? sorry to say, we arent. You have all modern conveniences, havent you? Yes, we have, even a chute for refuse. Well, next Sunday we are going to have a house - warming party. Come to our place and see it with your own eyes. Thanks, I will.
E xercises

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. What place are you from? Have you a flat or a house? How many rooms are there in your flat (house)? What floor is your flat on? Is it convenient to live on the
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ground floor? (on the top floor?). Is there a lift in your house? 2. W hat m o dern co n v en ien ces are there in your flat? Is there a chute for refuse? Have you got a gas or an electric stove? Does it take m uch time to cook breakfast (to boil the kettle) on a gas stove? What furniture is there in the kitchen? Do you have your meals in the kitchen or in tlie dining-room? 3. Which is the largest room is it? W hat is ther.e in furniture in this room? What room? Are there any pictures on the floor? room in your flat? Whose this room ? Is there m uch is there in the centre of tlie on the walls? What is there

4. You have a room of your own, havent you? Is it warm and light? It is not very large, is it? What pieces of fu rn itu re are there in your room? W here do you keep your books? T h ere is a w ardrobe in your room , isn t th ere? What colour curtains are there on the windows? W hat colour is the w allpaper in your room ? W here do you sleep? Arc there any arm-chairs in your room? E xercise 2 . Answer th e questions below using the following words: at the wall, in front o f in the left (right) hand comer, to the right of on the left, to the left o f in the centre o f in the middle o f at the opposite wall, above the table, on the wall, at the window, between the windows, round the table.

I. Where is the dining-room in your flat? 2. Where is the wardrobe? 3. Where are the chairs? 4. Where is the TV set? 5. W here is the dressing-table? 6. W here is the sofa? 7. Where is the sideboard? 8. Where are the pictures? 9. Where is the standard lamp? 10. Where are
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the arm-chairs? 11. Where is the lamp? 12. Where is the piano? 13. Where are the bookshelves? E xercise 3. M ake up sen ten ces according to the example. E x a m p l e : 1. A kitchen - A kitchen is a room where we cook meals, 2. A dining-table - A dining-table is a table (a piece of furniture) at which we have meals. A bedroom, a study, a wardrobe, a sideboard, a writing-desk, a bookcase, a bookshelf, a sofa. To sleep, to w ork, to keep clo th es, to keep glassware and dishes, to write and read, to keep books. Exercise 4. Form tag-questions from the following sentences. E x a m p 1 e: There is a sofa at the wall, ...? There is a sofa at the wall, isnt there? 1. Your flat is on the second floor, ... ? 2. There is little furniture in your room, ... ? 3. T he TV set is in th e le ft-h a n d c o rn e r of the room , ... ? 4. The curtains in your bedroom are light blue, ... ? 5. T h ere are all m o d e rn conv eniences in your flat, ... ? 6. Tlie telephone is in the hall, ... ? 7. T h e re are m any English and G e rm a n books on the shelves, ...?
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8. The living-room is the best room in your flat, ...? 9. There is much air in your flat, ...? 10. The wallpaper in your study is green, ...? E xercise 5. D isagree w ith the sta te m e n ts below. Begin your sen ten ce with one o f the following: / don 7 think so, I m afraid you are wrong, on the contrary, i t s not so, far from it. I . It is very convenient to live on the ground floor. 2, Now your friends live in the centre of the city. 3. It takes you ab out forty m in u tes to get to th e University. 4. You keep your books on the writing desk, dont you? 5. Your sister has a two-room flat, hasnt she? 6. They are not on the phone, are they? 7. There are no modern c o n veniences in this house. 8. Ann lives on the top floor. 9. A gas-stove is better than an electric one. Exercise 6. Choosing tlie words from the list below furnish your study, b ed ro o m , living room , kitchen, din ing-room. A sideboard, a cupboard, a piano, a bed, a night table, a dressing-table, a sofa, a bookcasc, a wardrobebe, a small table, a TV set, a tape recorder, a writing desk, shelves for household things, stools, chairs, armchairs, refrig erato r (fridge), a kitchen table, books-helves, a carpet, some pictures, a piano, a vase with flowers. Exercise 7. Answer the following questions using the words from exercises 2 and 6. 1. W here are you going to place the piano? 2. In which c o m e r are you going to place the TV set? 3.What are you going to put between the window's? 4. What are you going to hang on the walls? 5. Where are you going
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to place the fridge? 6. What are you going to put on the floor? 7. W here are you going to place the w ard robe? 8. W here are you going to keep all your books? 9. What are you going to place between the sofa and the w ardrobe? 10. W hat do you w an t to put at th e wall? 11, Where is the place for the standard lamp? 12. What furniture do you want to have in the kitchen? Exercise 8, Ask your fellow-students: I. ... ... ... ... ... if she (he) lives m the hostel how many they are in the room if the room is large where they keep their books (clothes) if there is a TV set ( radio set, tape recorder) in their room ... what floor their room is on 9 ... ... ... ... ... 3. ... ... ... ... what place she (he) is from if her parents have a house how many rooms there are in their house if there is a garden near the house if there are modern conveniences in the house

if she (he) has a flat how many rooms there are in the flat what they are what furniture there is in the bedroom, study, living room, dining-room ... if they have their meals in the kitchen or in the dining-room ... if she (he) has a room of her (his) own; what furniture there is in her (his) room.
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Exercise 9. Complete the following sentences.

1. i m fond of our new flat because ... . 2. Its ver c o n v e n ie n t to ... , 3. T here are nine storeys in the house, thats why it ... . 4. The room looks veiy small because .... 5. T h e best place for the TV set is ... . 6. T h e re are all m odern conveniences in the flat, such as .... 7. Our flat is not very large, there are .... 8. Lets place the sofa ... . E xercise 10. W hat will you say if you want your daughter (son, husband, etc.): to wash up after dinner; to dust the furniture; to hang the curtains; to clean the carpet; to scrub the floor; to put everything in its place; to tidy up; to water the flowers; to sweep the floor; to air the room. Exercise 11. Complete the dialogue. Pete: Nick: Pete: Nick: Pete: Nick: Pete: Nick: Pete: Hello, Nick, have you moved to a new flat? (Answers in the affirmative) What is your address? (Gives his address and says th a t they live rather far from the centre of the city) How long does it take you to get to the office? (Says that not very much but he has to change buses) What kind of flat is it? (Describes his flat and invites Pete to the house-warming party next Sunday) Thanks, most willingly.

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Exercise 12. Ask your fellow students some q u e s tions from the chart below. How much time does it take you your your your your your sister mother friend brother father to do the flat to scrub the floor to cook breakfast to get to the office to do the shopping to wash up after dinner to make coffee to dust the furniture to read a two-page English text to do grammar exercises to knit a sweater to make a cake to get to school

How long does it take

Exercise 13. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary* 1. Mv sister is married. She has a family ... her * own. They all live ... her husband's parents. They live ... Sadovaya street. Their house is ... a five-storey building. T h e ir flat is ... th e third floor. T here are all m odern conveniences ... the flat. 2. T here is not m uch fu rn itu re ... the living room. A square table is ... the middle ... the room. There are six chairs ... the table. ... the rig h t-h a n d c o rn e r th e re is a small table ... a TV set ... it. ... it there is a piano, ... the opposite wall there is a sideboard where we keep dishes and glassware. There is a beautiful carpet ... the floor. ... the wall there are some pictures and my g r a n d m o t h e r s portrait.
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3. My friends have moved ... a new flat. Now they live rather far ... the cen tre ... the city. T hey live ... a ten-storey building. There is a Jift ... the house. Their flat is ... the sixth floor. Exercise 14. Translate into English the words below and use them in sentences of your own, ; ; ; () ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 15. Translate into English. - . , . , , , . . , , , , . . . , . . (rug). , - . , , , , . . , , . . .
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E xercise 16. M ake up dialogues on the following topics: 1) Discussing a new flat. 2) Furnishing a new flat. Appendix I. Read and translate the text below. A House O f Their Own. Ann To Mavis 17a Carlyle Street Chelsea, S.W.3. 3. September 1992 My dear Mavis, Our new house has its ro o f on now, so Jack and I are getting very excited about it. W e re busy choosing furniture. Luckily we have wardrobes built in, and even a sideboard, so we havent to spend a fortune. We havent a fortune to spend. I d very much like your advice about curtains and rugs. I m sure you know m uch better th a n I do w hat colour schemes1would look well. C o u id you spare a few hours one Sunday next m o n th to go out to Park Green with us and look at the house? Y o u d want to knowr w hat colour the walls are before thinking about curtains and rugs, w o u ld n t you? T h e inside decoration will be finished early next month. Jack tells me he is going to w rite to David about the garden. Yours, Ann. 1 choice of colours that go well together 148

Mavis To Ann

32 Parkway. Hampstead, N.W.5 5 September (992 Mv dear Ana,-^ O f course Id be delighted to help you, if you think my advice useful, in choosing curtains and rugs. Itll be almost as exciting as choosing them for my own house. You are lucky having a house built for you: David and I will probably have to wait five years before we can marry, unless we can get a building society to help us. Im very fond of reds - they make a room look warm. Blues and greens are rather cold colours, d o n t you think? Yellows and cream s are good for walls, but not very suitable for rugs. Im very much looking forward to seeing the house. Do let me know when the inside decoration is finished, and w e ll fix a date. 1 hope David can jo in us, though lies not really an expert gardener. Yours, Mavis. 2. Read the poem aloud, learn it by heart. - Little grey mouse, Where is your house? - 1 can show you my flat If you dont tell the cat. My flat has no door, 1 live under the floor. I come out in the night And go back when its light.

149

List of words and word combinations

flat - to be of one own - , m odem conveniences - hot and cold water - centra] heating - gas - electricity - lift - chute for refuse - storey - floor - to be on the top floor - furniture - , to have a liouse-warming party - to furnish a flat - in the centre of (in the middle of) - ( ) to the right (left) of - () on the right ( left ) - () near - , curtains - , carpet - picture - wallpaper - armchair - stool - refrigerator (fridge) - gas-stove - standard lamp - living room - bedroom - study -
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hall - , kitchen - bathroom - dressing-table - writing desk - wardrobe - () sideboard - TV set - radio set - to put, to place - , to move to a new flat - sofa - , bed - night table - bookcase (bookshelves) - ( ) SEASONS AND WEATHER Dialogue Hello, Ann! You look very fresh and sun burnt. Where have you been? Ann: Ive just coitie back from the South. Kate: . Really? Did you enjoy fine weather there? Aim: Yes, I did. The weather was lovely. They say it was even too hot for the end of Sep tember. The day temperature was about 30. Towards evening it fell to 20 but it was still very warm. Kate: Did it ever rain? Ann: Once when we were at sea on a motor boat we were alight in a heavy rain. I cant say that it was very pleasant. Was it wann here in September?
V 1

Kate:

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Kate:

Ann:

Kate:

T h e first week was very warm. Fancy the tem perature rising to 24 in the day time! But it didnt keep long. In a few days the weather turned to worse, it started raining, the temperature fell to seven degrees. And this spell of nasty weather has been lasting already for two weeks. But you know, the weather in our parts is very changeable. It can still turn to better. Sometimes we enjoy very nice and warm weather in October. Right you are. Lets hope for the best.
Exercises

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. \1 j How' many seasons are there in a year9 What are they? What is your favourite season? Why? f2.N When does spring b e g in jn your city? In the north of our country?In the south? (3/ What is the weather like in March? Does it often snow? What is the temperature in the day time? At night? (4) W hen does it often rain? What is the w eather like after a lieavv summer shower? ( 5j What is Indian summer like? & When do trees become red and yellow? Is it a beautiful sight? ^7.) When does winter set in in St. Petersburg? Is it very cold in w inter? Are firs ts very hard? W hen are trees covered with hoarfrost?-' 8-' Which is the most unpleasant season in St.Petersburg? 9'. When does it drizzle? HO/Is the weather in St.Petersburg chanJ1 geable? j-L, What is the weather like in your home town9 \2j Does the w eath er usually keep fine in sum m er? ; 13; What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? 1-4. What is the weather hke today? .'15. What city is famous for its fogs? 1-< . Is it often foggy in St.Petersburg? 17. In what 152

w eath er cbes S t.P etersb u rg look at its best in your opinion? (\8 i When is it slushy? muddy? . When are i* * '4 th e re th u n d e rsto rm s in S t.P etersburg? In th e South? W hen does it rain cats and dogs? f21 )'D o you like rainy weather? 22. What weather is to your taste? 23. Do you like it when it is hot? w arm ? cold? cool? rainy? misty? sunny? Exercise 2. Change the following sentences accor ding to the example. E x a m p 1 e: When the sun shines ... (the weather is sunny). When the sun shines we say (that) the weather (it) is sunny. 1. When it rains ... (rainy). 2. When it drizzles and sleets ... (nasty). 3. When a cold wind blows ... (windy). 4. W hen th e re is a fine mist over the city ... (misty). 5. W hen a fog is spreading ... (foggy). 6. When the streets are covered with mud and slush ... (muddy and slushy). 7. When the frost is hard. ... (frosty). 8. When it is warm ... (fine). 9. When the temperature is +25 ... (hot). 10. W hen the te m p e ra tu re has fallen to -22 ... (very cold). 11. When the air is hot and dfy ... stifling. 12, W hen the sky is covered with clouds ... (cloudy). 13, When the sky is clear ... (cloudless). 14. When the weather often changes ... (changeable). 15. When the rivers and lakes are covered with ice ... (frozen). 16. When there is m uch snow ... (snowy). 17, When we are in for a spell of good weather at the beginning of September ... (Indian summer). 18. When it pours with rain ... (beastly). 19. If the weather doesnt turn to worse ... (to keep fine). 20. When the temperature falls below zero ... (to freeze).
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Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences. 1. It looks like ... . Take your umbrella. 2. The temperature has fallen'to f?. . 3. The weather has turned ' to ... .. It is drizzling. 4. After a hard frost everything is c o v e r e d '-. /', 5. W h e n th e snow begins to m elt the streets ... . 6. The temperature has risen . 7. The sky is d a rk ? it is covered 8. In au tu m n it often"?!.'v 9. S um m ers are ho t very . 10. L o nd on is fam ous 'for ... .f f l. St.Petersburg looks at its best in ... . 12. Indian summer is a spell of good weather ... V ' Exercise 4. What will you say if: it rains cats and dogs; the sun shines brightly; it s w arm ; it pours with rain; everything is covered with hoarfrost; th e air is cool and fresh; the te m p e ra tu re is falling; it sleets; the streets are slushy and m uddy; it drizzles; the sky is overcast; the weather has turned to better. Suggestions: it's lovely; the w eath er is nasty; i t s beastly; we are in for a spell of good weather again; the weather is fine; its a lovely day; its a nasty day; it looks like rain; it looks like frost; its pleasant to breathe fresh air. Exercise 5. When will you say. 1. I t s a lovely day, is n t it? 2. W hat beastly w eath er we are having! 3. It looks like rain, d o e s n 't it? 4. It is freezing hard, isnt it? 5. What a nasty day it is! 6. We are in for a spell of good weather again. 7. The w eath er is going to tu rn to worse. 8. It looks like a thunderstorm , doesnt it? 9. its a fine spring morning, isnt it? 10. How lovely the park is looking!
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Exercise 6. Ask your fellow students: ... what her (his) favourite season is ... if the climate in her (his) native place is better than in St.Petersburg ... if she likes it when it is hot ... if she likes to walk in rainy weather ... what Indian summer is hke in St.Petersburg ... if there are often floods in St. Petersburg .... what the weather is like today ... if she (he) is fond of winter spoil ... if she (he) likes frosty weather ... if the weather is changeable in her home town ... if she (lie) is afraid of thunderstorms ... if there are often thunderstorms in St. Petersburg ... if she (he) knows the weather forecast for tomorrow ... what she (he) likes to do on a fine summer day ... if she (he) can stand the heat ... if she (he) can stand the frost. Exercise 7. Agree or disagree with the following. Extend your sentences wherever possible. Use the following phrases, Agree m ent 1 fully agree with you You I'm of the Right you Its really are quite right same opinion are so D isagree me 1it [ dont think I can agree with you Im afraid you are wrong Its not quite so On the contrary

1. Its hard to stand the heat when its damp. 2. In my opinion St.Petersburg looks at its best in early autumn. 3. Its not very pleasant to walk about the streets when its 155

slushy. 4. Summers are not very hot and winters are not very cold in St.Petersburg. 5. Autumn is the best season. 6. The weather in our city is very changeable. 7. The Baltic Sea affects the climate of St.Petersburg. 8. There are very many frosty days in our city in winter. 9. The weather is going to keep fine. 10. Frosty w'eather is very pleasant when it is not windy. Exercise 8 . Ask questions to the words in italics. 1. The weather is wonderful today. 2, When it rains people wcivT raincoats and cany umbrellas. 3. In autumn a thick fog spreads over London. 4. It snows and freezes in winter. 5. The ground is like iron and rings under the feet. 6. T h e icicles hang from the roofs o f the houses, 7. The rivers and ponds are frozen over in winter. 8. Many people are sliding and skating on the frozen riv e rs. 9. Children like to fight with snowballs. 10. In March the thaw begins. 11. A cold wind is blowing from the North. Exercise 9. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1. Winter sets the end ... December ... our parts. . . . a hard frost the rivers and ponds are frozen ... . When the te m p e ra tu re falls ... tw en ty five degrees ... zero it gets very cold. 2. L o ndo n is fam ous ... its fogs. They have fogs especially often ... autumn. When a thick fog spreads ... the city people can see each other at a m is length. 3. ... heavy rains we a r e a spell ... good weather again. 4. It looks like rain: the sky is covered ... dark clouds, a cold wind is blowing ... the sea. 5. Its a lovely sight when everything is covered ... hoaifrost and glistens ... the sun. 6. I prefer to stay indoors ... rainy w eather. 7. N a tu re looks ... its best ... early spring. 156

8. Indian su m m e r is a short period ... w arm sunny w eath er ... the beginning ... autumn. 9. The temperature has fallen ... zero and it is freezing. 10. If the weather keeps fine we can go ... the country ... Sunday. 11. Many people are fond ... winter sports, 12. Its pouring ... rain. Youd better stay indoors. Exercise 10. Use the following sentences in dialo gues and situations of your own. Lovely day, isnt it? Isnt it just beautiful? Isnt it gorgeous? W onderful, is n t it? I t s so nice and hot! Personally I think its so nice when its hot, isnt it? Nasty day, isnt it? Is n t it just dreadful? The rain, I hate the rain ... I dont like it at all, do you? Fancy such a day in July, R ain in the m orning, then a bit of su n sh in e and rain, rain all day long. Not at all like autumn. I hope its going to keep fine. It seems almost too good to last. We are in for a spell of good weather again. Exercise 11. Learn the following proverbs and give their Russian equivalents. Every cloud has a silver lining. It never rains but it pours. To put off for a rainy day.

the words given below. Spring sets in; n atu re comes to life; the days get longer and wanner; to break into blossom; the air is fresh and cool; the leaves in the trees turn yellow' and red; the air is transparent; the sky is clear; hoarfrost glistens in the sun; the countryside looks lovely; to be frozen over; the temperature is rising.
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Exercise 13. Some countries have four seasons, and other countries have only two seasons. The weather during the seasons is also different in different countries. In Southwest Asia, for example, the summers are dry and hot. in th e exercise below, write in the clim ate words that best describe the seasons in y o u r co u n try (in the N o rth , in the South, in the East, in the West, in the centre). winter spring summer autumn wet dry hot cold warm cool windy calm rainy snowy cloudy clear

E x e rc ise 14. D escribe, orally or in w riting, the climate of another country (England, Germany, France, Spain, Japan etc.) Exercise 15. Translate into English. 1. - , ? . - , . . - , ? - , 19-20. - . - . . , . - . , .

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2.

- ? - . (to be on the safe side) . 3. - ! . , , . . 4. - ' 1. . Exercise 16. Speak on the following topics. I . Your favourite season. 2. The climate and weather in your native parts. 3. Summer is the best season for holidays. 4. Winter and winter sports. Exercise 17. Tell your fellow students how': ) you were caught in a thunderstorm; 2) you lost your way in a snowstorm. Appendix I. Read the following to ng ue-tw isters. Practise saying them as quickly as possible, learn them by heart. Whether the weather be tine Or whether the weather be not Whether the weather be cold Or whether the weather be hot W ell weather the weather Whatever the weather Whether we like it or not.
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2. Read and translate the poem. Afternoon in February by Henry W.Longfellow day is ending, night is descending; marsh is frozen, river dead, Through clouds like ashes The red sun flashes On village windows That glimmer red. The snow recommences; The buried fences Mark no longer The road o'er the plain. 3. Read and translate the dialogue below. Olaf: Why do English people so often say something about the weather when they begin a conversation with stran gers? Well, of course, in England the weathers always changing. We never know what to expect. If you were in a country where the weather doesnt change much, it would be difficult to say much about it. But you asked why we talk about th e w e a th e r to strangers. T h a t s an in terestin g question, Its probably because the weathers a subject its quite safe to talk about. I t s a way o f reaching 160 The The The The

Mr. Green:

Mrs. Green:

Mr.Green:

agreement. I begin by saying, A cold morning, isnt it? The other man says, It certainly is . 1 say, 'Its been cold all week", and the other man says, Yes, were having a very cold spring . So far w eve agreed about everything. Perhaps 1 make a remark about som ething I ve seen in the newspaper. I say, perhaps, I see the Italians have beaten us at football again . The other man says, Yes, seven-nil tliis time. Well, when weve exchanged remarks on subjects of this kind, on which there can be no disagreement, were beginning to feel friendly. If w e d started with subjects on which disagreement was possible, politics, for example, we might not have become friendly. Language isnt used only for giving or asking for facts. Rem arks about the weather are a safe way of opening c o m m u n ic a ti on with a stranger. When I go abroad, to a country where I ca n t speak the language, I always try to learn a few phrases, like Good morning, Good afternoon , "Isn t it a nice day , Please and Thank you . People are suspicious of strangers who are completely silent. Oh,yes. These words are certainly useful when you come to this countiy. (A.S. H ornby. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners)
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lik.

]\1> 1 0 5 K

4. Read, and translate the story. Weather Forecast Is )G eorge took*the paper, and read us out the w e a t h e r forecastVhich promised^'1 ram. cold, wet to fine, 6ccasional local thunderstorms, east wind, with general'depres-'1 si on over Midland Counties (London and Channel). Bar failing?* '' f think that all this silly,- irritating ftom foolishness which_piagues us. this weather forecast ' I r aud is the most aggravating.' it " f o r w 1 1 at happened yesterday or the day b efore, and just the opposite, of what is going to happerr.today. I rem em berliow a holidaV^of mine was ^completely ruined one day late autm nivbecause w e j a a i ^ ^ e u t i o n to the weather repoit^of tlfe local newsnapeL-4^Heavy sho thimderstorms^may.^e e x p e c ts today , it said on Monday, and so .we a v a u p bur picnic, and stopped in doo rs all day waiting for the rain. And p eo p le passed the house going off merrily, the sun shone out and there was not a cloud in the skv." 4 "A h ! We said, as we stood ippkingJcfut at them th ro u g h the window., tl^ey wilLcome home, soaked! 'CAn d we e liu c k k j/w h e n we th ou ght 1iow wet they were" |o in g to get, and came back and stirred th e /ir e and got our books. At twelve o clock the sun was pouring into the rooiAjmd the.heat became quite oppressive, and we w ondered w hen those heavy showers and occasional thunderstorm s were going to begin. ^ i Ajij They.lU,) in the a f ? e r n o o i r \ we said to each other. u0 h , w ont those people get w e$ , : ; At one o clock the jaildladPy^came in y^id asked if we weren't going out as it was such a lovely day. No, n o , we replied with a know in g chuckle, not we. We d o n t mean to geOwtS - no, n o .
* 1 A? /
'

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"3

And when the afternoon was nearly gone, and still there was no sign of rain, we tried to cheer ourselves up with the idea that it would come'down: all at once, fust as t h e ^ e o p J e 'h a d startecf Yor h o m e, and were out of the 'reach 'of auv thus ^ aet more - shelter, and that they would bo drenched than ever. But not a drop fell, and it was a grand dtjj^ and a lovely night after it. T h e"next morning w e^ead that it was going to be a warm, fme day; much heat, and we dressed ourselves in flimsy things, and w e n / b u t , and, half-an-hour we started, it began to rain hard, and a^jMtterly cold wind sprang up and both kegt steadily for the whole day, and we came h^me with colds and rheumatism all over us and went to bed. The weather is a thing that is beyoncj^me. I never is useless; it is as mis;can understand -* - itf'The barometer J leading as the newspaper forecast. wras one hanging up* m a hotel at Oxford at which I was .staying hist spring, and, when I got there it ft ^ was pointing to set f a ir . It was simply pouring with rain outside, and had been^all day; and 1 couldnt quite mq^e m atters outb I tappea the barometer, and it jum ped up a n d p ointed to very .d ry .\3 A man stopped as he was i, passing and said he expected it .meant tomorrow, 1 fan cied that maybe it was thinking of the week before last. 1 tapped it again the next3 morning, and it went up still highei* and the rain came dowi? faster than e v e r/O n Wednesday I ^ n t and hjt^ it again, and the pointer w ent^ round towards0set f a i r , very dry , and much heat^ until it shopped by the peg, and couldnt go any further. ^ ^ f ^ e a n w h ile ^ th e rain cam e down in a steady t o r re n t, and the lower part^ of the town was under water as the river has overflowed. , S o m e b o d y ^ id that it was evident we were going to have a prolonged spell of grand weather some time ...
*" C j\

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4 +) S r^va The fine weather never came that summer. I think that the instrument^erhaps referred to the followmg spring. \\% Then there are those new styles of barometers, the long, straighPones. 1 never can make head or tail of them. >f\5 But then who wants to know w hat the w eath er is going to be? It is bad enough when it comes. The prop-40 het we hke is the old man who, on the gloomy-looking morning of some day when we want it to be fine, looks round the horizon with a knowing eye, and says: v > Oh, 1 1 0 , sir, I think it will clear up all right. It will break all right enough^sir . 1-0 aAh, he knows we say as we wish him good m or ning, and stait off; wonderful how these old fellows can

telircS
iv And we feel an affection for that m an which is not at all 1lessened when it does not clear up but continues to ram steadily all day. Ah. well, we feel, he did his best . 1 L For the man that prophesies us bad weather, 011 the contrary, we entertain only bitter and revengeful thoughts. "il- Going to clear up, do you think? we shout chee rily as we pass. l 4 Well, no, sir; afraid it's settled down for the day , lie replies, shaking his head. ^ Stupid old fool! we ihutter, what lie knows about it? And. if his portent is correct, we come back feeling still more angry against him and with a vague notion that somehow or other he has got something to do with it. It was too bright and sunny 011 this special morning when George read about Bar filling , atmospheric dis turbance, passing in an oblique line over Southern Hu ro pe , and pressure increasing and he could not make us ' wretched. So he sneaked the cigarette that I had carefully rolled up for myself and went. (After Jerome K. Jerome)
164

List of words and word combinations

season - to snow - ( ) to ram - ( ) to pour with rain - , shower - , , to freeze - , irost - , frosty - . to set in - , ( ) to be covered with snow (ice, hoarfrost) - (, ) to drizzle - - to melt - to thaw - ( ) to sleet - ( ) to look at ones best - St.Petersburg Jooks at its best in June - - thunderstorm - snowstorm - , * below (above) zero - () * * Indian summer - turn to worse (better) - ,() to keep fine - ( ) . the weather is still keeping fine - \ to be in for a spell of good (nasty) weather - () - it looks like rain (th u n d e rsto rm ) - () to affect the/climat^ - average -temperature/-
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to stay indoors - < * weather forecast - * I9&B. misty - , muddy - , slushy - , to rain cats and dogs - , * ;msty, (beastly, dreadful) w eather/- , * the temperature falls (rises) - ,, () APPEARANCE Dialogue Robert: Hello, Dan. Dan: Hello, Robert. Glad to see you. Robert: So am f. Well, Dan. will you do me a favour? Dan: Most willingly. What can I do for you? Robert: You see, my cousin comes today on a visit from Moscow. I promised to meet her at the station, but, unfortunately I have an exam today. Dan: D ont worry, I ll help you out, How old is your cousin? Robert: She is sixteen. She goes to school. . Dan: Is she tall? Robert: Neither very tall nor short. I think she is of medium height . Dan: Is she dark of fair? Robert: Her hair is fair but she has dark eyes and eyebrows. Dan: So she took after your mother, her aunt, didnt she? 166

Robert: Dan: Robert: Dan:

Robert:

Not quite. She resembles our grandmother with her straight nose and fair complexion. I see. T hat means, your cousin is very good-looking, isnt she? I believe she is, though she is not a regular beauty. Now, 1 suppose, I can find her in the crowd, especially if you give me her name and the number of her carriage. Her name is Susan, carriage 5. Im very much obliged to you.
E xercises

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.

1. How old are you? Do you resemble your moth or father? Is your mother dark of fair? What colour eyes has your father? Are your parents tall? Who does your sister (brother) resemble? Are sisters and brothers always alike? 2. Is your girl-friend good-looking? Is she slender or plump? tall or short? dark-eyed or blue-eyed? Is her hair long or short? Is it straight or wavy? What is her haircut? Does she wear her hair loose or does she have a hairdo? What is her complexion? 3. Your father is a tall broad-shouldered man, isnt he? Does lie wear a beard or a moustache? 4. What is the most beautiful thing about youi friends face? (a dimple in the chin, dimples in the cheeks, a m ole in the right cheek, fair com plexion, beautiful eyes). 5. W h at is y o u r ideal of the w om an (m an)?

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Exercise 2, Complete the following sentences. 1. Your sister is a regular beauty ... . 2. He was a handsome young man ... . 3. The woman who opened the door was ... . 4. My niece is such a nice little thing . . . . 5. The most remarkable thing about her face is ... . 6. She looks the very picture of h er m other: she has the same . . . . 7. The girl charmed everybody: she ... . 8. Can you describe that man? - Sure, he ... . 9. Is your friend still as beautiful as she was some years ago? - It's a pity, but she is not. She ... . 10. She is twenty five but she looks ... . Exercise S. Mix and match. 1. She is not so slender as she used to be. 2. His hair is not so thick as it was in his youth. 3. My mother doesnt look her age. 4. She is not so beautiful as she was w hen a young girl. .5. T h ere is little hair left on his head. 6. She looks the very picture of health. 7. I could hardly recognize Jane w hen I ran into h er in the street. 8. She do esnt wear her hair loose any more ...
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1. She looks young her age. 2. Her hair is getting grey. 3. She is running too tat. 4. His hair is thinning. 5. She has put on weight. 6. He is getting bald. 7. She looks older than her 40 years. 8. Her cheeks are rosy and fail' in the colour. 9. She looks pale and thin. 10. She has become very fat.

Exercise 4 . Ask your fellow-students: ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... who she (he) took after what her (his) sister looks like if her girl-friend is a regular beauty what colour hair has her (his) mother (father) if her (his) brother is tall or short if her (his) little sister has a snub or a straight nose who of the children took after their mother if she (he) and her (his) brother (sister) are alike what colour eyes she (he) likes better: dark or blue if her (his) mother looks her age (old, young for her age) if she uses make up if her parents approve of young girls using make up

Exercise 5. Give English equivalents of the Russian words in brackets. 1. He was handsome with thin, even features and ( 1 ). 2. The most unusual thing about him however was his (- ). 3. She was a year younger than he; still ( ). 4. W hen she smiled tw'o pretty () appeared in her cheeks. 5. Johnny was an easy person to like. He was tall, () w ith ( ) and blue eyes. 6. You will recognize her by a large () in her left cheek. 7. I have never seen such a beautiful ( ). S. She was a pretty little girl. Her () hair was (), and her blue eyes were soft and warm. 9. She wears her hair (). 10. He was a man of ( ) with big hands and feet. 169

Exercise 6. Arrangfc the following words in antonymic pairs. Use them in sentences of your own. a) Dark eyes, snub nose, fair hah', thick hair, wavy hair, long eyelashes, rosy cheeks, even teeth, slender figure, dark complexion, full lips, long legs, plump. b) Short legs, stout figure, blue eyes, fair com p lexion, thin lips, slim, straight nose, short eyelas hes,uneven teeth, straight hair, pale cheeks, thin hair, thin lips. E xercise 7. Use the following questions and s e n ten c es in natural situations of your own. 1. What does she look like now? 2. I could hardly recognize her. 3. Has she changed much since you saw her last? 4. Your husband is as handsome as he was two years ago. 5. Can you describe the m an for the police? 6. I took him for an Italian. 7. She is on a slimming diet now. (S . You dont look a day older than you looked five years ago. 9. He is madly in love with her, - Is she a beauty? - N o , quite plain. - Well, b ea u ty lies in the lo v e rs eyes. 10. She is too beautiful to be clever. - You know, appearances are deceptive. Exercise 8. Match the following nouns and adjectives. a) M outh, teeth, chin, forehead, fingers, cheeks, waist, shoulders, hair, eyebrows, nose, eyes, features. b) Deep-set, slender, high, even, round, square, regular, narrow, curly, broad, shapely, thin, full, uneven, firm, pencilled, aquiline, hazel, bushy, wide-set, low, rosy, irregular.

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Exercise 9. Translate into English. 1. , , . . , , , . , , . 2. . (attractive). , . (b u t), , . 3. (elderly) 60, , , . 4. , - . Exercise 10. Make up your own dialogues on the topic. Exercise 11. Describe your favourite film star. Exercise 12. Take somebodys photograph or port rait and describe it. Appendix [. Read and translate the text below. All Spaniards have dark hair and dark ey es11. P eo p le from Sweden never get excited . Redheads get angry quickly . People who wear glasses are intelligent . Women are very emotional . Truck drivers are tough1 1 . D o cto rs and lawyers are r ic h . A m ericans eat only hamburgers, hot dogs and ice cream . Are these statements accurate? Of course, not. Some Spaniards have dark hair and dark eyes, but others have
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dark hail' and light eyes. Some have light hair and light eyes, some have light hair and dark eyes. Some redheads get angry quickly, but many others do not. Many people who wear glasses are not intelligent. Many doctors are rich, but others are not. Many Ameri cans love hamburgers and hot dogs, but some Americans hate them. O f course, everyone likes ice cream! The statements in the first paragraph are generaliza tions. They are general statements about groups of pe ople. G eneralizations may be dangerous because not all the people are the same. If we accept generalizations, we may judge individuals incorrectly. Judging people before we know' them is called prejudice. And, if we are prejudi ced, we may make mistakes th at will hurt oth er people and us. List of words and word combinations to take after - - to resemble - () to look like - to be the picture of health - , to look ones age - to take smb. for smb. - - regular beauty - good-looking - , ( ) handsome - ( ) plain - , eyes - nose - mouth - lips - cheeks -
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chin - beard - moustache - dimples - bald - features - () aquiline - ( ) wide-set - ( ) eyebrows - eyelashes - forehead - hair - teeth - complexion - dark - fair - of medium height - broad-shouldered - stout - , slim - , slender - , fat - , curly - , wavy - ( ) straight - ( , ) snub (turned up) - hairdo - mole - thin - , even - uneven - bushy - , ( ) deep-set - ( ) thick - , hazel - ( ) 173

BOOKS AND LIBRARIES Dialogue Peter: Kate: Peter: Good evening, Kate. Hello, Peter. Glad to see you. Where have you been? I ve been veiy busy lately getting ready for my exams. I say, Kate, youve got a very large collection of books. May I have a look at the shelves? Yes, of course. And Ill make tea meanwhile. Y o u ve got m any English books in the original. Have you read them all? 1 cant say that I know English well enough to read novels by D ickens or T hackeray without a dictionary. But I ve read rather m any books by m o d ern English writers. Their language is easier to understand in my opinion. And you have many books on art too. These pictures are wonderful! My b ro th e r studies art and reads m u c h about it. You are right, the pictures are veiy good. As for me, I m veiy fond of books 0 11 tra velling. When I was ten m y dream was to be a great traveller and explorer. The Jungle Book by R. Kipling was one of my favou rites. Do you like stories by Twain ?ud Leacock? Certainly, I can read them time and again. Have you got many books in your collection?

Kate: Peter: Kate:

Peter: Kate:

Peter:

Kate: Peter: Kate:

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Peter:

Kate:

Rather. Besides English books in the original I ve got many travel books and books about animals. I could lend you a veiy interesting book about wolves if such books are to your liking. Thanks. I ll be delighted.
E xercises

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. Is there a library at your faculty? 2. Are you a member of it? 3. When did you join it? 4. How many books can you borrow at a time? 5. How long may you keep them? 6. What department lends them? 7. Is there a reference library too? 8. W hat are reference books? 9, Are they for continuous reading? 10. On what occasions do you usually consult them ? 11. W here can you read periodicals? 12. What are they? 13. What daily (weekly) newspapers do you know? 14. What m onthly magazines can you read in the reading-hall of the library? 15. What is your favourite newspaper (magazine)? 16. Who is your favourite journalist? 17. Do you borrow books from your friends? 18. Do you like lending books to your friends? 19. D o you have to present any d o c u m e n t to jo in a library? 20. Does it cost anything to borrow books from the library? 21. What books are to your taste? 22. Which do you like better: novels or short stories? poem s or fables? plays or essays? 23. Who is your favourite English writer? Have you read any of his books in the original? Is he a writer of yesterday or of today? 24. What book are you reading now? How m an y chapters have you read? 25. Do you know any German writers of today? 26. Who is your favourite writer? Why do you like him (her)?

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Exercise 2. Ask your fellow students: . . . i f there is a public library in her (his) home town ... what books one can borrow there ... how often she (he) goes to the library ... if she (he) always asks the librarian what book to take ... what book she (he) borrowed last ... if she (he) has read and enjoyed it ... what reference books she (he) knows ... what reference books she (he) usually uses if she (he) lias to write a report (an article, an essay) . . . i f she often uses dictionaries ... where one can get information on science, art, outstanding people, etc. ... if she (he) reads periodicals regularly . . . i f she (he) remembers any article which produ ced a great impression on her ... if she (he) likes reading in bed ... what books she (he) likes best of all . . . i f she (he ) has a rich collection of books at home ... how many books she (he) buys monthly ... what books her (his) younger sister (brother) likes reading ... what books she (he) was fond of when a child ... if she (he) knows any poems by heart ... if she (he) has seen any plays by O.Wilde or B. Shaw ... w hat books she (he) can re c o m m e n d for light reading.

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Exercise 3 . M atch th e titles o f the books and the names of'the authors. E x a m p l e: Oscar Wilde, The Ideal Husband O. Wilde wrote the play The Ideal Husband. The author of the play The Ideal Husband is 0,Wilde. a) Authors: Shakespeare, Byron, Stevenson, Dickens, London, Twain, Galsworthy, Hemingway, Maugham, Murdoch, Wilde, Shaw. An End of the Chapter, The Sun Also Rises, Of Human Bondage, The Black P rin ce, Little D orrit, T he T reasure Island, H am let, T h e A dventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Picture of D o rian Gray, Childe Harold, Pygmalion, Martin Eden,

b) Books:

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.

1. What other books by Galsworthy do you kno Have you seen th e screened version of T he Forsyte Saga ? How did you like it? 2. What plays by Shakespeare were made into films? Which of them did you like best of all? 3. Who are Am erican writers among those given m the list above? 4. Are they writers of yesterday or of today? 5. H ave you read any stories by E .H em ingw ay? W hat story im pressed you? Why? 6. Do y o u like historical novels? Have you read any novels by W.Scott? 7. B.Sliaw is a playw right, is n t he? Do you know any English (Am erican) playwrights of today? 8. Did you read The A dv en tures of T o m Saw yer w hen you were a child? 9. The Treasure Island is veiy popular with the child177

ren,isnt it? And why? 10. Can you nam e any other books by Dickens besides Little Dorrit? Exercise 5 . Choose some writer from those given in exercise 3. Let your fellow students guess his name. They may ask you general questions like those given below. 1. Is he (she) a writer of today? 2. Is he (she) a writer of yesterday? 3. Is he (she) a novelist? 4. Is he (she) a poet? 5. Is lie (she) a playwright? 6. Is he (she) English? 7. Is he (she) American? 8. Did he (she) write historical novels? 9. Were his(her) books made into films? 10. Did he (she) write poems? 11. Did he (she) write only short stories? 12. Are children fond of iris (her) books?

Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences. 1. If one wants to borrow' books from a library ... . 2. if you want to know the latest news . . . . 3. Im especially fond of the magazine be cause ... . 4. If a magazine comes out every month ... . 5. If you dont know the pronunciation of a word ... . 6. 1 think it is very useful to consult ... . 7. If you dont know what book to choose ask . . . . S. T he books by Chukovsky are very p o p ular w the children because . . . . 9. The librarian advised . . . . 10. 1 think that the proverb Choose an author as you choose a friend is ... . 1]. The first book I read on my own was . . . . 12. Whenever I come across (hear of) a good book ... . 13. In my opinion reading is ... . 14. The best way to master a language is ... .
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E xercise 7. Ask questions so th a t the sen ten ces given below could be answers. 1. I can rec o m m en d you Fairy T a le s by O scar Wilde for your extra reading. 2. You may borrow three books at a time: a te x tb o o k an d two fictio n books. 3. You may keep textbooks all year long. 4. I dont think N s latest boo k is a success w ith the public. I t s a bit dragged out. 5. It w o n t be very difficult to understand the language of the book. I t s good colloquial English. 6. You can look through the magazine England in the reading-hall. 7. No, I havent yet finished reading it. 8. The librarian recommended me some stories by S. Maugham. 1 prefer seeing plays on stage to reading them. 10. The first English book weve read in the original was Alice in Wonderland , 11. My friend has to spend much time in the library because she is writing an essay on S hak es peare. 12. My brother is fond of books about animals and nature. 13. The action of the novel ... takes place in the XIX century. 14. Science fiction books are very po pular nowadays because they show new trends and ten dencies in the d e v e lo p m e n t o f science and the h u m an society. 15. I th in k i t s very useful to learn poem s by heart. Exercise 8. Respond to the following beginning with one of the words below: yes, please; please, dont; of course not; yes, of course; certainly; I fully agree with you; with pleasure; Im sony but I cant; I m afraid I cant let you have it; it doesnt matter; never mind; dont wony. Extend your sentences.

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a m p i e : - Shall we go to the library after classes? - With pleasure. Fd like to look through the new books they have received. 1. May I use your dictionary? i dont remember the exact pronunciation of the word recom m end . 2. Can you lend me the book of poems by Byron? I ve lost mine. 3. Im sorry, but I ve left the magazine 1 promised you at hom e. 4. Will you kindly explain to me how' to use this reference book? 5. I th in k this novel will im press everyone. Its a great piece of art, 6. I d o n t remember the title of his latest book. May I consult the a u th o r catalogue? 7. Do you m ind if 1 bring you the textbook on Saturday? 8. I m nervous about my report on B.Shaw. I ve never made any reports before. 9. Shall J help you to translate this passage? 10. Will you lend me your dictio n ary for a couple o f days? 11. May I keep this book for another week? I havent finished reading it yet. 12, Will you kindly rec o m m en d me som e in terestin g book on art? 1 must write an essay on Russian painting. 13. C an you tell me the .way to the reference d e p a rt m ent? 14. Can you showf me a map of England? We are studying the geographical position of this country. 15. Can you reco m m en d me some book about English custom s and traditions? Exercise 9. Read, translate and use the sentences below in situations and dialogues of your own.

1. I m seriously worried about my son. He does w ant to read anything b u t books about spies and 180

detectives. 2. Its the dullest book I ve ever read. It ma kes me sleepy. 3. His books are always a great success. ! ie is a great master of psych ological analysis. 4. The plot of the story is very complicated and it carries you away, v Ive greatly enjoyed the language of the book. Its very iich and expressive. 6. N. has touched upon important .s o c ia l problems of younger generation in his latest book. /. T h e characters of the book are quite vivid and real. N. Everybody is talking about M .s collection o f poem s which has com e out lately. They say that some of them are great pieces of poetry. 9. The scene in the book is laid in St.Petersburg, Moscow and Washington. 10. I ve nothing against detective stories if they are good. Exercise 10. Change the questions of exercise i into reported speech beginning each sentence with: she (he) asked, she w o n d e red h e wanted to know, etc. Exercise 11. Read and translate. On Reading An English author once wrote: Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested . This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds. M ost travel books are to be tasted; i t s enough to dip into them and read bits here and there. If y o u re fond of crim e stories (Agatha C hristie. Simenon and the rest of the m odem favourites), you will read them quickly, youll swallow them. And then there are books that youll read slowly and carefully. If a book is on an important subject, and the subject you are interested in, youll want to chew and digest it. And youll w an t to weigh w h at th e a u th o r says, and consider his ideas and arguments.
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Exercise 12, Put the dialogue (p. 54) into reported speech. Exercise 13. Situations for free conversation: 1. Y o u ve just become a student and want to jo in the library. Ask your fellow student who is a third-year student about the library and how to join it. 2. Youve come to join the library. Ask the librarian how you can do it, if you have to present any document, how many books you may borrow, etc. 3. You have to write an essay on Byron. Ask the librarians advice as to what books you must consult and if they have them in stock. Appendix 1. Read and translate the text below. Dame Agatha: Queen of the Maze D ^m e Agatha Christie m ad e m ore profit out of m u rd er than any woman since Lucrezia Borgia. She published 83 books, 17 plays,9 volumes of short stories. (I(.' Her characters were: doctors, lawyers, army officers, clergymen. As the g en res undisputed queen of the maze, she i i 'f i ' j* ' *' 1 ' laid her plots so precisely and dropped her false leads so cun n in g ly th at few -,it' any - readers could guess the identity of the villian. H er first detective story introduced the 5-ft 4 - in. dandy and retired Belgian police officer Hercule Poirot. His egoism, eccentricities and the fact that for a time he had a Watsonian colleague called Hastings suggest that Christie was strongly influenced by Sherlock Holmes.
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She continued to publish one or two novels a year, often plotting them in a hot bath while eating apples. But it was th e elderly, frail sp in ster Ja n e M arple who remained her favourite detective. G ifted w ith as m an y little gj;ey c e lls as Poirot, Miss Marple also posSeses some wisdom and insight that make her Agatha Christies alter ego. Although Poirot is gone, Miss Marple survives for at least a while longer. An unpublished manuscript in which she too passes on was locked in the Christie vault, along with Dame Agathas autobiography. (Abridged and adapted from Mozaika). 2. Read and translate the text below. Get ready to speak on the similar topic referring to this country. T h e sum spent on books and m agazines seems small. M ost families take at least one daily new spaper and a Sunday paper. They , may take several weekly magazines, usually in clu ding the Radio T im e s . This gives th e m th e weekly program m es of the B.B.C. The small sum spent on books does not mean that people do veiy little reading. Millions of cheap, paper-backed books are bought every month. There are good public libraries everywhere from w hich books may be borrow ed. Over one million books are taken out from these libraries every weekday. In some homes, however, there is less serious reading now than there was fifty years ago. Many people prefer to listen to the radio, or look at films on television. Many people seem to prefer popular picture magazines to magazines that contain serious reading. (A.S. Homby. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners) 3. Read and translate the text below'. T h e re is a public library in every tow n in G re a t Britain. T h e re are b ran ch libraries in m ost villages. 183

A nyone may become a member, and it costs nothing to borrow books. Three books may be borrowed at a time, but only two may be novels. If there are four persons in the family, they can, between them ,, take home twelve books. These books can be kept for a fortnight, so there is no difficulty in providing the family with all the reading that is needed. If, at the end of the fortnight, you have not finished reading a book, you may renew it for anot her fortnight. If the book you want is out, you may ask for it to be kept for you, and if you pay the cost of a postcard, the librarian will let you know when the book has been returned and is ready for you. Most public libraries also have a reading-room and a reference library. In the reading room there are tables and desks at which you can sit and read the daily papers and all the other im p o rta n t periodicals (th e weeklies, m onthlies and quarterlies). In the reference library there are encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and num erous other books. These may not be taken away. (A.S. Hornby. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners) List of words and word combinations collection of books - books in the original - books in translation - writers of yesterday - writers of today - books on art (history, linguistics) - (, ) travel books - books about nature - novel - short story -
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poem - essay - , to read time and again - library - librarian - reference library - to join a library - newspaper - magazine - encyclopedia - to come out - to consult - fiction literature - to be popular with - detective stories - the plot of a book - to cany away - . ( , ) master of psychological analysis - to enjoy - , to touch upon important problems - play - fable - memoirs - article - lending department - to boiTow books from a library - periodicals - atlas - dictionary - to publish -

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INSTITUTE LIFE Dialogue Kate: Ann: Kate: Ann: Kate: Hello, Ann. Havent seen you for ages. What are you doing now? I m studying in the teachers training college. Are you, really? What are you doing? I m doing foreign languages. How very interesting! You know my sister is leaving school this year and her dream is to enter this college, Will you tell me some words about your college? Most willingly. What are you interested in? What languages are you doing? G erm an and English. G e rm a n is my first language and English is the second. I have taken it up only this year. Which of them do you find more difficult? English grammar is easy but pronunciation is my weak point. I have to work hard at it in the language laboratory. On the whole, English is easier in my opinion. How long will your course run? Five years. In the fourth and fifth years we'll have our teaching practice at school. How many periods do you have daily? As a rule we have one or two lectures, then a seminar or a class in English or in German. Is it a hard job to do two foreign languages? If you dont miss classes and work regularly you are sure to make a good progress. Do students sometimes fail at the exams? They do, if they work by fits and staits. Thanks a lot for this useful information. You are welcome.

Am: Kate: Ann:

Kate: Ann:

Kate: Am: Kate: Am: Kate: Aim: Kate: Am: Kate: Ann:

x e r c ise s

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. You are a student, a re n t you? 2. Wliat faculty do you study at? 3. What foreign languages do you study? 4. What year student are you? 5. How many lectures do you have weekly? 6. D o you a tte n d th em regularly? 7. What is your favourite subject? 8. Are you good at languages? 9. How m any exams will you have in s u m mer? In what subjects? 10. Have you ever failed at an exam? In w hat subject did you fail? 1 1. Do you work regularly or by fits and starts? 12. Are there any students scientific societies at your faculty? Are you a member of any? W hat research work have you done? 13. Are there any sport societies and theatrical groups at the faculty? Have you ever taken part in an amateur performance? Exercise 2. Ask your fellow students: ... what new subjects she (he) has this year ... how many classes she (he) has eveiy day ... if she (he) attends classes regularly ... what subjects she (he) is especially good at ... if she (he) fell behind the group when she (he) was ill ... if it took her (him) much time to catch up with the group ... if she (he) has already begun to read up for the exams ... if it is difficult to do two foreign languages at the same time ... if she (he) always comes in time for classes ... what her (his) favourite subject is ... what subjects she (he) had m the first, year.
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Exercise 3. Ask the teacher if you must: read the second passage; translate the sent ; switch on the light; turn on the tape-recorder; recite the poem; render the story; explain the rule; clean the b la c k board; fetch a piece of chalk; wet the duster; get the books from the library. E x a m p i e : Shall I open the window? Exercise 4. What will you say if you want to know: where youll have a lecture on General Linguistics; what mark youve got for the dictation; why your friend missed the English class; what new subjects y o u ll have next term ; how m any exams y o u ll have next w inter; w hat English books you must read for your exams; how long your winter holidays will last; how you must p ro n o u n c e th e world d ire c t ; if y our friend has already passed her exams; what marks shes got; what exam was the most difficult. Exercise 5. What will the teacher sav: a) if she wants the students to open their textbooks at page 71; to fetch a piece of chalk; to hand in their testpapers; to do exercise 15 in written form; to learn the poem by heart: to listen to the record; to clean th e b la c k board; to speak up; to make up a dialogue on the topic Institute Life ; b) if the teacher doesnt want the students: to speak Russian at the lesson; to prom pt; to talk; to make noise; to crib; to translate word for word; to use slang; to retell the stoiy in the first person.

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Exercise 6. Use the f o l l o w i n g questions and senten ces in a natural conversation. 1. Where is the timetable? 2. What lecture shall we have on Tuesday? 3. Where can I get this textbook? 4. Is Ilie library open? 5. Im very nervous about my exam in English. 6. Why did you miss classes yesterday? 7. Im afraid h e ll fail in G erm an. 8. Y ou have to work hard io catch up with the group. 9. D o n t worry about him. lie is very good at English. 10. Was he absent again? i I. I ve m ade rath er m an y m istakes in my dictation. 12. Will you help me with this exercise? 13. Can you slay after classes? Do you remember that we have a re hearsal today? Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences. 1. She has been ill for a week and now.... 2. My friend has made a good progress in English because ... . 3. If you work by tits and starts . . . . 4. You will fall be hind the group if ... . 5. Im going to the library, I must prepare . . . . 6. She is very good at . . . . 7. If you dont know the pronunciation of a word . . . . 8. Will you help Ann . . . . 9. He is veiy weak in ... . 10. Our course of studies runs . . . . Exercise 8. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1. T he students ... our group are very good ... English. They w ork hard ... their p ro n u n ciatio n and grammar. 2. When Kate fell ... the group ... the History ... the English language everybody was ready to help her ... this subject. It took her a week to catcli ......... the group. Now she is very strong ... this subject. 3. Peter makes many mistakes ... ins speech. T hats because he 189

works ... fits and starts. 4. Lectures ... English literature are veiy popular ... our students. 5. Yesterday we had a lecture ... history, a seminar ... Stylistics and a class ... English. 6. ... the end ... th e first te rm we shall have th ree exams. 7. If I pass my exam ... English Ill be veiy happy, Though I work hard English doesnt come easy ... me. 8. Its high time to start reading .......... your exams. 9. D o n t miss classes, otherwise you may fail ... English. 10. What subject are you week ...? E xercise 9. Ask questions so th at the senten ces below could be answers.

1. She is veiy good at English Grammar. 2. O course rims for five years. 3, He fell behind the group because of his illness. 4. The brightest stu d e n t in our group is Mary. 5. Reading books in the original is one of the ways of m astering a language. 6. My favourite subject is English. 7. She c o u ld n t stay after classes because she was very busy. 8. You can get this book at the library. 9. She has m ade a very good rep o rt on B y r o n s poetry. 10. We shall have a seminar on English Literature. 11. She has made good progress in English because she works hard. 12. Ann failed in history. E xercise 10. C o n su lt a d ictionary an d read the following words. Lexicology, theoretical grammar, theoretical p h o n e tics, stylistics, psychology, pedagogics, country study, general linguistics, Latin, teaching m ethods, physical culture, the history of religion. E xercise 11, Say what is your tim etable on M o n day, Tuesday, etc. Use the words from exercise 10.
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E xercise 12. Say w hat subjects you studied in the first, second and third years. Exercise 13. Translate into English. 1. . . 2. . . . 3. ? - , . 4. ? ? - . . . 5. . (to worry) . . 6. . . , , , . 7. . , , . Exercise 14. Situations in free conversation: 1. You are leaving school but you havent yet made up your mind what you want to be. Your sisters friend is in the te a c h e r s training college. Ask h er ab ou t s tu d e n ts life and her future job. 2. You are a freshman. Say a few words about your first impressions (your timetable, lectures, eveiyday pro gramme, etc.)
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3. You are a freshman and your friend is a fou year student. She has come back from her school prac tice. Ask her how she liked it. Exercise 15. Make up your own dialogues on the topic Institute Life . List of words and word combinations to enter an Institute - to take up a subject - to come easy to smb. - to be good at smth. - ... to be strong in a subject- to be weak in a subject - - the course of studies runs - lecture on - seminar on - class in - to work regularly - to work by fits and starts - to make progress - to get good (bad) marks - () to be at the top of the group - to fail in a subject - to fail at an exam - to attend classes (lectures) - () to take notes at a lecture - , studentssociety - research work - - amateur performance - to fall behind the group - to read up for an exam - 192

timetable - to hand in - , the bell has gone - to take an exam in - to pass an exam in - SHOPPING (at a department store) Dialogue 1 At the Footwear Department What can 1 do for you, madam? , I d hke a pair, strong g< ' 9 ? of -M ^ s ta lk in> ? :,shoes C .'U O t- i tor evcrydafy wear. * ^ * Shop-girl: What size do you take in shoes? '' f * Customer: ! My size is 37.,, v . | * Shop-girl: . Will vou trv on these brown shoes, please?, 1 \v. : s 'ja j' '* 4 Customer: D ont vou think that the heels are a bit ^ .v ; , ' ' : -'A ' too high tor everyday wear/ Shop-girl: Oh. no. such h e e l ^ ,^ . all the fisinOn now. But you can try orTanother pair.. Here is a pair of nice flat-heeled shoes. Do they pi'ncTi? Customer: I like th em m u ch b e tte r than those ones. Will you give me a shoe for the left foot, pi ease? I ts a perfect fit. How much are they? H" Shop-girl: ... roubles. Customer: Will you wrap them up, please? Where is the cash-desk?K ' Shop-girl: Its at the end of the department. Thank you. ' Customer: Thank you. Good-bye.
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Shop-girl: Customer:

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Dialogue 2

At the Ready-M ade Clothes Department


CP< {

I d like a summer frock. Certainly. JjVhat size? 46. Im tock size. The dresses on that rail ^jrc. all size 46. Look at them and yoifm ay find som e thing to yo^ii; taste, Customer: on this cptton dress? Does it ^ fit file? ' It fits you perfectly b u t I d o n t th in k Shop-girl: the colour becomes you. dark. Havp-yoii^got anything a s^ui^jj^iiter? Customer: Shop-girl: I m afraid, we havent. Would you mind trying on this light-blue?, >* . . \wefr\ - * Customer: But it's not genuine silk.rIts too hot for summer wear. ' Shop-girl: Will you drop in in a couple of days? We are expecting most of our summer stock at the end of the week. Customer: Yes, of course. Thank you. Good-bye. Thank you. Have a nice day. Shop-girl:
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Customer: Shop-girl: Customer: Shop-girl:

Dialogue 3 Mr. Wimble: Shopkeeper: Mr. Wimble: Shopkeeper: I want a hat, please. What size, sir? Do you know0 No, I doiKt know the size. Put tfiis hat"on / pleases All, thats too -j < ^ f* .( ' ' large, isnt it? Thats size'seven and a half. Heres a size seven. Too small. Have you got a seven and a quarter?
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Mr. Wimble:

494 'i'

Shopkeeper: Mr.Wimble:

Shopkeeper:

Here is a Jseven and quaiter. ^ .' /.* , This is the fight'size. But I d o n t like the colour. Have you got a grey hat the same size as this? ^ H e ^ y o ^ axe, sir. A grey hat, size se ven and a quarter.

(A.S. Hornby. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners)


E xercises

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. W h at is a d e p a rtm e n t store? 2. W hat can one buy at the footwear department.? 3. What size do you in shoes? 4. What are the best shoes for everyday wear in your opinion? 5. Do you often wear high heels? it. When do women wear sandals? 7. What are your eve ning shoes like? "S. What are shoes made of? 9. W hen dn you wear high boots? 10. Do you always try shoes on before buying them? 11. What shoes are all the fashion now? 12. Do you buy ready-made clothes or have them made to measure? Why? 13t. Can you afford expensive eiothes? 14. Do you wear km \li articles (such as hats, (loves, stockings, handbags) to match your dress (coat, shoes)? 15. Where can one buy a tea-set, a coffee-set. plates, dishes, etc.? 16. What do you usually buy at the si ationery? 17. Do you use -make-up? 18. Where are socks, stockings, tights sold? 19. They sell hats, caps, berets, fur caps for ladies at the millinery, d o n t they? What hats are in fashion now? Are k n itte d caps in fashion? C an you knit? H o w im ueh wool,4oS _it>t)ake*to knit a sm all cap? 20. What did you buy 'for your girl-friend as a birthday present? 21. W hat do they sell at th e k n itte d goods
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departm ent? 22. What is your favourite departm ent? 23. Do you like doing the window-shopping? Exercise 2. Say what one can buy: at the hosiery department; at the millinery depart ment; at the leather goods department at the footwear d ep artm ent; at the perfum ery departm ent; at the glass ware department; at the knitted goods department; at the stationery department; at the furniture department; at the ready-made clothes department; at the haberdashery de partment. Exercise 3 . Say where one can buy: high-heel eel shoes; a dress: a pair of gloves; stockings and tights: a sweater; a blouse and a skirt; p ap e r and pens; a hat; a coffee-set; a dinner-table; a suit-case; scents; a tea-set; a scarf; strong walking shoes; a coat: lace. Exercise 4. Ask your fellow students: ... if there are many department stores in her (his) hometown ... if she (he) is fond of shopping ... what her (his) favourite department is ... if she (he) likes to buy ready-made clothes ... if she always tries a dress on before buying it ... what size she takes in dresses ... what shoes she (he) wears every day ... if her shoes go with her coat ... where she buys her hats ... what hats are to her taste ... where one can buy a pair of gloves ... when she wears high heels ... if she likes knitted things ... if she can knit herself.
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Exercise 5. Ask questions so that the sen ten ces b e l o w could be answers to them. 1. No, I cant afford this dress. Its too expensive. '. I w ant to buy a brown handbag to m atch my high i>oots. 3. She wears 36 size shoes. 4. I want a pair of liat-heeled shoes for everyday wear. 5. This blouse costs ... roubles. 6. I m sorry but we have these dresses only hi blue. 7. W ide-brimmed hats are all the fashion now. ". This cut is still in fashion but i d o n t think it will last Ion e,. 9. The cash-desk is at the end of the haberdashery department. 10. I didnt buy the dress because the colour was too dark for me. j Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences. 1. I like the colour but . . . . 2. The hat is very nice h u t it doesnt . . . . 3. The dress is very expensive, I ... . 1 . What size do you take in ... ? 5. Where can I buy ... ? . Mother usually wears low-heeled shoes because ... . /. At a department store one can buy .. . . 8. At a super market one can buy ... 9. 1 think the best present for a young girl is ... . 10. Will you help me (to) choose ... ? I I. How much is ... ? Exercise 7. Use the following questions in situations of your own. 1. What size do you take in shoes? 2. May I try on (his coat? 3. Does it fit me? 4. Will the blouse match my blue skirt? 5. The colour doesnt becom e me, does it? (> . How' do you like the cut? 7. Is dark brown in fashion iliis season? 8. What have you decided on? 9. Is the coat .shrinkproof and waterproof? 10. How much are these blouses? I I . How m u ch is a discount? 12. Will you i educe the price? 13. Do you like to buy things at sales? 197

Exercise 8 . Fill in the blanks with the words to fit, to go with, to become, to suit, to m atch . i. The dress doesnt ... me: it is a bit too loose in the waist and tight round the hips. 2. This colour doesnt ... you. 3. I w an t a grey jac k et ... my skirt. 4. The gloves d o n t ... with my shoes. 5. At last I have found the dress which ... me perfectly. 6. The jacket ... you, but the colour ... you. 7. W hat colour tie will you reco m m en d ... my light-grey shirt? 8. I dont think grey shoes will ... with your brown coat. 9. The dress is to my taste but the price doesnt ... me. Exercise 9. Translate into English paying attention to the words , , , , . 1. . 2. , . 3. , , 4. . 5. , - ? 6. . 7. , . 8. .

Exercise 10. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1. ... the jewellery departm ent they sell beaut rings and bracelets. 2. May I try this dress ... ? I dont th in k it fits me perfectly: it is too tight ... the hips. 3. This hat wont go ... your coat and besides its colour is too bright ... you. 4. Have you got these woollen dresses 198

.. dark-green? 5. What size do you take ... gloves? 6. What lues the hosiery departm ent deal ... ? 7. Dresses made ... measure fit one better than ready-made dresses. 8. What lours are ... fashion this season? 9. At last I ve decided ... a light-blue sleeveless dress. Exercise 11. Translate into English. 1. , ? - | . , . - , - ? - |<~ , . - ? - 46. ? . . - , ?*- , . 14 . - , , . 1 - ? - , . ! . . . I? - ... . - ? - . - . . . ? . - -, . - . 2. ? - . - :: ? - 35. - . . - , . - ? - . ? - , , . - , .! - ? - , ! , . . ? - ... . I ? - . 199

3. , , . - , . . - , . . - . ? - . , ? . - . - . ? - . . . - ? - , , ^ . - . , ?~ , , ... , , . . E xercise 12. Read the dialogue and vender it in English. : , , . : ? : , , (suede coat).

E xercise 13. Be ready to talk on one of the follo wing topics. 1. Buying things at a department store. 2. How you were buying presents for your family. 3. At a fo o t wear department. 4. Why you prefer to buy ready-made clothes.
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E xercise 14. M ake up your own dialogues on the topic Shopping . Appendix 1. dialogue.

Read and reproduce the story in the form of a

Mr.Sellyer is selling books One day 1 went to a bookshop to took through new books. M r.Sellyer show ed.m e to the back of the b o o k shop where 1 could find some interesting books. W hile 1 was looking th ro u g h the books, I could v. a i c i i \ s : .Sdlyer at work and see some of his methods. A fashionably dressed woman was standing at the counter and Mr.Sellyer was showing a book to her. *'You are quite sure it s the latest? the lady was saying'to Mr.Sellyer. * ;Oh, yes, Mrs.Rassclyeer , answered the manager. "This is Mr. Slush; s latest book. Its having a wonderful sale, i t s an extremely powerful thing. One says that its perhaps the most powerful book of tlie season . I looked;.at the title, the nam e of the book was G o ld e n Dreams". " A n o th e r lady e n te re d .th e bookshop. She was in deep mourning and looked likefa widow. She asked.the manager to show her some new book. . Something new in fiction , repeated the manager. Yesv Madam, heres a charming thing,. Golden Dreams a vcry sweet story, exti cmcl sweet. The critics say.-1hat its one of the sw ^tqst things' writteifby this author . Ts*H a Jo&l book? , asked the lady. A charming*'one , said the manager. Its a love story - veiy simple and sweet and wonderfully charming.
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M y .wife was reading it aloud only Last night. She was crying all the time while she was reading it . The lady bought Golden Dreams and left the shop. H ave you any good ,lighL reading for vacation tim e ? asked the next customer. \ Yes , said Mr.Sellyer, Golden D ream s that is the m ost hum ourous book of the season. My wife was reading it aloud only yesterday. She was laughing^all the time while she was reading it . The lady ptyd for the book and w^nt out. And every c u sto m e r who en te re d the shop w e n t away'4vith Golden Dreams . To one lady the manager ' sold Golden D ream s as the reading for a holiday, to another 1\ as the book to read after the holiday, another bought it to read on a rainy day and the fourth as the right book for a fine d a y ^ ,. ,' When I was leaving the book-shop, I w ent up to the m anager and asked him. Do you like the book yourself? . . r Dear me! said the manager, Pve no idea of the book, lVe no time to read eveiy book selling , And did your Svife really like the book? I am n o t m arried, sir , answered the m an ag er ... M smiling. (After Stephen Leacock) 2. Read and dramatize the storv. On the Art of Making up O nes Mind N ow , which w ould you advise, dear? You see, with the red I shant be able to wear my magenta h a t . 1 Well, then, why not have the grey*? "Yes. yes, I think the grey"will be more'useful . Its a good material!
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*Yes, and its a pretty grey. You know what I mean, dear; not a common grey. O f course1 grey is alway^ an uninteresting colour . '. It's quiet . . ^ And then again, what I fee] about the red is that it is so warm-16'oking. Red makes you feel warm even when voure not warm. You knbw what I mean, .dear . . Well, then, why not have the red? 4 t suits you red . 1 No; do you really think so? Well, w hen y o u ve got a colour, I m ea n , of co u rse , Yes, that is the drawback to red. No, 1 think, on the whole, the grey is safer . Then you will take the grey, madam? Yes, I think I d better; dont you, dear? I like it myself very m uch, A nd it is good w'earing stuff. I shall have it trim m ed with - Oh! You havent cut it off, have you? I wras just about to, m adam ? 4 Well, d o n t for a m o m e n t. Just let m e have a n o th e r look at the red. You see, dear, it has just occurred to me - that chinchilla would look so well on the red . So it would, dear . And, you see, I ve got the chinchilla . Then have the red. Whv * not? , 1 ' Well, there is the hat I m thinking of . You h a v e n t an y th in g else vou could w ear with t h a t ? Nothing at all, and it would go so beautifully with the grey - Yes, 1 think 11 have the grey. Its always a safe colour - grey . Fourteen yards I think you said, madam? 203

Yes, fourteen yards will be enough; because J shall mix it \yith - one m inute. You see, dear, if I take the grey 1 shall have nothing to wear with my black jacket . W ont it go with grey? N ot well - not so well as with red . / I should have the red, then. You evidently fancy it y o u rself \ N o, personally ( prefer th e grey. But th en one m u st.th in k of everything, and - G ood gracious! T h a t s surely not the right time? No, madam, its ten minutes slow. We always keep our clocks a little slow. And we were to have been at M adam e Jannaw ays at a q u a rte r past twelve. How long the shopping does take! Why, whatever time did we start? About eleven, wasnt it? H a lf past ten. I rem em b er now; because, you know, we said w e d start at h alf past nine. W e ve been two hours already! And we dont seem to have done much, do we? D one literally nothing, and 1 m eant to have done so m uch . I m ust go to M adam e J a n n a w a y s. Have you got my purse, dear? Oh, its all right. I ve got it . Well, now you h a v e n t decided w h e th e r y o u re going to have the grey or the red. k T m sure I dont know what 1 do want now. I had made up my mind a minute ago, and now its all gone again - oh, yes, I remember, the red. Yes, 1 1 have the red, 1 dont mean the red; I mean the grey . You were talking ab ou t the red last tim e, if you remember, dear . Oh, so I was; youre quite right. T h ats the worst of shopping. Do you know, I get quite confused s o m e t im e s . Then you will decide on the red, madam? 204

Yes, yes, I s h a n t do any b e tte r, shall I, dear? What do you think? You havent got any other shades of red, have you? This is such an ugly red . The shopman reminds her that she has seen all the o th e r reds, and th a t this is th e p a rtic u la r shade she selected and admired. Oh, very well , she replied, with the air of one from whom all earthly cares are falling, I must take that, then, 1 suppose. I cant be worried about it any longer. Ive wasted half the morning already . Outside she recollects three insuperable objections to the red, and four u n an sw erab le argum ents why she should have selected the grey. She wonders would they change it, if she w ent back and asked to see the s h o p keeper? Her friend, who wants her lunch, thinks not. T h at is w hat i hate about s h o p p in g , she says. One never has time to really think . She says she shant go to that shop again.(After Jerome K.Jerome) List of words and word combinations department store - consumer goods - cloth - ready-made clothes - footwear - knitted goods - socks and stockings - underwear - ring - glassware - skiit - 205

blouse - to try on - high (low) heels - () sandals - jewellery - bracelet - precious stones - semi-precious stones - millinery - hosiery - - stationery - haberdashery - pin - lace - thread - button - zipper - needle!s') - , suit-case - brief-case - doll - shopping bag - perfume - lipstick - powder - make up - , size - to be all the fashion - to be out of fashion - to pinch - ( ) to be a perfect fit - to wrap up - cash-desk - cheap - frock - 206

^ to be stock size - cotton - silk - wool(len) - () * to fit - , to become - ( ) to match - , to suit - , to go with - - () * leather - suede - to afford - , window-shopping - to cost - to decide on - , shrmkproof - waterproof - tight / loose - / , space ship - set of records - SHOPPING (buying foodstuffs) Dialogue Mother: Ann: other: Ann. will you please, do the shopping today? vejy busy. , Of course, T shall. What am I to buy? We are going to have a festive dinner tomorrow. Your aunt Liza and uncle Roger promised to - come and see us. ,.1 ' V , W hat are you going to cook? Shall we have anything special?
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Ann:

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For the first course I want to make clear s o u W i l l you buy some beef; please, but mind, it shouldnt be very fat. Aim: Shall I buy anything else at the butcher's? Mother: If they have lean mutton, buy 2 kilos, please. Ill make mutton chops for the second course. Im afraid weve run out / of potatoes and tomatoes. Drop in at tlie greengrocers and get 2 kilos of potatoes and one of tomatoes. , Ann: l.s that all? Beef, 2 kilos of mutton, 2 kilos of potatoes and 1 of .tomatoes. Mother: Oh, dear, you wont be able to carry all th at, I ll ask Mike to help you. Mike, will you please, go with A nn and help her with the shopping? Mike: Certainly, if she buys me ice cream. Mother: T h a t rem inds me. W iir'you look in at tlie cake shop >and buy a chocolate'cake? ;/< **'* ' '/-.. -* ' Aunt Liza is veiy fond, of it. That seems to be all. Here is the money. Arm: Mike, take the shopping'bag and off we go.
E xercises

Mother:

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. Q . Who does the shopping in your family? -* -2 . Where can one buy meat? 3. What kinds of m eat do you know? 4. Do you prefer beef to pork? veal to mutton? mutton to pork? 5. How can you cook beef? m utton? What m e at do you usually buy for soup? 7. Do you like white or brown bread? 8. How m uch bread do you buy daiiy? 9. W hat else can you buy at the b a k e rs? 10. Are you fond of sweets? 44. W here do you buy them ? - How
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often do you buy cakes and biscuits? 13. What shop in Si.Petersburg is famous for its cakes? 14;. Wlrat does the 'rruiterer deal in? -fcSrWhut fruit can you buy in season? .ill the year round? 16. Do you prefer apples to pears? irapes to oranges? peaches to plum s? straw berries to < berries? U. Where do we buy vegetables? Pfe-What ve getables do you usually buy? 19. W hat dishes can we make of vegetables? W here is dairy p ro d u ce sold? 2 1 . W hat dairy p ro d u ce do you buy daily? 22. Do you buv bottled or loose milk? 23. Do you use sour cream * when cooking? >24. What shop deals in fish? 25. Do you like fish better than meat? 26. Is there a supermarket not far from where you live? 27. What departm ents can you see in the supermarket? Exercise 2. Ask your fellow' students: ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... if she (he) likes shopping when she (he) usually does it if there are many shops in her (his) street what food she (he) buys every day (on Sunday, for a festive dinner) what vegetables she buys for a mushroom soup what things she (he) buys for breakfast (supper) if she buys cakes or makes them herself if she (he) prefers smoked fish to pickled fish what kind of meat she usually buys where she buys it if it is sold ready-weighed and ready-packed what fiuit she can buy all the year round (in season) what her favourite kind of fruit is what dishes she can make of potatoes if she knows how to make salads what salad she likes best of ail
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... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

if she knows how to make it what dairy produce she usually buys what bread she prefers: brown or white how much bread she buys eveiy day how much money she spends on her eveiy day shopping what food she buys once a week how often she buys flour, coffee, sugar, tea, cereals if she prefers to do the shopping at a self-service shop and why if she likes small specialized shops better than supermarkets

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences accor ding to the examples. E x a m p 1 e 1: The baker ... The baker sells bread, buns, rolls etc. Say what the following shops and trad esm en sell: the butcher, the fruiterer, the grocer, the greengrocer, the confectioner, the daiiy, the fishmonger, the poulterer, the cake shop. E x a m p 1 e 2: We buy meat We buy meat at the butchers Say at what shops you can buy: ham and sausage; sugar and coffee: beef and m u t ton; chickens and geese; smoked and salted fish: p o tatoes. onions and carrots; grapes and pears; milk and sour cream; cakes and pies; toffees, candies and choco210

lates; curds and sweet cream ; tea, eggs, flour; beetroot and cabbage; turkeys and ducks; oranges and apples; cheese and cream; green peas and tomatoes. Exercise 4 . What will you say if you want to know; th e price of the cake; where the meat counter is; if the bread is new; if they have bottled milk; how much a kilo of grapes costs; how much you m ust pay for the things you have bought; if they have smoked fish on sale; w here you can buy som e sweets; if. you m ust do the shopping today. Exercise 5. What will you do if; y o u ve run out of flour; you are expecting some body for dinner; you w an t to m ake m eat salad; your husband asked you to cook fish for dinner; the doctor's advice is to eat m uch fruit and vegetables; you are going to treat your family to roast chicken; you are going to cook a Christmas dinner.
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Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences. 1. What can 1 do for you? Id like .. / 2 . How much do I pay fo r(.,.? 3. W here can.l^get 4. Is the m u t to n ./.? -5. Where do they sell ...? 6. I've run out of 7. Have you got ... ? 8. Where is the nearest .;.? 9. Its very convenient to do the shopping ... . 10. If youve run out o f potatoes.youd bfettet .. . . 11. They sell a lot of ' -' V ' nice things at ... . 12. M eat salad is easy to make: buy 13. If you want to cook clear soup . . . . 14. Every ; i' day I buy . . . . 15. Once a week we buy ... . 16. They usually sell fish ... 17. Besides m ilk I w ant you to b u y '... ".IS. The florist deals in '19. I prefer to do the shopping at .f r T "20. Can I have a loaf of ...?
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Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1, The baker usually deals ... bread, buns and rolls. He has all kinds ... bread ... sale. 2. J prefer to do the shopping ... a self-service shop. One takes a basket and moves ... the counters which are filled ... various food stuffs. After youve chosen the things you want you come ... the cash-desk and pay ... them . 3. They sell apples and oranges all the year ... but strawberry is sold only ... season. 4. ... the fishmongers one can buy smoked, sal ted, fresh and frozen fish. 5. We go ... a milkshop ... dairy produce. 6. Bread is sold ... loaves, meat ... kilos, eggs ... dozens (tens). 7. If youve r u n vegetables youd better go ... the greengrocers now. S. How much does a bottle ... milk cost? 9. ... the way, have you got pickled cucumbers or tomatoes? 10. Will you d r o p ......... the bakers and buy some rolls? 11, Where do I pay ... the things i ve bought? ... cash-desk which is ... the exit. 12. Mushroom soup is made ... mushrooms, potatoes and onions. 13. This shop is famous ... its biscuits all ... the city. 14. The poulterer deals ... poultry, Exercise S. Name some kinds of vegetables, meat, poultry, fruit, pastry. E xercise 9. Say w hat you buy to cook beetroot soup, cabbage soup, meat salad, a cake, vegetable salad, rissoles, mushroom soup, fish salad, mushroom omelette. Exercise 10. Translate into English. 1. . , , . . 2. ,
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. , , . , , . , , . , . 3. ? , , . . . 4. (to the che mist's), , , . 5. . . 30-40 . 6, , , ? - , . . E xercise 11. Be ready to talk on one of the follo wing topics. 1. Eveiyday shopping. 2. Doing the shopping at a su permarket. 3. The shopping you did before your birthday party. Exercise 12. Make up your own dialogues on the topic Shopping . Appendix 1. Read and translate.
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--vr-

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H ere is the list of the m ost popular grocery shops one can find in the USA: - ' Supermarkets T h ese are the m ark ets th a t se.ll all kinds o f fresh foods, packaged'foods, and s upplies for keeping house (e.g. paper goods, cleaning agents). Everything is selfx ' 213

! service, with the possible exception of the meat depart ment, where you may ask for help, for instance, in get- ^ ting a special cut of meat. A""f Small General Markets , These are like the supermarkets in every way except in size and, in ' some instances, prices. They tend to more centrally, located. Convenience Stores ; , As the n a m e 'im p lie s , these stores are usually conveniently located and open long4iours. One can buy basic grocery items (milk, bread, etc.) when other stores are closed. * '- --' ' " t" "

Gourmet and Speciality Shops These refer to shops selling .foods that are somewhat out of tire ordinary and not customarily found in s u p e r markets - fancy confection, coffees, teas, jams, cheeses _ and the like, often imported. '* v -'* -v f* > ;/ ' ' ^ Organic and Natural Foods Also known as health foods . The central idea of this kind o f food is th at it has o n e th ro u g h relatively little processing - refining, presfemng - and is therefore, : natural , such as w holegrains , _seeds. Organic ,means that the food in its g/owing stages was^ not- treated with 4 */ . , ,* , chemical tbriilizers and pesticides, Most nealtlbfood sto res also sell \nitritional supplements-vitamins, mmeralssometimes at higher prices than drugstores. . ^ Stores specializing in fish, meat, poultry and dairy produce. Ethnic Foods (e.g. Tropical Foods, Japanese, and Chinese groceries, German and Polish groceries, Greek and Middle Eastern groceries etc.).
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List of words and word combinations

/ .. V ; to deal in - - : grocery - , & foodstuffs - flour - butter - eggs - biscuits - jam - jelly - ham - bacon - cheese - sugar - spice - , tinned (canned) food - frozen food - bakery - bun - rusks - rolls - rings - confectionery - > chocolate - toffy - ( ) candy - loose (bottled) milk - () sweet (sour) cream - , dozen - Z b u tch e rs - poulterers - () poultry - -/'fishmongers - smoked (pickled) fish - ()
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lean - ( ) fat - ( ) supermarket - curds - green peas - to run out of smth. - ( ) loaf (loaves) - () greengrocers - 3 fruiterers - ' dairy produce - MEALS Dialogue 1 Jane: Peter: Jane: Its high time to have a snack. Would you like to go to our buffet? / -/ .. - - " As for me I d rather have a good substantial dinner. What about going to our refectory? All light. Let it be our refectory. At the refectory
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/ :

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Peter: Jane:

Peter: Jane: Peter: Jane: Peter:

Have a look at the menu. What do thev servetoday? Oh, the choice is very good. For,-the first ' 1 , V V ' eM course we can.take either mushroom soup or chicken broth. For the second -course they serve rissoles with mashbd potatoes, fried fish with chips and stewed meat with vege tables. have m ush roo m soup and rissoles. And what about you? I think 11 take chicken broth and stewed meat with vegetables. Any dessert? Lets have black coffee and ice cream. Fine. Would you like any appetizers? I dont think Ill have any.
. : / * ' / / * ; ^ - 5 . / * r 1 t *

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Dialogue 2

Mother: Aim: Mother:

A im :

Mother:
Ann:

Mother:
- Ann:

Mother: Aim:

Aim, would you kindly help me (to) lay the table? O f course, m other dear. W here are the things? The table-cloth is in the upper drawer of the sideboard. Spoons, knives and forks are there too. D inner plates are in the kitchen. Where is the breadbasket? Its on the kitchen table. Cut some brown and white bread, will you? Ready. What else must I put out? D o n t forget to put out the mustard-pot, the saltcellar and the pepper-box.' The napkins are in the sideboard too. arent they? Do you want m e to do anything else? No, thank you, dear. So the table is iaid, isnt it? Sure it is.
Exercises

Exercise /. Answer the following questions. 1. Can you cook well? What dishes can you cook? What is your favourite dish? Is it easy to cook? 2. What kinds of soups do you know? W hich soup do you like better: cabbage soup or b eetro o t soup? fish or milk soup? meat soup or chicken broth? mushroom soup or vegetable soup? What soups do they serve at our refectory? 3. What dishes can be sewed for the second course? Do you prefer roast meat to boiled meat? Do you like dishes made
217

of fish? 4. W hat appetizers do you usually take? Is there a good choice of salads at our buffet? Can ou make Rus sian salad? 5. Are you fond of sweet dishes? W hat do you usually have for dessert? Do you prefer fresh fruit to sweets or sweets to fresh fruit? 6. What things do you usually put out when you lay the table: for breakfast, dinner, supper? 7. How many meals do you have daiiy? 8. Is your breakfast light or substantial? W hat does it usually consist of? 9. W here do you have y o u r dinner? 10. W hat did you have for d in n e r yesterday? II. Are you a hearty or a poor eater? 12. Do you like y our food spicy? 13. Who does the cooking in your family? 14. W hat did your friend treat you to when you came to visit her? Exercise 2. Answer th e following questions a c c o r ding to the example. Extend your answers wherever pos sible. E x a m p 1 e: Would you mind if we take a cup of coffee and some sandwiches? As for me Id rather have a good square meal. I'm dying of hunger. Would you mind if we: have an ice cream? a glass of beer? cabbage soup? lunch at our refectory? stewed fruit for dessert? another cup of coffee? roast chicken for the second course? porridge for breakfast? dine out to night? sit n e a r th e d ance floor? have a cup o f tea? a glass o f dry wine? a cup o f coffee and som e d o u g h nuts?

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Exercise 3. Extend the following using suggestions given in brackets. E x a m p l e : Last Sunday I had my birthday party (to cook a lot of delicious things). Mother cooked a lot of delicious things. She made wonderful cream cakes and an apple-pie. 1. T h e o th e r day we w e n t to the re s ta u ra n t N eva to have dinner (to order a lot of tasty things). 2. When my d au g h te r was ill the d o c to r told me to give her as m u ch fruit as I could (to go to market and buy ...). 3. I think th at d in n e r m ust be the most substantial meal of the day (to have three courses). 4. Last Sunday my friend and dined out (to go to a new fashionable cafe and to order ...). 5. My triend is fond of cooking (here are some dishes she can cook). 6. Mother told Ann to lav the table as th ey were expecting guests (to put out things for d in n e r ) . 7, On Sunday Mother usually cooks my favourite dishes (they are 8. She doesn't want to put on weight (thats why she eats ... or: she doesnt eat ...). Exercise 4. What will you say if you want or dont want: your daughter to peel potatoes; to cut the brown bread into thin slices; to lay the table; to make black coffee; to mix vege table salad with sour cream ; to have a look at the pie which is in the oven; to wash up after the party; your guest to have another cup of tea; to help herself (himself) to cheese and ham ; to take a n o th e r helping of roast 219

chicken; to try meat pies; to take off her (liis) jacket as it rather hot in the room; to take another glass of sweet wine; to pass you th e salt-cellar; to help herself ( h im self) to the apples. Exercise 5. Agree or disagree with th e following s ta te m e n ts beginning y our answers with: Yes, you are quite right; I t s really so. [ really do. It really is. O f course, I do (he, she does, it is); T h a t s not quite so. In my opinion ... afraid you are wrong. On the contrary. Extend your answers wherever possible. 1. You prefer mineral water to lemonade, don t you? 2. The cucumber salad is very tasty today, isnt it? 3. You take two lumps of sugar with your tea, d o n t you? 4. You are not oveifond of pastiy, are you? 5. Your husband can cook a little, can t he? 6. He seems to be a poor eater, doesnt he? 7. Washing up takes a lot of time, doesnt it? 8. Pears are tastier than apples, arent they? 9. Your mother is a good cook, isnt she? Exercise 6. Ask your fellow students and let them answer your questions: if she (he) is a hearty or a poor eater if she is fond of cooking what her favourite dish is if she is fond of sweets (pastry, fruit, vegetab les) ... what she usually takes for the first course (the second course, dessert) ... what she usually treats her guests to when she has a party ... if she likes her food spicy ... ... ... ...

22 0

... what her breakfast (lunch, dinner, supper) con sists of ... at what time she has her meals ... what kind of soup (salad, meat dish, fish dish) she prefers ... if she prefers tea to coffee or coffee to tea ... who washes up dishes in her family after meals ... if she likes beer (dry wine, co ca-cola, gin and tonic, sweet wine, lemonade, mineral water) ... if she prefers meat to fish or fish to meat Exercise 7. Use the following in short dialogues or situations of your own. 1. I d like to tre a t you to this cake. It must be rather tasty. 2. Wiil you, please, cut the birthday cake! 3. Help you reelf to roast .beef. 4. May I trouble you for a slice of bread? - Brown or white? - White, please. - Excuse fingers. 5. Will you, please, pass me the p epp er-bo x? 6. How many lumps of sugar do you take with your tea? - One will do. 7. Try this wine. They say, i t s not bad. 8. C an I offer you another cup of tea? Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences. 1. Help yourself to ... soup lacks . 4. C an 1 offer have ... ? 6. May 1 trouble you 8. Shall I treat you ... ? 9. For 10. Will you ... ? 11. Lets have . 2. The meat, is ... . 3. The you ... ? 5. Will you 7. Will you pass ... ? dessert I M l have ... . .... 12. They serve ... .

Exercise 9. Read and translate the following prov erbs, Give their Russian equivalents. Too m any cooks spoil the broth. Hi.h s eves are bigger t h a n his stom ach . Tastes-differ. H u n g e r is the best sauce. As hungry as a wolf (a hunter).
1

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Exercise 10. Say w hat proverbs can be applied to the following pieces of conversation. 1. Father: Isnt it time to have dinner? Mother: Is everything ready, Ann? Ann: Quite. Peter, will you help me to lay the table, please? (After the table is laid.) How do you like the soup, Father? Father: N o t bad. But d o n t you th in k it is a bit oversalted? Ann: Is it, really? But why? Peter, did you salt it too? Peter: Well, in afraid, I did. Mother: ....4 ) 1 X . '
* S ^ * '
s.
.

2.

Alice: Mary: Alice: Marv:

What are you going to order, Mary? 1 think Ill take bacon and eggs and tomato juice. I hate tomato juice. It is quite tasteless. How can you drink it? ........ // \ ...... " 3.

Mother: Dick: Mother: Dick:

Why are you looking so unhappy, Dick? I m having a stomachache. But why? W hats the matter? You see, Lena had a birthday party and there were so many nice things on the table that I couldnt help eating them ajl. Mother: ... '' ; Exercise 11. Use the proverbs given in exercise 9 in a natural conversation of your own. Follow the example of exercise 10.
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Exercise 12. Answer the following questions begin ning y o u r answers with B ut I d ra th e r (so o n er) ... Extend them wherever possible. E x a m p l e : I think I ll take pancakes with sour cream. And what about you? - But I d rather take an omelette. I dont want to put on weight. 1. Id like to take chicken broth for the first course today. And what about you? 2. I m going to have lunch at our refectory. And you? 3. I d like to have a cup of strong tea. And would you? 4. I could do with an omelette and orange juice. And what about you? 5. Id like to dine out tonight for a change. And you? 6. Ed prefer to sit near the dance-floor. And what about you? 7. I want fish soup for the first course. And you? 8. I could do with some sandwiches and a cup of tea. And you? Exercise 13. Insert the missing parts of the dialogue. A. R A. Where shall we sit? There are many vacant seats. -j r -i ^ A '/ ' ' Here is the menu card. Have a look at it. What do they serve today? T I
t +

A. R A. . A. .

Shall we take any soup? h o , t" .. ! -,' '4 I do nt like soups either. What would you like for tire second course? / I ...... \ / ' And what about dessert? . . i u ... ! ' , - .
f

223

A. .
'

Shall we drink anything?


v r i r : r > : 1

i
o f

' ^ l l i f ^

W aiter, will you take our order? Tw o roast chickens, two ice creams, two coffees and a bottle of dry wine.

Exercise 14. Name four or five kinds of: meat dishes; soup; fruit; dishes taken for breakfast; desseit; beverages; appetizers; sweet dishes. Exercise 15. Make up a menu for: a light breakfast; a festive dinner; your favourite lunch; a dinner for a sick child. Exercise 16. Insert prepositions or postverbal adverbs. 1. My d in n e r usually consists ... three courses. 2. ... the first course I usually take either cabbage or mushroom soup. 3. Will you put ... plates, knives, spoons and forks? 4. He prefers coffee ... tea. 5. The English are very particular ... what they eat. 6. Help yourself ... the cake. I think it is very tasty. 7. May I trouble you ... a slice ... brown bread. 8. Dick treated us ... sweets. 9. Weak tea is not .... my taste. 10. May I offer ... you another cup ... tea? 11. Have you washed ... yet? 12. They often dine ... 13. He took us .... the cafe Aurora to have lunch. 14. What will you take ... the second course? m fond ... roast chicken. - As ... me I prefer fish ... chicken. Exercise 17. Make up short dialogues: a) between a waiter and a customer; b) between twro friends having din n er at a restaurant. E xercise 18. M ake up a story on the topic My Everyday Meals .

224

E xercise 19 . Tell your fellow students what you know about English and Russian m eals and cooking. Exercise 20 . Describe how you cook your favourite dish (or any dish you can cook.) Exercise 2 L Translate into English. 1. He ? , . . , ? - , . ( .) ? - , , . , , , . - , , . , . ? - , , , , . - , ? - . , : , . 2. . . , , . - ? - . - . ? - , , . ffe6e , . - , . ? - . - ! ? - . 3. , , .- ? - . ? - . , , . - , , . - , , .

List of words and word combinations

' to have a snack ( a bite) - breakfast - lunch - dinner - supper - buffet - , refectory - ( ) vmenu - cafe - restaurant - dish - potatoes - to be a poor eater - to be a hearty eater - salad - appetizer - () 1 to lay the table - salt-cellar - mustard-pot - * pepper-box - , for the first course - cabbage soup - beetroot soup - beef-tea - chicken broth - clear soup - fish milk soup soup vegetable pea rissoles - roast beef - beefsteak -
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mutton chop - fried fish - boiled fish - stewed meat (fish) - () dessert - ice cream - sweets - , cake - , pie - , astry - fruit - orange - beer - dry (sweet) wine - () lemonade - mineral water - to put out - , * to peel - (, , ) to cut - to treat smb. to smth. - - - help yourself to - underdone - ( ) overdone - ( ) to lack - ( , ) tasty - tasteless - watery ~ sauce - stewed fruit - sour cream - cottage cheese * bacon and eggs - omelette - porridge - () gruel - ( ) 227

to dine in - to dine out - ham - cheese - apple - pear - grapes - delicious - ( ) TRAVELLING BY TRAIN Dialogue 1 Passenger: Booking-clerk: Passenger: Booking-clerk: Passenger: Booking-clerk: Passenger: Booking-clerk: Passenger: Booking-clerk: Passenger: I want a ticket to London, please. Which train must I take? If I were you, I should take the 8.35 train. Do I have to change anywhere? No, no change, its a through train. Thank you. A ticket to London, please. Single or return? Return, please, first class. Here you are. T h an k you. W hat tim e did you say the train goes? 8.35, Youll have to hurry if you want to register your luggage. Thanks. (He hurries away) Dialogue 2 A. P. A. Porter, will you see to my luggage, please? Where for, sir? I am taking the ten o clock train for Glasgow. Have this trunk labelled and put it in the lug228

P. A. P . A. P,

A. P. P.

gage van, and two suit-cases can go in the car riage. Right, sir. What class? First. Find me a c o r n e r seat facing the engine in a smoker. Have you got your ticket, sir? No, not yet. Wheres the booking-office? Come along with me, sir. II show you. Here it is. You take your ticket, sir, and 1 1 meet you on the platform. Which platform is it? N um ber 8, over there. Here you are, sir. I ve found you a com er seat next to the corridor. Your carriage is near the dining-car and you can order lunch when the attendant comes along. What time do we get to Glasgow? You are due to arrive at 6.15. Thank you, here you are. Thank you, sir. I hope youll fmd the journey comfortable. Well, if I have some minutes left, I should like to go and get myself a book to while away the time during the journey. I ll bring you a paper, sir. (From English Linguaphone Course)
E x e r c is e s

A. P. A. P. A.

P.

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. H ow m an y railway statio n s are th e re in P e te r sburg? W hat are they? Which of them is the oldest? Do you happen to know when it was built? 2. Where do trains come
229

in and go out? 3. Where can you buy a tickct for your journey? 4. W hat is the fare to M oscow? How m uch is the return ticket to Moscow? 5. What are waiting-rooms for? 6. Who can help you with your luggage? 7. In what way do porters carry luggage? 8. What is a luggage van? 9. W hat kinds o f trains do you know? W hat trains do you prefer? Why? 10. Where can one have a light refresh ment.? 11. W hat trains have din in g -cars? 12. Do you prefer to book your ticket beforehand or to queue up at the booking-office? 13.W hat is the left-luggage office for? 14. What do the people who prefer to travel light do with th e ir luggage? 15. Do you usually travel light or with a lot of things? 16. W here can you buy a new spaper at th e railway station? 17. Do you like seeing your friends and relatives off? 18. Do you like it w h e n your friends and relatives come to see you off? 19, What does a big railway station look like? 20. Where can one get infor mation about the time of arrival and departure o f trains? Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences. 1. When we came to the railway station we saw ... . 2. If you did not book your ticket b eforehand you will have to ... . 3. If you want to buy a ticket for your jo u r ney you must . . . . 4. It takes you m uch tim e to travel by a stopping train because . . . . 5. If you have m u ch luggage and prefer to travel light you can . . . . 6. If you d o n t like queuing up at the booking-office you can ........ 7.They did not w ant to miss the train t h a t s why . . . . 8. The tram was ready to leave thats why .. . . 9. T he train starts in 20 minutes so if you are hungry you can ... . 10. If you are in a hurry and d o n t w ant to travel by a stopping train ... .

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Exercise 3. Ask your fellow students and let them answer: ... from what railway station trains for Helsinki (War saw, Kiev, Tallinn, Sochi, Moscow, etc.) start. ... at w hat platform th e 8.30 train for Sosnovo is standing ... where the booking-office is ... if there are many people in the waiting-room now ... where you can get something to read (at the s ta tion) ... how much poiters charge for a piece of luggage ... if there is a good restaurant at Warsaw station ... why he (she) is going to take a stopping train ... if there is a through train from here to Saratov ... why express trains fares are the highest ,. for what kind of travellers local trains are ... if he (she) has ever travelled on a long distance train and how he (she) liked it ... if there is a dining-car on the night express to Moscow ... where you can buy a ticket for a train journey ... if it is possible to book a ticket to Hamburg before hand ... who takes care of passengers on board a train ... in what cases passengers leave their luggage in the left-luggage office ... if there are long queues at the booking-offices in summer ... if he (she) usually travels light ... who usually comes to see him (her) off.

231

Exercise 4. Make op your own sentences using the words and word combinations given below. To buy a ticket for a journey; to cany luggage; to take trunks and suitcases to the luggage van; to get off the train; to stop at the station; to get a light refreshment; hand luggage; to hurry; to book a ticket beforehand; to queue up; to register o n es luggage; late-comers; to see smb. off. Exercise 5. Complete the dialogue supplying the miss ing words. P. 1 want a ticket to ... B.-^cl. If I were you, Ishould ... P. Do I have to ... B.-cl. No, ... P. , Thank you ... B.-cl Single or return? P ...................... B.-cl. Here you are. P, Thank you. Can you tell me ... B.-cl............... P. Thanks a l o t Exercise 6. Make up your own story on Travelling by T ra in using the words and word com binations given below. At the railway station; to get a morning paper; the waiting-room; the train is due out at;, to have a long (short) journey; sleeping-car (sleeper); through train; stopping tram; long distance train; express; local train: to travel light; to register o n e s luggage; th e left-lu g gage office; to hurry along the train.

232

Exercise 7. Learn and dramatize dialogues 1,2 in class. Exercise 8. Put the dialogues into Reported Speech. Exercise 9. Make up dialogues of your own on Tra velling by Train . Roles suggested: a b o o k in g -clerk and a passenger; two p a sse n gers sharing a compartment; two friends discussing the advantages and disadvantages o f travelling by train ; a passenger and a clerk in the inquiry-office. Exercise 10. Translate into English, 1. ? 2. 20 . 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. 23 , 7 . S. . 9. - . 10. , - . 11 . , . 12. , , . 13. ? 14. , , 1 (Red Arrow). 15. , . 16. . , . 17. 233

. 18. 12 . Exercise 11, Read and retell the following story. Travelling by Train Three m en came to the station about nine o'clock one evening. They came on to the platform and said to the porter:What time is the next train to Liverpool? The porter said:You have missed one. They go ev ery hour; the next one is at ten o clock . "Thats all right , they said, Well go and have a drink . So off they went to the refreshment room. A minute or two after ten o clock they came running and said to the p o rter: Has the train g o n e ? Yes , he said, it went at ten o clock as I told you. The next is at eleven o clock , T hats all right , they said, W e ll go and have a n o th e r d r in k . So they w ent back to the refreshment room. They missed the eleven o clock train in the same way, and the porter said, Now, the next train is the last one , if you miss that, you w ont get to Liverpool to night . Twelve o clock cam e, and th e last tra in was just starting out, when the three of them came out of the re freshm ent room ru n n in g as hard as they could do. Two o f them got in a carriage ju st as the train was leaving, but the third one didnt run fast enough and the train went out leaving him behind . He stood th e re looking at the tra in and laughing, as if to miss a train was the best joke in the world. The porter went up to him and said, I told you that this was the last train. Why didnt you come e a rlie r? T h e m a n c o u ld n t answ er for laughing. He laughed u n til tears cam e into his eyes. T h e n he caught 234

hold of the p o rte r and said: D id you see those two fellows get into the train and leave me here?" Yes, I saw th e m 1 . W ell. I w as th e o n e w ho was g o in g to Liverpool, they only came here to see me off. (After C.Eckersley. Essential English for Foreign S tu d e n ts , L o n d o n -N e w YorkToronto, 1955). Exercise 12. Speak on the following topics. 1. What a large railway station looks like. 2. Your last railway trip. 3. What can be said in favour of travelling by train. 4. Describe some funny or sad episode concern ing travelling by train. List of words and word combinations -/railway station - , - f platform - / train - J? * . to take a train - - to change (trains) - 7 ' long distance train - ,7 express - - local train - 7 train for (to) ... - .... non-smoker - - 7 fast train - 7 through train - dining-car - - ^ to buy a ticket - to book a ticket - ^ booking-office - () * 7 stopping train - , .7.. journey -
r

235^

waiting-room - 7 bookstall - / porter - - / to carry luggage - to push a truck - I'unk - () - / suitcase - luggage van - "" be due out - ( ) f to get on the train - ' to get off the train - P to stop at a station - ^ restaurant - - f to get a light refreshment - -^ hand luggage - hurrv - __ passenger - to queue up - vto register the luggage - late-comer - , single ticket - return ticket - carriage - 1 facing the engine - with one's back to the engine - ^ attendant - -j to be due to arrive - ( ) ^ to while away the time - ' What time does your train start? - ? to miss the train - to phone for a taxi - ^ indicator board - f I wonder - , 236

I wonder where we can get a snack - , - D o n t worry - to catch a train - 2 io waste time - h rare - compartment - to put things on the rack - , to be crowded - to pack things - to stop at a junction - to make sure - , to be off - , to book a ticket beforehand - to queue up - left-luggage office - to travel light - ' to see smb. off - ( ) day coach - resei'ved seat - * lower . + 1 1 ) beit.li>** > ! nipper / f 11 TRAVELLING BY AIR Dialogue 1 On the Plane A.: 4 B.: This aircraft looks very comfortable. Oh, its bound to be; The Company takes a good care of its passengers.

237

T m 'sure of that. What about these two seats, will they'' d'o or would you rather sit nearer the ,4 . / - - ^ v4 fr . ''l 1 pilots , - cabin? r / /' B.: ' I really''dont mind whichever you "prefer. A.: Then lets sit down here. You m ust have the seat by the porthole, of course. B.: Thank you, thats what I like. A.: I say, were already off. ,stcn your b e lts have been lighted up'over the door to the pilots cabin, ,so we.must be off. though I hardly feel , anything yet. / ' .! A.: Perhaps, we are still on the runway. B.: Yes, that must be. Look here, you havent done up your safety-belt yet! A.: Oh, thank you, I ve forgbtten all about it in tlie excitement of our departure. B.: You m ustnt, its dangerous not to fasten your safety-belt when the plane is taking off or lan ding. A.: I know it ^is. , 'S. / B.: A friend of mine lost her front teeth that way. . It was a rough landing, though. \ A.: Poor girl. So I owe my front teeth to you. * ' k ' * * ' B.: Oh, no, we are having,a very smooth take-off. - ' -s1 ' ' A.: Thanks all the same". ' ' *,. - ''' ' B.; Here comes a stewardess with a tray. W hat will you have, some juice or lemonade?, A.: Oh, good. My ears b eg in n in g to ache a little, I think I ll have some lemonade. And you? B.: Orange juice, please. ^ Stewardess.: Here you are, madam. B.: Thank you.
/ < 'J s / / , -V M > * ' . * f r 1 'i

A.;

.9

* 'Y

^" -

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238

Dialogue 2

John:

H ello, N ick. H a v e n t seen you forages. Where have you been, old boy? Hello, I ve just come back from France. Nick: Have you really? What were you doing there? John: Oh, it was just a business trip. v X Nick: Did you fly there? John: Yes,. I did. And it was vejv expiring. . Nick: ' -f i r 1 ' * '. Where did you get your ticket? John: I went to the Air Company office and fixed Nick: Up everything in a few minutes. T hen I came home, packed" mv things and got ready for the itrip. ^ ' Did you feel nervous? John: Not a bit. Just,.excited^ _ Nick: Did you get into th e ^ la n e straight away? ^ , J ohn: Oh, no. First 1 had to check in my lug gage. I f your luggage is overweight you have to pay extra, if it is underweight you neednt pay anything. And what did you do then? John: I went .to the departure lounge to wait for N ick : m /n ig h t. When it was announced I passed th ro u g h custom s and im m ig ra tio n office and walked to the plane. It was on the ru'ii'way. S om etim es when the plane is at the far end of the field passengers are taken there by a special motor-coach. Did the stewardess meet you at the gangway? John: Sure she did. She welcomed us and showed N ick: us to our seats. In a few minutes No smo king and Fasten your belts were lighted up and the pilot began to taxi o u t into the middle of the airfield. 239

John: Nick: John:

John: Nick: John: Nick:

How did you feel in the air? Not airsick? No, the flight was very smooth. We didnt hit a single air-pocket. Could you .see anything through the port hole? Only clouds. How long were you up? About three hours. Was it very expensive? ' Rather. But it saved me a lot a time.
E x e r c is e s

Exercise I. Answer the following questions. I .. Have you ever travelled by air? Where did you fly? When was it? Did you feel nervous before the flight? Was the flight smooth or rough? Were you airsick? 2.VW h e re do we get tickets for air trips? How many airports are th e re in Petersburg? Are they far away from the centre of the city? How can you get there? Is there a spe cial bus service for passengers? 4. Do passengers go straight to the plane? W hat do they have to do first? In what case do they have to pay extra for their luggage? Are they allowed to take any luggage on board a plane? 5: Who m eets passengers at the gangway? Does she show passengers to their seats? 6. W hen are passengers tak e n to the plane by a special motor coach? 7i Are flights sometimes put back? When does it happen? Was your flight ever put back? By how long? .8.) Why is it necessary to do up a safety-belt during taking off and landing? 9. Is smoking allowed on board a plane? Why is it not allowed? TO. What information is usually given to the pas sengers on board a plane? 11. What services does a ste24

Jess offer them? 12. At what speed and altitude do m odern aircrafts fly? 13. On what flights do they serve 11 ;i(s? 14. Is travelling by air m ore expensive than i.iilvvay travel? 15." What are the advantages and d is advantages o f air travelling? Exercise 2. Answer the following questions according (i* lhe example. Extend your answers wherever possible. E x a m p l e ; Weuld y@u (rather) like to sit at the pilets cabin er at the prthle? I d e n t mind it either way. r: Id rather sit at the portholeI like to look through it. 1. Wuld yu like to go by plane or by train? 2. Wuld you like t@go t the airport by the metro or by a special passenger bus? 3. Would you like t teeok yeur ticket be forehand er 01 1 the day ef the departure? 4. Wruld vu like to take this bag with you or have it stored in the luggage hold? 5. Would yeu like t d@ the shopping now or after classes? 6. Would you like to visit him today or on Sunday? 7. Would you like to speak to the ean new er after the meeting? Exercise 3. L e a k th reu g h the dialogues and find the English for: ; ; ; ; ; ; () ; ; 241

; ; ; !. Exercise 4. Ask your fellow students and let them answer: ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... if lie (she) lias ever travelled by plane how lie (she) liked it how (he) she felt when living for the first time if he (she) gets tickets for a plane beforehand if he (she) travels at half-fare or at full fare how long it takes one to get from Petersburg to the South if her (his) flight was ever put back why it was put back by how long it was put back when flights are put back if she (he) likes sitting at the porthole what one can see through it if visibility is good who looks after passengers on board a plane what information passengers get about the flight if she ever wanted to become a stewardess what kind of person a stewardess must be in her (his) opinion if flying js more dangerous than railway travel if it is more expensive than railway travel

Exercise 5. What will you say if you want to know: at what speed the plane is flying; what the tempera ture outside is; when the plane is due to arrive in Peters burg; why the plane is late; why the airpoit does not take planes; if you may take your camera with you; where you can get a snack (at the airpoit); if you can take the seat at the window; if your fellow-passenger is travelling for the first time; how long you will be up; if smoking is allowed on 242

board a plane; if the stewardess can get. you some m edi -i for your airsickness; why you must fasten your sa in v belt. Exercise 6. What will you do if: you want to fly to the Black Sea coast in summer; 4oi flight is put back by half an hour; you want to have '.oinething to read on board a plane; you are afraid of gethj'tiled up; your flight is called (announced); your luggage . overweight: you want to take your brief-case with you: von missed your plane; you came to see your friend off I it her (his) flight is put back; you want to send a teleywuu from the airport; you want to know' when the plane Imm Sochi arrives; you want to know why the plane from I ondon is late. Exercise 7. Use the following questions and sentences u i a natural context of your own. 1. Did you enjoy your trip by air? 2. Is my luggage overweight? Do I have to pay extra? How much do you c harge per kilo? 3. Has flight 318 been announced yet? 4. Look, the plane is taxiing out into the middle of the ticid. Now its gathering speed. Were off. How are you tccting? 5. W e ve ju st hit an air-pocket. Are you well? N ot airsick? 6. Stewardess, w hen are wre due to a rri ve in Moscow? A rent we late? 7, The plane is landing. I iave you fastened your belt? 8. Was it a non-stop flight? c ). Can you see anything through the porthole? Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences. 1. Your luggage is overweight, youll have .... 2. The announcer has called our flight, lets .... 3. Flight 242 to 243

Odessa is put back because .... 4. The aiiport doesnt take planes because . . . . 5. Fasten your belts, the plane ... . 6. I didnt see anything through the porthole .... 7. Pas sengers must have their luggage .... 8. No, you w ont ha ve to pay extra, your luggage . . . . 9. The flight was ... . 10. The motor coach will take us ... . II. We are flying at 12. Id rather sit ... . 13. If your ears are aching youd better ... . 14. Visibility was ... . 15. Modern airplanes fly .... 16. I fastened my belt when ... . 37. When the plane hit an air-pocket ... . 18. The plane taxied out into the middle of the field and ... . 19. Travelling by air saves us ... . 20. A thunderstorm was promised, so ... . Exercise 9. Ask questions so that the sentences given below were answers. 1. The aiiport doesnt take planes because of the weather. 2. The flight is put back because the plane from Odessa lias not arrived yet. 3. You have to pay ... roubles extra for your luggage. 4. No, you cant have this bag with you, you must have it registered. 5. Our plane is on the runway already. 6. The announcer has called flight 451. 7. We are flying at the speed of 800 km. 8. The flight was very smooth. 9. No, I wasnt airsick, though the flight was rather rough. 10. The plane was late because it had to make a forced landing. 11. Visibility was veiy good and I could see for miles through the porthole. 12. The temperature outside was 15 degrees below zero. 13. Smok ing was not allowed. Exercise 10. Insert prepositions and postverbal ad verbs wherever necessary.

1. Flying is quite safe and very convenient as the com pany takes a good care ... their passengers. 2. I think the plane is going to take ..., youd better put ... your cigarette. 244

"No smoking and Fasten your belts have been lighted ... the pilots cabin. 4. The plane is taxiing ........ the middle ... the field. 5. How long shall we be ... ? 6. First \'*ii m ust have your luggage checked in and th e n a 11 mi or coach will take you ... the plane. 7. When you fly 11 (Kid you must pass ... customs. 8. The stewardess " i ; !ed the passengers and showed th e m ... th eir seats. '' M the weather keeps nasty our flight may be put ... or '.mcclled. 10. Passengers are not allowed to have bulky .iikI heavy things ... board a plane. 11, Meals are usually ivcd ... flights which last more than 3 hours. Exercise 11. Compose your own dialogues. 1. You are planning to fly to the South in summer. Discuss w ith your frien d the advantages and d isad vantages of travelling by air and by train. 2. Youve just arrived from N. Your friend, has come (o meet you at the airpoit. Tell her about your flight and .slay at N. 3. Youve come to the booking-office to get a ticket lor a plane. What will you ask the clerk about? Exercise 12. Be ready to talk on one of the followi ng topics. 1. Your first travelling by air. 2. Describe a big airport. 3. Describe the flight to N. as if you were a stewardess (the flight was very rough, the plane had to m ake a forced landing, the passengers w ere panicstrick e n , you had to com fo rt and en c o u rag e th em ). 4. Render an episode from any book y o u ve read w hich c o n c e rn s air trip s, aircrashes etc.

245

Exercise 13. Translate into English. 1. . , . . , . , , . 2. . , . (promising). . , 237 . . , . 237 . , . 3. . . ! , ! 4. , , . . , . , . , : ! , ! . List of words and word combinations aircraft, airplane - ^ seat - pilots cabin - to be off - , 246

to take off - - to land - landing - forced landing - ; Tasten your belts - to be on the runway - smooth flight - to fix up - , to have o n e s luggage checked in - Ix flight - motor coach - , to taxi out - < . to be up - to save time - to put back (by two hours) - ( 2 ) at what speed - at what altitude - to travel at half fare - i( advantage / disadvantage - / visibility is good (poor, bad) - (, ) to take planes - * to cancel - on board a plane - to pay a reduced fare - to light up - () rough landing - stewardess - to be oveiweight - to be underweight - 247

to announce (to call) a flight - to pass through customs - to get (to be) airsick - to hit an air-pocket - TRAVELLING BY SEA Dialogue On the boat A: This way for the Dover boat! Have your pass ports ready, please. Pass up the gangway! First class on the right, second class on the left, Here we are! Would you like to stay up on deck or go down below? Oh, 1 d ont know. I m not much of a sailor. 1 d ont think youll be seasick today; the sea is perfectly calm; were sure to have a good cros sing. Ill get a couple of deck chairs, to sit up here, in the sun. Oh, I ll risk it, b u t if the worst conies to the worst, d o n t blame me! Do you travel much? Not more than I can help by sea. Pve crossed the Channel once before, but frankly speaking. I didnt enjoy it, Why dont you fly? 1 think, I shall, one of these days. It couldnt be possibly worse th an a really bad sea c ro s sing, and it is much quicker anyhow. I can see the English coast already, can you? Yes, just, Well, I suppose w ed better get ready for lan ding. 248

B: C: B:

C; B; C:

B: C:

: C: B;

x e r c is e s

Exercise 1, Answer the following questions. I . I lave you ever travelled by sea? When was it? Did - II i 11 joy it? Was it a holiday cruise 01 1 the Black Sea or 1 in- Volga river? How long did it last? What kind of in w a s it? 2. Are you a good sailor? Did you suffer from .1 . ness on board the ship? 3. When do passengers usuilh U rome seasick? 4. Have you ever been caught in a " I )id the ship pitch and roll? Which was worse: the - Ini)! or the rolling? 5. W hat does a m o d ern pas<h i t 1 liner look like? How m any decks are there on t" . . ml a large liner? 6. Have you ever been in a large sea ! 11 \ ri port? What does it look like? 7. What safety devices 11 - 1 lu i on board a ship? 8. Do many liners call at PetersI'Hi" 4. Have you ever travelled on a motor boat plying 1 - (U4YH Petrodvoretz and Petersburg? How long did it take I ;;ct to Petrodvoretz? Did you stand this trip like a Ii 11 .a 1 lor? Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences accoid111; io the example. Give your reasons for choosing the t -.pirsMons in brackets. I x a m p 1 e: If you want to travel by sea youd better ... (book your passage beforehand, consult some guide-books) If you want to travel by sea youd better book your passage beforehand. It is very difficult to get tickets in summer. 1. If you are a poor sailor, youd better (go by II am, fly). 2, If you d ont feel well, youd better (take 249

some medicine, stay in bed, consult the doctor). 3. If you d o n t want to miss your boat youd better (hurry to the port, start packing your things). 4. If you dont want to catch cold youd better (go to your cabin, put on some thing warm). 5. If you want to watch the sea youd better (stay on deck, look th rou gh the p o rthole). 6. If you d o n t know the way to y o u r cabin, y o u d b e tte r (ask the captain, a steward, a fellow-passengers). 7. If you want to stay up on deck y o u d b e tte r (get some deck chairs, open your parasol, p u t on your warm jacket). 8. If you are feeling sea-sic y o u d b e tte r (take som e m e d ic in e , lie down, get some fresh air). Exercise 3 . Answer the following questions using the expression to be not much of a ... E x a m p 1 e: Can Liza make nice cakes? Oh, no, she can t, she isnt much of a cook. 1. Does Lena sing well? (singer) 2. Can your brot her run fast? (runner) 3. Can you stand a rough cros sing? (sailor) 4. Do you like to dance with Bill? (dancer). 5. Why dont you want to take lessons from Mr. Black? (teacher) 6. Why does she spend so much money on food? (housewife) 7. D o you like to skate? (skater) 8. Do you like Jo h n s poems? (poet) 9. His books are not veiy popu lar, are they? (writer) 10. Why are you afraid of going with Peter in his car? (driver) Exercise 4. Leam the dialogue close to the text and dramatize it in class.

250

Exercise 5. Ask your fellow students and let them


Mi w i i ;

... if she (he) has ever travelled by sea and what it was like. ... if she booked her passage beforehand. what class cabin she (he) was travelling. .. if she had an upper or a lower berth. .. if she spent much time on deck. . if she is a poor or a born sailor. . if their passage was smooth or rough. ... at what ports their ship called. ... how long their voyage lasted. what port of destination it was. .. how many decks there were 0 1 1 the ship. . what she (he) and her (his) friends did on the main deck. what the weather was like, if the sea was ever rough. . if anybody was seasick. . what the best rem ed y for seasickness is (11 1 her opinion). . if there were life belts, life buoys and life boats on board the ship. I xcrcise 6. Ask questions so that the sentences given 1 b>w rould serve as answers. I. Yes, I booked my passage to Yalta beforeh.iii.l ). First class cabins are on the right. 3. The crosM i}* was very bad. 4. I c a n t say that 111 a born, sailor. I -haicd my cabin with two more passengers. 6. I pre1* 1 .1 lower berth. 7. In the evening we danced 01 1 the 111 11 r1 deck to the m usic relayed from the wireless opei.tini s cabin. 8. We called at 6 or 7 ports. 9. When we Ii.hI inch time we went sightseeing. 10. The weather was 251

fine. 11. There were many safety-devices on board the shi p. 12. I enjoyed my voyage very much. Exercise 7. Extend the following sentences giving your reasons. E x a m p I e: never travel by sea again if I can help it. I was seasick. 1. I ll never go by a day coach if 1 can help it. 2. Ill never speak to him again if I can help it. 3. ne ver go to M oscow by a stopping train if I can help it. 4. Ill never fly again if I can help it, 5. Ill never take a second class cabin if I can help it. 6. I ll nev er w rite to him again if I can help it. 7. I ll never go to Kupchino by tram if I can help it. Exercise 8. What will you say if you want to know: how much your passage to Odessa will cost; if it is possible to book it beforehand; how long in advance you can book your passage; where your cabin is; if there is a pro menade deck on board the ship you are travelling; what ports the ship will call at; if you will be able to land and go sightseeing; the time of embarkation; where the second class is; when the ship is due at the port of destination; if there are any m otor boats plying between Odessa and Sebastopol. Exercise 9. What will you do if: you are feeling seasick; the ship is pitching and roll ing; you have some pieces of luggage you dont want in the cabin; a man fell overboard; a storm is raising; youd like to have a snack. 252

Exercise JO. Complete the following sentences. I. Wed better go to our cabin, the sea ... 2. You are looking seedy. Are you ... ? 3. I thought the passage would be smooth, but now ... . 4. Our ship is two lionrs late because of . . . . 5. Ive decided upon a sea voyage because ... . 6. T h e sea was rough and our ship ... . 7. Id stay up on deck as the weather ... , 8. When we called at Odessa we ... . 9. If vou do nt know the wav to your cabin, youd better ask ... . 10, The sky is low and dark. I think .... Exercise Jl. Make up a chain story beginning with the sentence Last summer I decided upon a sea voyage. Each student must add a sentence. Exercise 12. Give the English for: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; : ; . Exercise J3. Insert missing parts of the dialogue. Jane: Peter: Jane: Peter: Jane: Its very nice of you to come and see me oft', Peter. (Wishes her a pleasant voyage) Thank you. I hope enjoy it. You see, it is my first sea voyage and I feel a bit neivous. (asks her how many passengers there will be in her cabin) It's a second class cabin and I th in k there will be three more passengers besides me. 253

Peter: Jane: Peter: Jane:

Pete:r

( asks her where her cabin is) t is on the second deck, near the stem. ( asks when the ship starts) / 4 1 2.15 according to the shedule. I think i t s time to say g o o d -b y e and pass up the gangway. (-wishes her good luck and a pleasant voyEtge).

j j ! ; j ,

Exercise T 4, Insert prepositions or postverbal adverbs wherever necessary.

1. Last sLi mnier my friend was travelling ... P eter sburg ... AstrakJian ... ship. She booked a second class cabin ... the L erm ontov ... ten days advance. When the day ... the d ep artu re came she went ... the port. M any friends came t o see her ... 2. Steward, can you direct me ... the first class? - Certainly. It is ... the main deck. 3. The ship w ill sail... ten minutes. Will you p a s s ... the gangway? 4. I think we can stay ........ deck ... a while and watch the s.hip sail. 5. I ve never travelled ... sea before and I m afraid getting sick. 6. ... the evening there will be da nces ... the main deck. - And what shall we dance ... ? - I think ... the music relayed ... the wireless o p e r a to r s cabin. 7. Do you know' when we are i due ... Volgograd? - I suppose ... an hour or so w e ll be th ere. - What o t h e r ports besides Volgograd shall we call ...? - YoucJ better ask the captain. I d o n t rem em - j ber the route. S . Can I get to Petrodvoretz ... sea? - O f course. There tre many m otor boats plying ... Peters- ! burg and Petrodvoretz. Itll take you half an hour to get 1 th e r e .

254

Exercise 15. M a k e u p y o u r o w n d i a l o g u e s o n th e
i .Mowing t o p i c s .

1. Booking a passage. 2. Asking the steward about in' accommodation, conveniences on board the ship you ii> travelling. 3. W ith y o u r feilow -passenger. 4. With friends (or parents) after a sea voyage. Exercise 16. Be ready to talk on one of the topics. 1. Your first travelling by sea. 2. How you booked \ passage on the boat to N. 3. The ship is caught in a inrm. 4. How you spent y our tim e on board the hip. 5. A story about a sea voyage youve read and 11 joyed. 6. A film or a book where the action takes place :i sea or in a port. Exercise 17, Translate into English. 1. - . . , 1 . , ia. , , 1 , , - . 2. " ? - . 3. . , . 15. 15.45. 15.30, 4. ? - , . . , , . 5. ? - , . - ,
255

, , , , , ; List of words and word combinations to travel by ship - cabin - on board a ship - to book ones passage - the sea is calm - the sea is growing rough - , to pass up the gangway - first class - second class - to stay up on deck - to have a good crossing - ( - , , ) to pack things - upper (lower) berth - () smooth - , , life belt - life buoy - life boat - time of embarkation - to fall overboard - to roll and pitch - () to be caught in a storm - to be moored at - to wave o n es hand - pier - , to raise (to lower) the gangway - () ; to set sail for - to travel light - hold -
25 6

>suck a slice of lem on - be not much of- a sailor - - > be (get) seasick - miiiole - ward - >call at a port - oi l of destination - >share o n es cabin with - .., > ashore (to land) - , * ply between - i sink (sank, sunk) - ( ) j4t drowned - ( ) >be AT THE DOCTORS Dialogue 1 i )(Rior: Whats the trouble? r.iiicnt: Well, I dont know whats the matter with me, but I ve been sleeping very badly lately and I ve lost three kilos during this week. I >odor: Have you been working vety hard? Paiient: I ve had some veiy urgent work to do and I had to keep late hours as I was short of time. I >octor: Well, strip to the waist, please. 1 1 sound you. (Sounds his chest). Your heart is veiy good. Let me feel your pulse. Its quite nor mal. I think you must have a good rest. Do you smoke, by the way? Ialient: Sony to say, but I do. About twenty ciga rettes a day. 1)octor: You must cut it down by half at least. Then take a leave and get to some quiet place.

I m sure that fresh ah, a change of surro undings will do you a lot of good. Patient: Will you prescribe me some medicine? Doctor: I ll give you some sleeping pills. Take them for a week. But I ve already said th at the best remedy for you will be a good rest some where in the countiy. Patient: Thank you, doctor. I m sure to follow your advice. Good-bye. Dialogue 2 Wife: Husband: Wife: Husband: Wife: W h a ts th e m a tte r with you? Y ou are looking seedy. Am I? No wonder, I am feeling poorly. Have you taken your temperature? What is it? 38,2. Oh, dear. Get to bed at once and I ll call the doctor in. Doctor comes Doctor: Patient: W hats wrong with you? Oh, doctor, I have a splitting headache, a miming nose a n d a bad cough. My temperature was 38,2 in the morning. Let me feel your pulse and sound your chest. Now, open your mouth. Yes, the tongue is furred and the throat is sore. Is there anything serious the matter with me? D o n t worry. I t s ju st the grip p e. But you m u st stay in bed for th ree days at least (To his wife). You must keep him 258

Doctor:

Patient: Doctor:

Wife:

warm and give him lots of hot tea with le mon. Take this prescription to the che mists. Ive prescribed some tablets.which he m ust take three times a day before meals. Ill drop in tomorrow.Good-bye. Thank you, doctor. Good-bye.
E x e r c is e s

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. I . When do people most often fall ill with the flu? \Mi :i a i c its symptoms? 2. Have you ever fallen ill with the Mu' Did you have a splitting headache when you were ill 'in die flu? 3. Are you subject to colds (coughs, head in"., sore throats)? 4. What is the best remedy for a in iT u h e (cough, sore throat, cold) in your opinion? I !nw does one usually feel when he has a cold? 6. Do - usually ru n a high te m p e ra tu re w hen you are ill? Who must one send for if he is unwell? 8. In what way (lie doctor usually exam ine his patients? 9. W hat <i <h \ h e usually prescribe? 10. Do you lose appetite ". in -n you are not quite well? 11. Where do we have our i n i i ptions m ade? 12. W h a t are the sym ptom s of 1111 i\ (scarlet fever, pneumonia)? 13. What infectious 111 .r, iscs do you know? 14. What are childrens diseases? I > I )o you always keep to bed when you are unwell? Exercise 2. What will you answer if the doctor asks you: I .Whats the trouble? 2. When did you take the temi * t .it11 re? What was it? 3. W hen did you feel bad? 4. Does II I 111 you.when you swallow? 5. What diseases were you ill 'viih when a child? 6. W hen did you consult the doctor i.r.i1 ' 7. Are you subject to headaches? 8. Where do you h ivc pains? 9. When do you have pains? 10. What are you 259

complaining about? 11. How long have you been like that? 12. Do you smoke much? 13. When did you start coug hing so badly? Exercise 3. Ask your friend or relative and let her (him) respond. E x a m p l e : G et me a hot water bottle, will you? Or: Will you get me a hot water bottle, please. Here you are. Yes, of course. Just a minute. To fetch you a couple of tablets; to get you a th er mometer; to give you a glass of hot milk; to send for the doctor; to go to the chemists; to air the room; to get you something to read; to make you a compress; to buy m e n t hol drops; to make a cup of hot tea with lemon; to tell you something interesting; to close the window. Exercise 4 . Complete the sentences.

1. On Saturday I w ent out w ithout my w a rm coa on and now .... 2. The doctor took the patients tem p e rature and said.., . 3. I can hardly breathe because ... . 4. When she came home she complained of a headache and her mother ... . 5. The patient said that . . . . 6, It hurts me when I swallow because .... 7. The best remedy for it is ... . 8. W h en I have a splitting h e a d a c h e ... . 9. This medicine will work wonders if ... . 10. If you fol low the doctors instructions youll .... 11. You must give up smoking . . . . 12. She looks veiy thin ... . 13. She looks the picture of health ... . 14. She is losing weight ... . 260

Exercise 5. Ask your fellow-students: ... why she looks seedy today . . . i f she is running a temperature ... what her temperature is . . . i f she has taken medicine ... if she is subject to colds, headaches, to sore throats, coughs ... what the best remedy for a headache is ... what diseases she was ill with when a child ... what childrens diseases she knows . . . i f she knows any incurable diseases ... what catching diseases she knows ... when and what she was ill with ...i f she made an appointment with her doctor when she fell ill . . . i f she has ever had any complications after a di sease ... if she has ever been operated ... if she has ever had any traumas ... what the symptoms of quinsy are ... how she felt when she had the grippe . . . i f she has ever had a toothache . . . i f she has ever had her chest X - rayed . . . i f she has ever had her blood tested ... what her blood pressure is ... what medicine the doctor prescribed her when she was ill with quinsy ... if the doctor gave her a sick-leave . . . i f she followed the doctors advice ... how long it took her to get well (to recover) ... if she kept her bed when she was ill ... if her friends often visited her.

261

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 1. The doctor ... his patient very carefully and ... some medicine. 2. I can hardly tu rn my head b ecau se o f ... . 3. The flu usually begins with . . . . 4. There is nothing serious the m atter with you, its just .... 5. You look rather ... today. 6. It ... me when I swallow. 7. Let m e feel your .... 8. I dont like this sound of your ... . 9. Do you feel any ... over there? 10. He has been ill with ... for a week already. 11. If you w a n t ... you must follow the doctors advice. 12. Will you go to ... and have these ... made? 13. ... the throat three times a day. 14. This ... is very good for a cough. 15. I am feeling . . . . 16. You have all the ... of the grippe. 17. If you are ... to colds you should take a good care of yourself. 18. She caught ... when we were skiing. 19. Your forehead is hot, let me ta ke ... . 20. My sister was ill with ... when she was a child. Exercise 7. Insert prepositions or postverbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1. What are you complaing ... ? 2. The best remedy . . . a headache is fresh air. 3. Will you go ... the chemists and have this prescription made, please? 4. The doctor has given him a sick-leave because he has a veiy bad com plication ... his heart ... quinsy. 5. The weather has been nasty lately and m an y people have fallen ill ... th e flu. 6. She is ill ... quinsy ... a bad form. 7. Youd better take a tablet of analgine ... your headache. 8. She says she is subject ... coughs. 9. Take these tablets ... your cough. 10. She says she often has pains ... the stomach ... meals. 11. Shake this mixture carefully ... use. 12. The doctor told him to stay ... bed. 13. You have all the symptoms ...the flu. 14. The first thing to do is to bring the tem perature ... . 15. I am feeling rather poorly. Perhaps w eve got a touch ... the flu. It generally begins ... a 262

headache and a fever. 16. You are running a high tem perature. Shall I send ... a doctor? E xercise 8. Fill in the missing p arts of th e d ialo gues. Maiy: Charles: Maiy: Charles: Maiy: Hello, Charles, w hats the matter with you? You are looking rather seedy. Are you running a temperature? Have you taken it?
<r i
* * *

I I

I ll get it (the th e rm o m e te r) preser ;sently. And how is your throat? Does it hurt you when you swallow? I am afraid you are falling ill with the flu. Y o u d b e tte r stay in bed for a day or two. Now, whats the temperature? Is it as high as that? Then I think send for the doctor at once.

Charles: Maiy:

Charles: Maiy:

Doctor: Charles: Doctor: Charles: Doctor: Charles: Doctor:

W hats the matter with you?


4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 4

How long have you been like that?


4 4 4 4 4 4

Have you taken your temperature?


4 4 4 4

Let me feel your pulse. H-m, its a bit rapid. Now I must sound you. Your back, please. Take a deep breath.

Charles:

263

No, there is nothing serious the m atter with you. I ll give you a prescription to be made at the chemists. Take a dose of this m edicine every th re e hours. I hope youll get well in no time. I ll look in again in the morning. Good afternoon. Charles: .............. Exercise 9. Translate into English. 1. , . - - ? - . . , . 2. , . . 3. , , . - . , . 4. ? - , , , - , , . 5. . , . 6. , . , . , , 7. , , . . .

Doctor:

264

Exercise 10, Read and translate the story. Tie Story o f Doctor Dolittle Once upon a time, many years ago - when ourgrand1;Hirers were little children - there was a doctor, and his name was Dolittle - John Dolittle, D.M. D .M . means i hat he was a proper doctor and knew a whole lot. He lived in a little town called P uddleby-on-the Marsh. All the folks, young and old knew him well by sight iiid whenever he walked down the street in his high hat > would say. There goes the Doctor! - H es a |-:ver m a n . And the dogs and the children would all run up and follow behind him, and even the crows that lived in ilie church-tower would see and nod their heads. The house lie lived in, on the edge of the town, was 4 iiite small but his garden was very large and had a wide lawn and stone seats and weeping-willows hanging over. His i icr. Sarah Dolittle, was housekeeper for him,' but the f >octor looked after the garden himself. He was very fond of animals and kept many kinds of pots. Besides the gold-fish in the pond at the bottom of his jarden, he had rabbits in the pantry, white mice in his piano, a squirrel in the linen closet and a hedgehog in the cellar. He had a cow witli a calf too, and an old lame horse twenty-five years of age - and chickens, and pigeons, and Iwo lambs, and many other animals. But his favourite pets were Dad-Dad the duck, Jip the dog, Cub-Cub the baby pig, Polynesia the parrot, and the owl Too-Too. His sister used to grumble about all these animals, and said they made the house untidy and one day when an old lady with rheumatism came to see the Doctor, she sat on the hedgehog who was sleeping on the sofa and never came to see him any more, but drove eveiy Saturday all the 265

way to Oxenthorpe, another town ten miles off, to see a different doctor. Then his sister, Sarah Dolittle, came to him and said: Hey, how can you expect patients to come and see you when you keep all these animals in the house? I t s a fine doctor who would have his parlour full of hedgehogs and mice! Thats the fourth person these animals have driven away. Squire Jenkins and the Parson say they wouldnt come near your house again - no matter how ill they are. We are getting poorer every day. If you go on like this, none of the best people will have you for a doctor . But I like the animals better than the best people , said the Doctor. You are ridiculous , said his sister and walked out of the room. So, as time went on, the Doctor got more and more animals, and the people who came to see him got less and less. Till at last he had no one left - except the C a ts-meat Man, who didnt mind any kind of animals. But the C atsm eat-M an wasnt veiy rich, and he only got sick once a year - at Christmas time - when lie used to give the Doctor} sixpence for a bottle of medicine. Sixpence a year wasnt enough to live on - even in those days, long ago, and if the Doctor h adnt had some money saved up in his money-box, no one knows what would have happened. And he kept on getting still more pets; and of course itj cost a lot to feed them. And the money he had saved ufj grew less and less. Then he sold his piano, and let the mice live in bureau-drawer. But the money he got for that too began to go, so he sold the brown suit he wore on Sundays and went on becoming poorer and poorer. And now, when he walked down the street in his high hat, people would say to one another, There goes Johr
266

Dolittle, D.M.! There was time when he was the best known doctor in the West Country - look at him now - he hasnt any money and his stockings are full of holes! But the dogs and the cats and the children still ran up and followed him through the town - the same as they had done when he was rich. (After Hugh Lofting) List of words and word combinations to be ill with smth - (-) to fall ill with smth - (-) to get well, to recover - , to examine - to feel ones pulse - to diagnose - diagnosis - to have a headache - ( ), to cough, cough - , to complain of - it hurts me when I swallow - mixture - pills - tablets - powders - drops - to gargle - to give a patient a sick-leave - ( ) to feel poorly - the tongue is furred - to keep late hours - to work wonders - 267

medicine for - remedy for - , my nose is clogged - hot water bottle - therm ometer - infectious (catching) curable disease ] incurable to cure - to have ones chest X-rayed - () to lose weight (appetite) - , to be well - to be unwell - to take ones temperature - to sound ones chest - ; to prescribe medicine - to have a running nose - the flu, the grippe - to have a sore throat - ( ) quinsy - to keep ones bed - to bring the temperature (fever) down - , to look seedy - to sneeze - the chemists - to strip to the waist - to catch cold - tonsils - compress - to be subject to - symptom - childrens disease - measles - 268

scarlet fever - pneum onia - complication on smth after - ... .... to be running a temperature - fever - , to inoculate against - ... to treat for - to undertake a course of treatment for ~ it ... THEATRE Dialogue 1 Alice: Do you fancy going to the D ram a theatre on Sunday? They are doing a new play by Volodin. , I d love to. Do you think well manage to get tickets? I know that his plays are very popu lar with the public. Youre quite right, but Ive already booked seats by telephone. Oh, its wonderful. Is it a m atinee or an evening performance? Its an evening perfo rm ance. I d o n t like matinees with lots of children who are very noisy. Where shall we sit? Our seats are in the rear stalls. Youd bet ter take opera glasses. Yes, of course. Shall we m eet outside the theatre at 7.15? It suits me fine. Then its settled. Good-bye. See you soon. 269

Jane:

Alice: Jane: Alice:

Jane: Alice: Jane: Alice: Jane: Alice:

Dialogue 2

After the performance Alice: Jane: Alice: Jane: Well, how did you find the performance? The cast was just excellent. N o wonder, with so many stars in it. You can call it an all-star cast. N s acting im pressed m e greatly. He is al ways very good, b ut tonight he was at hi: best. D o n t you think so? Agree, I greatly enjoyed the last scene of tin second act when he finds out the truth about!i his brother. His acting was very convincing.1 The actress who played his wife was not bad either, was she? I think, she m ight have been a bit m ore natural. There was something stilted about her acting. Was there? I'm afraid I cant agree with you. And did you like the scenery? It was splendid. It contributed very m uch to the success of the performance. veiy thankful to you for this lovely eve ning. After all, it was your idea to see the play. Nothing to speak of.
E x e r c is e s

Alice:

Jane: Alice:

Jane: Alice: Jane: Alice:


i

Exercise I. Answer the following questions. I . Are you a theatre-fan? How often do you go to the theatre? Do you prefer evening performances to matinees or matinees to evening performances? 2. Do you prefer opera to ballet or ballet to opera? Why? Who is your favou rite opera singer? ballet dancer? 3. What kinds of theatres 270

. 1 1iv in Petersburg? W hat are the most popular theat< nowadays? 4. W hat is on at th e ... th e a tre tonight? w ii< > is in the cast? Is it an all-star cast? 5. Where do you iii. i sit at th e th ea tre? D o you usually take o p e ra i i .rs w h en going to the th ea tre? W h at are th e most i nsive seats? the cheapest seats? 6. How many specta tor Joes the ... theatre hold? 7. Where do spectators lea i heir coats and hats? 8. Do you usually buy tickets i i he box-office or book them by phone? 9. Have you -'it tried to pick up a ticket at the entrance of the th eiii ? 10. Who is your favourite theatre actor (actress)? I I Is she (he) always at her (his) best? 12. In what plays lI you especially like him (her)? Exercise 2. Answer the following questions choo.iiig a suitable answ er am ong those given in brackets. ! tend your answer. 1. How did you find y esterd ay s p erfo rm ance? ( It was first-ra te from b eg in n in g to end. Awfully dull, lust terrific. A sheer waste of time. A rare stuff. Extre mely interesting. I was bored to death. I enjoyed it greatly. I felt like walking out. I enjoyed eveiy minute of it). 2. Did you like N s acting? (Immensely. She was superb. I cer tainly did. She m akes one believe everything she says and does. She was at h er best. N o, I d i d n t. She was dull. H e r in te rp re ta tio n o f the role was n ot c o n v in cing). 3. Do you like the actor .? (Oh, yes. He is a great master o f psychological analysis. He always gives very ori ginal interpretations of the roles he plays. His acting is coloured with mild humour. He penetrates deeply into the inner world of his characters). 4. Why is N. one of the m o st p o p u la r playw rights? (His plays are very witty. F ull o f humour. G ood language. His characters are vivid
f

271

and real. He always touches upon important social p ro b j lems. Situations are very funny. A great m aster o f i n t r i l gue). I Exercise 3. Answer the following questions. M a k l use of the words and phrases from exercise 2. I 1. Why was this play a failure? 2. Why is it next tel im possible to get tickets to the M aly D ra m a t h e a t r e ! 3. Why did the producer choose D. for the leading w o j m a n s part in his new performance? 4. Why did you leave! the theatre after the first act? 5. What makes the theatrd for Young Spectators so popular not only with the child-] ren but with the grown up people as well? Exercise 4. Consult a dictionary and explain the fol-j lowing words. Theatre-goer; matinee; cast; stalls; playwright; boxoffice; star; orchestra stalls; first night. j Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences. j

1. Lets take opera glasses .... 2. 1 enjoyed the play; greatly because . . . . 3. The best seats are . . . . 4. I ll tiy to get tickets . . . . 5. Lets buy a programme . . . . 6. The public adm ires h im ... . 7. I t s n o t easy to get tickets for this play as ... . 8. I d have enjoyed the play much more if... . 9. The bell is ringing, lets ... . 10. L ets ask the usher . . . . 11. The play is very popular ... . 12. The performance was a failure because ... . Exercise 6. Respond to the following either in the affirmative or negative, using: Yes, o f course. Certainly. Not at all. Not in the least. With pleasure. Do, please. Please, don 1. Use these sentences in a natural conversation. 272

1. May I take your programme? 2. Shall we go to the i** \ c-r? 3. May f use your opera-glasses? 4. Dont you think 'hr play is a bit too dragged out7 5. Shall i get you an ice i! am? 6. Will you leave your brief-case in th e cloakinom? 7. Do you fancy going to a m atinee on S u n? 8. Shall we take aunt Liz to the theatre? 9. Will you ' -o k seats beforehand? 10. Do you m ind sitting in the --h ss-circle? II. Can you let me have two seats in the - ntre stalls? Exercise 7. G ive the English for the fallow ing words and expressions anc! use them in sentences of \o u r own. ; (); ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 8. Ask your fellow students and Let them answer: ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... if she (he) is a regular theatre-goer if she (he) likes the theatre better than th e cinema what her (his) favourite theatre is if it is difficult to get tickets to this theatre where she (he) usually sits what plays are to her (his) taste what play she (he) saw last if it was a great success with the public.

1(J

la . .4j 105b

273

Exercise 9. Refashion the follow ing sen ten ces a c cording to the example. E x a m p I e: Lets go to the theatre on Sunday. Do you fancy going to the theatre on Sunday? L ets go to the theatre 01 1 Sunday, shall we? 1. Lets book seats beforehand. 2. Lets invite Kate to the party. 3. Lets buy a programme. 4. Lets go to the foyer. 5. Lets go to the refreshment-room during the interval. 6. Lets take open-glasses. 7. Lets ask the us her to show us to our seats. 8. Lets meet outside the the atre at 7 o clock. Exercise 10. Insert prepositions and postverbal a d verbs wherever necessary. 1. His plays are very popular ... the public. He touc hes ... serious social problems ... his plays. Besides, he is a great master ... intrigue. 2. Where are our seats? - ... the orchestra stalls, ... the seventh row. 3. Who is ... the cast today? 4. N. was ... hi\ best tonight. 5. They say its not easy to get tickets ,.. this play. Lets try to book s e a ts ... telephone. 6. Would you lib to go ... the theatre tonight? 7. Lets take opera-glasses, our seats are ... the balcony. Exercise 11. Change tlie following sentences into their opposites making other necessary changes. I. They say his new play is a complete failure with the public. 2. Everybody agrees that T. was at his worst yester day. 3. This play is still on at the Art Theatre. 4. My friend said th at he had enjoyed every minute o f the Play- 5. N . s acting was true to life. 6. W hen one sits
274

on the fro n t rows

one has a good view of the

stage.

7. T h e play was so dull th a t spectators were bored to death, 8. My brother often goes to matinees. Exercise 12. Make up your own dialogues on the topic T h e a tre . Exercise 13. Be ready to speak on one of the follo wing topics. 1. My first visit to the theatre. 2. My favourite actor (actress). 3. The most popular play of the season. 4. Why the ... theatre is so popular with theatre-goers. Exercise 14. Translate into English. 1. . . . . 2. . . ? - 12- . , . 3. ? - . , , . 4. . - , . - , ? - . . 5. . , . , . 6. ? - . - ? - . -, , (absurd), (left much to be desired). 7. 275

; . , (event) . (to pick up tickets at the entrance). List of words and word combinations

to do (to show) a new play - evening performance - matinee - to be popular with - , to be on - to be in the repertoir - to be off - the Drama theatre - ! to be a success - to be a failure - ( ) to book seats - ! box-office - () stalls - orchestra stalls - ! centre stalls - rear stalls - front rows - back rows - to sit in the stalls - on the front rows - on the balcony - in the box - pit - | dress circle - stage - () auditorium - \i foyer - , i 276 !

cloak-room - cast - all-star cast - , company - ( , ) scenery - to contribute to - - to be at ones best - to be at ones worst - , interval - The Comedy Theatre - The Musical Comedy Theatre * The Opera House - The Theatre for Young Spectators - The Puppet Theatre - The Philharmonic Society - The Conservatoire - The Art Theatre - The Drama Theatre named after ... - ... the curtain falls - the curtain rises - the lights are going down - the lights are going up - to have a long run - , the house is sold out - producer - director - - to act - acting - , leading role - scene - ( ) act - ( ) 277

CINEMA Dialogue 1 M other: What were you doing this afternoon, Mary? Mazy: First I went to the hairdressers to have my hair cut, Then I took my evening shoes to the shoe-makers. When passing by a cinema-house I saw a poster advertising a new film directed by John Millford. 1 am fond o: his com edies so 1 decided to see th e film. There were not very many people at the boxoffice. Mother: Have you enjoyed the film? What is it about? Oh. greatly. Its a very funny comedy about Mary: a young man who always finds him self in] awkward situations and how he gets out ofi them. Mother: Was the cast good? Who was the film stal ling? The leading role was played by a young ac Mary: tor, but I've forgotten his name. As to the cast in general, it was superb. Besides the feature film there was a newsreel and very good animated cartoons on the programme.: The tickets for this show were more expen-| sive'than usual. Mother: And where is the film on? Its on at many cinema-houses in the centre, Mary: Mother: If I have spare time tomorrow afternoon IT go and see the film too. I havent been to th cinema for ages. Maiy: A very good idea. I m sure you will enjo; the film. 278

Dialogue 2

Mrs Black: Mr Black: Mrs Black:

Roger: Mr Black:

Roger:

Mr Black:

Mrs Black: Mr Black:

You know, Roger, there is a good film at the Regal Cinema this week. W hats the film about? M urder. A really good m u rd e r film. One of Hollywood s best pictures this year, I m told. What do you think about murder films, Father? You know, I dont like films of any sort, Roger. How' often do I go to the cine ma? Twice a year, perhaps. Most films are veiy foolish. I dont understand, why people want to go to the cinema eveiy week. There are millions of people who go to the films everv v week. Thev want to wear clothes like those w orn by film stars. They want to look like film stars. They want to live in the way film stars live. Yes, as I said, most films are very foo lish and most of the people who go to the films are verv foolish. And is that true of me, James? No, of course not, my dear. I was not thinking of you.
*

(A. S. Hornby. Oxford Progressive English for Adult Learners).

279

x e r c is e s

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions. 1. Do you often go to the cinema? Do you prefer the cin em a to the th eatre? Are tickets to the cinem a c h e a per than to the theatre? 2. What does a cinema program me consist of? What events do they show in a newsreel? How long does it usually run? W hat is it followed by? How long does a feature film run? 3. What are travelo gues about? Are you fond of them? 4. Are popular science films to your taste? Do you find them interesting or dull? 5. Animated cartoons are veiy amusing, arent they? Who was the hither of the animated cartoon films? Have you seen any of them? What were they? 6. What was the last film you saw? Is it still on? Where is it on? Is it very popular with the public? Did you enjoy it? W ho was in the cast? 7. Who is you favourite actor (actress, film direcJ tor, cam era-m an)? 8. Do you know any Russian films which won International Prizes? Where and when? Whose! productions were they? Exercise 2. Say what words refer only; a) to the cinema; b) to the theatre; c) to both., Stage; performance; show; box-office; animated cartoon film; act; to star; cast; producer; director; mati nee; stalls; balcony; newsreel; actor; to dramatize a novel; to make a book into a film; opera-glasses; foyer; feature film; travelogue; leading role; to be on; to dub a* film; scenery; screened version; scene; to make up; ca mera-man; subtitles. Exercise 3 . Consult a dictionary and explain in En glish the following words. Animated cartoons; to dub a film; screened version of a book; travelogue; film-star; newsreel; camera-man; 280

director; film.

western; horror film; musical; science-fiction

Exercise 4 . Ask your fellow students and let them answer: ... if she (he) is a cinema-fan ... how often she (he) goes to the cinema ... if she (he) reads film reviews before going to see a film ... what films have been a great success w ith the public lately ... where she (he) usually sits ... what film she (he) thinks to be one of the best releases of late ... if cinema performances are c o n tin u o u s in nr country ... who her (his) favourite film star is ... in what films she (he) saw him (her) ... if she-(lie) prefers films in te c h n ic o lo u r to black and white ones ... if she (he) has seen any C.Chaplin films ... if she (he) prefers video films to those shown at the cinema ... if she (he) thinks that TV will replace the cinema in the long run Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences. I. The film has won the First International Prize. No wonder , 2. 1 should have enjoyed the film much better if . . . . 3. The film is having a successful run because ... . 4. This young actress is very popular with the public ... . 5. Im looking forward to seeing this film, They say ... . 6. B e fo re th e f e a t u r e film we w e re sho w n ... . 7. If the film had been dubbed ... . 8. L e ts buy tickets 281

for ... . 9. I like animated cartoons b etter.... 10. I d on t see why N. has been praised so much in the film ... . In my opinion .... Exercise 6. Use the following questions and senten ces in a natural context of your own. 1. When does the last show begin? 2. Im sure the film will have a long run. 3. Is the film .... still on? 4.They say the film ... is worth seeing. 5. I should have enjoyed the film ... much more if it were dubbed. 6, The camera m a n s work contributed very much to the success of the film. 7. 1 cant understand why many people are fond of murder and horror films. 8. If we fail to get tickets at the box-office, lets try to pick them up at the entrance. Exercise 7. Say a few sentences about some film(s) using the words and expressions given below. Witty comedy; excellent musical; bitter satire on; to be full of humour; I couldnt help laughing (crying); a touching melodrama; to be carried away; a striking adven ture; a thrilling film; dragged out; dull. Exercise 8. Ask questions so that sentences given be low' could serve as answers. 1. The film is on at our local cinema-house. 2. M a ny famous film stars were in the cast. 3. The feature film ran for an hour and a half. 4. I like musicals best of all. 5. T he public took this film to heart because the p r o b lem s it touches upon are interesting to everybody. 6. Our seats are in the tenth row. 7. Animated cartoons are very popular because they are funny and amusing. 8. The news reel showed the latest events in our country and abroad.

282

Exercise 9. Give English equivalents o f the Russian words in brackets. 1. () of the novel War and Peace was a great success with (). 2. It takes a lot of time ( ). 3. The work of the () was excellent. 4. Many () were in the cast. 5. The film () at the Aurora. 6. Very much depends on the () of the film. 7. Its a very old film, its not dubbed, its ( ). 8. Where can I check up the time of the ()? 9. (-) films can be very interesting. Exercise 10. Imagine that you are a reporter. Inter view a famous film star. Ask her in what films she has vourite role is and why; how her what role shed like to play; what future; with whom of the producers work best of all, etc. starred; what cinema career plans she has (directors) she her fa began; for the likes to

Exercise 11. Imagine that you are an actress. What would you tell about your life and work? Exercise 12. Speak on the following topics. 1. The early days of the cinema. 2. The cinema or TV? 3. One of the best films youve seen. 4. Your favouri te film actor (actress). 5. How the cinema influences our life. 6. Video or cinema? Exercise 13. Translate into English. 1. . - 1914 . , , , , 283

. , (cinema industry) . 2. . . . 3. ? - . ? - . - . - . List of words and word combinations to go to the pictures (movies, cinema) - ( ) feature film - newsreel - animated cartoons (cartoon films) - () travelogue - horror films - popular science film - - documentary film - science fiction film - - black and white film - - films in technicolour - to star - film-star - to be in the cast - to have a long (successful) run - to be on the programme - to direct a film - to shoot a film - shootings - director - - producer - to be on - ( , ) 284

camera man - to dub - to subtitle - to film a novel = to make a novej into a film - screened version - cinema-house, mo vie-theatre - to win a prize - TELEPHONE Is there anything more difficult than to speak in a foreign language over the telephone? Even if you make your self understood the chances are that you will not understand the person at the other end of the line. When you know what he is saying, the difficulty is to answer him immedi ately before he becomes impatient and hangs up. Robert wanted to call Virginia, so when he didnt find her number in his telephone book he dialled the Informa tion, Voice: Information. Robert: Will you, please, give me the telephone n u m ber of C.E. Miller at 431 Clarl Street? Voice: Just a m om ent, please... The num ber is 8974. Robert: 8-9-7-4? Thank you very much. Robert then dialled 8974, but a constant buzz indicated th a t the line was busy. He waited a few minutes and dialled again. Voice: Hello. Robert: Hello. Is this Mr Millers residence? Voice: No, it isnt. Robert: Isnt this 8974? Voice: No, you have the wrong number. This is 8975. 285

Robert:

I m sorry, I made a mistake.

Robert hung up the receiver. After a minute he picked it up and tried again, being very careful to dial the right num ber this time. Voice: Robert: Voice: Robert: Voice: Robert: Voice: Robert: Virginia: Robert: Voice: Robert: Voice: Robert: Voice: Robert: Voice: Robert: Mr Millers residence. I d like to speak with Virginia White if she is there. I m sorry, but she is n t here right now. Who is calling, please? This is Robert Anderson speaking. Wilt Virginia be back soon? Yes, probably about five o clock. Do you want to leave her a message? Well, just tell her that 1 called, please. Wait a m o m e n t. 1 th in k she is com ing in now. Hold the wire. All right, 11 wait. Hello1 . Virginia? Speaking! Vir, this is Bob. Oh, hello. Bob, how are you? Just fine, thanks. And you? Veiy well. Its nice to hear your voice. Virginia, are you going to be busy tomor row night? Well, I planned to study my English. How about a date for a movie? There is a good picture at the Columbia this week. Well go early and then you can study af terwards. All right, Bob, I d love to go. Thanks a
lot.

Voice:

286

Robert: Voice: Robert: Voice:

Then Ill call for you a iittle before seven. O.K. I ll be ready. Good-bye, Virginia, I ll be seeing you. So long, Bob, and thanks for calling.
E xercises

Exercise I. Read and translate the sentences. Pay attention to the words underlined. 1. If you have no telephone at home you can use a call-box in the street. All you have to do is to put the neces sary coin into the slot, pick up the receiver and dial the num ber wanted. 2. If you want to make a call to another city you must book a trunk-call. 3. We speak into the mouthpiece and listen to the e arpiece of the receiver. 4. If the line is engaged you hear constant buzz. 5. You are wanted on the phone. Moscow is on the line. 6. Can you put me in touch with the Head of the department? - Sorry, he is out at the m o m e n t. - H old on the line. I want, to le a ve a message for him. 7. The line is clear, you may put vour call through. 8. Go ahead! You are through. Exercise 2 . Answer the following questions. 1. Are you on the phone? Whats your telephone number? 2. What information can we get by telephone? 3. What are in your opinion the advantages and disadvan tages of having a telephone at home? 4. What number will you dial if you want to send a telegram by phone? to know the exact time? to find out the telephone number of a cinema-house, a shop, an office? to book a trunk-call? to to call in an ambulance? a fire-brigade? to book railway tickets? 5. What calls can you make from street call-boxes in our city (local or long-distance calls)? 6. Explain clearly how to make a trunk-call from a call-box. 7. What do we
287

put into the siot when making a local call? 8. What buzzing do we hear when the line is clear (busy)? 9. Explain to a foreigner how to use a street call-box in this country. 10. What do you do in case the party you are making a call to is out? 11. What do you usually do if you dial the wrong number? 12. Is there a time limit on calls from public callboxes? 13. Have you ever spoken over the telephone in a foreign language? Was it easy to understand your party? Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postverbal adverbs where necessary. I. Is it difficult to speak ... a foreign language ... the telephone ... your opinion? 2. He picked ... the receiver but ... first he couldnt recognize the voice the other end... the line. 3. Dont hang ... please, 1 want to leave a message ... her. 4. I couldnt find her telephone number ... m y telep h o n e book and dialled ... the In fo rm a tio n . 5. Will you, please, give me the telephone number ... Mrs N.? 6. When he picked ... the receiver it was already late, the person ... the other end ... the line had h u n g ... . Exercise 4. Complete the sentences. 1. Is this Mr Browns ... ? I d like ... with Robert. Who is... ? This is Helen .... 2. Is M r Black in? - Sony, he is ... . Would you like to leave ... for him? - No, thank you, just tell him I... . 3. You are wanted on ... . 4. Is this 3-4-2-11-65? Hold ... Moscow is ... . 5. Is this 552-42-61? No, this is 552-41-62. Youve dialled 6. First put ... into the slot and then ... the number. 7. I couldnt get in ... with you, your number was ... . 8. If you hear ... buz zing it means the line is ... . 9. Dont ..., Alice is just co ming. 10. I am afraid, I dont have your telephone in my ... .

288

Exercise 5. R e a d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e . R e n d e r it in
th e re p o rte d speech using th e w o rd c o m b in a tio n s given b e low.

To be on the line; to be through; extension number; to hold the line; to ring smb. up; to book a call; to discon nect; to connect; to cut in; the number is engaged; to interrupt the conversation; to be cut off; your time is up; to ring off. The London operator: Mr. Adams: Hello! Warsaw on the line, you are through. The Cosmos Tourist Company in L on don speaking. M ay I speak to Mr Banach, please. The extension number is five eight. Extension five eight. All right. Hold the line, please. Thanks. You are through, go ahead. Hello! This is Cosmos of London. May I speak to Mr Stephen Banach, please. Banach is speaking. Good morning, Mr Banach. This is Adams speaking. How are you? I am fine, thank you. And how are you? Thanks. I m all right.Yesterday I tried to ring you up but when I booked the call I was told all the lines were down because of a storm over the south of England. I m calling you up now to tell you that I m leaving for Warsaw by air tomorrow morning.
289

The operator: Mr. Adams: The operator: Mr. Adams:

Mr. Banach: Mr. Adams: Mr. Banach: Mr. Adams:

Mr. Banach: Mr. Adams:

Excellent. When is your plane due m VViixiw? I ;xpect to be there at about twenty pist two.

Good. The room is waiting for you aid so are we. Hello! Hello! M r Alains, can you hear me? Who is spating? Hello! Hello! A London girl: Listen, darling, what about going to tie movies tonight? Ddiiiitely not. Warsaw calling. Plea Mr. Banach: se, disconnect. The. London Hive you finished? operator: N>, not yet. Someone else cut in. Mr. Banach: The London Qi, Im sorry. Which number did ytu speak to? operator: A i a matter of fact, I was called up Mr. Banach: b; London, it was Banach two four ...seven seven. Bunch two four ... seven seven. The London Tying to connect you but the numoperator: bfr is engaged. Hold on, please. (/, little later). Hello, you are through. Mr. Adams: Iithat uOrb is in Warsaw? Yis, Banach speaking. Someone in- ; Mi. Banach: ttrupted our conversation. Yis, someone cut in and we were cut Mr. Adams: of. Y)in time is up. Ring off, please. The London operator: Til tomorrow, then. Mr. Adams: Mr. Banach: S) long. Mr. Banach:
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Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with suitable sentences so as to complete the dialogue. - Hello! May I speak to Jane, please?
r i i r #

- This is Mary speaking. - So sorry. When will she be back? - Thank you. In this case Ill call in a couple of hours again.
t * i 4

- No, no message, thank you. Id rather speak to her personally. - Thank you very much. Good-bye.
4 * 4 4 * 9

Exercise 7. Make up your own dialogues based on the following situations. 1. You call up your friend who turns out not to be in. You speak to his (her) mother leaving a message. 2. You call up your friend and make a date for a meal. 3. You phone your friend and ask her to go to the cinema but she is otherwise engaged and declines the offer. 4. You get a trunk-call from an old friend of yours whom you havent seen for vears.
*

Exercise S. Speak on the following topics. 1. The last trunk-call you made. 2. Describe in full detail how to make a local call from a call-box. 3. The ad vantages and disadvantages of having a telephone at home.

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Exercise 9. Translate into English. 1. ? - , , , . - , , - 228-15-32. 2. , . - , . - . - , , . 3. ? - , . - ? - , . 4. ? -. - , . , 6 ? - , . , - -? 642-49-13. - ? - , - , , . - 542-99-11, , , 21 . 7. 5. , . , . - . - , , . - ? - , , . - , ? - , - 115-27-40? - , 116-27-41. - . 6. ? - , . - . 7. . . . Exercise 10. Read the text and dramatize it. Ihe Early Days o f the Telephone Everybody says, the telephone is a useful thing. But may be I do not know how to use it. I once lived for a month in a room with a tele phone. And 1 must say it was a very hard life for me.
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Just think: you want to see a man who lives next door. You can put on your hat and get to his house in five m in utes. But you look at the telephone, and you think it is better to ring him up before you go. You spend five min utes at the telephone but you get no answer. At last it comes from very, very far away: What - what do you say? I cannot hear, what you say . I say I have rung twenty times and 1 cannot get any answer. I shall write about it to the Com pany . You want what? D o n t stand so near. 1 cannot hear what you say. What number? I dont ask any number. I say why dont you answer when I ring? Bight hundred and what? You cannot repeat your question again, so you say, you want number four-five-seven-six. Four-nine-seven-six? the girl. No, four-five-seven-six . Did you say seven-six or six-seven? Six-seven - no! I said seven-six, no - wait a minute. I d o n t know what I want now ... Well , the young lady, I cannot wait here all the morning. What is the number you want? So you find the number in the book again and repeat it to her. Then you wait for ten minutes. l! Are you there? you cry many times - and then - oh, how glad you are - you hear a voice: Yes, what is it? Oh, are you four-five-seven-six? What? Are you four-five-seven-six, Williamson? What? Who are you? Eight-one-nine, Jones .
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Bones? No, Jones. Are you four-five-seven-six? Yes, what is it? Is Mr.Williamson at hom e? Who? Williamson. Will-i-am-son! You are the son of what? I cannot hear what you say . At last he understands that you want to know if Williamson is at home and he says - so at least you hear. Will be at home all the morning . So you take your hat and go to his house. I have come to see Mr.Williamson , you say. Very sorry, Sir , is the answer, but he is not at hom e . Not at home? But you have just told me over the telephone lie will be at home all the morning. No, it was: He will not be at home, all the m o rn ing . You go back to your room, sit down in front of the telephone and look at it. What else can you do? Nothing. (After Jerome K. Jerome) List of words and word combinations a call-box - - to call smb. up, to give a call, to make a call, to phone smb., to ring smb. up - - to dial a number - constant buzz - the line is busy (engaged) - () () the line is clear - to dial the wrong number - to hang up - 294

to pick up the receiver - who is calling? - ? to leave smb. a message - - ( , ) to hold the wire - to book a trunk-call, a long-distance call - to be on the line - you are wanted on the phone - to put smb. in touch with - - - ( ) to put a call through - G o ahead - local call - ( ) long-distance call - to put a token into the slot - ' to ring off - to connect - to disconnect - T H E PO ST OFFICE Dialogue Mike: Could you give me a few particulars about the functioning of the post office here, in Britain? Most willingly. What are you interested in? What are the main duties of the post office? Well, the post office does a wide varie ty of business. To begin with, it deli vers letters and telegrams, sells stamps, postcards, envelopes and postal orders.
295

Mr. Green: Mike: Mr. Green:

Mike: Mr. Green:

Mike: Mr. Green:

Mike:

Mr.Green:

Mike:

Mr.Green:

Mike:

Mr.Green:

W hats a postal order? You see, its a kind of check which you can buy at the post office, put into the envelope with a letter and send by post. What sums can be sent in this way? postal orders are usually issued for small sums of money. And if you w ant to send a big sum youll have to send a money order. In my country we send only money or ders regardless of the sum. What other functions does your post office have? ft issues motor-car licences and wire less licences, it runs a savings-bank for depositors with small incomes; it also pays out old age pensions. So does the post office in my country, but h doesnt issue any licences and as far as I know the savings-bank is the Mini^ry of Finance department. You can also subscribe to newspapers and other periodicals at the post of fice. I suppose your post office pro vides this service too, doesnt it? It certainly does. Just one more ques tion' Why are t h e pillar-boxes that are p la c e d at the edge of the pavement fur nished with double openings? [ think you have already noticed that in London the openings are marked Lon don and Abroad and Country. C o u n t ry here means all places in Great Bri tain except London; it includes large towns such as Glasgow and Manchester.
296

Mike: Mr.Green:

Thank you ve^-y m u c h for this useful information. You are weico.me.
E xercises

Exercise 1. Answer the folia.wing questions. 1. Is there a post office n ear your house? 2. What counters are there inside? 3. W lifc^t postal services does it provide? 4. When is it advisable t o send ones letters re gistered? 5. What is the registration fee for a registered letter? What does it depend on? (5. How' do you go about sending money in this country? 7\ How is money sent in Great Britain? 8. Have you ever- sent or cashed money orders? 9. What document must me present when cashing a money order? 10. Where can \4ui get a telegram form? 11. How much do they charge p ^ r word for an ordinary telegram? 12. Have you ever sent telegrams abroad? What was the charge per word? 13. On What occasions do peop le send urgent telegrams? greetings telegrams? 14. When do people send (or get) letters m arked poste-restante ? 15. Have you ever sent or received poste-restante let ters? When was it? 16. What can one send by book post? What is the operation of sending book parcel? 17. How many mail deliveries and collections are there daily in your town? 18. What d o c u m e n t must your friend give you if he (she) wants you to cash a money-order for him (her)? 19. Where can you get a box for a parcel? 20. What is the weight limit to parcels sent in boxes? 21. Why is it desirable to have your parcel insured? Exercise 2. Give the English for the words in brackets. 1. Id like to open () at this bank. 2. ( ) are sold at the next window. 3. Whats the
297

() for a registered letter to London? 4. ( ) is a kind of check sent with a letter. 5. If you dont know yet where youll stay in Moscow youd bet ter have your letters ( ). 6. Newspapers usually come with the first (). 7. I can cash a m o n e y o rder for you if you give me ( ). 8. What sum should I () my parcel for? 9. If your letter contains anything valuable it is advisable to send it (). 10, What newspapers and magazines are you going to () to this year? 11, Where can 1 get ( ) form? 12. Can I have some ( )? 13. Its ( ) telegram. Whats () per word? 14. The post office in our country () old age pensions. 15. ( ) are getting more and more expen sive. Exercise 3 . Ask questions so that the sentences given below could be answers.

1. No, the post office in this country doesnt is motor-car or wireless licences, 2. Ordinary, urgent, exp ress telegrams are sent in this country. 3. When cashing a money order you must present your passport. 4. Its a kind of check for a small sum sent with a letter, 5, It's convenient to get o n e s post poste-restante when one h a s n t got a permanent address. 6. We usually send mo ney orders for big sums of money. 7. They charge ... roubles per word for an ordinary telegram. 8. You can send books and other printed matter by book post. 9. The money order counter handles operations for sending or cashing postal or telegraph money orders, 10. The weight limit to parcels sent in boxes is 8 kilos. 11. The rate de pends on the weight of the parcel, the distance it goes and the sum of insurance. 12. We send greetings telegrams on festive occasions.
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Exercise 4. Use the following questions in a natural context. 1. Has the post come yet? Were there any letters for me? 2. Will you kindly drop in at the post office oil the way to the University? I want .... 3. Where is the nearest post office? 4. When will the next mail to the USA go? 5. How long does a letter take to get to New York by air-mail? 6. W hats the registration fee for a registered letter to Moscow? 7. Whats wrong with this postcard? Why was it sent back? 8. Can 1 open a current account with your bank? 9. How' much will you charge for a parcel to Lon don? 10. How do they address letters in G reat Britain? 11. How' much do you charge per word for an urgent telegram? Exercise 5. Choose the right answer. 1. The postal order is: for a big sum of money / for a small sum of money. 2. Poste-restantc letters are: left until called for / delivered immediately. 3. They charge more for: an ordinary / an urgent telegram. 4. The post office issues wireless licences in: Britain / Russia. 5. The weight limit to parcels sent in boxes is: 8/10 kilos. 6. There arc: tw o/ four deliveries and collections daily. 7. They run a savings-bank for: very rich people / for people with small incomes. 8. On festive occasions we send: greetings / or dinary telegrams. 9. If you get an unstamped letter you have: to pay the postage on it / to return it to the post offi ce. 10. ' cash a money-order for your friend you must have: a letter of attorney / an application. 11. When sen ding a registered letter you are given: a receipt / a special form. 12, To cash a money order is: to receive money at the post office / to deposit it.

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Exercise 6. Insert prepositions or post verbal adverbs wherever necessary. 1. The weight limit ... parcels wrapped ... paper is one kilo. 2. They charge ... roubles per w'ord ... an ordi nary teJegram. 3. This year we have subscribed ... the newspaper Arguments and Facts and the magazine Eng land. 4. i th in k I ll insure this parcel ........ roubles. 5. Can I send a registered letter ... London? 6. Excuse m e, what side ... the m oney order form m ust I fill ...? 7. They sell stamps, envelopes, postcards ... window 6. 8. Have you got a letter ... attorney? 9. Sorry, I have run air-mail envelopes. 10. How do I go ... sending money ... post? 11. Postal orders are usually issued small s u m s ... money. 12. What window do they pay ... old age pensions ...? Exercise 7. Explain to your English friend how' to send a telegram, a book by post, a registered letter, a money order in this country. Exercise 8. Translate into English and reproduce in the form of a dialogue. 1. ? , , . : , . ? R: . : ? R: , . : R:

300

2.

. R: , . . A: ? R: , . ? A: . . A: A: ? R: . A: . ? R: , . A A ? . ? , , . , . . . , , . , . . , .

3.

4.

B: A:

E xercise 9. Translate into English. 1. . ? - , , . - . 2. ? 301

, ? - ... . - ? - , . 3. ? - , . 4. . - ? - , , - , . 5. , . - . 6. , , . , 7. ? - . - , ? - , . 8. . - . - , . 9. , , - ? - , ., . . ? - , . , . - . Appendix Read the following text thoroughly. Letter writing

1. Personal letters are written in a colloquial style. A successful letter is one written in a natural way just as if the writer were actually in conversation with the recipient. We
302

should use good note-paper, and if the address is not al ready printed on the paper we must write it together with date in the top right hand corner. A little lower, on the left, we begin: Dear Mr.Brown , or Dear Mrs.Brown , etc. The letter should be written legibly, well punctuated and divided into short paragraphs. We finish a letter with Yours sincerely if the letter began with a persons name or Yours faithfully if it began Dear Sir , or Dear M adam . 2. On the envelope the order is: (1) the name of the person(s) to whom the letter is being sent; (2) the number of the house and the name of the street or road; if the house has a name, this is placed on a separate line above the name o f the street or road; (3) the name of the town or village; (4) the name of the county (unnecessary if the town is large or well known), and in the USA the name of the state. The return address is usually placed on the seal Hap. However it may be in the lower or upper right hand cor ner. 3. There are three kinds of letters: personal letters, business letters and official letters from or to authorities. Business letters should be written in a simple, clear and concise style. Below is a model letter written by a girl in reply to the following advertisement: Shorthand typist re quired in large office with ideal working conditions: 5-day week; two weeks annual holiday with pay. Write stating experience and salary required. Reen & Sons, Ltd.. 12-14, High Street, Birmingham.
21 1 M a r i n e Drive Birmingham 1 D e c e m b e r 1994

303

Dear Sirs, I am applying for the post of shorthand-typist adver tised by you in todays Birmingham Morning News. I am already employed, but only as a typist, and I wish to obtain a position in which I can use my shorthand and gain wider experience of secretarial work generally. 1 was educated at York High School for Girls and at the Municipal Commercial College. If you wish to interview me I am free any day between 1 and 2 p.m. or after 5.30 p.m. At any other time I should have to obtain special permission to leave the job. Yours faithfully Susan Martin. Exercise 10. Following the pattern of the advertise m ent given in the text u Letter writing make out an adver tisement for a newspaper inviting a teacher of English to a specialized English school.
v

Exercise 11. Write a letter in reply to the advertise m ent given in a newspaper. Follow the pattern of Susan M artins letter. Exercise 12. Draw an envelope and address it to Mrs. Burton. She lives in Leeds in the county of York. The name of her house is May Flower, number 6; the street is called Poplar Avenue. Exercise 13. Study the following specimen letters.

(1) A letter of thanks: Please accept my very b (warmest) thanks for the trouble you have taken. We are deeply grateful to you. We remain Yours sincerely, etc.

304

(2) A letter of apology: Please excuse my abduce from the club last night. With humblest apologies, remain, etc. (3) letter of condolence: It came as a great, slock to us to hear of the death of your husband. Please accept our sincerest sympathy in your sad bereavement. (4) A friendly invitation: We are having a few guests to dinner tomorrow, and should be delighted if you would join us. Looking forward to seeing you, etc. Useful forms of address: My dear Uncle, My dear Mother, Dear Jimmy. Closing phrases: Your affectionate nephew, Your old friend. Exercise 14. Study the specimen letter carefully and write:

a) a letter of thanks to your triends after havi stayed at their place for' a week; b) a letter of invitation to a birthday party; c) a letter of greetings to your newly wed friends; d) a love letter to your boy-friend; e) a love letter to your girl-friend. List of words and word combinations post office - to deliver letters - stamp - postage stamp - postcard - postal order - envelope - to send by post - to issue - , money order - licence -
I 1 M * U J 5 S

305

to run a savings-bank - depositor - income - to pay out - old age pensions - to subscribe to - postal services - pillar-box - counter - , a registered letter - to provide a service - registration fee - , to cash a money order - to charge - ordinary \ urgent V telegram - > express ) ^ greetings - poste-restante - book post - delivery and collection - parcel - , weight limit - to insure a parcel - to open an account - unstamped - rate - postage - , a letter of attorney - printed matter - to pay the postage 0 11 - to wrap - to fill out -
306

to run out of - , to witness a signature - to drop into a pillar-box - postal number - to stick a stamp - GETTING ABOUT TOWN Dialogue 1 - Excuse me, what is the name of this bridge? - Its Palace Bridge. You are new here, arent vou? - Not quite. I was in St. Petersburg some years ago 011 a short visit. Can you toil me some words about that grey building to the right? - Oh, its the Peter and Paul Fortress. It is the first stone building of St.Petersburg. - And whats the name of that wonderful garden op posite it across the Neva? - I t s the famous Summer Garden. - And that green-and-white building is the Winter Palace, isnt it? - Right you are. T h ats the world-known Hermitage. And if you look to the left youll see the building of St. Petersburg University. - And opposite the University you can see St.Isaacs Cathedral. Am I right? - Yes, you are. Do you know the m onum ent in front of it? - Oh, sure, its the monument to Peter the Great, the Bronze Horseman. - And now, have a look at this yellow building. Its the Admiralty. Its spire is one of the symbols of St. Peters burg. 307

- Oh, thanks a lot. Can you help me with some advice?


- M o s t willingly.

- I m here only for a couple of days. What places of interest shall I see first? - Well, first of all Id recommend you to visit the Russian museum, the Mariinsky Opera and Ballet Theatre and the suburbs of St. Petersburg: Pushkin and Pavlovsk. If you stay here over the weekend I d be able to show you t o * round the city. - Oh, its so kind of you. By the way, how much is the fare in public transport? - ... roubles on a bus and ... roubles on the metro. Here is my telephone number. If you have time for sightseeing give me a ring, please. - Thanks. 1 1 do it by all means. Good-buy, - See you. Dialogue 2 - Excuse me, can you tell me the way to Trafalgar square? - Certainly. Go down Regent Street to Picadilly Cir cus and then go down the Hay market. Turn to the left at the bottom and in less than a minute youll be in Trafalgar square. - Thank you very much. How far is it from here? - If you walk, itll take you ten minutes ora quarter of an hour. - Is there a bus? - Theres sure to be. But you'd better ask the police man over there. H e ll give you all the information you want. - Thank you. 308

- Excise me, officer, is there a bus from here to Trafalgar square? - Yes, sir, any busll take you. Theres a bus stop just over there. Ask the conductor to put you down at Trafalgar square. (From the Linguaphone Conversation Course)
E xercises

Exercise 1. A n s w e r t h e f o l l ow i ng q u e s t i o n s .

1. What is the name of your home town? 2. What a the most interesting sights of your home town? 3. Have you ever been to St. Petersburg? 4. What sights of St. Peters burg do you know'? 5. What is your favourite place of interest in St.Petersburg? 6. What do you know about the Hermitage? 7. What is your favourite museum? theatre? cinema? 8. Have you ever been to London? 9. Do you know any place of interest in London? 10. What place of interest in London would you like to see? Exercise 2. Read the text below. Pick out all the words referring to getting about town. People use various means of communication to get from one place to another. When getting about town one can go by bus, by tram, by trolley-bus or by the under ground. The underground in St.Petersburg is veiy popular with the citizens. Its the fastest and most convenient way of going about town. If you have to travel a short distance you may take a bus, a tram, a trolley-bus or go on foot. If there is no direct bus to your destination youll have to change on to another bus (trolley-bus, tram). When we travel on buses (trams, etc.) we have to pay fare. Its ...
309

roubles and it doesnt depend on the distance you go. If there are many cars, buses and trolley-buses in the town we say that the traffic is heavy. If the vehicles are few we say that the traffic is light. The traffic is especially heavy m the rush hour, that is in the morning when people are hurrying to work and in the evening when people are coming back home. At this time the public transport is overcrowded (packed to the full). Exercise 3. Read and memorize the words. Consult the dictionary. a) avenue, boulevard, bystreet, canal, cross road. embankment, garden, highway, park, prospect, pavement, sidewalk; b) block of flats, mansion, palace, ding house, country house (cottage); c) capital centre, suburbs, district, hostel, boar region, area.

Exercise 4. Read and translate the following street signs and inscri ptions. Department Store, Supermarket, Shop, Post offi ce, C inem a-house, Soft drinks, Savings Bank, Bank, Philarmonic Society, Snack Bar, Bakery, Grocery, Con cert Hall. Exhibition Hall, Penny-in-the slot Cafe, Min ce Pies, Research Institute, Ice cream Cafe, Canteen, Cafeteria, Restaurant, Periodicals, Show Sale. Stalls, Chemists, First Aid, Picture Gallery, Fine Aits Museum, Drama and Comedy Theatre, Greengrocery, Florists, .Library, Art Saloon, Dressmakers Shop, Hairdressers, Public Gardren.

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Exercise 5. Make up short dialogues according to the example. Use the words from ex.4. E x a m p i e : - Can you tell me the way to the nearest... - Yes, of course. Go down... (Sony, I cant. Im new here). Exercise 6. Read the public notices given below'. Say in what place (the right hand column) you can see them. 1. N o Smoking. 2. Please, Do Not Feed the Ani mals, As Unsuitable Food Will Make Them 11 1. Passengers Are Requested Not To Alight Whilst the Vehicle Is In Motion Meals, Snacks 24 Hours Semce Zoo

3.

bus cafe park

4.

5.

Used Cars

shop hotel private garden museum the gates of the house theatre

6. W alking On the Grass Is For bidden 7. Red Horse

8. Works Of Art are Seriously D a maged By Repeated Touching 9. M ind Your Head When Rising From Seat 10. Ticket Box

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11. Please Make Use O f The Litter 12. These Animals Are Dangerous 13. Please Do Not Feed Animals. It street is Unkind And Unnecessary 14. Beware O f The Dog 15. C loak Room (Articles May Be cinema Left There Only At T he Owners Risk) 16. Books And Mags 17. Please Do N ot Invite Crim e By Placing Handbags Or Any Other Objects On The Floor 18. Cross Here 19 Taxi Stand 20. Bus Stop 21. Say Thank You By Our Flowers. Exercise 7. Read the sentences below. Find their equivalents in the right-hand column. A Note To Pedestrians 1. Walk on the pavement only. 2. Cross the street at special crossings when the light has changed to green, 3. Look to the left before step ping off the curb and to the right when you have reac hed the dividing line. 4. Dont stand between tram tracks.
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street-crossing

) , , , . ) , .

5. If you are c a u g h t in t h e middie of th e s t r e e t w h e n th e light c h a n g e s , stay w h e r e you are. D r i v e r s w ill thus have a b e t t e r c h a n c e to steer c le a r o f you. 6. Cross o n l y in b a c k o f p a r ked b u s e s a i r d t r o l l e y - b u ses and o n l y i n f r o n t o f par ked train c a rs , otheivvise you may not n o t i c e m o v i n g ve hicles. 7. R e m e m b e r t h a t it is aga inst the ru le for a driver to signal e x c e p t in e m e r g e n -

, . ) , . ) . ) , , - * . ) . ) , , .

E x e r c is e 8. A f t e r doing these exercises and m em o rizing t h e traffic r u l e s make up a list of questions which might h e l p y o u to t e a c h your schoolchildren how to behave in the s tr e e t.

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Exercise 9 . Translate the following sentences. Pay special attention to the words in bold type.

1. I do nt like to stay in town for summer. 2. Th townsfolk are proud of their town. 3. I ll show you round the town. 4. There are many wavs of getting about town. 5. This way, sir. 6. Its a long way from here. 7. Which is the best wav there? 8. Are you going my way? 9. Shall I see you part of the wav? 10. I ts a long distance off. 11. The shop is no distance at all. 12, He lives within easy distance of his office, 13. Its within walking distance. 14, Traffic keeps to the left in England. 15. This is a busy traffic crossing. 16, Lets wait for a break in the traffic. 17. When you cross a busy street you should be careful. 18. A wide street is called an avenue. 19. That is a quiet street. Exercise 10. Find the Russian sentence in the righthand column which is close m meaning to the English sen tence in the left-hand column: 1. G o straight as far as the first (second) turning to the left (right). 2. Take a 2 bus. 3. You should get off at the next stop but one (two). 4. Ask the c o n d u c to r (the driver) to put you down in Sadovaya street. 5. A No. 56 bus will take you right there. 6. I t s a five m in u tes walk from here. ) ? ) , . ) 2. ) . ) . ) , . ) .

31 4

7. Its just round the comer. 8. I m afraid its a long way from here. 9. Its very far from here. 10. Its just two steps from here. 1 1. Y oud better go by the underground. 12. Get off in Theatre square and change on to a num ber 2 bus. 13. Take the second turning to the left. 14. G o straight ahead till you come to Anichkov bridge. 15. Are you getting off at the next stop? 16. There is some room in the middle. 17. All fares, please. 18. Move to the front, please.

) () . ) , , . ) , ) , ) . ) , ) , . * ) , ) . ) , ) 56 .

Exercise 11. Learn by heart the dialogues below. I. A: B: A: B: Excuse me, madam! Yes? Can you tell me the way to the Opera and Bal let Theatre? Certainly. Take a No 2 bus and it will take you right there.
315

A: B: A: B:

And where is the nearest bus stop? I t s just round the corner. Thlinks a Jot. You are welcome.
X >M *

A: B:

A: B: A: B: A: B:

Pardon me, is there a bus from here to Lenin prospect? Yes, take a No III bus. It stops on the other side of the square, near the Kirov Plant metro station. And can I get there by the metro? Yes, of course. And what part of the prospect do you need? I want Narvs'ky department store. Then you should go by the metro. Thank you very much. T h a ts all right. 3.

A: B: A: B: A: B:

Excuse me, does a No 81 bus stop here? Yes, it. does. Will it take me to the centre of the city? No, it w o n t. Youll have to change on to a No 14 bus in Pushkin street. Thanks. T h a ts all right. 4.

A: B: A: : A: B;

Excuse me, how can 1 get to Palace square? Any bus or trolley-bus that goes along Nevsky prospect will take you there. Will it take me Jong if I walk? I think, about 20 minutes. Thank you. You are welcome. 316

Exercise 12. Answer the following questions, A. I . Where is the nearest bus-stop? 2. Where do 1 get off for the Passage department store? 3. Can you tell me the way to the Central post office? savings-bank? airlines agency? snack-bar? 4. Is the nearest hotel far from here? 5. How can I get to Moscow railway station? the Herm it age? the Drama theatre? 6. Will it take me long if 1 walk to the Russian museum? 7. Is there a direct bus from here to the University? 8, Where is the nearest tram stop? metro station? taxi stand? 9. Am I on the right bus (tra m )? 10. Where do I change on to a N o 7 bus? 11. Whats the public transport fare in St.Petersburg? B. 1. Do you know the city you live in veiy well? 2. How do you get to the University? 3. How long does it take you to get to the University? 4. What number bus do you take when you go to the Hermitage? the Russian museum? the zoo? the public library? Moscow railway station? 5. What kind of public transport do you like best? 6. From what time in the m orning till what time at night do buses run? 7. Whats the difference between the traffic rules in Great Britain and on the Continent? 8. What is the main street in your home town? 9. What is your home town remarkable for? Exercise 13. The scene is laid in Nevsky prospect. Explain to a stranger how he can get to: 1) the University; 2) the hotel Astoria ; 3) Baltic railway station; 4) the aiiport Pulkovo ; 5) the circus; 6) the Russian museum; 7) Victory square; 8) the Peter and Paul fortress.

317

Exercise 14. Finish up the dialogues below. 1. - Excuse me, can you show me the way to Palace square? - How long will it take me to get there?
* * * * * *

- Thank you very much,


i
*

* *

- Can 1 help you?


#

- Are you here for the first time? - What place are you looking for?
# * #

- Oh, its not far from the centre of the city. Any bus will take you there.
> 4 4 4 9 * 9

- Its ... roubles.


I 4 9 9 9 9 4

- T h ats all right. You are welcome. Exercise 15. Translate into English. 1. : : : : , ? . ? ? , . . .
318

: : : : : :

? , 2, 3, 34. , ? 10-15 . . . .
2.

: : : :

: : : : : :

: :

: :

, ? , , . . ? . . 107 137. ? , . ? . . ? ... . . (tokens) . ? . 15. 6. . . . 319

Exercise 16. Read and translate the following text. St. Petersburg The name of our city is well-known throughout the world. Many historic events of crucial importance took place in this city. Unlike other European cities St. Petersburg is only 290 years old. Founded by Peter I in the early 18th century St. Petersburg was growing so rapidly that by the end of the century it became one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Travellers were astounded by the unique and charm ing beauty of its broad avenues, majestic squares, magnifi cent architectural ensembles, gilded spires and cupolas, numerous rivers and canals, gold-winged lions and stone sphinxes. The city is situated along the banks of the Neva where it flows into the Gulf of Fin land and on the 42 islands in the N e v a d e lta , T h e largest islan d s are V asilyevsky , Petrogradsky, Decembrists1, Yealagin and Gutuyev. The length of tile river is 74 km of which 32 fall within the the city boundaries. St.Petersburg is the northern-most of the worlds greatest cities. It lies in the same latitude as Alaska and the southern tip of Greenland. The mean annual tem perature is comparatively high + 4 ,2 largely due to the warm atlantic streams. However in winter the temperature can drop below 40 degrees of frost, while in summer it can rise above 30 of heat, Inner St. Petersburg has an area of over 600 square km. There are about 2000 streets, squares and thorough fares in St.Petersburg. Its population is about 5 million. By its area and population St. Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia after Moscow. It is one of the major indus trial, scientific and cultural centres of the country, an im portant railway junction and airport. St. Petersburg is also a major river and sea port on the Baltic. 320

By the number of rivers, islands and bridges it excels any other city in Russia and is among the first in the world. There are 86 rivers and canals and over iOO ponds in the city. St. Petersburg is often called a museum of bridges and rightly so, for it has more than 300. The longest bridge over the Neva, one km-long Alexander Nevsky bridge was built in our times. Present-day St.Petersburg is not only a city of beau tiful ensembles and historical monuments, but also of huge factories and shipyards, one of the most important centres of scientific and technological progress in Russia. Its enter prises produce turbines and turbogenerators, tractors, shi ps, instruments and apparatus, unique machineiy as well as fabrics, clothing, footwear and other consumer goods. St.Petersburg has more than 300 research institutes, design and technological organizations and 30 institutes of the Academy of Science. Petersburg scientists have made new discoveries in the fields of physics, mathematics, chem istry, geology and medicine. About 300 thousand students attend 41 education establishments of St. Petersburg. Our city is also one of the major cultural centres in Russia. There are more than 30 theatres and conceit halls there, including such well-known companies as the Mariinsky Opera and Ballet Theatre, The Musorgsky Theatre of O p era and Ballet, The Tovstonogov Academic Bolshoi Drama Theatre, The Shostakovich Philharmonia and many, many others. T h ere are 70 cinem as and 2500 libraries in St. Petersburg. The large-scale construction that has taken place in the city in our times has greatly changed its appearance. Comfortable residential houses, schools, stadiums, gar dens and parks have transformed the former outskirts into beautiful, well-appointed districts. In the post-war years new housing development was concentrated in the east, 321

southeast, south and southwest of the city. In recent years a large number of buddings have been erected to individual designs, with expressive facades, improved layout and modern conveniences. Extensive construction is being car ried 011 the shore of the G ulf'of Finland. Exercise 17. Look through the text and find the E n glish for: ; ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 18. Consult the text and answer the follow ing questions.

1. How old is St.Petersburg? 2. How did it change appearance by the end of the 18th century? 3. What were foreign visitors astounded by? 4. How long is the Neva within the city boundaries? 5. Why is our city often called the museum of bridges? 6. What does it excel any other city in Russia by? 7. Why is St.Petersburg regarded to be one of the most important industrial, scientific and cultural centres in our country? S. What has greatly changed the appearance of our city? 9. When did large-scale housing construction begin in St.Petersburg? 10. What were the former outskirts of the city transformed into in the post war years?

322

Exercise 19. Check up your memory. How many questions can you answer off hand? Test: Do you know St.Petersburg? 1. What day is considered to be the day of the foun dation of our city? 2. What memorial places associated with the founder of the city, Peter the Great, do you know? 3. What monuments to Peter the Great can you name? Where are they? Who designed them? 4. What are the oldest buildings in the city? 5. Who designed: The Peter and Paul Fortress? The Winter Palace? the Smolny? What does the name of Smolny come from? 6. On how many islands is our city situated? 7. How many rivers and canals are there in our city? 8. What does the name of the Fontanka river come from? 9. When was the first permanent bridge across the Neva built? What is it? 10. What colour bridges are there in St.Petersburg? Where are they? 11. What is the longest bridge in our city? 12. Where is Prachechny (Laundry Yard) bridge and why is it called so? 13. What was the first regular garden in our city and when was it laid out? 14. What is Summer Garden especially famous for? Who designed it? What Historic event took place there? 15. What does Alexander Column in Palace Square symbolize? 16. What other monuments associated with the vic tory over Napoleon are there in St.Petersburg? 323

17. What streets have the names of outstanding Rus sian writers and poets? Where are they? 18. What name was given to Nevsky prospect after the October Uprising? 19. When were the heaviest floods in our city? 20. What part of the city do we mean when we say Petersburg of Dostoevsky? Exercise 20, Make up a test on places of interest in St. Petersburg. Follow the example of exercise 19. Exercise 21. Consult a guide-book or a reference book on St.Petersburg and make a report on some place of interest (to your choice). Appendix Read and translate the jokes A city man out in the country sees the farmer sitting on iris porch, and he says, Mister, do you know' how Ecan get to town? And the fellow says, N o . And the city man says, Well, can you teil me how to get to the post office? Ajid the fellow says, N o . Well, do you know how to get to the railway station? N o . Mister , he says, you sure d o n t know much , do you? And the farmer on the porch says, No, but I am not lost . * * Teacher: Jolmny, why are you late for school every morning? Jolmny: Every time I come to the com er a sign says School. Go Slow . 324 *

The woman motorist was trying to navigate a traffic jam. She rammed the car in front of her, then tried to back and knocked down a pedestrian. Then she tried to move over to the kerb and smashed into a hydrant. A policeman came up. O key, lady, lets see your licence , he de manded. D o n t be silly , she grunted, W hod give me a licence tiie wav drive? List of words and word combinations to tell the way - a bus stop - conductor - to put smb. down - , .. , place of interest - m eans of com m unication - to travel a short distance - to pay fare - the traffic is heavy - the traffic is light - rush hour - to go by bus (tram, trolley-bus) - (, ) to go straight - to get on a bus - to get off a bus - to change on to another bus - to take a turning to the left (the right) - , 325

LONDON Dialogue A visit to London David. This is Whitehall. All these big buildings are Government offices. At the beginning of November every year the Queen drives down Whitehall from Buckingham Palace to open Parliament. Many people come to watch the Queen and the soldiers who ride with her. What are those buildings at the end of the street? You know' the building with the clock; thats the Houses of Parliament. The building beside it with two towers is Westmister Abby. Now well go by boat to the Tower. How far is it? About three miles. Its near Tower Bridge. Is that the bridge that opens in the middle to let boats go through? Yes. Now' were going under London Bridge. This bridge isnt old, but there was a bridge here many years ago with houses and shops on it. Is that the Tower of London? But there are lots of towers there. Yes, but the one in the middle - the White Tower - is the Tower. How old is it? About nine hundred years old. Years ago kings and queens lived - and died -here.

Margrit: David:

Edward: David: Edward: David:

Margrit: David: Margrit: David:

* { i | 'y
V

326

Susan:

David:

I d o n t like the Tower. Its cold and grey, and it frig hten s me. W e ll go and have lunch. F m hungry. All right. There is an old restaurant near here which y o u II like. T he fo o d s very good. * H *

Margrit: David:

Margrit: David: Edward: Margrit: Susan:

Can we get to the National Gallery from here? Yes. Well go by bus. Then you can see all the interesting buildings on the way. T hats the Bank of England. This is Fleet Street, with all the newspaper offices. Now w ere in the Strand. Charing Cross Station is on the left, and now we are coming to Tra falgar Square. The National Gallery is on the right. How many pictures are there in the G a l lery? About six hundred, I think. D o n t ask hard questions, Margrit. David doesnt know everything. All right. I ll ask an easy question. Where can I wash my hands? Come 0 1 1 ! I ll show you. Down these stairs.

327

x e r c is e s

Exercise L Read and translate the following fragments.

The Houses of Parliament The Houses of Parliament are relatively modern. The whole building which is in the Gothic style was built in the middle of the last century instead of the ancient Houses of Parliament (destroyed by the fire in 1834). But the West minster Hall at the far end of the building was not touched by the lire and it stands intact for centuries (built in 1097). The worlds known clock uBig Ben which strikes the hours on the thirteen ton bell is housed in St.Stephens Tower. B. Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey is a building of great beauty, a place of worship and prayer, a church whose life has been closely identified with the English nation for more than 900 years. Coronations and Royal Weddings take place in the abbey. All but two of the English kings and queens have been crowned in Westminster Abbey since 1066. The most sacred place in the Abbey is Chapel of St. Edward the Confessor. Edward, a Saxon king (1042-1066), was the founder of Westminster Abbey and the original building w'as consecrated a few days before his death. He is buried here and in medieval times his shrine attracted many pilgrims. Westminster Abbey is also famous for its Poets Corner. Here are the graves and memorials of most of the major English poets and some writers and musicians. Among them the tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer, and the memorial to William Shakespeare. Samuel Johnson and Charles Dickens
328

are also buried here. West of Westminster Abbey stands Buckingham Palace. It is now the official residence of the Queen. C, The Tower In 1066 William, Duke of Normandy, and his men defeated the Saxons at the Battle of Hastings and killed the Saxon King Harold. William and the Normans then set about building castles to complete their domination of England. One of the earliest castles was built where the Tower now stands, It was simply a timber fort, erected in a corner of the stone walls which the Romans had built around their city of London nine hundred years before. The Tower of London was begun by William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace. Later kings made it larger and stronger, and kept soldiers, armour, weapons, treasure, and sometimes important prisoners there. For five hundred years coins of the realm were minted at the Tower and official documents stored in some of the castle buildings. There was even a zoo which began as the kings private collection of animals among which there were bears, lions, elephants. Now, howerer, all that remains of it are the ravens and the legend that if they ever leave the Tower will fall. For nine centuries the Tower has kept watch over London and the river Thames. Now it is one of the greatest tourist attractions of Loudon. D. Trafalgar Square If you ever come to London you will surely go to Trafalgar Square. The main feature of the square is Nelsons C olum n with the figure of the great seaman on the top. Trafalgar square is one of the busiest places in London and a great tourist attraction. 329

E The National Gallery This building overlooks Trafalgar square, and it houses the national collection of paintings which amounts to more than 2 thousand pictures representing every school. It was opened in 1838 and it excludes the works of living artists: these are to be found at the Tate Gallery. Exercise 2. Answer the following questions. 1. What is 'Whitehall? 2. Why does the Queen drive down Whitehall at the beginning of November? 3. What buildings are there at the end of Whitehall? 4. What is the nam e of the worlds known clock which is housed in St. Stephens Tower of the Houses of Parl iament? 5. Where do coronations and royal weddings take place? 6, What is the most sacred place in the abbey? 7. What is the Poets Comer? 8. What is the official residence of the Queen? 9. Who was the Tower of London begun by? When was it? 10. What historic event is it associated with? 1 1. What role did the Tower play in the past? 12. What is it now? 13. What is Trafalgar Square famous for? 14. Where can one see the national collection of paintings? 15. When was it opened? 16. Where can the works of living artists be found? Exercise 3. Read the text carefully. London, the capital o f Great Britain, is one of the largest cities in the world. It is a big port and a major industrial, commercial and cultural centre. London stands on the river Thames which flows into the North Sea. For centuries entiy to London from the sea was guarded by the Tower fortress. The Tower was built 9 centuries ago. It once served as a royal residence and later as a prison. Now it is a museum. London grew out of the ancient cen
330

tre known as the City. The City is Londons business dis trict. Banks, offices and trusts are centred there. Employ ees and businessmen stream toward the City in the m orn ing. They travel by motorbuses, on bicycles or by the un derground. The road to the City runs across London Bridge. By 6 o clock in the evening this part of the city is almost deserted. The streets in the City are narrow and the traffic is very slow. One of the most interesting monuments in the City is St.Pauls Cathedral. It is the finest Renaissance church in Europe. All other English churches are mostly medieval Gothic. The Cathedral was designed by the great English architect Sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire of 1666. It took him 35 years, and when he was an old man o f 90, lie was carried here once a year-so that he could see his beautiful work. Inside there is a great number of m onum ents to generals and admirals. Admiral. Nelson and Duke of Wellington are buried there among other great Englishmen. The West End is the most pleasant residential area of London. There are lovely parks in the West End, among them one of the most popular is Hyde Park with its Speak ers Corner where speakers from various political parties often hold public meetings. There are also luxurious m an sions and elegant shops and restaurants as well as theatres, museums and hotels. Oxford street is one of the busiest thoroughfares in the West End. While the West End is a residential district of the wealthy, the East End is the place where chiefly industrial and dock workers who live there. In the East End there are no magnificent parks and mansions and far from ail the men here have a steady job. London is very different, it has many faces. There is a lot of traffic in the streets of London: endless lines of buses, motor cars and taxis. Most of London buses are the famous red double-deckers that have two decks for passen331

gers. Bright-red, they look very nice in the grey streets of London. There are also green one-storeyed buses, they run from London to the countryside. In London as everywhere in Great Britain, the traffic keeps to the left. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions. 1. What is London? 2. What river does it stand on? 3. What was entry to London from the sea guarded by? 4. What words comprise the history of the Tower? 5. What did London grow out of? 6. What is the City? 7. What is one of the most interesting monuments in the city? 8. Who was it designed by? 9. How long did it take him to construct the Cathedral? 10. What outstanding English men are bur ied there? 1 1. What is the West End? 12. Where do wor king people live? 13. What buses can be seen in the streets of London? Exercise 5. Choose the right answer. j . Where are Government offices situated? (Downing street, Trafalgar square, Whitehall). 2. What street is the residence of the Prime Minister located in? (Strand, Ox ford street, Downing street). 3. What is the official resi dence of the Queen in London? (Windsor Castle, Bucking ham Palace, Westminster Palace). 4. What is the place of coronations and royal weddings? (St.Pauls Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace). 5. Where did Sherlok Holmes live? (Piccadilly Circus, Baker street, Strand). 6. Where is the monument to Nelson? (Trafalgar square, Hyde Park, the Tower)? 7. Where are all the newspaper offices situated? (Oxford Street, Fleet Street, Baker Street). 8. Where is Big Ben? (Westminster Ab bey, St.Stephens Tower, Buckingham Palace). 9. Where do the Thames flow into? (The North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel). 332

Exercise 6. Agree or disagree with the following beginning with: Yes, it is really so. You are quite right; or: It's not so. You are wrong. 1. The Thames flows into the Baltic Sea. 2. Entry to London from the sea is guarded by S t.P au ls Cathedral. 3. The Tower once served as a royal residence and now it is a prison. 4. St.Pauls Cathedral is in the City. 5. The Tower now is the official residence of the Queen. 6. Big Ben is a famous chiming clock in one of the Parliaments two towers. 7. The City is L o n d o n s shopping centre. 8. The streets of the City are very wide. 9. The West End is the most pleasant residential area of London. 10. The w orking p eop le have th e ir homes in the East End. 11. Speakers from various political paities often hold mee tings in Trafalgar Square. 12. Oxford street is one of the busiest thoroughfares of the East End. 13. There are many magnificent parks and mansions in the East End. 14. A m o n u m e n t to A dm iral N elso n stands in H yde Park. 15. Charles Dickens lies buried in Westminster Abbev. 16. The paintings of famous Italian, Dutch and English masters are widely represented in the National Gallery. 17. The traffic in Great Britain keeps to the right as every where in Europe.
*

Exercise 7. Translate into English. 1. - . , . 2. . 3. , , . 4. , , , 13 . 5. - . 6. -


333

. , , . 6 . 7. - . , , . . - - . 8. . . , . 9. . 10. . . Exercise 8. Render the text in English. - (contradictions). - (Bank of England) (Stock Exchange), . , (Christopher Wren) . , . (Victorian age), (concrete) . (mixture) (inauguration) - (Lord Mayor). (elections) -. - (gilded coach), 334

. (post) - ; 1191. - . (London C orporation), (governs) (MunicipIc Council). (police court) , (admiral) . . , , , . - 1 (square mile). 400 . , 4.000 . Exercise 9. Make up a dialogue between a Russian tourist and a citizen of Loudon, using all information given in this section. Exercise 10. Give a lecture on London and its places of interest to your fellow' students (pupils). Use any refer ence books on Great Britain and London for additional information.

ISB N 5-94033-004-5

9 785940 330042

................................................................................................... P a r t i . G ram m ar exercises....................................................................... 3 6

U nit 1. Sentences with "T here is (a re )1 ' ................................................. 6 U nit 2. M uch, many, little, few............................................................... 11 U n it3 . T he Adjective................................................................................... 14 Section 1. T he Positive Degree................................................ 14 Section 2. T h e C o m p a ra tiv e an d th e S u p e rla tiv e Degrees.................................................... 26 U nit 4. The Verb............................................................................................. 38 Section 1. Present Sim ple.......................................................... 38 Section 2. Present C ontinuous................................................. 46 Section 3. Present Simple - Present C o n tin u o u s 53 Section 4. Present Perfect Simple........................................... 55 Section 5, Past Simple................................................................ 65 Section 6. Present Perfect Simple - Past S im p le 76 Section 7. Past C ontinuous....................................................... 81 Section 8, Past Sim ple - Past C o n tin u o u s........................... 83 Section 9. Past Perfect Sim ple................................................. 85 Section 10. Past C o n tin u o u s - Past P e rfe c t S im p le.......... 87 Section 11. Future Sim ple........................................................... 89 Section 12, F uture in the Past Sim ple.................................... 105 Section 13, T he Sequence of Tenses .................................109 U n it 5. Reported Speech.............................................................................. 110 P a r t II. Lexical exercises........................................................................... 123 Family................................................................................................................. 123 R a t.......................................................................................................................139 Seasons andW eather.............................................. 151 Appearance........................................................................................................ 166 Books and Libraries......................................................................................... 174 Institute Life.................................................................................................... 186 Shopping (at a departm ent store)............................................................. 193 Shopping (buying foodstuffs)....................................................................... 207 Meals.................................................................................................................. 216 Travelling by Train...........................................................................................228 Travelling by Air...............................................................................................237 Travelling by Sea.............................................................................................. 248 At the D octors.................................................................................................257 Theatre............................................................................................................... 269 Cinem a...............................................................................................................278 Telephone..........................................................................................................285 The Post Office.................................................................................................295 Getting about Tow n........................................................................................ 307 L o n d o n ..............................................................................................................326

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