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SUBSCRIBER LINE MANAGEMENT

1 INTRODUCTION The subscriber and user line management function incorporates


all the tasks for ensuring that subscribers can:
make and receive telephone calls when they want,
use the facilities and features offered to them as and when they require,
have permanent access to a line with good quality of service.
Purpose of the subscriber line management function Subscriber line management
involves:
keeping track of the subscriber line access points at the exchange,
assigning each subscriber a line type appropriate for the transmission technique on the
exchange link (analog or digital),
keeping track of and assigning directory numbers,
assigning supplementary services to subscribers as requested,
checking that all the subscriber lines connected to the exchange are working properly,
identifying and repairing defective subscriber lines.

OCB-283 exchange’s CSN equipment can provide connections for following types of
subscribers
Analog Subscriber
Digital Subscriber

ANALOG SUBSCRIBERS: Analog Subscriber can be


• Ordinary Analog or
• Analog Subscriber with home metering.

DIGITAL SUBSCRIBERS:Digital Subscriber’s can be of following type ;


(I) Basic rate access( 2B+D access).
It has 2 B channels carrying Voice/data & 1 D or signaling channel
(II) Primary rate access ( 30 B+D access)
It allows 30 B channels & 1 D channel of 64 kbps & it makes one
standard 2.048 Mbps PCM link.
ISDN SUBSCRIBER PRIMARY & BASIC ACCESS

PRIMARY ACCESS
SO BUS
PCM

30 B +D ISDN STATIONS

DIGITAL
EPABX
NT2 ANALOG EXTENSIONS
2 B +D
& NT1
OCB-283
SUBSCRIBER PREMISES

DIGITAL

2 B +D
NT1
ISDN STATIONS
BASIC ACCESS
S BUS

Analog lines and digital lines There are two ways of


carrying subscriber speech signals:
- the first consists in transmitting analog electrical signals,
hence the term "analog subscriber line",
- the second consists in encoding these electrical signals in
the telephone set in the form of bits and transmitting these
bits over the line, hence the term "digital subscriber line".
1.1 Subscriber line designation

Single line

A line that is identified by an equipment number (NE) and a designation


number (ND).

Directly called line

A line whose designation number (ND) is a directory number.

Not directly called line

A line whose designation number (ND) cannot be called. These lines can be
dedicated outgoing lines or they can belong to a group.

Principal group

A principal group is a group of single lines, or a set of subscriber lines on


PCM link, that are associated to the same "NDG" designation number (group
designation no).

Priority group

A priority group is made up of lines from an existing principal group that are
associated to a priority group designation number (NDP). There can be
several priority groups in a principal group.

Line belonging to a CENTREX function

For a company, the CENTREX function is made up of a number of


subscriber lines in a public exchange that are grouped together via software
technique only and that are liable to call each other, using two, three or four-
digit numbers, as the company does not have a PABX. The users are the
company's special subscribers.

At the external level, a company is identified by its name, in coded form


with a maximum of eight characters, the first being an alphabetical character.

A company that is distributed over several exchanges is also called a


"transgroup".
SUBSCRIBER LINE DESIGNATION

ND = 22220001
22220001

NDG = 22220002 22220002

2222A001

ND = 22220003 22220003

NDG = 22220004
22220004

2222A002

NDP = 22220005 22220005

2222A003

2222A004
1.2 Subscriber characteristics

1.2.1 Presentation

A subscriber is defined by the association of a ND designation number and a


NE equipment number.

The TAX charge meters are connected to the equipment number.

The discriminations can correspond to :

• a TY type : connected to the equipment no.,

• a CAT category : connected to the designation no.,

• a MAR mark : activated by an observation or the use of a service.

ND NE/NR

TAX
TAX
CAT TY

MAR
MAR

Example :
@ABOIN,CEN=1:
CEN=1/94-02-03/15 H 49 MN 36/CONSULTATION OF SUBSCRIBER CHARACTERISTICS
@ND=22220257;
PROCESSING TGLAIN ACC
ND=2222O257 NE =001-02-001
TAX = 00000289 + 00003854 + 00008327 + 00000028
TY= KLA
CAT= RVT
MAR=ART
NAR=22220032
PROCESSING TGLAIN EXC
1.2.2 Designation number

ND : The designation number can be :

• either a directory number, also called NA, of the form


(N1)(N2)(N3)(N4)(N5) MCDU. (Example : ND = 22227273),

• or a number containing a letter in position 1000, of the form


(N1)(N2)(N3)(N4)(N5) XCDU, (X is a character : A,J, S, C for
FRANCE and A, B, C, D for other countries.
Example : ND = 2222A273). These numbers that contain a letter in
position 1000 can be attributed to outgoing only lines or to lines that
belong to a group and that, taken individually, are not directly
called lines. Opening a letter in position 1000 makes it possible to
have extra numbers (see the country numbering scheme).
1.2.3 Equipment number

The equipment number can be either : NE or NR or AFCT

NE is an equipment number that corresponds to the physical address on the


subscriber distribution frame.

Its form is : NE = UR - REG - BRO. (Example : NE = 1 - 2 - 17).

UR : CSN or CSE subscriber connection unit number (0 to 223).

REG : terminal strip number (the number of terminal strips depends on


the UR type : CSN or CSE, and depends on the number of pins
per strip (128 or 100)).

BRO : Rank of the pair of pins on the terminal strip (depends on the
strip type (0 to 127 or 0 to 99)).

NR is an equipment number that corresponds to the equipment's functional


address of the connection unit. The operator can name the equipment by
using its NE or its NR.

The NR's form is : NR = UR - EQT. (Example : NR = 1 - 273).

UR : connection unit number (1 to 223).

EQT : equipment number on the UR.


AFCT is an equipment number that corresponds to the functional address of a circuit.
Some subscriber lines require direct access to the switching network (no concentrator)
via a circuit access unit, or are located too far away from the exchange. In such cases,
they are connected to the exchange via a reserved time slot on a PCM link. Equipment
number of a line in a circuit access unit is identified by AFCT(Subscriber line on PCM
link) A relationship can be established between the designation number (ND) and a
telephone circuit , which means that the subscriber line is connected to the exchange via
a time-division multiplex channel (TDM channel) of a PCM link.

AFCT is of the form : AFCT = UR - PCM - IT. (Example : AFCT=216-2-


11).

UR : circuit connection unit number (1 to 223).

PCM : PCM number (0 to 3 for the SMT - 1G and 0 to 15 for the SMT
- 2G).

TS : Time slot number on the PCM (1 < IT < 31 but different from
16 : subscriber signalling).
1.2.4 Charge meter

TAX : represents the value of 1 to 4 meters, depending on the country.

Example :
@ABOIN,CEN=1:
CEN=1/94-02-03/15 H 49 MN 36/CONSULTATION OF SUBSCRIBER CHARACTERISTICS
@ND=22220257;
PROCESSING TGLAIN ACC
ND=2222O257 NE =001-02-001
TAX = 00000289 + 00003854 + 00008327 + 00000028
TY= KLA

PROCESSING TGLAIN EXC

Example of meter types :

• 1st : urban calls,

• 2nd : national calls,

• 3rd : international calls,

• 4th : use of services.

Each meter is 24 bits in size. They return to zero after reaching the highest
value, in this case a message is output on the terminal assigned to PTAX.

The meters are associated to an equipment number. Any creation,


cancellation or deletion operation will edit the meters, so the operator must
note down the values whenever there is a new creation.Transferring a
subscriber onto another equipment unit of the same exchange allows him to
keep, among other things, his own charge meters.
1.2.5 Subscriber discriminations

TY : Types are data related to the subscriber's equipment on the


board, to the line or to the telephone set, (ex: KLA push-button
set, SPA outgoing only line).

CAT : Categories are data related to the designation number. They are
assigned either individually to the subscriber line or to a set of
lines of a group (ex : RVT entitlement to temporary transfer).

MAR : Marks indicate a temporary state of the subscriber line (ex :


EHS equipment out of service or ODDD equipment in outgoing
observation) or else they indicate that a service has been
activated (ex : ARV transferred subscriber).

Example :
@ABOIN,CEN=1:
CEN=1/94-02-03/15 H 49 MN 36/CONSULTATION OF SUBSCRIBER CHARACTERISTICS
@ND=22220257;
PROCESSING TGLAIN ACC
ND=2222O257 NE =001-02-001
TAX = 00000289 + 00003854 + 00008327 + 00000028
TY= KLA
CAT= RVT
MAR=ART
NAR=22220032
PROCESSING TGLAIN EXC
@ABOIN:
CEN=1/00-01-03/01 H 53 MN 55/SUBSCRIBER CHARACTERISTICS
INTEROGTN
@ND=310083:
PROCESSING TGLAIN ACC
ND=310083 NE =002-00-083
TAX = 00000052 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY= NBS1+PRAC2
CAT= NAT2+CLAB4
PROCESSING TGLAIN EXC
1.3 Description of MMC functions

1.3.1 Presentation

ND NE TAX TY CAT

@ABOCR @ABOMU @ABOMO


ND-NEx-TY-CAT ND-NEy-TY-CAT ND - TY - CAT
TAX TAX

@ABORT
NE Equipment released
ND - TY=DFn

@ABOSU ND Designation number released


1.3.2 Consultation functions

NLIBR : Searches for free numbers

This function searches for free number from amongst a list of ND, NE or
ACFT, specified in the command. It is possible to limit the search to "n"
numbers (NB).
@NLIBR :
@ND or NE or AFCT ,NB :
NUTIL : Lists the numbers in use.

Gives a list of the numbers that are used in a specific field. The fields are
defined by NDs or NEs.
@ NUTIL:
@ND or NE or AFCT;
URAIL : Lists the equipment types

This command is used to list the equipment types (subscriber junctor on the
board).
@URAIL:
@ AFUR or NE or NR or AFCN ,CTRL;

ABOIN : Consults the subscriber characteristics

@ABOIN:
@ND or NE;
ABOIL : Lists the subscribers with given characteristics

Outputs the list of subscribers that have at least the discriminations and/or
marks specified in the command.
@ABOIL:
@ ND or AFCT or NE or NR , NB , TY , CAT , INDR , MAR , NAP , CP;
EXAMPLES
@NLIBR:
CEN=1/99-03-15/16 H 05 MN 00/IDLE NUMBER SEARCHING
@ND=383300<383500,NB=4;
ND=383340
ND=383341
ND=383450
ND=383499
EXC
@NE=4-4-1<4-5-10;
NE=4-4-8
NE=4-5-1
NE=4-5-7
EXC

@NUTIL:
CEN=1/99-02-18/20 H 10 MN 00/LIST OF NUMBERS IN USE
@NE=3-1-27<3-1-30:
NE=3-1-27 ND=385111
NE=3-1-28 ND=385120
EXC
@ND=7894800<7894850;
ND=7894827 NE=7-3-45
ND=7894736 NE=7-4-12
EXC

@URAIL,CEN=1:
CEN=1/99-10-07/00 H 01 MN 00/URA EQUIPMENT LIST
@NE=42-0-1<2:
TRAITEMENT TPSSER ACC
AFUR=002 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=0253
NE= 042-00-001 (042-00-00-01)ND= 596420001 S2F
NE= 042-00-002 (042-00-00-02)ND= 596420002 S2F
TRAITEMENT TPSSER EXC

@ABOIL:
CEN=1/99-02-03/14 H 57 MN 58/SUBSCRIBER CHARACTERISTICS LIST
@CAT=ZG3;
PROCESSING TGLAIL ACC
ND=223004 NE =056-00-004
TAX = 00000060 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY=KLA+IIB
CAT=RVT+AEN+NA04+ZG03+COF+IAI
MAR=ATT
PROCESSING TGLAIL EXC
1.3.3 Management functions

ABOCR : Creates a subscriber


Creates a new subscriber line with its discriminations and assigns one or
several charge meters. The charge meters associated to the NE are not reset.
Creates a link between the NE and the ND.Assigns types to the NE and
categories to the ND.
Checks the existence of the UR and of its associated equipment.
ABOMO : Modifies a subscriber's characteristics (CAT and TY)
With ABOMO you can modify:
the types and categories of single lines and priority grouped lines,
the types of non-priority grouped lines,
the categories of grouped lines by modifying head line categories.
You cannot modify the type (SPA, SPB or MIX) of a line belonging to a
group.
A logical record is created on the detailed billing tape when FD and DEA
categories are modified.Categories and types lists are limited to 24 elements
at most in input parameters.

ABORT : Cancels - Transfers a subscriber


Cancels-transfers a subscriber with prohibition of all outgoing calls and
transfers all incoming calls to a recorded announcement or the operator (the
equipment can be put back in use immediately, but the designation number
cannot) Erases all the discriminations.
Releases the NE - ND link.Inserts the cancelled line category with transfer to
recorded announcement or operator. CAT = DFn.
ABORT creates a record item on the itemised billing tape.

ABOMU : Reallocates a subscriber line


Reallocates a subscriber line to another equipment unit. Allocates new
available equipment to the subscriber's ND, the latter keeps its
discriminations and the value of its charge meters.
The subscriber keeps his directory number, his discriminations and the
contents of his charge account.
The old equipment becomes available (the ND - old NE link is cut) and the
ND - new NE link is created.
ABOSU : Deletes a single line
Erases the discriminations.
Releases the ND that becomes "not in use" (NNU) and releases the NE if the
line was not cancelled-transferred.
EXAMPLE
@ABOCR:
CEN=1/99-02-03/09 H 33 MN 52/NEW SUBSCRIBER LINE ADDITION
@ND=96560003,NE=56-0-3,TY=KLA,CAT=AEN+NA2:
PROCESSING TGLACR ACC
ND =96560003 NE =056-0-003
TAX = 00000011 + 00000000 + 00000000 +00000000
TY=KLA
CAT=AEN+NA02
PROCESSING TGLACR EXC

@ABOCR:
CEN=1/99-02-03/09 H 37 MN 52/NEW SUBSCRIBER LINE ADDITION
@ND=96560005,NE=56-0-5,TY=NBS1+PRAC2,CAT=NAT2+CLAB4;
PROCESSING TGLACR ACC
ND =96560005 NE =056-00-005
TAX = 00000011 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY=NBS1+PRAC2
CAT=NAT2+CLAB04
PROCESSING TGLACR EXC

@ABOMO:
CEN=1/99-02-03/10 H 42 MN 55/MODIFY LINE CLASS OF SERVICE
@ND=223055,TY=KLA,CAT=CT3+ZG2+FD3+AEN;
PROCESS TGLAMO EXC
ND=223055 NE=056-00-055
TAX=00000012 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY=KLA
CAT=AEN+CT03+FD03+ZG02+NA02
PROCESS TGLAMO EXC

@ABORT:
CEN=1/99-12-02/11 H 11 MN 21/SUBSCRIBER CANCELLATION/TRANSFER
@ND=223100,CAT=DF3;
PROCESSING TGLART ACC
ND=223100
CAT=DF03
PROCESSING TGLART EXC

@ABOMU:
CEN=1/99-02-03/00 H 51 MN 20/SUBSCRIBER LINE CHANGE
@ND=223289,NE=56-3-6:
PROCESSING TGLAMU ACC
ND=223289 NE=056-3-006
TAX=00000050 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY=KLA
CAT=NA03+IAM
PROCESSING TGLAMU EXC

@ABOSU:
CEN=1/99-02-03/11 H 13 MN 20/SUBSCRIBER LINE DELETION
@ND=223100;
PROCESSING TGLASU ACC
ND=223100
CAT=DOP
PROCESSING TGLASU EXC
The MMCs : ABOCR, ABOMO, ABORT and ABOSU only act on one line at
a time. In some special operating cases (creating a UR, number cancellation,
etc.) it is possible to use the commands on a group of lines.

ABOCRM : Multiple subscriber creation


ABOCRM allows to create subscriber lines and assign service classes and
charge counters to each line.
ABOCRM creates a logical record on the itemised billing tape.
Categories and types lists are limited to 24 elements at most in input
parameters.
ABOMOM : Multiple subscriber modification
ABOMOM allows to modify the class of service assigned to a subscriber
line.
With ABOMOM one can modify:
- the types and categories of single lines and priority, grouped lines,
- the type of non-priority grouped lines,
- the categories of grouped lines by modifying the categories of head lines.
ABOMOM also allows to suspend single or grouped lines.
A record item is created on the itemised billing tape when FD and DEA
categories are modified.
Categories and types lists are limited to 24 elements at most in input
parameters.
ABORTM : Multiple subscriber cancellation
ABORTM allows to cancel-transfer subscriber lines.
With ABORTM it is possible to:
-prohibit outgoing subscriber calls,
- transfer incoming calls to a recorded announcement or operator.
The equipment can be immediately reused.
The designation number (ND) can only be reused after executing ABOSU.
One can execute ABORT several times on the same ND to modify call
transfer to a recorded announcement or operator.
ABORTM creates a record item on the itemised billing tape.
ABOSUM : Multiple subscriber deletion
ABOSUM allows to delete single subscriber lines.
With ABOSUM one can delete:
- in-service lines,
- cancelled-transferred lines.
ABOSUM deletes all subscriber characteristics in the exchange andfrees the
equipment number and designation number.
ABOSUM creates a record item on the itemised billing tape.

Caution :

• These commands do not check if the connection unit is present, nor


do they check the presence and the type of board in use.
EXAMPLES

@ABOCRM:
CEN=1/99-02-03/14H56MN03/NEW SUBSCRIBER LINE ADDITION
@ND=7894885+7894886,NE=2-1-60+2-1-61,TY=KLA,CAT=AEN+NA2:
PROCESSING TGLACR ACC
ND=7894885 NE = 002-01-060
TAX=00000011 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY=KLA
CAT=AEN+NA02
ND=7894886 NE = 002-01-061
TAX=0003824 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
TY=KLA
CAT=AEN+NA02
PROCESSING TGLACR EXC

@ABOMOM:
CEN=1/99-02-03/14H56MN03/MODIFICATION OF LINE CLASSES OF SERVICE
@ND=223050+223002,TY=/KLA,CAT=/AEN+FD3+CT3+ZG2;
PROCESSING TGLAMO ACC
ND=223050 NE = 050-00-050
TAX=00000200 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
ND=223002 NE = 050-00-002
TAX=00000030 + 00000000 + 00000000 + 00000000
PROCESSING TGLAMO EXC

@ABORTM:
CEN=1/99-02-03/10H45MN03/SUBSCRIBER CANCELLATION-TRANSFER
@ND=223100+252001,CAT=DF3;
PROCESSING TGLART ACC
ND=223100
CAT=DF03/ZG02
ND=252001
CAT=DF03/RVT
PROCESSING TGLART EXC

@ABOSUM:
CEN=1/99-10-23/14H56MN03/SUBSCRIBER LINES DELETION
@ND=223100+252001;
PROCESSING TGLASU ACC
ND=223100
CAT=DF11
ND=252001 NE=2-5-1
TY=KLA
PROCESSING TGLASU EXC
1.4 ISDN Subscriber

SUBSCRIBER INSTALLATION
DIGITAL
EXCHANGE TELEPHONE TERMINALS
TE1

DIGITAL DIGITAL
NETWORK SUBSCRIBER S
CSN 30B+D TERMINAL TERMINAL TE2
2048 kb/s
B
TABN U
TNR TNR S
LT CARD
NT1 NT2 TE3

2B+D
192 kb/s
TE4

TE5

INTERFACE INTERFACE INTERFACE INTERFACE


V U T S
HDLC
protocol LAP-D protocol

DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER'S CONNECTION WITH EXCHANGE

1.4.1 Basic and primary rate access The term subscriber line is replaced by "access".
In the ISDN, a number of interfaces or physical reference points (R, S, T, U and V) are
defined between the subscriber terminal and the network.
There are two types of ISDN access: basic rate access and primary rate access.
Basic rate access The basic rate access bearer circuit is the traditional two wire pair. It
is constructed as two 64 kbit/s B channels and one 16 kbit/s signalling channel (D
channel). The total bit rate is 160 kbit/s at the U interface and 192 kbit/s at the S
interface. The useful bit rate is 144 kbit/s at both interfaces.
Primary rate access The bearer circuit for primary rate access is a PCM multiplex
structured as 32 time slots (TS), comprising 30 x 64 kbit/s B channels and one 64 kbit/s
D channel. The total bit rate is 2 048 kbit/s
1.4.2 Connection interfaces
Interface Location
Digital network termination (NT2) Line interface on the customer's premises
Subscriber's digital terminal (NT1) Customer premises equipment generally
incorporating
a switching function (ISDN PABX)
Line termination (LT) Line interface on the network side
Terminal adapter (TA) Interface for connecting legacy terminals to the S
socket
Exchange terminal (ET) Interface with the switching network
Subscriber terminal (TE) TE1 if connected directly to the S socket TE2 if
connected via a terminal adapter

Notes on the interfaces: - NT2 is only a physical interface and has no "intelligence" or
sophisticated dialogue functions with the network, unlike NT1 which can interpret
messages from the network and redistribute calls within the customer premises
equipment.
- The most important interfaces are the S and U interfaces which are covered by very
precise standards from ITU-T and ETSI committees.
- The V interface is of theoretical interest only since it is part of the local exchange
(CSN in the E10 system) and is not standardized.
- The same situation applies at the primary rate access subscriber's premises: since NT1
and NT2 are incorporated in the same hardware, the manufacturer is free to construct its
T interface as it wishes.
- The R interface depends on the type of terminal and there are a wide variety of
specifications
1.4.3 ISDN services The ISDN provides three types of services:
bearer services,
teleservices,
s upplementary services.
Bearer services and teleservices can be characterized by a list of attributes.
Bearer services A bearer service provides a means of transporting information (speech,
data, video) across the network.
The definition of a bearer service covers the bottom three layers of the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model.
On each call set-up request, the terminal tells the network the bearer service that it
requires according to the nature of the call. The network busies appropriate resources
for transporting voice signals or video
The most commonly encountered bearer services are described below:
SCBNT: 3.1 kHz audio,
SCBNT speech : switched circuit on the B channel non-transparent speech,
SCBT : switched circuit on the B channel transparent,
VCB : virtual circuit on the B channel,
VCD : virtual circuit on the D channel.
The SCBNT speech service is the least demanding in terms of transmission medium. It
allows all A/D conversions, compression and echo cancelling.
The SCBNT 3.1 kHz audio service is adapted to transferring data by modem. It allows
A/D conversions, but does not allow certain distorting operations such as compression.
The SCBT service guarantees end-to-end integrity of the bit streams. No A/D
conversion is performed in the network.
The VCB service is the B channel packet service. The B channel is switched at a packet
access point (X.25 network) and provides the medium for the virtual circuit set-up
procedures.
The VCD service is the D channel packet service. The packet frames multiplexed in the
D channel are directed to a packet access point.
Teleservices A teleservice defines a type of terminal. Its definition covers the seven
layers of the OSI model.
The teleservice information in the call set-up message is not used by the network. It is
conveyed end-to-end to the called terminal and serves to guarantee compatibility
between terminals (obviously, a fax cannot communicate with a videophone).
Examples of teleservices
telephony,
group 3 facsimile (fax),
group 4 facsimile (fax),
videotex (Minitel in France), combining a screen, modem and keyboard to access on-
line servers,
teletex and electronic mail.
1.4.4 ISDN access commissioning and maintenance
1.4.4.1BASIC ACCESS
Creating a terminal unit (UT) The TAN3G and TABNP boards are subscriber terminal
units (UT) for connecting eight two-wire echo cancelling basic rate access ports in
accordance with the ETSI standard.
The TAN3G board can be created using the UTCR command with TFCT = AQE08, and
the TABNP board can be created with the same command UTCR with TFCT = AQP08.

UT power weighting :
The TAN3G board has a power weighting of 2 (reflecting the board's power
consumption). You cannot therefore install more than eight TAN3G boards in a digital
concentrator (CN), because the total power weighting of a local digital concentrator
(CNL) must not exceed 16.
Backup UT function :
• The TAN3G board can be backed up. The backup UT must be placed in the second
position (UT1) in the CN subrack. The backup option must be software enabled
(OBJ=YES in the UTCR command and hardware enabled by the presence of an
adapter plug.
Creating a basic rate access subscriber line The ABOCR command is used to attach
an NE number (representing an access) to an ND (belonging to a thousands group that
has already been created).A number of categories and types must be assigned to the line,
defining the type of access and related services.
Parameters for creating a basic rate access
Parameter TY or CAT Definition Possible values
NBS TY Type of access NBS1 : basic rate access
NBS2 : primary rate

NAT CAT Nature of subscriber NAT0 : analogue


subscriber
NAT2 : ISDN subscriber
NCA TY Number of one-way NCAi : 0 i 2
outgoing B channels
NCB TY Number of one-way NCAi : 0 i 2
incoming B channels
CLAB CAT Subscription class CLAB0:analogue
(defines the subscriber's subscriber
entitlement CLAB1 : entitlement
to a bearer service) to SCBNT
and SCBT
CLAB2 : entitlement to SCBNT,
SCBT and SSC
CLAB3 : entitlement to
SCBT, VC and SSC
CLAB4 : entitled to all ISDN
bearer services
RR TY Presence of repeater
When creating a basic access, it is essential to specify CAT = NAT2 and TY = NBS1.
SUBSCRIBER A NDSA4
TE4
NDSA1 NDSA2 NDSA3

TE1 TE2 TE3 TA


S BUS
NT1 20 M. MAX.

200 METERS
MAX.

OCB-283
EXCHANGE SUBSCRIBER B

S BUS
NT1

TE1 TE2 TE3


NDSB1 NDSB2 NDSB3

The S Bus is a special bus arrangement of 4 wires originating from network


terminator NT1
1.4.4.2 PRIMARY RATE ACCESS Creating a terminal unit (UT) The TADP board is
a subscriber terminal unit for connecting a primary rate access carried by a PCM link.
The primary rate access subscriber always has an NT1 (PABX) behind the NT2.

The UTCR command can be used to create a board:


TFCT = ADP01 for a TADP board,
 FCT = ACP01 for a TADPB board.
T
There are three red LEDs mounted on the board's front panel:
the first LED indicates the state of the board:
the second LED indicates a remote alarm condition on the PCM link,
t he third LED indicates a local alarm.
Power weighting of the UT : The UT has a power weighting of 1 (indicating the board's
power consumption). It is therefore possible to install up to 16 TADP or TADPB boards
in each digital concentrator (CN), because the total power weighting of a CNL must not
exceed 16.
Creating a primary rate access subscriber The ABOCR command can be used to
attach more than one ND to an access (NE).
Categories and types are described in the basic access section.
The values for a primary rate access are:
TY = NBS2,
CAT = NAT2,
A new category, NBAi 0 i 31, sets the number of channels allocated to traffic.

2 LINE AND SUBSCRIBER EQUIPMENT TESTS

2.1 Introduction

With the subscriber tests the operating personnel can, from the OM and
either systematically or individually check if the lines and subscriber
equipment units are working correctly.

The subscriber tests refer to the measurements and tests carried out on the
equipment that comes after the subscriber junctor, as well as to the tests
concerning the junctor itself.

There are six different types of tests :

1) on-request tests concerning the line and subscriber equipment


(MMC : ESAB),

2) routine line tests (MMC : ESSY),

3) high speed tests from the subscriber equipment unit via the DERAL
(High speed line/subscriber set tester),

4) manual tests (MMC : ESAMAN),

5) listing of faulty equipment (MMC : ABFASE),


6) periodic junctor tests via the REJA device.
2.2 Physical characteristics of a line and subscriber set

2.2.1 Test mask A test mask consists of a set of measurements which characterize the
line.
The Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) supports up to eight different test masks which can be
set by operator command. Each line is assigned a test mask according to its structure
and type (overhead, underground etc). The test mask is used as a comparative reference
when testing the line.
To determine whether a line is satisfactory or malfunctioning during routine subscriber
line tests, the Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) compares the values stored in the line test
mask with the results of measurements performed on the line
Calibrating the tester A test is run on the tester itself by carrying out measurements on
a virtual subscriber line (GABA0) with known reliable characteristics. If the tester finds
the virtual line satisfactory, this means that it is operating correctly. If it finds the virtual
line defective, the tester may be defective.
Test curve list proposed when the public exchange is commissioned :

GABA0 Reserved for the RELA subscriber line tester

GABA1 Ordinary line (implicit value)

GABA2 Subscriber premises meter line, long line

GABA3 Line on a multiplexer FM channel

GABA4 Line with a low capacity telephone terminal.

GABA5 Line isolated from the distribution frame

GABA6 Can be defined by the client


to 8

INTERROGATION OF MASK (GABA)


The preset values of GABA can be interrogated by GABIN command.
@GABIN:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 21 MN 41/LINE CALIBER INTERROGATION
@GABA=1:
PROCESSING TECSMS ACC
GABA = 1 L = 1 BS = 0006 BI = 0000
L = 2 BS = 0006 BI = 0000
L = 3 BS = 0006.0 BI = 0000.0
L = 4 BS = 0006.0 BI = 0000.0
L = 5 BS > 1016 BI = 0248
L = 6 BS > 1016 BI = 0248
L = 7 BS > 1016 BI = 0248
L = 8 BS > 0006.35 BI = 0000.00
PROCESSING TECSMS EXC
MODIFICATION OF MASK
Preset reference values of GABA can be modified by GABMO command.
@GABMO:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 22 MN 51/LINE CALIBER MODIFICATION
@GABA=1,L=8,BI=6250:
PROCESSING TECSMS ACC
GABA = 1 L = 8 BS > 0006.35 BI = 0006.25/ 0000.00
PROCESSING TECSMS EXC

2.2.2 Line characteristics

Standard line characteristics

Impedance :

• subscriber on hook

. > 20 KΩ between the 2 wires a and b,

. > 20 KΩ between each wire and the ground.

• subscriber unhooked

. < 1800 Ω line and telephone (600 Ohm nominal).

Transmission level :

• transmission : 0 dB,

• reception : -7 dB.

Power supply :

• voltage : - 54 v on wire a, 0 v on wire b,

• speech current : between 19 mA and 60 mA,

• power feed bridge : 2 x 400 Ω.

On-line capacity

• capacity of a telephone set ≥ 8 µF (nominal value 2,5 µF).


Line test characteristics

L1 A.c. voltage on wire "a" (0V < 256V in increments of


2 V)

L2 A.c. voltage on wire "b" (0V < 256V in increments of


2 V)

L3 Direct current voltage on wire "a" (0V < 64V in increments of


0.5 V)

L4 Direct current voltage on wire "b" (0V < 64V in increments of


0.5 V)

L5 Insulation of wire "a" / Ground (0Ω < 1016KΩ in increments


of 8KΩ)

L6 Insulation of wire "b" / Ground (0Ω < 1016KΩ in increments


of 8KΩ)

L7 Insulation of wire "a" / wire "b" (0Ω < 1016KΩ in increments


of 8KΩ)

L8 Continuity : wire "a" / wire "b" (0µF<6,35µF in increments


of 0,05µF)

2.2.3 Telephone set characteristics

Standard characteristics

Ringing current :

• 80 V ± 5 V at 25 Hz or 50 Hz,

• Effective current < 45 mA,

• Variable frequency (Ex : 1s/4s).

Remote charging :

• 12 Khz or 16 Khz on 125 ms ± 25 ms,


(time between 2 pulses ≤ 200 ms)

• the TABAF can send a charge pulse 1400 ms after hook-up.

Flashing :
• flash button : 220 to 320 ms,

• hook switch : 220 ms to 1 sec.


Telephone test characteristics

Telephone set :

P10 Open-circuit time on the 5th pulse (0ms<125 ms in increments


of 1mV)

P11 Closed-circuit time on the 5th pulse (0ms<125 ms in increments


of 1mV)

P12 Number of pulses received

P13 Power supply current (0mA<127mA in increments


of 1mA)

P14 Loop resistance (0Ω<6400Ω in increments of


50Ω)

P15 Flash-button opening (0ms<512ms in increments of


4ms)

Remote charging :

P3 Remote charging test : short pulses (Specific to RELA CSE


equipment)

P4 Remote charging test : long pulses (Specific to RELA CSE equipment)

P5 Tests the short pulse of the subscriber premises meter

P6 Tests the long pulse of the subscriber premises meter

DR Disconnects the CSE tester for phases P5 and P6

Monitoring :

P7 The operator asks the subscriber to dial an answering machine and


hangs up.

When the call is established, the operator is rung and a conference


takes place.
2.3 Tester description

2.3.1 Introduction

The line and subscriber set tester is a hardware and software assembly that is
physically located in the (RELA) subscriber connection units or outside them
(Example of France : RELEX)

On CSE, the tester is used to test subscribers of one or several connection


units.

On CSN, one tester is linked to the assembly of CNLs and is located in the
GTA (TMLAB board) and one tester is linked to each CNE (TMLAB
board).

Several testers can operate simultaneously in the same exchange.

A test curve specific to the tester is also defined so that one can check if the
tester itself is operating correctly. The tester is connected to a gauge and
carries out the measurements. The results show how the tester is operating.
Gauging can be automatic during a routine test (compared to the tester's test
curve) or forced by the operator.

Test priorities :

• ESAB, DERAL, RELEX and REJEX tests have the highest priority,

• routine ESSY tests can be interrupted for 15 minutes,

• internal junctor tests have the lowest priority.


2.3.2 MMC functions

ESER : Tester calibration

By connecting the tester to a reference unit, this command is used to check


the tester calibration. The only commands that are authorised are open-loop
line test commands (phase L3 to L8). If the tester is already running a test,
the command is refused.

L3 Potential on wire "a" 42V < 53V

L4 Potential on wire "b" 4V < 6V

L5 Insulation wire "a" / Ground 40KΩ < 56KΩ

L6 Insulation wire "b" / Ground 40K < 56KΩ

L7 Insulation wire "a" / wire "b" 368KΩ < 432KΩ

L8 Capacity 1,95µF < 2,50µF

ESMB : UR batteries measurements

This command is used to make several measurements on the UR (connection


unit) batteries. It is very useful on satellites, for measuring the battery level
during power cuts. Phases L1 to L4, corresponding to measurements on a
line in open loop, are the only ones authorised. Non significant
measurements are output with an asterisk.

ESRZ : Tester Reset

Independently from any on-going test, this command is used to reset the
tester. It should be refused if a test is running. this command is not
worthwhile in a test that returns to idle after each order. In some cases it can
be output to get out of a lock-out.
EXAMPLES

@ESER:
CEN=1/00-01-03/01 H 52 MN 44/TEST-CALL RESPONDER CALIBRATION
@NROB=130:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
NROB = 130
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=L;
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
L1 R = **** V
L2 R = **** V
L3 R = -0048.5 V
L4 R = +0005.0 V
L5 R = 0048 KOHM
L6 R = **** KOHM
L7 R = 0400 KOHM
L8 R = 0002.25 MICF
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC

@ESMB:
CEN=1/00-01-03/01 H 53 MN 12/BATTERIES MEASURMNT
@NROB=129:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
NROB = 129
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=L;
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
L1 R = **** V
L2 R = **** V
L3 R = -0053.0 V
L4 R = **** V
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC

@ESRZ:
CEN=1/00-01-03/01 H 53 MN 37/TEST-CALL RESPONDER RESETTING
@NROB=130;
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
NROB = 130
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
2.4 Tests on request

2.4.1 Introduction

Tests on request are mainly used :

• when installing a new line or a new set, to check they are working
correctly,

• following a subscriber complaint, in order to confirm and possibly


refine the diagnostic given by the routine line testing command.

Types of measurement :

- Measurements on a line

To check whether the electrical characteristics are correct on an open-loop


line.

On 4-wire equipment units measurements are made first on the reception


pair and then on the transmission pair.

Note : When a line is being tested, a star is printed before the ND


when the latter is out-of-limits. Two stars are printed for
serious faults.

- Measurements on a set (analogue subscriber)

The purpose of these measurements is to check whether the subscriber


equipment (push-button or dial set) is working correctly.

Communication must be set up between the subscriber and the operator


prior to these measurements.

- - Measurements concerning the subscriber premises meter (specific for


export)

These tests consist in sending a number of remote charging pulses (they


can be of several kinds) to the subscriber's meter and then the operator
communicates with the subscriber to check if the results are in
compliance.

During subscriber premises meter testing no increments are added to the


subscriber's charge meter.
2.4.2 MMC functions

ESAB : Tests a subscriber line

This command initialises a series of measurements on a subscriber line


identified by its (ND) or (NE). This command has priority over routine tests.
If any routine tests are on-going, they will be interrupted, then resumed on
the tester used for this test. Tests are authorised on lines that are "free" or in
"permanent loop condition" (FXA).

A phase (PH) indicates each of the consecutive stages as the test is run.

ESAB

1
ND or NE or NR The "L" phase is automatically run

2
PH=L PH=Li PH=RLi

3 The operator set is called


PH=A NDOP and then the subscriber's
set.
4
PH=K ou P PH=Pi PH=RPi

PH=Z Tester reset (not compulsory)

5
PH=FIN End of tests and tester release

" : " is used to move from one phase to another

" ; " stops the tests and releases the tester


Line testing phases

L : Full line test. Measurement phases L1 to L12.

Li : Measurement of a particular characteristic of the line.

RLi : Repetitive measurements (20) of a particular characteristic on a


line. With this measurement it is possible to display an
intermittent fault.

Note : the values of i are given in the appendix.

Subscriber equipment test phases

A : Switch over to calling phase. In this phase the subscriber and the
operator are put in communication. The latter then explains to
the subscriber which manipulations to execute.

NDOP : Operator's number, used in the CSN case.

P : Complete test of a dial set, with execution of phases P10 to P14


on the tester. This test requires that the subscriber dial zero.

Pi : Measurement of one of the set's characteristics (i = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 :


phases reserved for export applications (test monitoring, remote
charge).
i = 3 and 4, phases not used in the case of a subscriber on CSE.

Pi : Repetitive measurements of one of the set's characteristics (i =


13 or 14).

K : Push-button set test. The operator asks the subscriber to press


successively each of the buttons on his set.

Z : Tester reset.

FIN : End of subscriber test. This parameter is needed to make sure the
test sequence ended normally.

DR : The tester is disconnected to allow moving to phases P5 and P6.


EXAMPLES OF SUBSCRIBER LINE AND INSTRUMENT TESTING

@ESAB:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 09 MN 26/TEST ON A SUBSCRIBER LINE
@ND=310007:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
ND= 310007 NE=002-00-007 NROB=130 TY=GABA1+KLA STATUS=LIBR
L1= 0 V L2= 0 V L3=- 0.5 V L4= 0.0 V
L5> 1016 KO L6> 1016 KO L7> 1016 KO L8= 1.30 MI

PROCESSING TELDMS EXC


@PH=A:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
CALL ND : 310007

ENTER NDOP

PROCESSING TELDMS EXC


@NDOP=300005:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=P:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
DIAL ZERO
P10 R = 0067 MS
P11 R = 0034 MS
P11 R = 0001.97
P11 R = 0009.9 HZ
P12 R = 0010
P13 R = 0048 MA
P14 R = 0350 OHM
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=RP13:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
P13 R = 0048 MA
MAX = 0048 MA
MIN = 0048 MA
MOY = 0048 MA
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=FIN;
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@ESAB:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 13 MN 45/TEST ON A SUBSCRIBER LINE
@ND=310007:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
ND= 310007 NE=002-00-007 NROB=130 TY=GABA1+KLA STATUS=LIBR
L1= 0 V L2= 0 V L3= 0.0 V L4= 0.0 V
L5> 1016 KO L6> 1016 KO L7> 1016 KO L8= 1.30 MI

PROCESSING TELDMS EXC


@PH=A:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
CALL ND : 310007

ENTER NDOP

PROCESSING TELDMS EXC


@NDOP=300005:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=K:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
DEPRESS ALL DIGIT KEYS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
*
0
#
NO FIGURE
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=P13:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
P13 R = 0048 MA
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=P14:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
P14 R = 0350 OHM
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=P15:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
ACTIVATE THE FLASHING BUTTON
P15 R = 0072 MS
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=END;
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
2.5 ISDN Line Maintenance
2.5.1 Basic rate access maintenance :The line tests (L1 to L8) remain, but the
maintenance functions are enhanced through a maintenance channel at the U interface.
This channel provides continuous transmission quality monitoring (by CRC
computation), and is used to set up loops on the board for repeaters or the NT1.

The maintenance channel ends at the NT1. This means that neither the S interface nor
the terminals connected to it can be tested directly.

U interface tests: The ESAB command (with PH = L1 to L8) is used to test line
insulation, as with analogue subscriber lines (however, PH = A is no longer accepted).

TCO : continuity check

This check is run periodically by the system but can also be activated using the ESAB
command with PH=TCO. It does not disrupt traffic The continuity check involves
verifying level 1 activation (if it has not already been activated), and sending a terminal
endpoint identifier (TEI) polling frame (broadcast maintenance frame) to verify level 2
and the presence of terminals behind the NT1. The test is run every 20 minutes for a
sound access and much more frequently (approximately every minute) for a defective
access.

TIED : defective entity identification test

The test is more exhaustive than the TCO. It is designed to produce a diagnostic. It is
activated after an NOK TCO test or manually by running a LOCAVAR sequence. The
access is unavailable during the TIED test (seizure of the RELA bus to the TMLAB) and
goes to the DENI state (unidentified failure).The TIED test involves setting up loops on
the subscriber line board for the repeater (if there is one) and the NT1. A predetermined
TMLAB test pattern is sent and looped for checking. This enables the system to locate a
defective entity.

- Access failure states The FXA state (permanent line condition) for analogue lines is no
longer used.

The line state can vary after a TCO check or TIED test, or as a result of continuous
transmission quality monitoring on the maintenance channel.
2.5.2 Basic rate access failure states
QTD
degraded transmission quality
Too many errored blocks have been detected via the maintenance channel (CRC
calculation), exceeding an initial threshold (of the order of one or two CRC errors
detected per minute on average).
QTI
intolerable transmission quality
A second threshold has been exceeded indicating a very large number of faults (of the
order of one or two CRC errors detected per second on average)
DENI
unidentified failure
State of a defective line pending a TIED test
DLAN
digital subscriber line fault
The line is repeaterless and a TIED test looped at the NT1 has revealed a transmission
fault while the QTI and QTR thresholds have been reached
DLAR
line fault ahead of repeater
The line is repeatered and a TIED test looped at the repeater (RR) has revealed a
transmission fault, but the QTI and QTR thresholds have not been reached
DLAT
line fault ahead of NT1
The line is repeatered and a TIED test looped at the NT1 has revealed a transmission
fault while the QTR and QTI thresholds have been reached
DTNR
NT1 fault
The line is repeaterless or repeatered and a TIED test looped at the NT1 has revealed a
transmission fault but the QTI and QTR thresholds ha
TNR
NT1 fault
The line is repeaterless or repeatered and a TIED test looped at the NT1 has revealed a
transmission fault but the QTI and QTR thresholds have not been reached (suggesting an
NT1 fault)
DITA
customer premises equipment fault
Level 1 tests are satisfactory, but the level 2 test has failed probably indicating that there
is no terminal connected to the NT1
ALA
local power supply fault
The power supply to the NT1 is inadequate (normal and backup modes)
CIB
Battery low
In normal operation, the backup voltage output by the battery is too low
ASI
Cannot supervise power supply
The NT1 cannot send information about the state of the batteries
The exchange core subsystem periodically uploads a list of defective equipment and
equipment states (every 18 minutes).

2.5.3 Measurements on a digital subscriber line.


This type of test has priority over routine tests.
@ ESAB,CEN=--:EXCHANGE/DATE/TIME/TEST ON A SUBSCRIBER LINE
ND or NE or NR or
ND=--------,FORC=YES:
FORC=YES : forces line tests on an access which carries a LLP. This parameter is
associated with ND,NE or NR.
ND=-------- NE=---_-_--- TY=NBS1 for an assigned basic access
ND=-------- NE=---_-_--- TY=NBS1 MAR=LSP for an LS bearer basic access .
PH=----:Identifies the measurement phase. It is possible to execute a number of
measurements as a sequence.
The result depends on the phase requested.
Phases PH=L, Li, RLi are prohibited for accesses carrying a LS or a LLP. On an access
carrying a LLP, the line tests are however authorized when the FORC parameter is
present on the ND, NE or NR line.
if PH = L Complete line test sequence
if PH = Li 1 <= i < =8 Measurement of a line characteristic
if PH = RLi Repetitive measurements of a line characteristic
RLi R= ------- ---- Output of all measurements deviating from the reference
measurement by more than 10%
MAX= ------- ---- Maximum
MIN= ------- ---- Minimum
MOY= ------- ---- Average of measurements performed
If PH = Z Reset line tester
If PH = DCB Controlled battery discharge test on the NT1
If PH = TCO Line continuity test
PH=END; End of test. Required to terminate the test normally.
EXAMPLE
@ESAB:
CEN=1/00-01-03/01 H 54 MN 15/TEST ON A SUBSCRIBER LINE
@ND=310083:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
ND= 310083 NE= 002-00-083 TY= NBS1
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=L:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
NROB = 130 ETAT = LIBR
L1 R = 0000 V
L2 R = 0000 V
L3 R = 0000.0 V
L4 R = 0000.0 V
L5 R > 1016 KOHM
L6 R > 1016 KOHM
L7 R > 1016 KOHM
L8 R = 0001.00 MICF
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=TCO:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
TCO R = OK
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=DCB:
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
DCB R = RUNNING
PROCESSING TELDMS EXC
@PH=END;
PROCESSING TELDMS ACC
PROCESSING TELDMS EX

2.5.4 Primary rate access maintenance - a primary rate access is a PCM multiplex,
hence it is not possible to run line tests (ESAB command not possible). Nor is it
possible to run continuity checks. Level 1 is always active. NT2 manages the passive
buses directly (S interface activation cannot be controlled from the TADP board).

There is no backup provided for the TADP board.


The access maintenance function is based on continuous supervision of level 1 by
analyzing TS0 (with or without CRC), and level 2 (with or without frames established).
In general, levels 1 and 2 are continuously activated.
Basic indicators reporting level 1 faults:
MQS (LOS) : loss of signal (local fault),
MHO (LOC) : loss of clock (local fault),
SIA (AIS) : alarm indication signal (remote fault),
PVT (LOA) : loss of frame alignment (local fault),
IAD (RAI) : remote alarm indication (remote fault),
TEE (FE) : excessive frame errors (remote fault).
For level 2, the TADP board counts any level 2 or LAP disconnections or reconnections.
U interface tests :The TIED (failed entity identification test), is activated by:
-series level 1 faults (LOS, AIS, LOA, FE),
-repeated level 2 faults (loss of level 2, interruption of LAP),
- LOCAVAR test via the URTL command , to locate a fault.
It involves running:
a hardware test on the PCM interface,
a test on AIS and RAI alarm indicators (by looping the line interface),
a test on the D channel HDLC controller,
a test on connections by inserting/extracting bit patterns and looping the line at NT1.
The access states are updated every hour.
Failure states -The failure states on a primary rate access are: BLOS, FAUT, DENI,
DITA, DLAN.
2.6 Routine tests
2.6.1 Introduction

These tests are line measurements carried out on all the subscriber lines of an
exchange or just on a list of subscribers. The command is usually
programmed so as to be run at night. Routine tests are done on subscriber
lines that are "free" or "in permanent loop condition". Routine test are not
performed for ISDN access as it is tested automatically by system(every 18
min) and information for the faulty access is displayed on terminal assigned
to LAND.

The line measurements correspond to phases L1 to L8.

The obtained results are compared to previously recorded reference values


(test curve : GABA 1 to 8). These test curves depend on the type of the line.

When the deviation on one or several measurements is higher than a specific


threshold, the line is considered faulty.

The tester is re-gauged if 10 successive measurements are found to be faulty.

2.6.2 MMC functions

ESSY : Activates routine subscriber tests

An option (OPT) lets the operator specify the nature of the result report. The
outputs can be :

OPT=1 : measurement results on all the lines.

OPT=2 : measurement results on faulty lines (default option).

OPT=3 : the faulty line numbers.

OPT=4 : the "serious fault" line numbers.

PH=Li : measurement or list of measurements to make (option 3


by default).

The routine test results are output on the terminal that is assigned to the
ELSY output file.

ESFIN : Stops the routine subscriber tests.

This command is used to stop the test procedure.


EXAMPLE

@ESSY:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 17 MN 10/ACTUATE SYSTEMATIC TSTS ON SUBSCRBRS
@ND=310007+300005,OPT=1:
PROCESSING TECSMS ACC
* #R0809/054/'TECSMS'/TERMINAL RELEASE
NCEN=JABRTT/03-03-13/15 H 17 MN 31/START OF SYSTEMATIC TESTS ON SUBSCRIBERS
ND= 300005 NE=001-00-005 NROB=129 TY=GABA1
L1= 0 V L2= 0 V L3=- 0.5 V L4= 0.0 V
L5> 1016 KO L6> 1016 KO L7> 1016 KO L8= 1.30 MI

NE=001-00-005<001-00-005

ND= 310007 NE=002-00-007 NROB=130 TY=GABA1


L1= 0 V L2= 0 V L3= 0.0 V L4= 0.0 V
L5> 1016 KO L6> 1016 KO L7> 1016 KO L8= 1.30 MI

NE=002-00-007<002-00-007
NCEN=JABRTT/03-03-13/15 H 17 MN 53/STOP OF SYSTEMATIC TESTS ON SUBSCRIBERS
PROCESSING TECSMS EXC

@ESSY:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 18 MN 03/ACTUATE SYSTEMATIC TSTS ON SUBSCRBRS
@ND=310007+300005,OPT=2:
PROCESSING TECSMS ACC
* #R0809/054/'TECSMS'/TERMINAL RELEASE
NCEN=JABRTT/03-03-13/15 H 18 MN 24/START OF SYSTEMATIC TESTS ON SUBSCRIBERS
NE=001-00-005<001-00-005
NE=002-00-007<002-00-007
NCEN=JABRTT/03-03-13/15 H 18 MN 45/STOP OF SYSTEMATIC TESTS ON SUBSCRIBERS
PROCESSING TECSMS EXC

@ESSY:
CEN=1/03-03-13/15 H 20 MN 23/ACTUATE SYSTEMATIC TSTS ON SUBSCRBRS
@NE=9-0-1<9-0-127+15-0-1<15-7-127,OPT=3;
PROCESSING TECSMS ACC
* #R0809/054/'TECSMS'/TERMINAL RELEASE
NCEN=JABRTT/03-03-13/15 H 20 MN 40/START OF SYSTEMATIC TESTS ON SUBSCRIBERS
(*) ND= 384500 NE=9-0-63 NROB=2 TY=GABA1
(**) ND= 396657 NE=9-0-125 NROB=2 TY=GABA2
NE=9-0-1<9-0-127
NE=15-0-1<15-7-127
NCEN=JABRTT/03-03-13/15 H 21 MN 02/STOP OF SYSTEMATIC TESTS ON SUBSCRIBERS
PROCESSING TECSMS EXC
2.7 High speed DERAL tests

2.7.1 Introduction

A specific device in the tester allows to run a quick test on an analogue


subscriber's set and line. The device is called DERAL.

The DERAL device is called by dialling, on the telephone set to be tested, a


routing code onto the maintenance device (MAIN = 4).

The switch is only used to connect or disconnect the subscriber to and from
the tester.

The tester takes a measurement and sends back the result in the form of a
continuous or a pulsing tone, depending on the result.
2.7.2 Test procedure

1) Unhook and dial the DERAL :

• Reception of the DERAL connection tone.

2) Hang up

250 ms after hang-up, the insulation resistances are measured :

• between wire a and the Ground, compared with reference R1,

• between wire b and the Ground, compared with reference R2,

• between wires a and b, compared with reference R3.

3) Unhook (without waiting for a ring) :

The measurement results are sent in the form of ringing tones for 20 to 40
seconds :

• the tone is continuous if :

. measured R1 > reference R1, Rl = R2 = 100 Kohm : t 10%,

. measured R2 > reference R2,

. measured R3 > reference R3, R3 set at 30, 50, 70, 90, 100 Kohm.

• the tone pulses slowly if :

. measured R1 < reference R1,

. measured R2 < reference R2,

. measured R3 < reference R3.

• the tone pulses quickly if :

. measured R3 > reference R3.

4) Hang up :

A timed ringing current is sent for 2 minutes.


5) Unhook :

The microphone current is measured and compared to two references I1


and I2.

The measurement result is sent back in the form of pulse tones for 20 to
40 seconds :

• continuous tone if : I1 < measured I < I2, I1=32 mA, I2=50 mA,

• slow pulsing (or scrambled) tone if : measured I < I1,

• quick pulsing tone if : measured I > I2.

6) Hang up

• if no answering-machine is connected : the DERAL is released (The


operator causes release by unhooking and then hanging up).

• with a responder : prepares the telephone performance evaluation.

7) Unhook

The responder-recorder/answering machine is started up.

Test limited to 2 minutes.

8) Hang up

Release.
2.8 Manual tests
With these tests the operator can, using one command, make the exchange
transmit signalling or tones to a specified subscriber line.
ESAMAN : Manual subscriber test
2.9 Monitoring faulty equipment

2.9.1 Introduction

This monitoring is used to know all or a part of the sets that are out of order.

The monitoring covers the junctor and the subscriber line :

• The junctor is detected as faulty or inaccessible to the system.

The subscriber lines are considered to be in permanent loop condition :

• Unhook without dialling (ex : 16 s),

• Time delay overflow between two numbers (ex : 16 s),

• Ringing time (ex : 4 min),

• No hang-up on end of call (ex : 30 s),

• Call on busy subscriber (no hang-up),

• Wrong dialling with no recorded announcement.

The time delays are described in the country specifications. 100 to 500 ms
are required to return to normal conditions.

The equipment can be monitored :

• either automatically,

• or on request by MMC : ABFASE.

Processing permanent loop condition thresholds :

• the CSN has a cumulative counter for permanent loop conditions,

• the MLPC automatically consults the URA (60 s period) to report :

. the number of permanent loop conditions per URA,

. the number of permanent loop conditions for the whole set of


URAs.

• If the number of permanent loop conditions per URA or for the


exchange goes beyond the thresholds set by the MMC, the OM sets
off an alarm.
2.9.2 List of status

FXA : Subscriber in permanent loop condition or looped line.

FAUT : Presence of a diagnostic on the subscriber equipment (junctor).

BLOS : Blocked by the system (isolated subscriber board or isolated


CN).

CN

Set
Line
UT EQ

BLOS BLOS FAUT FXA FXA


2.9.3 MMC functions

URSMO : Modification of the UR thresholds

Modifies the permanent loop condition threshold on the URA.

URSIN : Consultation of the UR thresholds

Consults the permanent loop condition threshold on the URA.

PAMMO : Modification of the system parameters

Modifies the permanent loop condition threshold for the exchange.

PAMIN : Consultation of the system parameters

Consults the permanent loop condition threshold for the exchange.

ABFASE : Lists the subscribers in permanent loop condition

The AFBASE operator command is used to find out :

• the number of subscriber equipment units that are out of order in the
whole public exchange,

• the list of subscriber equipment units that are out of order on one
UR or on a range of NEs,

• the list of subscriber equipment units that are in a given status (ex :
STATE = FXA).
@ABFASE (Possible parameters)
AFUR=...: Functional address of the UR (for several values, type a + b < c
+...). If this parameter is omitted, the search is conducted on all connection
units in the exchange. Only the overall results for each UR and for the whole
set of the exchange are output.
NE=...: List of subscriber equipment units of a UR defining the search field
. ND=...: Subscriber designation number for which the access status is
requested.
AFCT=...: List of subscriber equipment units of a UR defining the search
field .
STTUS=...:List of faulty status examined by the search. When STTUS is
present, either AFUR or AFCT must also be present.
NFAU=...: Maximum number of accesses to be output for each UR.
Default value: 50
EXAMPLE
@ABFASE;
CEN=1/99-05-14/11 H 30 MN 24/LISTING OF DEFECTIVE ACCESSES
PROCESSING TPSSER ACC
AFUR=002 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=00997 NBFAU=00000 TFAU=000
AFUR=042 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=00511 NBFAU=00002 TFAU=000
AFUR=050 TYPUR=URC NAC ----NBFAU=00002 (URA:00002 URC:00000)
PROCESSING TPSSER EXC

@AFUR=42+50+128:
PROCESSING TPSSER ACC
AFUR=042 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=00511 NBFAU=00002 TFAU=000
NE =042-03-031 ND= 96444202 STATUS=FXA
NE =042-03-032 ND= 96444203 STATUS=FXA
AFUR=050 TYPUR=URC NBEQPT=00003 NBFAU=00001 TFAU=000
AFCT =050-2-12 ND= 96505212 STATUS=BLOJ
AFUR=128 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=00511 NBFAU=00002 TFAU=000
NE =128-01-001 ND= 96702003 STATUS=QTI +DLAN
NE =128-04-012 ND= 96702012 STATUS=ALA
NE =128-04-018 ND= 96702018 STATUS=DTNR
NBDEF=00003 ----NBFAU=00005 (URA:00004 URC:00001)
PROCESSING TPSSER EXC

@AFUR=126+128,STTUS=DTNR:
PROCESSING TPSSER ACC
AFUR=126 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=00511
NE =126-03-031 ND= 96126331 STATUS=DTNR
NE =126-07-001 ND= 96126701 STATUS=DTNR
AFUR=128 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=00500
NE =128-01-001 ND= 96128100 STATUS=DTNR
NBDEF=00001 PROCESSING TPSSER EXC

@NE=126-00-100<126-03-127:
PROCESSING TPSSER ACC
AFUR=126 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=01000
NE =126-00-123 ND= 96126123 STATUS=DTNR
NE =126-03-031 ND= 96126331 STATUS=DTNR
PROCESSING TPSSER EXC

@NE=128-00-100<128-03-127,STTUS=DTNR+QTD:
PROCESSING TPSSER ACC
AFUR=128 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=01000
NE =128-00-123 ND= 96128123 STATUS=DTNR +QTD
NE =128-03-031 ND= 96128331 STATUS=DTNR NBDEF=0002
PROCESSING TPSSER EXC

@ND=96128123;
PROCESSING TPSSER ACC
AFUR=128 TYPUR=URA NBEQPT=01000
NE =128-00-123 ND= 96128123 STATUS=DTNR +QTD
PROCESSING TPSSER EXC
2.10 Junctor tests

Subscriber junctor tests are processed by the CSN's REJA tester.

The CSN automatically starts the tests every 18 hours.

The following tests are performed :

• detection of loops and direct current power supply,

• subscriber line voltage : ringing tone,

• testing the frequency levels by simulating a subscriber loop in the


REJA.

For discriminated subscribers :

• battery inversion,

• level of the remote charging signal.

When a fault is detected, a diagnostic is sent to the OM. The subscriber is


declared faulty (see AFBASE).

Subscriber junctor is tested by URTL command.


3 LINE GROUPS

3.1 Organisation of a group

A group is a set of lines that are associated to the same designation number,
(NDG group designation number) and that have access to the services
(categories) allocated to the group. When coming in, any call for the group is
routed onto one of the group lines that are entitled to incoming traffic (SPB
or MIX type lines).

There are three kinds of groups :

1) "outgoing" groups, made up of SPA lines only : NDG is a number


containing a letter in position 1000 (and thus it cannot be called),

2) "incoming" groups, made up of SPB lines only : NDG is a directory


number,

3) "both-way" groups, made up of SPA, SPB or MIX lines..

"Head of group" line : Each group has a special line called "head of group"
whose (ND) designation number corresponds to the group designation
number.

It is called :

• NDG for a principal group,

• NDP for a priority group.

Secondary line : any line that is not a "head of group" is secondary. In the
secondary lines there are :

1) preferential lines : these directly called lines have their own types and
categories. Modifications on the operating of the group should not affect a
preferential line and vice versa.

2) Secondary lines : are "not directly called lines" that have their own types
but not their own categories. They automatically have the group's
categories.
Fig: Telephone Line Group

Fig: PABX Line Group


3.2 Group characteristics

Principal group (GX)

A principal group is a group of lines that are associated to the same


designation number.

It is thus defined by a NDG designation number and the list of lines that
compose it.

Priority group (GP)

A priority group is a group that is defined on lines that already belong to a


(GX) principal group.

It is possible to define several disconnected priority groups within the same


group.

Note : The line in the group that has the same directory number as the group
is called (NDG) head of group for a principal group and (NDP) for a priority
group.

Preferential line (LP)

A preferential line is a line in a (GX or GP) group that can be directly called
by a directory number of its own.

This line has its own categories and types.

Subgroup

A subgroup is a group of consecutive equipment units belonging to the same


UR.

Each group is made of a maximum of 15 subgroups.

Examples of a subgroup :

NE = 42 - 0 -67 < 69 1 subgroup,

NE = 42 - 0 - 90 1 subgroup,

NE = 42 - 0-126 < 42-1- 2 1 subgroup.


Search subgroups (SG)

When searching for free lines, the SPB or Mixed lines can be distributed into
two subgroups.

SG1 : a 1st choice subgroup,

SG2 : a 2nd choice subgroup.

Each subgroup itself is made up of subgroups (15 maximum).

Inside a subgroup, the first subgroup is selected according to a search law


called :

LOI1 in subgroup SG1,

LOI2 in subgroup SG2,

If LOI n = 0, the search is a cyclic search in all subgroups,

If LOI n = 1, the search is systematic, starting from the first subgroup.

A call towards the group's directory number sets off a search for a free line,
following the priorities within the subgroups. The search can only proceed to
the second group, if it exists, once the first subgroup has been totally and
unsuccessfully explored.

A priority group can also have two search subgroups provided there is no
intersection between the two subgroups of the principal group and those of
the priority group.

Traffic on URA

To search for a free line, the CSN receives : the No. of the first equipment
unit in the subgroup and the consecutive number of equipment units. If the
subgroups are made up of only one line, there is a risk of getting quite a few
messages in the public exchange to search for the next subgroup and then
address it.

So it is advisable to create search subgroups with fewer subgroups and rather


with consecutive lines. It is safer to select the last and the first equipment
numbers on two consecutive boards.

In the case of total occupancy, a transfer onto a recorded announcement is


possible.
Fig : Main and Preferential groups

Fig : Sections in a group


Allotting categories to grouped lines

The rules for allotting categories to the lines are as follows :

• head of group : the categories allotted to this line are those of the
group (principal or priority).

• non preferential secondary line : the allotted categories are those of


the smallest group to which the line is directly associated (priority
group or by default the group itself).

• preferential secondary line : two cases are to be considered :


1) for an outgoing line, the allotted categories are those that
belong to the line,
2) for an incoming line, the categories are :
either the line's own categories, if it is called by its directory
number,
or the categories of the call's destination group if the line is
called by a group number.

Note(s) : or the categories of the call's destination group if the line is


called by a group number.
3.3 Description of MMC functions

GPXIL : Lists the groups

Outputs the heads of principal groups and possibly their heads of preferential
groups, for a range of NDs that is limited to one thousand.

GPXCR : Creation of a principal group

sets up a group from previously created single lines.

• if the CAT parameter (list of categories to add or remove) is not


specified, the group's categories are those belonging to the head
line.

• if the CAT parameter is specified, it adds or removes specified


categories from the head line's categories in order to make up the
group's categories. For a service to be activated by the group, it has
to be started up from a line that has the type TY = MOD (entitled to
modification).

• builds a 1st choice search subgroup with the lines of the non SPA
group.

• if the LOI1 parameter is specified, it assigns a value to the search


law in the NSG1.

GLXAD : Addition of a line or lines to a principal group

• connects the lines specified by NE or AFCT, or ND to the group


specified by NDG.

• builds a new search subgroup with the non SPA lines that were
added to the group or inserts these lines in a search subgroup that
already exists.

• if the LOI1 or LOI2 parameter is specified, a value is assigned to


the search law in SG1 (or 2).

• parameters : NDG, NSG, ND, NE, LOI, TAX, CAT, TY are output.
GLXRE : Removes lines from a principal group

Removes one or several line from a principal group; these lines become
single lines, with their own TY and CAT if they were preferential.

• the links between the lines to be removed and the group are cut,

• the links between the lines to be removed and the concerned


subgroups are cut, with the possibility of erasing the subgroups,

• the types that are specific to the removed lines are kept,

• implicit categories are assigned to the "not directly called lines" that
are removed,

• the categories which are specific to the directly called lines that
were removed are kept,

• NDG, NSG, ND, NE, LOI, TAX, CAT, TY parameters are output.

GLXSU : Deletion of a principal group

Removes all the lines of a GX, these lines become single lines with their
own TY and CAT if they were preferential.

• the group - group lines link is deleted.

• information related to the groups is deleted :


. categories,
. search subgroups.

• the types for each line are kept,

• the categories specific to directly called lines are kept,

• implicit categories are assigned to the not directly called lines,

• the ND, NE, NSG, LOI, CAT, TY and TAX parameters are output.
GPPCR : Creation of a priority group

Builds a priority group from lines that belong to a principal group and that
don't already belong to a priority group.

Creates information that marks the priority group :

• creates links between the priority group, the lines that compose it
and the preferential line that becomes the head of the priority group,

• assigns categories to the priority group,

• builds a 1st choice search subgroup,

• if the LOI1 parameter is specified, a value is assigned to the search


law in the SG,

• the NDG, NDP, ND, NE, NSG, LOI, TAX, CAT and TY
parameters are output

GLPAD : Addition of a line or lines to a priority group

Adds to a priority group one or several lines that belong to a principal group
but do not already belong to a priority group.

• connects the lines specified by ND, or NE or ACFT, to the priority


group defined by NDP,

• connects the lines specified by ND, or NE or ACFT, to the priority


group defined by NDP,

• added lines (non SPA) are inserted in an existing search subgroup


or a new search subgroup is created,

• if the LOI1 or LOI2 parameter is specified, a value is assigned to


the search law in SG1 or SG2,

• the NDG, NDP, ND, NE, NSG, LOI, TAX, CAT and TY
parameters are output.
GLPRE : Removes line(s) from a priority group

Removes lines from a GP, these lines remain assigned to the principal group.

• the links between the lines to be removed and the priority group are
cut,

• the links between the lines to be removed and the concerned search
subgroups are cut. A priority subgroup can be erased,

• the links between the removed lines and the principal group are
kept,

• the removed lines keep their type,

• the directly called lines that are removed keep their own categories,

• the non SPA lines that are removed still belong to the subgroups of
the principal group,

• the parameters NDG, NDP, ND, NE, NSG, LOI, TAX, TY and
CAT are output.

GPPSU : Deletion of a priority group

Removes all the lines of a priority group . These lines remain assigned to the
principal group and the line that is the head of the priority group becomes the
preferential line in the principal group, with the CATs of the group that was
deleted.

• The links : priority group - lines of this group are deleted,

• the following information related to the priority group is deleted :


. priority group categories,
. search subgroups.

• search subgroups :
. keeps its own type,
. keeps its own categories if the line is a directly called line,
the non SPA lines still belong to the search subgroups of the
principal group.

• the links existing between the lines coming from the priority group
and the principal group are kept,

• the parameters NDP, ND, NE, NSG, LOI, CAT, TY and TAX are
output.
4 CLOSED USER GROUP
4.1 Introduction A closed user group is a set of subscriber lines connected to one
or more exchanges and belonging to the same organization (a company or
government agency, for example).Subscribers can make private network calls
(private charging system) using the public network.Subscribers with a closed user
group (CUG) number are identified by the public exchange. They can then set up
calls with other group members using the telephone to indicate which CUG they
belong to and then dialling the called party designation number.A subscriber can
belong to maximum 4 CUG at the same time.Incoming and outgoing calls to/from
the closed user group are allowed only if the subscriber is assigned category APE
(incoming calls allowed) or APS (outgoing calls allowed).

Activating the service: the service is activated by the subscriber who enters the
CUG number before dialling the called party number.

Providing the service: assign the category(CAT = GFU) to the line using the
ABOMO command and manage closed user groups using GFUxx commands.

Closed user group for ISDN subscriber (CAT = GFU or APS or APE orGRPF)

The service operates in the same way as for an analogue subscriber line, except
that the ISDN subscriber can be allocated a preferential CUG (option GRPF).

Providing the service: The category is assigned by using the ABOMO command
with parameter GFU to the NDI only, APS to be able to withdraw from the CUG
and APE to enter the CUG. CAT=GRPF defines a preferential CUG (reserved for
ISDN subscribers).
4.2 MMC Functions
4.2.1 GFUAF allows you to assign closed user groups (GFU) to subscriber lines.
- GFUAF must only be executed on subscriber lines with a GFU category.
- The INDEXP parameter is only allowed for subscriber lines with a GPRF
category.
The GFU assigned to these lines is in this case, priority.
@ GFUAF ,CEN=-- :
EXCHANGE/DATE/HOUR/CLOSED USER GROUP ASSIGNMENT
@ ND=------<------+------..., Designation number
NI=----, Identity of the network or country
CODE=-----, GFU code in the network specified by NI
INDEX=-----, GFU number for the ND
or
INDXP=-----,
GFU number for the subscriber, if the GFU is a preferential GFU
ND = ----------- either
NI = ---- CODE = ----- INDEX = - or
NI = ---- CODE = ----- INDXP = -

4.2.2 GFUIL allows you to list the subscriber lines belonging to a closed user
group (GFU).
@GFUIL ,CEN=-- :
EXCHANGE/DATE/HOUR/CLOSED USER GROUPS LISTING
@ NI=---- Identity of the network or country
CODE=----- GFU code in the network
NI = ---- CODE = ----- either
ND = ----------- INDEX = - or
ND = ----------- INDXP = -

4.2.3 GFUSU allows you to delete a closed user group (GFU).


@ GFUSU ,CEN=-- :
EXCHANGE/DATE/HOUR/CLOSED USER GROUPS DELETION
@ NI=---- , Identity of the network or country
CODE=----- GFU code in the network
5 SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGNATION NUMBERS (NDS)
5.1 Introduction The supplementary designation number management function is used
to assign one or more supplementary designation numbers to an existing designation
number. The term NDI (installation ND) is given to the main number to which all the
subscriber types and categories are attached, and the term NDS (supplementary ND) is
given to the other numbers.
Supplementary designation numbers can be:
 assigned to an ordinary analogue line,
 assigned to a main or preferential group.
• Used with an ISDN accesss for MSN
• Used for direct dialling-in
The supplementary designation number assigned can only differ from the designation
number in terms of its last four digits.
Calls to the supplementary designation number can be diverted to an announcement
(CAT=DFn) or to an attendant (CAT=DOP).
5.2 Using NDS numbers for distinctive ringing (analogue subscriber) The distinctive
ringing service is available to analogue subscribers by assigning NDS numbers to the
subscriber ND number. The supplementary designation numbers are handled like
designation numbers. Each NDS can be assigned a SONi category using the ABOMO
command . The category identifies the type of ringing to be used when an incoming call
is made to the supplementary number. If no SONn category is assigned to the
supplementary number, the standard ringing pattern is used.

5.3 Operator commands


NDSCR: assign an NDS to an ND or NDG or to create one or more NDS, after using
ABOCR to create the NDI. The mark MAR=ASD indicates the presence of NDS on the
access.
@NDSCR:
@ND= ,NDS= ;
NDSAD: add an NDS to an ND or NDG.
NDSRE : remove an NDS from an ND or NDG.
NDSSU: delete an NDS of an ND or NDG.
ABOIN: interrogate (view) the NDS and parent ND.
6 DIRECT DIALLING-IN (DDI)
6.1 Introduction An installation with DDI is a group of subscriber lines connected to a
private branch exchange, itself connected to the public exchange on one or more PCM
links, or via the ISDN. The direct dialling-in service can be made available for ISDN
subscribers by linking supplementary designatory numbers to the designation number of
the customer premises equipment (CPE). These NDSs are called DDI numbers and, by
default they are used with the same categories as the CPE's ND.

The exchange can retransmit all the digits of the directory number received to the CPE,
if it is an ETSI ISDN CPE, or the last four digits in the case of a VN ISDN CPE.

Incoming calls to a DDI installation are routed over a circuit group. The exchange
forwards the last few digits (up to four digits) of the called party number to the PABX.

The DDI installation is assigned a code structured ZABPQ, ZABPQM, ZABPQMC or


ZABPQMCD depending on the number of terminals connected to the installation.

Management of DDI installations The routing code analysis points to a routing on an


outgoing circuit group with transmission of the number dialled.

Figure : Direct dialling -in connected via PCM link


7 Supplementary services offered to analog & digital subscriber lines List of
supplementary services offered to digital subscriber lines:
- freephone line(CAT=LST),
- advice of charge at end of call(CAT=IDT,IDC),
- essential line(TY=LSS),
- line with itemized billing(CAT=FDn),
- malicious call identification(CAT=IAM+CAMn),
- call waiting, accompanied by an announcement while the waiting call is be
presented,
- three-party conference(CAT=COF),
- variable call forwarding unconditional(CAT=RVFT),
- variable call forwarding on busy(CAT=RVFO),
- variable call forwarding on no reply(CAT=RFNR),
- fixed call forwarding unconditional(CAT=RVT),
- fixed call forwarding on busy(CAT=RVO),
- fixed call forwarding on no reply(CAT=DNR),
- call forwarding to an international number(CAT=RAIN),
- fixed barring of outgoing calls(TY=SRn),
- user-controlled barring of outgoing calls(CAT=SRC),
- calling line identification presentation(CAT=DIPA,TY=DSM or DTMF),
- calling line identification restriction(CAT=SIDR),
- call completion to busy subscriber(CAT=SRS,DROC),
- Connected line identification presentation(CAT=COLP),
- Connected line identification restriction(CAT=COLR),
- Anonymous call rejection(CAT=ACRJ),
- Customised ringing(CAT=SONn),
- Call hold(CAT=DMG)
- Explicit call transfer(CAT=ECT)
- Call waiting(CAT=IAI)
- Hotline(CAT=LAI,LAT)
- Abbreviated dialling(CAT=NAn),
- barring of incoming calls(CAT=SRAn),
- closed user groups(CAT=GFU),
- Line with telecharging(TY=TTX,TTXN),
- Registered call(CAT=AEN)
- Dedicated line(TY=SPA,SPB)
- User to user signalling(CAT=DIU),
- subscriber-based carrier selection(CAT=TRAi,TRBj,TRCk),
- terminal portability during a call.
Some facility which requires activation and deactivation can be activated/deactivated
either by commands or by codes defined in REDA.e.g. call transfer on busy facility
(CAT=RVO)can be activated by command @RVTAC:
@ ND= ,NAR= ,TYPE=3;
or by using code 141.
(Note: for facility activation/deactivation codes refer to REDA.)
8 CENTREX

8.1 Introduction Centrex is a virtual PABX system designed for office application.It is
cheaper than managing a PABX system.The centrex function allows, grouping the
subscribers by business groups (companies). A centrex company is an administrative
entity comprising a set of private lines connected to the same exchange. For Out-of-
Centrex calls subscriber has to dial a short access code. Centrex subscribers are
connected to the exchange in the same way as public subscribers, thus in addition to
being a Centrex subscriber they have the advantage that they can access all other
subscriber features available in the exchange. Also subscribers belonging to a Centrex
group could be geographically OCB subscribers located far apart, the only limitation
being that they should belong to the same exchange. Also this allow them to access all
other types of networks (international, mobile, etc.)

Centrex Types
An exchange supporting the Centrex function can be organised with or without number
blocks.On an exchange features without number blocks cannot coexist with features with
number blocks.

Internal Dialing
The internal numbering scheme of centrex companies with blocks can be of 2 to 4 digits
length, depending on the size of the company. This ‘internal dialing plan’ could be
integrated into the numbering scheme of the public network i.e. the digits of the
internal number are the last digits of the PSTN number of the subscriber. This makes it
possible to provide Centrex subscribers with the DDI (Direct Dialing In) facility. The
Centrex subscriber could be allowed the access to the public network by means of a
simple access code.
Capacity

• Number of Centrex subscribers : Any number within the limits of the


Exchange traffic and the connection capacity of the exchange
• Number of centrex companies: 1023 maximum.
• Number of Blocks possible per centrex company : 8 blocks
• Number of subscribers per centrex company : 9000 maximum
• Internal Numbering: 2 to 4 digits.
• Attendant Position : Either Analog or Digital attendant position is possible
- Analog attendant position: 1 per company (could be a single line or line
group).
- ISDN attendant position : 1 ISDN access per company
• Alarm/ reminder call : maximum 600 total reminders , 300 per 5-minute period
8.2 Centrex Creation
Centrex creation can be divided in four steps:

• Opening of centrex specific file in XATR archive.


• File parameter modification and their assignment.
• Analysis DATA creation
• Society and subscriber creation

8.2.1 File Parameter Modification and Their Assignment.

Check the value of “SITE and LNUI parameter in the system by following command:

@ARCIN:
@ARCH=XATR, NFIC=52,NUM=12,NOMS=XRO52C, FORM=EDN;

• Change value of SITE parameter in FIPAM file record no. 12 to ‘3’.


1. Change value of LNUI parameter in FIPAM file record no. 12 to ‘x’. Value of “x”
can be change to 1 to 11 depending upon the configuration:

a) If CENTREX creation is required without block


In this case“x” must vary from 5 onwards

LNUI value is not effective for CENTREX with block configuration

Check the file assignment through following command:


@PAMIN, CEN=1;

Check that different FENU files should be assigned for different facilities:
RVT, AEN, LAI, SRC, SRS, RAL, FIE/FIR, DNR, RVO, DN1, RFO, RDA, RVFT,
RVFO, RFNR.

If file assignment is missing against any facility it can be assigned by using PAMMO
command.

8.2.2 Analysis DATA Creation

Following analysis has to be created in the system:


• For enabling CENTREX subscriber for external dialing following analysis has to be
created @PRECR:
@ PREA=14, PRE=0,PRES=1,RCA=3,RCE=2;

All CENTREX calls are routed to PREA 1 after absorbing “0”, which is the additional
digits to be dialed for external communication.
• For extending facility codes starting with 1,*,# following modification is required:
@ PRECR:
@PREA=14,PRE=1,TRAD=3,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=A, TRAD=3,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=J, TRAD=3,RCA=1,RCE=1;
• For enabling internal CENTREX subscriber dialing starting with following levels
i.e.2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, following changes are required:
@PRECR:
@PREA=14,PRE=2,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=3,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=4,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=5,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=6,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=7,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=8,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:
@PREA=14,PRE=9,TRAD=0,RCA=1,RCE=1:

8.2.3 Society And Subscriber Creation

• Create IND by MILCR for Centrex.


@MILCR:
@IND=XXXX: (Replace xxxx by any 4-digit number.)
@INDCR: (For local number dialling)
@IND=XXXX,TRAD=1,RDC=7,ACHN=1-1<64,PTXN=201-1<128;

• Create Centrex subscribers with following command:


@ABOCR:
@ND=5420000,NE=a-b-c, SOC=1;
• Create society/company by using SOCCR command
The parameters are
SOC number of society
NSOC name of society
LNU number of internal digits (must match by LNUI
Field in FIPAM)
PTX PTX associated for internal charging.
@SOCCR:
@SOC=1,NSOC=BSNL,LNU=3, PTX=0; (Where N can be any number)
PTX=0, If CENTREX internal calls are not to be charged.
. In this case maximum number of subscriber in the block is limited to 999. In one
CENTREX 8 such blocks are possible .For intra CENTREX calls Xxx will be dialled
where X is the block number and xx are the last digits of Directory Number.
• Add the block in the society by SOCMO command
The parameters are
SOC number of society to be modified
TRN Block number (this number will be used as a prefix
for internal dialing.
TRL Total users in a block
For 10 users, the number of digits used in dialing is
1 (last digit of ND).
For 100 users, the number of digits used in dialing
are 2 (Last 2 digits of ND)
For 1000 users, the number of digits used in dialing
are 3 (last 3 digits of ND)
TRND Head ND for the block.

For example if society name is BSNL, Society number =1,MIL=542,length of


block=100, first digit of internal dialing is 2 then:
@SOCMO:
@SOC=1, NSOC=ABCD,TRND=542000,TRL=100,TRN=2;
In the above case CENTREX internal numbers will be 200 to 299 while external direct
dialing in (DID) numbers will be 542000 to 542099. Night operator if required can be
added to it after creation against “NARN” parameter.

Centrex commands:
SOCCR,SOCIN,SOCIL,SOCMO,SOCSU

8.3 Supplementary services offered to centrex subscribers


- Centrex operator position(CAT=POC),
- Protection against intrusion(CAT=PIN)
- Call pickup group (CAT=GIAn)
- Collective list of abbreviated numbers(CAT=NLAn OR NLBn),
- Entitlement to secretary service(CAT=FIR),
- Entitlement to manager service(CAT=FIE),
- Barring of incoming calls(CAT=SREn)
- Local call completion to busy subscriber(CAT=RAL),
- Protection against call forwarding(CAT=PRV),
- Day/Night category changeover(TY=SRNn),
- Day/Night category switchover(TY=SCA)
TRANSLATION MANAGEMENT

0. Introduction
In earliest form of automatic Telephony i.e. Strowger telephony, the subscriber was
required to dial digits which operated the relays step by step to reach the called
subscriber or service. Common control systems, for example X - Bar system, introduced
translation of the dialed digits (destination code) by the subscriber, to route the call to
the destination. The SPC system uses the same philosophy in an elaborate software way
to achieve wider flexibility in routing.

1. Translation Function
Translation function is the process that transforms received data into a set of required
data in order to process the calls according to the request of the subscriber, after duly
verifying the authorization of the subscribers. Data input to the translator may be digits
supplied by the subscriber or received over circuits or data obtained from a previous
stage of translation.

2. Translation management.
Translation management command of MML enable operator to CReate, MOdify,
SUppress, INterrogate, or LIst different sub-processes involved in the translation
function. These are described as bellow..
2.1. PRESELECTION
Subscriber lines and circuits are the sources, from which calls can be originated in an
exchange. These sources are attributed with certain categories. The significance of these
categories is explained in the chapters dealing with subscriber management and circuit
group management. The translator maintains these informations in form of data base. In
case of a call originating on a subscriber line or junction a register of MR is seized
which receive the space address of the subscriber or circuit. Register calls the TR to
collect the category information and caller code i.e. whether the call is from a subscriber
line or over a junction etc with reference to space address. Caller code and category
information is required during subsequent stages of translation management. This
function is referred to as PRESELECTION FUNCTION.
2.2. Preanalysis
This sub-function of translation carry out analysis of first few digits in the pre-analysis
table (PREA file) corresponding to caller code to find out the table of analysis to be
referred for further or final analysis. The rank of digits from where analysis to
commence and the minimum number of digits necessary for final analysis is obtained in
this sub-function.
Preselection Table.
Caller codes Entity Preanalysis table
1 Subscriber 1
2 Incoming circuit with R2MF signaling 2
3 Incoming circuit with decadic 3
signaling
10 Incoming circuit with CCS#7 signaling 10

PRESELECTION

Space address UR-EQP TR


MR PRESELECTION

Caller code and CAT, TY etc


of Subscriber / Circuit

Depending upon the caller code different tables of PREANALYSIS are used by the
translator in Preanalysis.

Caller code + Prefix digits TR


MR PREANALYSIS
PREA#=CALLER CODE

TRAD, RCE, RCA, DIS

TRAD Analysis table to be used


RCE Rank of digit from which analysis must start
RCA Number of digits to be received by MR before calling TR for (final) analysis.
DIS Specific parameters as mentioned in REDA
The digits preanalysed can be
a) Few initial digits dialed by the subscriber
b) Recreated digits as per digit translation or changed number.
c) Regenerated at the incoming exchange as per the value of parameter INDR in the
incoming circuit group.
d) Received digits prefixed by an access code at the originating exchange.
Basically preanalysis is done to determine the nature of call i.e.Local, National or ISD.
Local/ regional / special services analysis table1 TRAD 1
National call table 2 TRAD 2
Charged facilities table 3 TRAD 3
International call table 4 TRAD 4
RESULT OF PRE-ANALYSIS

The depth of preanalysis can be a maximum of 8 digits.

2.2.1. Commands used in OCB 283 for creation of records


corresponding to preselection.
2.2.1.1.Local call, regional call, calls to special services.
@PRECR: ↵
@ PREA=1,PRE=XY, TRAD=1, RCE=a,RCA=b; ↵
Significance of parameters
PREA=1 If Caller code = 1 i.e. if call is originated over a subscriber line
PRE=XY If originating subscriber is dialing first two digits XY
TRAD=1 Call is a local , regional or special service call ( to be analyzed under
analysis table 1)
RCE=b Start analyzing the digits from position ‘a’ digit
RCA=a ‘b’ Number of digits to be received by MR before calling TR for analysis.
Similar preanalysis management is done for other PREFIXES (PRE) corresponding to
regional and special services, giving the appropriate value of TRAD, RCA, and RCE.

If all such routes are authorized for the incoming junctions, similar management shall
be done in preanalysis tables (PREA) 2 & 3 also.

For CCS#7 junction calls “nature of call” information is received as ACCESS CODE.
Access code for regional call is 1. The number dialed by the subscriber at the out going
exchange will be prefixed by access code 1 for regional calls and hence PRE in
parameter line will be 1 for regional calls.

2.2.1.2.National call prefixes


In the case of R2MF national call the prefix will be “0x”
@PRECR: ↵
@PRE=0x,PREA=P, TRAD=2,RCE=a,RCA=b; ↵
where P= PREA file NO. corresponding to source and normally a=1, b=4
For CCS#7 access code received will be ‘3’ for national calls and hence PRE=3 shall be
used in PREA=10 with RCE=2, so that analysis is done from second digit i.e. 0x
@PRECR: ↵
@PRE=3,PREA=10, TRAD=2,RCE=2,RCA=4; ↵
Exch A OCB REGIONAL CALLS
Exch. B
PREA1 141xxxx
PREA 10
TRAD 1 CCS#7 CCT.
31xxxx OCB 41xxxx

R2MF CCT. NATIONAL & I S D CALLS


31xxxx 0xx xxxxxx
TRAD 2 PREA 2
Special Services 30xx xxxxxx
like 197,198 etc. CCS#7 CCT. PREA 10 OCB TAX
400xx xxxxxx
TRAD 3 TRAD 4
PREA 3

Facilites
e.g. 124,110 etc.
Strowger SxS

2.2.1.3.Chargeable facilities and prefixes


@PRECR: ↵
@PRE=1XY,PREA=1,TRAD=3,RCE=1,RCA=3; ↵
XY shall be as per the facility activation codes.

2.2.1.4.International call prefixes


In the case of R2MF international call prefix will be 00.
@PRECR: ↵
@PRE =00,PREA=1 OR 2 OR 3, RCE=1,RCA=4,TRAD=4; ↵
International calls coming over CCS7 link from other exchanges access code will be 4
and hence for PREA=10, PRE=4 will have to be used.
@PRECR: ↵
@PRE=4,PREA=10,RCE=2,RCA=4,TRAD=4; ↵
Note: There are some optional parameters also for preanalysis. The exhaustive list can
be seen in REDA (Extract available in Appendix 1). The purpose of these optional
parameters are explained in REDA.
PREIN, PREMO and PRESU commands are available for INterrogation, MOdification
of one or more parameters and SUppression of preanalysis respectively, are available.
Dialing received

Dialing insertion by INDR, Access code,


Call source
Received / Modified digits

Pre-analysis table Pre-analysis


change Transfer

Analysis table change Analysis


Transfer

Routing category Lev 1


Routing category Lev 1 Determine For charging
For routing ROUT DST MP

Indexing Lev 2 Indexing Lev 2


by ZG Call limitation by ZG

Routing Metering parameters


Type 6
Analysis for recreation
By Index Lev 2
Local or CAT=DFn
Subscribers

Only for O/G Filtering Transfer No.

Circuit group Transfers


Rout

Overflow Announcement
/ Tone
Rout
3. Dialing Code Management Or Analysis
The input to translator for the purpose of analysis is few digits (= RCA) either as
received or modified in some previous stage of selection in the exchange in question or
other exchanges. The translated information is some data related to routing and charging
of the call. The table or file in which analysis is to be performed is obtained in
PREANALYSIS phase as the parameter TRAD.

‘TRAD’ ANALYSIS
‘RCA’ number of digits • Routing number Refer to
+ • Charging parameter note below
‘TRAD’ as obtained • Number length or
at the end of preanalysis minimum and maximum no.
+ of digits expected.
Charging category • Some discriminations
explained in REDA

Note: Routing and charging parameters are not directly obtained from analysis tables,
but for these the analysis table points to two different tables where from the route
number and charging parameters are obtained for each charging category (first
level indexing).

The tables of translation in use are:


TRAD =1 For Local / Regional / Special services
=2 For National calls
=3 For Charged facilities
=4 For International calls
Total 15 tables are available for TRAD=1 to 15.

CT 4<64 ACH=20
CT 68<95 FILM
CT 99<128

OCB
CAT=CT1 LOCAL
EXCHANGE
NFSC=IE10B NFSC=OGTAX
E10B TAX
ACH=50
CTA=AT2

CTA=AT3
3.1. Commands
@INDCR: ↵
@IND=022,
TRAD=2,ACHN=50-1<3+20-4<64+50-65<67+20-68<95+50-96<98+20-99<128,
PTXN=2-1+3-2+4-3+0-4<64+2-65+3-66+4-67+0-68<95+2-96<97+3-98+0-99<128,
RCMI=8,RCMA=10;
These are compulsory parameters. Other optional parameters are given in REDA extract
of which is given in Appendix 2.

The analysis created here is for a national call ‘022’ from a local OCB to be routed via
TAX. A logical route No. 50 (ACH=50) is linked with the circuit group NFSC=OGTAX
extended to TAX and this route has been made accessible to charging categories 1<3,
65, 67 & 97<99. Other charging categories are denied access to TAX and are routed to a
recorded announcement (FILM) linked to route No. 20. Similarly the charging
parameters for the sources with charging categories 1<3, 65, 67 & 97<99 have a definite
value viz. 2 but other charging categories, denied access are not charged because the
charging parameter PTX for these charging categories is zero.

Note: Charging and geographical zone are two parameters which are allocated to
different call sources either subscriber or incoming junctions. There can be 64
charging categories and 64 geographical zones. The charging categories are
extended to 128 by way of type of call e.g. 3.1 K Hz restricted voice (65 <96) and
data call (97<128).

Routing a call to different route numbers (ACH) for different source charging categories
is referred to as Routing With First Level Indexation. (CIA1).

Similarly charging a call differently for different charging category is referred to as


Charging With First Level Indexation (CIX1).

The routing and charging can be changed as per geographical zone allotted to subscriber
or incoming junctions also. For this the route number and charging parameter allocated
with first level indexation can be made multiple type, pointing to yet another set of
routing and charging corresponding to different geographical zone.

Routing and charging differently with respect to geographical zone is referred to as


Second Level Indexation For Routing (CIA2) and charging (CIX2).

This shows that we can have flexibility in choosing to route a call via different routes as
per charging category and geographical zone, and also we can have different charging
based on charging category and geographical zone.
A typical example.

ACH=20
FILM
Local subscriber

CAT=CT1 OCB
LOCAl
Local NFSC=OGTAX
TAX
assistance ACH=60

CAT=CT2

@INDCR: ↵
@IND=0, ACHN=60-1+20-2<128, PTXN=22-1+0-2<128, TRAD=2, RCMI=6,
RCMA=10: ↵
Here a subscriber with charging category CT1 will be allowed to TAX (ACH=60) when
he dials 0xx but assistance operator entering exchange over a circuit group with charging
category CT2 will be routed to announcement on ACH=20, when he dials 0xx.

Note: Management for routing and charging differently with second level indexation
shall be discussed under routing (multiple) and charging (multiple)

4. Destination and call gapping management


Some times there may be an unusual heavy traffic to a destination or a particular number
belonging to the destination.

This may cause overloading of exchange and failure of calls. In order to improve call
completion rate , calls to the destination can be offered one at a time at periodic interval
which can be decided by administration. The gapping is managed and monitored by
translator. The gapping management is done at analysis phase.

4.1. Commands used.


4.1.1. Destination creation
@DSTCR: ↵
@NDST=MADRAS: ↵ (Maximum 6 alphanumeric characters)
4.1.2. Linking the destination with the existing analysis of the IND
for destination.
@INDMO: ↵
@IND=044,TRAD=1,NDST=MADRAS; ↵
4.1.3. Launching or starting the call gapping.
@ESALA: ↵
@NDST=MADRAS,PER=100,IEC=ENC: ↵
Note:
NDST and NDE are mutually exclusive.
PER= Interval between consecutive calls (Value can be 2 to 5120 which can
effect gapping of 0.2 to 512 sec.)
In an Exchange call gapping can be only in one TRAD as defined in Translator
file FIPAM.
OR
ESP=TOT ( Not allow any calls )
IEC=ENC ( sent busy signal to subscriber ) Or ECH ( Sent failure signal to subscriber)
on not allowing the call.
OR
FILM= (Announcement No.)
Call can be gapped or disallowed to particular numbers
@ESALA: ↵
@NDE=0442345678+0443456789,ISP=TOT,FILM=9: ↵
4.1.4. Call gapping can be stopped by
@ESAAR: ↵
@NDST=MADRAS: ↵
@NDE=0443456789: ↵
ESAIN command can be used to consult whether there is call limitation imposed on any
destination.

DSTSU command will suppress the call limiting table.

DSTIL command is available to selectively list.

5. Local thousand group management.


A subscriber’s designation number in OCB consists of thousand group followed by three
digits corresponding to hundred’s, ten’s, and unit’s digit. Thus thousand group consists
of exchange number prefixes followed by thousand’s digit of subscriber number. Before
a subscriber number is created, thousand group must be created with the prefix.
Theoretically as many as 256 thousand groups can be created in an exchange.

Creation of a thousand group is essential before creation of subscribers and creation of


analysis for local routing, for the IND corresponding to the local thousand group. A
thousand group may consist of a letter A, J, S, Or C at thousand’s place of the ND. For
example we can have a thousand group 45A and an ND can be 45A123. Such numbers
are referred to as literal numbers, and some times may be useful to create for subscriber
lines with only outgoing calls.
5.1. Commands used
5.1.1. Thousand group creation
@MILCR: ↵
@IND=4110,INDN=761; ↵
Meaning of parameters
IND = Thousand group in the form of XYZM where XYZ is prefix 2 or 3 digits and M
is thousand group.
INDN = National code
INDA = Ancient code to be replaced by new code
With each thousand group creation a new internal thousand group file gets created in
chronological order

Note: INDN may be included in MILCR or INDN can also be automatically prefixed if
this is defined in exchange parameter file by
@PAMMO: ↵
@INDN=0761; ↵
5.1.2. Thousand group consultation
@MILIN: ↵
@ED = YES; ↵
This command gives IND for each thousand group already existing along with INDA,
INDN if any and NMI. (rank of thousand group which also represents the internal
designation number file FARI).

5.1.3. Thousand group suppression


@MILSU: ↵
@IND=0761; ↵
A thousand group can be suppressed only if
• Subscribers belonging to this thousand group are suppressed.
• Local analysis for this thousand group is suppressed
ROUTING MANAGEMENT

6. Introduction
At the completion of analysis of digits one routing number is obtained. There can be a
maximum of 1023 routing numbers. A table of routing numbers i.e. file FACH
describes certain characteristics for processing the call, and switching to the
destination physical entity. For the same digit analysis the routing numbers may be
different for different charging categories.

The physical entity to which the call can be switched may be local number, a outgoing
junction with or without forwarding (sending) digits, a tone, a recorded
announcement, a maintenance device or a retranslated number.

Routing numbers are broadly classified under two categories viz. TERMINAL
ROUTING and MULTIPLE ROUTING.

While the terminal routing is used to switch the call to final destination, multiple
routing point to various other routing on the basis of certain criterion.

7. Routing Types
Type Use
1. Out going routing with sending of digits
2. Out going routing without sending of digits
3. Local (internal) routing
4. Routing to announcement
5. Routing to test / maintenance device
6. Routing with renumbering
7. Multiple routing depending on second level indexing
8. Multiple routing different for out going and incoming calls
9. Multiple routing remote controlled (by man machine commands)
10. Multiple routing depending on time
11. Multiple routing load sharing
12. Multiple routing call dispersion (Not used in India)
13. Not used
14. Not used
15. Not used
16. Routing to complementary service or chargeable facility
17. Routing to tone

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Digital Switching System
7.1. Terminal routing
7.1.1. TYPE 3 ROUTING
Local routing i.e. routing pointing to a called party within the same exchange (internal
call) is Type 3 routing.

When such a routing is arrived at after analysis, translator demands Multiregister to


forward complete digits of called number to determine the address of called party
with in the exchange. This address in the form of UR No. and Equipment number is
returned to MR.

7.1.1.1.Commands And Parameter For Type 3 Routing

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=1, TYPE=3, DIS= C+SR4+SR6+IRV: ↵

Note:

Parameters ACH and TYPE are compulsory

Discrimination Parameter DIS is optional. Exhaustive list of discrimination associated


with routing, is given in Appendix. Different DIS has different meaning and not all
DIS are applicable to all Types of routing. For e.g. DIS=C means the route is allowed
incoming calls and DIS= SRn means route will be barred for subscribers having TY=
SRn discrimination.

There can be 1023 (1<1023) routing numbers. But only one ACH can be created at a
time. REDA (Specific Document 3-1-2) specifies the range of ACHs to be used for
different types of ACHs and must be used accordingly.

7.1.2. TYPE 1 ROUTING


Type 1 routing is used for routing a call to another exchange whether in the same city
(regional) or a distant station (National) requiring sending of digits.

This type of routing therefore essentially points to the physical entity i.e. circuit group
and parameters related to sending. As optional parameters there can be various
discriminations (DIS). All the important parameters for DIS are given in the
Appendix and some of them are discussed in examples. These can be used as per
specific requirement.

Example : 1)

Typical case of routing of TYPE=1 for a circuit group with CCS7 signaling from a
local exchange to TAX.

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Digital Switching System
E10B NFSC=IE10B
Local
CTA=AT2

TY=SR0, CAT=SRC

TY=SR5, CAT=SRC
OCB
LOCAl
TY=SR3, CAT=SRC NFSC=OGTAX
TAX
ACH=50
TY=SR1

Network requirements

Here routing number 50 is free and chosen for national calls and accessible to
subscribers with TY=SR0 and SR3. (SR0 means no restrictions to any type of call,
and SR3 is for ISD barred). The national calls at Level 0 should not be accessible to
subscribers with TY=SR5.

Any subscriber with Dynamic STD locking (CAT=SRC) should be capable of call
restriction of TYPE=1,TYPE=2 & TYPE=4.

The calls should be accessible to subscribers from E10B exchange transiting through
the local OCB exchange provided there is no restriction imposed on the subscribers
by E10B.

Video conferencing or any data call between ISDN subscribers in the national
network is to be provided

7.1.2.1.Commands And Parameters

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=50, TYPE=1, NFSC=OGTAX, RPCE=1, RCR=8,


DIS=C+SR1+SR2+SR4+SR5+DRA8, AC=3: ↵

Here DIS = C will ensure calls from E10B subs incoming to OCB over a junction to
be transitted to reach TAX over the Circuit group OGTAX on the route 50.

DIS= SR1+SR2+SR4+SR5 will impose restrictions to subs or circuits with


corresponding restrictions.

DIS=DRA8 ensures end to end digital connectivity for ISDN data calls.

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Digital Switching System
RPCE=1 is used to forward all the digits dialled by the subscriber to TAX (say
subscriber is dialing 0223456789, digits from rank 1 i.e. from 0 will be forwarded to
TAX. If RPCE=2, then only 223456789 will be forwarded to TAX)

RCR=8 ensures that after receiving minimum 8 digits from the subscriber a circuit
will be seized and forwarding of digits to TAX will start. Reception of digits from
subscriber is very slow process compared to the transmission of the digits on the
junction circuit and an early seizure of the circuit will be wasting circuit time.

Parameter AC is to define Nature of Call Indicator. This will be sent in NAI field of
CCS#7 message. AC=1 is for Regional call and will be preanalysed in PREA=10,
PRE=1 with RCE=2, at the receiving end. AC=3 indicates the call is to be analysed
for National Subscriber Dialing and will be preanalysed in PREA=10, PRE=3 with
RCE=2. AC=4 indicates a International call which is to be preanalysed in PREA=10,
PRE=4 with RCE=2.

Routing code associated with an ACH can be found by command

@RANIN: ↵

@ ACH=50; ↵

This will give all the INDs linked to ACH=50

Example 2

If the routing is not to be transferred then DIS=IRV is used. (Example: Unauthorised


routing for ‘Follow me’ facility)

@ACHMO: ↵

@ACH=50,DIS=IRV; ↵

Example 3

Exch. Exch
TAX
A B
ACH=50
Sub A Sub B
CAT=LST

Subscriber A in Exchange A dials a number Subscriber B in exchange B . Subscriber


B has CAT=LST (i.e. calling party not to be charged).

If Subscriber A is to be charged then, the ACH through which the call is routed
should have DIS=IST.

@ ACHMO: ↵

@ACH=50, DIS=IST; ↵

Example 4

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Digital Switching System
If the circuits in ACH=50 are all occupied or non-available due to busy / fault
conditions, calls can be diverted to ACH=60 by making it over flow routing.

NFSC=OGTAX
ACH=50
Exch. TAX
Sub A
A NFSC=OTAX1
ACH=60

@ACHMO: ↵

@ACH=50, ACD=60; ↵

Note:

The alternate circuit group should have same type of capabilities. Otherwise some
additional parameters should be used for correcting the miss-match. For example a
call which has an original routing to a circuit group having CCS#7 signaling , if it is
to over flow to a circuit group with R2MF signaling it will create problems. How to
over come these problems will be discussed later.

In addition to DISs given in example many more values of DIS are described in
REDA.

7.1.3. TYPE 2 ROUTING


This routing is also for out going junctions not requiring sending of digits. e.g. to
manual boards. Such routing will there fore not be having parameters related to
sending.

Exch. NFSC=O199
Sub A Assistance
OCB
ACH=70 199
Local

Manual Board

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=70, TYPE=2, NFSC=O199, RCR=3; ↵

On seizure of the circuit a signal will operate calling indicator on the manual board.
Digits are not sent on the circuit ‘O199’.

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Digital Switching System
7.1.4. TYPE 4 ROUTING
This routing is for routing calls to FILMs i.e. recorded announcement.

Exch. NFSC=NBNNU Announcement


Sub A OCB Machine
Local ACH=17 MPNA

When a subscriber dial a number not existing he can be routed to an announcement


‘This telephone number does not exist’. It may be FILM=1, created on route
ACH=17.

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=17, TYPE=4, FILM=1; ↵

Creation of announcements and making them available to exchange through CCS#7


circuits will be discussed later.

There can be some discriminations e.g. DIS=INF which will mean that this is an
information type of announcement and will be charged as per PTX attached to the
IND which is linked to an ACH of TYPE=4.

Note:

Charging will take place if LST field in FIDIF file of translator for record number
corresponding to FILM number is made zero.

Example

If FILM 1 is to be charged

@ARCMO: ↵

@ARCH=XATR, FICH=FIDIF, NUM=1, CHSI=LST-0, AF=ALL; ↵

File modification operation is dangerous command.

7.1.5. TYPE 5 ROUTING


This is routing for accessing a maintenance device e.g. DERAL (subscriber line
tester) or maintenance device for circuit testing.

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=5, TYPE=5, MAIN=1, DIS=I; ↵

MAIN=1 is for a tone test number (long distance trunk 4 wire hypsometer test) The
ACH is given discrimination

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Digital Switching System
The test number can be created by

@ABOCR: ↵

@ND=329999, ACH=5; ↵

DIS=I in ACH is to disable subscribers to access the route by dialing the test number.

7.1.6. TYPE 6 ROUTING


This type is used to route a call to ND belonging to the same exchange. Such routing
is generally used to re-route calls to some special services like say 198 to ND which
in turn can be a NDG to a PBX group. Thus any body dialing 198 will get access to a
group of numbers (PBX group).

Say ACH=10 is linked to analysis for IND=198.

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=10,TYPE=6,NAR=310198, DIS=C+IRV; ↵

NAR = Required ND for 198 service.

As already discussed DIS is optional while all other parameters are compulsory.

7.1.7. TYPE 16 ROUTING


This routing is for chargeable facilities i.e. routing which manage to activate or
deactivate or use a facility. Such routings are linked with analysis of special codes
used for using the facilities. The ACH or routing numbers for such facilities are fixed
and are usually created by manufacturer. The REDA (3-1-2) document specifies the
routing numbers and corresponding parameters.

Example

IND for registering short code is 110- Short code- number to be called.

110 is analysed and linked with ACH = 62

The ACH is created as follows

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=62, TYPE=16, CAR=TYFA1+TYPU1; ↵

The actual values may be seen in REDA. The CAR parameter values are specific for
each facility. TYFA defines the facility and TYPU defines the use. There are 31types
of TYFA and 15 types of TYPU.

7.1.8. TYPE 17 ROUTING


This type of routing is for routing to a tone. For every tone used in the system there is
a different ACH which are specified in REDA, and parameters are given below.

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Digital Switching System
@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=46, CAR=NTON23, TYPE=17 ; ↵

255 tones are possible and there can be 255 ACH defined for connection to tones.
NTON23 is Dial Tone.

7.2. MULTIPLE ROUTING TYPES


7.2.1. TYPE 7 ROUTING
This type of routing points to various other routings corresponding to different
geographical zones, with in the same charging area.

RSU 1 ZONE=2
ZG=2
31xxxx ACH=4 POLICE
310100
PCM

32xxxx

ACH=5
CSNL RSU 2
ZG=1 LOCAL EXCHANGE PCM
GLR OCB 283 ZG=3
30xxxx
POLICE
ZONE=3
ACH=3 320100
ZONE=1
POLICE
300100

PCM
ZONE=4
POLICE
RSU 3 ACH=6 330100
ZG=4
33xxxx

Example:

Say there is one main telephone exchange with 3 RSUs. We want to route calls to
Police (100) to different police stations on the basis of source of the call i.e.. if the call
is from main exchange , the police station nearest to main exchange should be alerted
and if the call is from RSU police station nearest to RSU must be alerted.

Here subscribers 30xxxx, 31xxxx, 32xxxx & 33xxxx are the numbers of the same
exchange but in main and three RSUs. All the subscribers belong to one exchange
area and therefore have one charging category (CT). If they call police station by
dialing 100 they should be connected to different police stations. There out going call
discrimination is therefore done on zonal basis based on geographical zone parameter
ZG.

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Digital Switching System
7.2.2. Analysis

@INDCR: ↵

@IND=100,TRAD=1,ACHN=75-1<128,PTXN=0-1<128, RDC=3; ↵

The first part of ACH creation is for special / emergency service route with TYPE=6

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=3,TYPE=6,NAR=300100: ↵

@ ACH=4,TYPE=6,NAR=310100: ↵

@ACH=5,TYPE=6,NAR=320100: ↵

@ACH=6,TYPE=6,NAR=330100: ↵

@ACH=75,TYPE=7,ACM=3-1+4-2+5-3+6-4+18-5<64; ↵

Creation of TYPE=7 route with geographical discremination is done in the last step.

Here ACH=3,4,5 & 6 are ACHs of TYPE=6 with NAR corresponding to the NDs
indicated in the diagram.

ACH=75 is TYPE=7 which will direct the call to the appropriate ACH according to
the source of the call i.e. ZG.
• In the parameter ACM first part is the ACH and second part is ZG (geographical
zone) joined with a ‘-’.
• There can be maximum 64 geographical zones.
• In the example any subscriber belonging to geographical zones 5 to 64 are dialing
100 will be routed to announcement (FILM) on ACH=18.
• It is compulsory to include all the 64 geographical zones to ACM.
ACH=18 is TYPE=4 for routing to appropriate announcement

ACH=3 300100
ZG=1
ACH=4 310100
ZG=2
100 from ZG=3 ACH=5 320100
different ZGs ACH=75
ZG=4
ACH=6 330100

ANNOUNCEMENT
ACH=18

DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM

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Digital Switching System
7.2.3. DIFFERENT OUT GOING AND INCOMIN ROUTING
TYPE 8
This is a multiple routing pointing to two routes, one for out going call and other for
incoming terminating call i.e. local routing.

This type of routing is useful in testing of out going junctions circuit groups by
looping it back to a corresponding incoming circuit group as shown.

Here new junctions are being established between exchange A (level 311) and
exchange B (level 601). We want to carryout complete functional test of outgoing and
incoming junctions before the junctions are physically through connected. Say the
numbers dialled by A is 601234 and local exchange one of the thousand group is 311.
We like to terminate call on 311234 after loop back.

O/G CIRCUIT GROUP

NFSC=OG60
311xxx
EXCHANGE EXCHANGE
A B
LEVEL 311 NFSC=IC60 LEVEL 601

I/C CIRCUIT GROUP


311234

In case of loop back actually there are two calls in the exchange A viz. out going call
from the subscriber and a call by loop back on incoming junction.

By TYPE=8 routing first call will take the out going routing as usual but second call
will take a local routing. Since the second call has to take a local routing the local
thousand group will be required to be mentioned.

The call will then land on a number whose thousand group is indicated in Man
Machine Command for analysis and last three digits viz. hundred’s, ten’s and unit’s
digit will be same as in the dialed number with some other prefix.

The management of such a routing is discussed below:

Say for level 60 ACH=60 and ACH=60 is already created of TYPE=1 with RPCE=1
and linked to NFSC=OG60. For testing this circuit group (OG60) we will create a I/C
circuit group (IC60) with appropriate signaling and physically loop the OG PCM with
IC PCM.

We will then analyse some other IND say 40 and link it with say ACH=70 which will
be of TYPE=8.

@ACHCR: ↵

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Digital Switching System
@ACH=70, TYPE=8, ACM=60-1+1-2: ↵

where routing for the first call is that of O/G call ACH=60 and for the second call is
that for local call ACH=1. The figure after dash in parameter ACM indicates first and
second routes.

@INDCR: ↵

@IND=40,TRAD=1,ACHN=70-1<128,PTXN=0-1<128, RDC=5, NMI=2; ↵

RDC=5 when A dials 40234

NMI=2 i.e. second thousand group IND =311 (as obtained by MILIN).

With above data base A dialing 40234 , call land on a local number 311234 after loop
back.

Loop back testing can be done by another method also. Say the number to be dialed to
reach the exchange B is 601234. There is a number 311234 available at exchange A.
Make RPCE=4 in the ACH say 60, by which the transmission of digits will start from
rank 4. In the incoming circuit group add 311 by INDR=311. Now transmitted digits
will be 234 only and in the incoming part when 311 is added number 311234 will be
selected.

7.2.4. ACH TYPE 10


This multiple routing points to 3 routings which will be taken at different time of the
day. Such routings can be used for diverting the call to different destinations at
different time of the day.

Example

Say complaint 198 is to be routed as follows.

0800 to 1800 Hrs to a PBX with NDG=310198

1800 to 22-00 Hrs to a number 410198 at E10B

2200 to 0800 Hrs to an announcement on ACH=20

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Digital Switching System
0800 TO 1800 Hrs
ACH NAR=310198
201 TYPE=6

1800 to 2200 Hrs


ACH ACH DIS=CN, IND=410198
OCB
200 202 TYPE=1
A dials 198
TYPE=10
2200 to 0800 Hrs
ACH ACH=20, FILM=5
20 TYPE=4

The ACHs are to be created

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=200, TYPE=10, ACM=201-1+202-2+20-3: ↵

@ACH=201, TYPE=6, NAR=310198: ↵

@ACH=202, TYPE=1, RPCE=1, RCR=5, NFSC=OE10B, DIS=CN, IND=410198: ↵

@ACH=20, TYPE=4, FILM=5; ↵

Note: For normal calls to E10B some other ACH will be used. In the ACH 202, DIS=
CN changes the number to be transmitted as 410198 as indicated in the field
IND=410198

Analysis of the 198 will be as follows

@INDCR: ↵

@IND=198, TRAD=1, ACHN=200-1<128, PTXN=0-1<128, RDC=3; ↵

Time bands will be as follows

0000 Hrs to 0800 Hrs ⇒ ACH=20 (AC3)

0800 Hrs to 1800 Hrs ⇒ ACH=201 (AC1)

1800 Hrs to 2200 Hrs ⇒ ACH=202 (AC2)

2200 Hrs to 2400 Hrs ⇒ ACH=20 (AC3)

The time bands and routing can be different for Normal day (TYJO=1) and Holiday
(TYJO=2).

For implementing this time depended routing for a normal day (TYJO=1)

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Digital Switching System
@TRHMO: ↵

@TYJO=1, ACH=200, HR=08-00+18-00+22-00+24-00, TY=AC3+AC1+AC2+AC3;


Normal day will be created by

@CACMO: ↵

@DAY= 334, TYJO=1; ↵

Same method can be followed for creating routings and time bands for Holiday.

Note: For other services also the same time band will have to be used. The master
ACH will be added to time schedule by

@HACMO: ↵

@ACH= xxx, TYJO=__ :↵

7.2.5. ACH TYPE 11


This multiple routing is used for load sharing on different routes available.

Say the network is as follows

ACH=50
ACH=60

ACH=70 Exch
OCB
B
ACH=100 ACH=80 Level 55
Dials 55xxxx ACH=90

Subscriber in exchange A can reach the destination B via different routes already
existing as shown.

Say ACH linked with analysis of 55 is 100 and multiple routes 50, 60, 70, 80 & 90 are
available then traffic to 55 can be distributed as per a fixed proportion over the
multiple routes. The portion of the traffic is indicated in percentage of total traffic to
the destination at any point of time.

@ACHCR: ↵

@ACH=100, TYPE=11,ACM=50-10+60-25+70-20+80-40+90-5: ↵

In this minimum 2 and maximum 8 multiple routings can be be created. Figures after
the dashes in the parameter ACM are percentages of total traffic. Total of these
figures should work out to 100.

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Digital Switching System
There can be optional parameters like DIS=NTj . If j=1 over flow to alternate route of
different ACHs or to the alternate route of main ACH possible.

If j ≠ 1 then over flow will take place after j number of unsuccessful attempts.

8. Alternate routing
Some times there may be heavy traffic on a particular route resulting in failure of
calls. If network permits then calls to these destination may be routed via. some other
path as shown.
Calls between B and D are normally routed over a circuit group between them
accessed by logical routing ACH=50.
In busy hour when all junctions between B and D are engaged, additional calls can be
routed via C.
Such over flow should be resorted to only when we know that there are sufficient
number of circuits between C and D to carry overflow traffic from B, as also traffic
from other part of net work via C to D. Over flow should be used only after studying
the traffic condition of other network to which we intend to overflow , and just not for
using overflow.
From other
C
network
Intermediate
TAX

ACH=60
Calling Sub Called Sub
A B D E
Local Originating Terminating Local
Exch TAX ACH=50 TAX Exch

It must be done after due consultation with maintenance incharge of the system where
we propose to overflow our traffic.
In the network shown ACH=60 is over flow to ACH=50.
System will automatically route calls via overflow route on encountering congestion
in normal route.

8.1. Management command.


@ACHMO: ↵
@ACH=50, ACD=60; ↵

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Digital Switching System
8.1.1. A TYPICAL CASE FOR ALTERNATE ROUTING

ISDN SUB

CCS#7
ACH=300
LOCAL TAX
OCB
R2MF
ACH=200
Normal Sub

In this net work R2MF route may over flow to CCS#7.

@ACHMO: ↵

@ACH=200,ACD=300; ↵

The charging for analog subscribers for STD calls is to be obtained from forward
system i.e. MDTX=IM and charging for ISDN subscribers is by charge band i.e.
MDTX=RTI.

In ACH=300 which is to route to CCS#7 circuit group should have DIS=DR4 +DR5
and ACH= 200 which is to route calls to R2MF circuit group should have DIS=DR4
to effect over flow between both the groups with out charging problems.

9. Route Filtering Management


If for any reasons there are failures on a route resulting in a poor call success rate, the
reason must be identified by different traffic observation and checking of various
equipments involved in the call processing. Till such time the fault is found out
filtering must be imposed on the route and calls may be diverted to FILM. By doing
this, though the calls are not getting routed to the desired destination, call success rate
will not be affected.

@FILMO: ↵

@ACH= (ACH to be filtered), FIL=x, FILM= (Film to which routed): ↵

Note: Value for x

FT ⇒Total filtering of normal and associated alternate route.

FV ⇒ Total filtering on main route but no filtering on alternate route.

FPn ⇒ n calls out of 8 successive calls are rejected.

-96-
Digital Switching System
FDn ⇒ n calls out of 8 consecutive rejected on alternate route

NF ⇒ no filtering.

10. Forwarding Management


Forwarding means routing a call to tone or operator position or to an announcement
instead of the desired destination as per the received digits, under different conditions.

The forwarding to a tone or announcement is realised by obtaining the corresponding


routing number ACH from forwarding file FIREN of translator archive (XATR). For
each condition of forwarding there is a unique forwarding number which corresponds
to a record of FIREN file. The records of FIREN file contains the ACH to which the
call must be routed to.

The forwarding 1<31 is directly controlled by CAT=DFn given to subscriber.

Example:

For disconnection due to non-payment , subscriber is given CAT= DF11. When a call
is originated by such subscriber or incoming call to such subscribers translator during
preselection of outgoing call or during selection of incoming call will refer to record
11 of FIREN file and collect the ACHA (for o/g) or ACHB (for incoming/c) and give
the same to MR. ACHA corresponds to announcement “Your number is disconnected
due to non-payment”. ACHB corresponds to announcement that “This line is
temporarily out of service. (This is done to avoid embarrassment to the subscriber
who is disconnected for non-payment).

The FIREN file can be read by command

@RNVIN: ↵

@RNV=11; ↵

The contents of the records can be changed by

@RNVMO: ↵

@RNV=11, ACHA=xx, ACHB=yy; ↵

The forwarding numbers 32 onwards are either controlled by MR or TR program.

Example.1

Forwarding number 33 is defined in MR program under the condition when TY=SRn


for subscriber or CTA=SRn for incoming junction and DIS=SRn in ACH match , the
restriction is imposed and call instead of being routed to actual ACH linked with
analysis, is routed to an ACH defined by forwarding number 33. This will be an
announcement “THIS FACILITY IS NOT AVAILABLE ON YOUR TELEPHONE”.

Example. 2

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Digital Switching System
If TY=SPA is given to a subscriber , s/he is allowed out going calls but when ever an
incoming call is there to this number MR program will route the call to an
announcement.

Forwarding file’s records are normally filled by the manufacturer as per country
specification and are seldom required to be modified. Should there be a need to
change the contents using RNVMO command provided there is a specific
discrimination which permits the change.

Example. 3

Take the example of disconnected subscriber. Incoming call can be routed either to
Busy tone or to an Announcement by modifying FIREN file.

11. Metering parameter management


One of the most important translation management is charging parameter
management. The charging parameter is arrived at by analysis of digits received. This
parameter defines certain administrative parameters related to charging. e.g. which
code (CTX) must be applied if local charging is to be done, what is the detail billing
group number, what is the method of charging - local charging or charging on the
information received from forward system, charge band if any, and method to be
adopted for change in tariff or transition from one time band to another.

Actual charge computation is done by referring charging information contained in


charging unit (TX).

Details about the charging parameters and charge computation as per charging code
are discussed in Charging Management.

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Digital Switching System
12. Some Typical Examples Of Network And
Related Translation Management.
12.1. Analysis at Local cum TAX exchange.

B=‘0343’

A B C=‘54’

Local CUM ‘C’


Local Exch TAX TAX Another
Station A Station A Station B Local Exch
at Station B

D1 D2

TAX Local Exch


Station D Station D

B is a Local CUM TAX in Station B. Calls from station A to B may either be a call
terminating in same exchange i.e. B or may be terminating at other local exchange C
in same station or may be for another station D.

Say the call has to terminate at station B for which station code is 0343 and local
exchange level for B is 45 and C is 54. For inter TAX calls all the digits are received
including 0. We may do the analysis as follows at station B

@INDCR: ↵

@IND=03434+03435,TRAD=2,RCS=4,TRAS=1; ↵

This will mean analysis of digits after fourth digit (RCS) will take place in
TRAD=1(TRAS) which already may exist.

12.2. Standardised 10 Digit Calling Line Identification -


Including Station Code.
In all CCS#7 network and for IN working calling line identification is essential. D o T
has decided to provide uniform 10 digit CLI irrespective of number length. This will
take care of adding Zeros at the end and prefixing station code.

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Digital Switching System
12.2.1. Modification required in OCB
a) National code to be introduced in parameter file FIPAM of archive XATR by
command.

@PAMMO: ↵

@INDN=761; ↵

Note: Zero is not proposed to be included in national code.

b) New thousand group creation

@MILCR: ↵

@IND=310,INDN=761; ↵

This will take care of adding national code 761 before the calling number, while
providing the identification. This ensures that the national code is written in FINUS
file as a part of execution of command.

c) If the national code was not included earlier in FIPAM file by (a) above, then
existing thousand groups modification is to be carried out to write national code in
FINUS file as follows

@ARCMO: ↵

@ARCH=XATR, FICH = FINUS, NUM = 1<3, CHSI = NCHI-3+ CHI1-7+ CHI2-6+


CHI3-1, AF=ALL; ↵

Here it is assumed that when first three thousand groups corresponding to 1<3
(NUM=1<3) were created national code was not included in FIPAM file by (a) above.

If length of national code NCHI has been modified as 3 i.e. 3 digits are there in
national code 761 in this case, first digit of national code is CHI1 is made equal to 7
and likewise second and third digits of national code i.e. fields CHI2 and CHI3 in
FINUS file modified as 6 and 1 respectively. This is required because while giving
identification , national code for the calling number belonging to any thousand group
is taken from particular record corresponding to that thousand group of FINUS file.

CH4 CH3 CH2 CH1

CH8 CH7 CH6 CH5

Note: For each thousand group created a record is written in FINUS file in
chronological order of creation starting from record number 1. (NUM=1)

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Digital Switching System
Similar modifications are required in FILO file of charging unit (ARCH=XATX) to
include the national code in detailed billing. Like FINUS of XATR archive, FILO of
XATX archive also has one record for each thousand group created and so for all
thousand group existing following modification may be carried out.

@ARCMO: ↵

@ARCH=XATX,FICH=FILO,NUM=1<8,NOMS=XX0121,CHSI=NCHI-3 + CHI1-
7 + CHI2-6 + CHI3-1, AF=ALL; ↵

Note: Here it is assumed that there are 8 thousand groups existing corresponding to
record 1<8.

d) Making provision for uniform 10 digit CLI

For this FIPAM is to be modified as under

@ARCMO: ↵

@ARCH=XATR, FICH=FIPAM, NUM=3, NOMS=XR0523, CHSI=NCHDR-10,


AF=ALL; ↵

Note; NCHDR-10 in FIPAM file record 3 will mean CLI number length is 10.

e) Charge band concept for IN

Local CCS#7
Exch
CHB
TANDEM SSP TAX SCP
Charge pulse
Local
Exch R2MF

A typical routing for IN services could be as per the network indicated above where
all IN calls are routed via a TANDEM. Other local, regional calls may also be routed
via TANDEM, but for them separate circuit groups can be there and no modification
is required for charging as charging will be locally done.

For IN charge band information will come from SCP or SSP and via TANDEM will
ultimately come to local exchange as shown.

The charge band either will go to local exchange as such if local exchange is
connected over CCS#7 link to TANDEM and the charge band will be converted to
charge pulses in case local exchange is connected to TANDEM over R2MF circuit.

For CCS#7 circuit between local and TANDEM we have to modify circuit group at
TANDEM

-101-
Digital Switching System
@FSCMO: ↵

@NFSC=ILOCAL, CTA=DFA4; ↵

and for R2MF circuit between local and TANDEM we have to modify

@FSCMO: ↵

@NFSC=ILOCAL, CTA=RTT+VSG1; ↵

Say the charge band received for some IN services from SCP=25 which corresponds
to 2 sec pulse

Then in local OCB exchange following management will be done

@PTXCR: ↵

@PTX=25, GFD=0, CPTX=0, MCT=1, MDTX=P25, INDTX=25; ↵

@CTXMO: ↵

@CTX=25,TEMPO=0,NTP=0, TYP=3,MTX=0-0-0, TF=1: ↵

(And suitably for other tariffs if any)

@CTX=125, MTX=0-2-0, TYP=2, NTP=1, TF=1; ↵

f) Choice of charging categories for source of call.

ISDN CALL
CT=97<128
ISDN SUB

CCS#7
ACH=300
LOCAL TAX
OCB
R2MF
ACH=200
Normal Voice call
CT=1<32 & 65<96

The charging categories which can be given to a source can be 1<32 only. In case of
incoming circuits this can further be extended to 64 but depending upon type of call
viz. normal voice call the keyed charging category only work, while for 3.1 KHzs
restricted voice the categories are 65 to 96 and for data call the categories are 97 to
128.

-102-
Digital Switching System
Thus if category given to an ISDN subscriber is CT3 then it is viewed as CT3 when
normal voice telephone call is made by ISDN user but when the same subscriber uses
a data device for making a data call the corresponding charging category will be 99.

Charging category for calls from CDOT exchanges is to be taken as between the
range 65 <96.

First level indexation for routing with respect to charging category must therefore take
care of appropriate categories while doing analysis of digits received.

g) Judicious choice of routing.

ISDN and IN calls necessarily require a CCS#7 group, while normal telephone call
can either take either CCS#7 or R2MF route. Thus for access to TAX or TANDEM
from local exchange we may have two different circuit groups as shown below.

Call Source

CT=1<10 +15<74 +79<96


ACH=200 R2MF

CTA=RTI
in NFSC

CT=11<14+75<78+107<110 ACH=20 FILM


LOCAL TAX

MPNA

CT=97<106+111<128 ACH=300
CCS#7 ROUTE

CTA=DFA4
Digits received from in NFSC
each source is 0xx etc.

@INDCR: ↵

@IND=0XXX, TRAD=2, ACHN=200-1<10+15<74+79<96 + 300-97 <106 +


111<128 +20-11<14 + 75<78 + 107<110, PTXN=20-1<10+15<74 +79<96 + 30-
97<106+111<128 + 0-11<14 +75<78 +107<110, RCMI=10,RCMA=12; ↵

Here PTX=20 will have MDTX=IM and PTX=30 will have MDTX=RTI the
corresponding incoming circuit at TAX will have CTA=RTI and CTA=DFA4
respectively.

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Digital Switching System
13. SOME TIPS FOR
TRANSLATION MANAGEMENT
13.1. Use of parameter CTA
Charging category for incoming circuit groups with CCS#7 signaling should be
confined to 1<32 i.e. CTA=AT1 < AT32 and the categories 33 to 64 may be used for
R2MF incoming circuits.

This will avoid problems for 3.1 K Hz transmission media requirement calls as
applicable to calls from CDOT exchanges because the translated charging category
for this lies between 65 < 96 for AT1 to AT32.

13.2. Out going call accounting on circuits for revenue


sharing with other operators.
Provide DIS=DEI in the ACH for concerned out going direction and provide a INDS
number for out going junction.

ACH with DIS=DEI


TAX Mobile Exchange
O/G to Mobile

In O/G NFSC include


INDS=1234(Say)

The detailed billing for these circuits can be read by LECBAN command.

@LECBAN, CEN=1: ↵

@TYP=FD, COD=21; ↵

13.3. Rank of digit to be transmitted RPCE for NSD/ISD


routes
Rank of digit, for national and international calls and accounting for translation of 0
or 00 at TAX in case local and TAX are connected with CCS$7 link, is to be given
special attention.

In the ACH for level 0 and 00 the RPCE used must be 2 and 3 respectively. Nature of
call indicator for national call (AC=3-0) and international call (AC=4-0) are sent as
access codes i.e. digits received at TAX shall be 322 for 022 and 422 for 0022 dialed
by subscriber.

At TAX the Pre- analysis must be modified as follows:

-104-
Digital Switching System
@PREMO: ↵

@PRE=3,PREA=10,TRAD=2, RCE=2, CHA=0, RCA=5: ↵

(PRE=3 is used as the access code AC =3 is received for National calls)

@PRE=4, PREA=10, TRAD=4, RCE=2, CHA=00, RCA=6; ↵

(PRE=4 is used as the access code AC =4 is received for Inter national calls)

This enables 0 or 00 to be analysed at TAX in TRAD 2 or TRAD4.

13.4. Choice of RCR


Choice of RCR in case of a CCS#7 route.

• RCR should be as large as possible to reduce number of SAM messages and avoid
over loading of COC channel.

• RCR in no case shall be less than RPCE. If RCR is less than RPCE , unwanted
zeros will be sent on the line resulting in wrong number selection or failure of call.

• If RCR=RPCE and if the call is from a decadic subscriber, then there is a chance
of failure of call due to delay in receipt of further digits.

• It is better to keep RCA value in analysis larger than the length of IND to ensure
receipt of sufficient number of digits before sending process commences. RCR
may be kept larger than RCA to further ensure the same.

13.5. Choice of LAW for selection of COC


Note the following while choosing of LAW, for selection of COC in a link set and
selection of a link set from a Combined link set.

The LAW chosen should be such that all the COCs in a link set are evenly utilised.
Likewise the CIC numbers must be so chosen that they are consecutive and thus
covers the entire range of SCS (1<16).

The LAW chosen also should be commensurate with the number of elements of COC.
For example if there are 3 elements then the LAW must be for three elements. If the
law for 3 elements (N=3) is not available we may go for law involving 4 elements and
not a law having much higher number of elements. This will certainly increase the
processor load and hence artificial traffic in PUPE.

For selection of a link set out of a combined link set it has been proposed to use a law
such that the associated link set gets first priority. This is so because if priority of a
link set with different SCS as decided by CIC chosen, changes, STP function has to
be resorted to. STP function normally be avoided and can be resorted to only when
the COC in the direct relation is faulty.

The COCs must be distributed over different PUPEs also for better efficiency.

-105-
Digital Switching System
13.6. Selection of CICs
Proper selection of CICs is necessary to avoid call collision. Call collision is indicated
by PRS1 for class F counter in OCHLA.

For higher SP chose ODD CICs

For lower SP chose EVEN CICs

For this LAW=3 should be used in group selection.

13.7. Use of CSC parameter in Circuit group.


CSC is a compulsory parameter for a circuit group having CCS#7 signaling.

CSC=0 for regional calls. As continuity checks will involve additional messages and
hence load on COC will increase. Care should be taken to physically connect correct
PCMs and use corresponding CIC at either end.

But for calls to TAX CSC=3 must be used. This helps to identify miss-match of CIC
numbers at two ends.

13.8. Use of VSG values


In circuit groups(NFSC), incoming at TAX end from local, CTA=VSG3 must be
used. This will not allow A2 i.e. restart signal.

13.9. Use of DIS=DRAn


In case of calls from local to TAX naturally with open numbering (using RCMA and
RCMI), called address end (ST) must be given to TAX ( by time out at local). This
will enable ACM to come from TAX end.

Sub dials LOCAL


TAX
0761-24551 EXCHANGE
To forward
RCMI=9
exchange
RCMA=10
TAX sends
Waits for 10th
ST ST after 9th
digit, time out.
digit avaoiding
Sends ST to
time out.
TAX ACM

To provide called address end (ST) message DIS=DRA4 must be given in ACH for
out going route from local to TAX.

-106-
Digital Switching System
DIS=DRA8 is also given in ACH for enabling data calls (end to end digital).

These two discriminations put together DIS=DRA12 can be given in ACH.

13.10.IMPOTRANT NOTE
For choice of translation parameters operating data (3-1-2 REDA) specific to the site
must be referred to.

Extract of REDA from some other sites are included just for guidance.

Though most of the parameters are country specific, there are a few which are site
specific.

-107-
Digital Switching System
-108-
Digital Switching System
-109-
Digital Switching System
ALARM MANAGEMENT
HANDOUT NO. 6
What is Alarm

An alarm is a signal warning the operator of an abnormal condition or


equipment failure likely to soault in degraded service.
Alarm are classified according to type & CAT.

ALARM MANAGEMENT

Basic principle of alarm

An alarm is characterized in terms of :


- alarm type (switching power, fire charging ......)
- a category of alarm which defines its intervention type :
- immediate intervention : IM or !!!
- deferred intervention : ID or !!
- no intervention : SI or 1

The action to be taken are specific to each alarm.

An alarm is dealt with by capturing the alarm, analysing it and taking specific action.

message editing

(disk recording)

PROCESSING shortage

event OF identification component

start, end ALARMS display on PGS


continue
remote control activation

tele maintenance network

-110-
Digital Switching System
Alarm processing is carried out by SMM station. Its task is to translate the
information transmitted by the detection boards. Alarm routines break down into
three phases :

- capture
- processing
- signaling

The alarms are software or equipment related :


- equipment alarms indicate a fault in a module, a group of modules, in
connections or in supply,
- the software alarms are emitated by the differents routines which
conclude a malfunction statement from observation of single or
repeated faults.

Alarm processing accesses MLOM files which set out the meaning of the alarms and
the object characteristics.

meaning of alarm
alarm
message ALARM description object

PROCESSING
alarm additional info
enquiry with diagnosis

-111-
Digital Switching System
...
... ...

STAT
RCX
MTA 2 CSND
CSNL DFC
CNE SDS
MTA 1 MTA 3 ALARMS ALARMS EL IAS
material material software software software
PCM CDC through CVA CDC / OM OM

ALARM PROCESSING EL IAS


material
seen by AES

telemaintenance message editing


network

remote control storage


activation

display on PGS recording


on disk

MTA : alarm transmission module

-112-
Digital Switching System
TECHNICAL CODE NUMBER NAME
SOURCE

MTA 1 1 256 PCM


MTA 2 2 64 CSND / CNE
MTA 3 3 1024 CSNC Alarm for material transported by
the MAL
4 NNU (in OCB – 283)
LOCA 5 1024 LOCAVAR
SYST 6 64 OM sub-system (material IAS)
STAT 7 8 statistical processing
POSI 8 16 setting
OBS 9 32 traffic observation
CXP 10 8 permanent connection
SDS 11 16 threshold violation signal
TAX 12 8 charging
CVA 13 16 capture circuit and viewing alarms

DFC 14 32 central defence


RCX 15 16 connection network
GSA 16 16 ring manager

IAS 17 16 interface alarm station A8300 (software)

MIC 18 PCM of the SMT2G (ETU DETP)


SM 19 SMT 2nd generation
20-31 spare

-113-
Digital Switching System
OVERVIEW OF ALARM PROCESSING

MIC IT 16
CNE ICNE LR
UCN SMT
LRI COC
in-frastructure CNL

LR
IT 16 SMT
C
C C S
S M A
A A L
CSND
L S

LR
in-frastructure CMAS
SMA

C C
S M
IT 16 A A
CSED
L S

in-frastructure
SMC
CMAS

C
M
S
A
A MLMQ
L
L

CMIS

C MIS
in-frastructure S
A
L C SMM CMIS
S
A
C TI LCC EL-
L
S OM IAS
Remote Control A N
L NAT TRAIT
C M
LCT ALA
S T
SSE EL-
A
ACQ
L TRAIT NMC
MLOM
ACIU

CV or TY

TI-PGS

-114-
Digital Switching System
Description of an alarm message

EDIT FORMAT N’ INTERNAL N’ CATEGORY

CAT NIDAL DATE TIME ALARM THYPE EVENT

II * A0628 / 229 / 92-01-01 / 15 H 15 / N = 5524 / TYP = COM / CAT = ID / EVENT =

MATERIAL ADDRESS

EXCHANGE NAME GEOGRAPHICAL ADDRESS

/ NCEN = MAQ / AM = SMXB 1 / AGEO = S 1 – TR 02 – B 05 – A 071 – R000

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
ALARM TEST INDICATOR

/TEXAL = MCX ARRIVEE BT 1 / INFO . CPLT :

FUNCTIONAL ADDRESSE (S) LIST

/ AF = COMB 1

DIAG : APPORTIONMENT TO M ODULE(S)

/ RCMP 4 AGC = S 1 – TR 02 – B O5 – A 071 – R 028

NB :

- the DAL message is sent when the alarm is detected,

- the MAL message is sent periodically every 6 min (period of MTA re “0”).

- the FAL message is sent when alarm disappears.

-115-
Digital Switching System
Presentation

Alarm capture is based on duplicated alarm multiplex (MAL) linked to one or two
central couplers (CCAL) installed in the SMM. The secondary couplers installed in each
station capture the alarms and transmit them to the SMM via the MAL to which they are
connected. The CSAL function is supported by the ACALA board while the CCAL
function is carried out in the ACRAL board.

Overview of local collection

TERMINAL BUS A

TERMINAL BUS B

ALARM LOOP
ACRAL TOTAL FAILURE ACRAL

MAL SMM MAL MAL

SMT ACALA ACALA HERSE


COMMAND JUNCTIONS
M
A
SMC ACALA L ACALA ACTLC
A/B
SSE RETRANSMISSION
TELECOM ALARMS
SMA ACALA ACALA EROS/ERATO
INFRA

SMX ACALA ACALA STS

LOCATION OF ALARM COLLECATION

-116-
Digital Switching System
Addressing principle of ACALA and SSE

Each ACALA (CSAL) carries 16 alarm buses and 4 remote control buses. These buses are
identified by an ‘APOB’ address made up in the following manner :

APOB 9 eb Physic address of the object or group of objects.


For an SM, APOB = APSM

DOB 3 eb Object Domain


0 - objects belonging to a station (SM)

1 - objects belonging to a station which is not


connected to MIS – MAS

2 - CSAL couplers in the SMM.

3 - CSAL couplers outside the SMM

4 - CSAL remote control dedicated couplers in the


SMM

5 - CSAL remote control dedicated couplers outside


the SMM

ROB 2 eb Relative rank in the object

The ACALA which contain the exchange environment alarms are grouped in a
module called SSE (environment sub-system). Since these alarms are not
characteristic of a station, they do not have an APOB ‘No for addressing the ACALA.
They have thus been arbitrarily allocated APOB No 511 and 510. In addition, the
SSE contains the ACALA boards which control the ACTLC boards (lighting signal
panels). APOB No 508 has been allocated to these ACALA boards.

-117-
Digital Switching System
A
C
A
L SM
A

SSE

A
APOB C
511 511 511 511 510 508 508
ROB A SM
0 1 2 3 0 0 1 L
DOB A
2 2 2 2 2 4 4
ACRAL

(SMM)
A A A A A A A A A
C C C C C C C C C
A A A A A A R A A SM
L L L L L L E L L
A A A A A A B A A
A

Bus terminal A A
C C
INFRASTRUCTURE T T
L L
C C

SIGNAL PANELS

-118-
Digital Switching System
ENVIRONMENT SUB-SYSTEM MODULE (SSE)

Operator commands

Commands which act on alarms

Two operator commands act on the alarms

ALAIL Listing of stored alarms. This command edits all alarms


existing at a given moment.

ALAAQ Clearance of alarms. With this command an item of


information can be placed in the alarm storage file. It is used to
inform the system that the operator is aware of this alarm and to
avoid repetition of messages. A NEAL parameter, alarm
record number has to be specified.

Network Management commands

Two commands act on the alarm processing sequence :


CVAIN Consultation of the alarm viewing circuit. This command reads
the status of a CVA circuit. The NCVA parameter specifying
the capture circuit concerned has to be specified. If the CONF
option is requested the list of connected CSAL is edited.

CVAMO Modification of the status of an alarm viewing circuit. This


command is used to start up or block an alarm multiplex by
modifying its status. The required parameters are the NCVA
(multiples number) and the status requested.

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Digital Switching System
-120-
Digital Switching System
INTER EXCHANGE TRAFFIC
JUNCTION MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION
No telephone exchange can work in isolation in telecommunication
network. In order to provide facility of communication between subscribers connected
to different telephone exchanges, the exchanges are inter-connected through
junctions. Local exchanges are either directly connected to one another or through
tandem exchanges. All the local exchanges are connected to TAX which connect
exchanges of different cities. TAXs are interconnected as per hirarchy and traffic
needs to different cities or country’s gateway to other countries.

Such Interconnection of exchanges makes the overall NETWORK of


telecommunications. The routing of traffic in the network is achieved by management
of JUNCTIONS which are called CIRCUITS. In this & next 2 chapters we will
understand the management of Circuit groups, routing and analysis in OCB-283 .

CIRCUIT GROUP MANAGEMENT

The inter-exchange JUNCTIONS also called terminal CIRCUITS


originate & terminate in OCB-283 exchange in the form of CHANNELS or Time
Slots of ‘ 32 channel’ 2.048 MBPS PCMs. A terminal circuit is an equipment of a
trunk connection module of Trunk Control Station (SMT).

The software , called PCM controller- ‘URM’ (multiplex connection


unit software ) is implemented on the hardware station SMT. The SMT hardware is of
two types -SMT1G & SMT2G.The SMT 1G has 8 modules each handling 4 PCMs
thus giving a total of 32 PCMs per station. The SMT 2G has 8 modules each handling
16 PCMs giving a total of 128 PCMs per station. These modules are of two types
MRM & MRS . MRM handles Junctions from other exchanges & MRS handle links
from the Distant subscriber connection units of the same exchange, such as CSND,
CSED.

A junction PCM carrying terminal circuits can be directly connected


to a another Digital exchange. But they have to be converted to analogue form for
connecting them to an analogue exchange as shown in the figure below.

OCB 283
SMT
PCM PCM DIGITAL
CSND MRS MRM EXCHANGE
/ CSED
MRM
PCM PCM
MRM MUX ANALOG
EXCHANGE
DEMUX

-121-
Digital Switching System
TERMINAL CIRCUITS AND CIRCUIT GROUPS.

A terminal circuit t is identified by an address comprising of :its location in the


exchange i.e.
I) UR NUMBER :- It is the functional designation of the hardware
module to which the circuit belongs . In OCB-283
this number begins from 223 to 64
II) PCM NUMBER 0 to 3 for module of SMT1G & 0 to 15 for
module of SMT2G
III) CHANNEL NUMBER (1 TO 30)
Together this address is written or identified as AFCT:-

AFCT=UR#-PCM#-CHANNEL #

UR NUMBERING SCALE UR #
1234 63 64 223 224 256

CSN 1~63 SMT20 SMT 1


SMA32 SMA1

AFCT=UR#-PCM#-CHANNEL#
LRs

SMT LRs
PCM 0
TS or CHANNEL EXCH
MRM
PCM 1
‘B’
UR#
PCM x
SMX PCM y
LRs SMT

CSN EXCH
‘C”
OCB-283 EXCHANGE
EXCHANGE ‘A’

Each PCM which is connected on the SMT has got a corresponding LR (Internal Voice carrying
digital Link) towards the switching matrix. Accordingly the corresponding TS on this LR link has
the same speech or data which travels from or to outside the exchange on the circuit.This time slot
on LR link is called AFVT which is defined as

AFVT=UR#-LR#-TS#

-122-
Digital Switching System
CIRCUIT GROUP :-

Generally a number of circuits are provided between the two


exchanges. these circuits have common characteristics, like signalling, testing
parameters etc. for this purpose, a circuit group is formed, which is identified by a
name and circuits are assigned to this circuit group.

A circuit group may contain a number of sub groups. An O/G circuit


group may contain 15 sub groups and I/C circuit group may contain 16 sub groups.

A sub group is a set of circuits having same UR number and


consecutive functional address. A sub group may consist of a maximum of 120
circuits.

CIRCUIT GROUP
MRM Subgroup 1

Subgroup 2
MRM
Subgroup 3

MRM

CIRCUIT GROUP CREATION.

Two exchanges can either be connected through a both way circuit


group or separate outgoing and incoming circuit groups. The circuits are not only
physically connected from one exchange to another exchange they are also created in
the software of the exchange. Where required, the PCM is converted to analogue
circuits before connecting them to analogue exchange. After physical connection, the
circuit group is created by man machine command, which enter data in the various
files used at the time of analysis.

CREATION OF A CIRCUIT GROUP BY MAN MACHINE COMMAND.

Command FSCCR is used to create a circuit group. The various parameters are as
under:

@FSCCR:↵

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Digital Switching System
@NFSC= ,GENR= ,AFCT= ,INDR= ,INDG= ,INDT=,
INDE= ,ACE= ,AEAC= ,LOI= ,GABC=
,SG= , CTA= ,PS= ,CIC= ,CSC= ;

The parameters in BOLD are compulsory, others are optional.

-124-
Digital Switching System
TABLE OF PARAMETERS OF CIRCUIT GROUP CREATION

The meaning and possible values of the above parameters are explained below.
1 NFSC Name of the circuit group. It can be written in a maximum of 5 alpha numerical
characters e.g. OBYD1, IBPLD etc.
2 GENR Indicates whether the circuit group is out going, incoming, or both way etc.
=S (outgoing)
=E (incoming )
=M (both way)
=TD (data transmission circuit group with signaling.
3 AFCT Functional address of the terminal circuit included in the circuit group. e.g.
AFCT=216-1-1<20+218-3-1<30:
4 INDR Digits to be regenerated and added in front of received dialing on incoming
circuits. e.g.
INDR=643. Maximum digit can be regenerated.
5 INDS Circuit group identifier. e.g. INDS=413 a maximum of 8 digits.
6 INDT Additional circuit group identifier, used for charging and detailed billing on the
incoming calls (e.g. PABX. INDT= maximum 8 digits
7 INDE Digits to be sent for circuit testing. e.g. INDE=9999 etc a maximum of 8 digits.
8 ACE Access code to be sent in front of the testing number.
9 AEAC Authorisation for systematic testing on circuit group.
=Yes (authorised . Default value)
=No (Not authorised)
10 LOI Free circuit search law
=0≤3
11 GABC Circuit testing outline
=Pn 4 Wire long distance trunk test (1≤n≤15)
=Nn 2 Wire local circuit test (1≤n≤15)
=Sn Circuit fast testing (1≤n≤15)
=Rn Simplified R2 circuit test (1≤n≤)
12 SG Signaling code. The signaling used are as below
=L1E2 MF(R2) - E&M signaling
=L1E3 Decadic - E&M signaling
=L2E2 MF(R2) - 2W signaling
=L3E2 MF(R2)- 3 W signaling
=L3E3 decadic - 3 W signaling
=L4E3 decadic - 2W signaling with dial tone on incoming ccts e.g.
junctions from manual boards
=L6E2 MF(R2) Indian PCM signaling
=L6E3 Decadic - Indian PCM signaling
=L7E2 MF(R2) - digital to digital (PCM)
=L7E3 Decadic - digital to digital (PCM )
=L10E7 - CCITT no.7 signaling
13 CTA The category of the circuit group. A number of values are there as para . These
are explained as under.
A SIGNALLING VARIANT CATEGORIES - value of CTA gives
signaling characteristics for particular type of signaling code.
1. CTA values of MF(R2) signaling (LnE2)
CTA =VSG1 MF(R2) compelled
=VSG2 MF(R2) semi-compelled
=VSG3 MF(R2) compelled without A7, A8, A9
=VSG4 MF(R2) semi-compelled without A7, A8,

-125-
Digital Switching System
A9
2 CTA values for decadic signaling (LnE3)
CTA =VSG0 decadic dialling for all LnE3 except for
L7E3
=VSG2 decadic dialing for L7E3
3 CTA values for CCITT No.7 signaling (L10E7)
CTA =VSG0 standard CCITT No.7 signaling (implicit
value)
B CIRCUIT GROUP FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS - These
categories are given to perform specific type of functions on the circuit
group. The various CTA values and their functions are as
under.
CTA =RTT Transmission of charging pulse in backward
direction
=TR Pure transit operation authorised in R2
signaling. The category TR is necessary on
the incoming circuit group and out going
routing (ACH)
=TKO Trunk offering authorisation on incoming
circuit group.
=AUB Noise measurement authorisation
=FMP Manual hold possible
C O/G CALL RESTRICTION - These categories are given to
incoming circuit groups for restricting access to certain types of
calls.
CTA =SR0 All types of calls allowed
=SR1 Local and special services allowed, NSD&
ISD barred
=SR2 Local calls allowed, special services, NSD,
ISD barred
=SR3 Local, special services and NSD allowed.
ISD barred.
=SR4 All out going calls barred
=SR5 Local, special services, ISD allowed, NSD
barred
=SR6 NSD & ISD allowed, Local and special
services barred
=SR7 to 15 Spare at present
D ROUTING AND CHARGING CATEGORIRE
The incoming circuit groups can be assigned with routing and charging
categories to differentially route and charge the calls from different
sources. There are two types of routing and charging categories.
- First level routing and charging index category given as CTA=ATn
(1≤n≤32). These can be extended to 64 by using DF2 e.g. CTA=DF2 +
ATn (1≤n≤32)
- Second level routing and charging index category given as CTA=ZGn
(1≤n≤64)
14 PS Signaling point number . This is a unique number allotted to each exchange in
the network . The number is called as DPC or OPC for exchange of messages
in CCITT #7 signaling.
PS=1≤16383
15 CIC Circuit Identification Code. It is used to identify the particular speech circuit
for which the message is being sent in CCITT #7 format.
CIC=≤4095

-126-
Digital Switching System
16 CSC Continuity check operation for CCITT #7 circuit group
CSC = 0
=1
=2
=3

OTHER COMMANDS USED FOR CIRCUIT GROUP MANAGEMENT .

The other commands used for circuit group management is described below
(Appendix 1 to 3)

a FSCAD Addition of circuit / circuits in already existing circuit group.

b FSCRE Withdrawal of circuit / circuits from a circuit group.

c FSCIN Interrogation of circuit group.

d FSCIL Listing of circuit group.

e FSCMO circuit group characteristics modification

f FSCSU Circuit group deletion

NOTE:-The commands used for circuit management are given in


Appendix 1 to 3

and in exercise book E1 CHAPTER -2 APPENDIX A2

-127-
Digital Switching System
TEST OF CIRCUITS & CIRCUIT GROUPS
The junctions or circuits between two exchanges can be tested only in Outgoing direction. The
following is the concept of circuit testing in OCB-283 exchange .

Circuit TS
OTHER EXCHANGE
TONES/
ANN. SMX MT

TONES /
ANNOUNCEMENTS

SMC (MR)
OCB

The following types of circuit/ circuit groups are possible.

1. ON DEMAND TESTOF INDIVIDUAL CIRCUIT


2. SYSTEMATIC TEST ON ALL CIRCUITS OF A CIRCUIT GROP

The first type of test is to test a Specific circuit or list of circuits addressed by
functional address of circuit. Its command & parameters are as follows. The results
are given immediately.

@ CIRDEM:
@ AFCT=UR#-PCM#-CH#+UR#-PCM#-CH#< UR#-PCM#-CH+............., REP=.. ;
where AFCT is functional address of circuits to be tested. & REP is the repetition of
test

The second type of test performs testing of all circuits of Circuit group or list of
circuit groups in a systematic manner & gives the result at a deferred time.
@CIRACT :
@ NFSC=..................+......................+......................+ ............;

Other commands useful for circuit group testing & management are as follows

COMMAND PARAMETER PURPOSE

CTIN AFCT Interrogation of status of ckt


ETTIL NFSC,ED, Interrogation of status of ckts in a
STTUS particular status.
CIRMAN AFCT,TRON, To feed a specific tone to an incoming
FILM ckt.

-128-
Digital Switching System
CIRFIN AFCT To stop feeding of tones

-129-
Digital Switching System
CREATION OF CIRCUIT GROUPS ,ROUTING AND ANALYSIS BETWEEN
TWO EXCHANGES HAVING COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALLING
CCITT#7 .

For installing circuit groups with CCITT #7 signaling between two exchange which are called
SIGNALLING POINTS ‘PS’, it is necessary to first create, signaling data link, signaling link set,
signaling Combined link set and signaling analysis. After these creation, circuit group, routing and
analysis are created as explained already.
The following is the conceptual diagram of CCS working.
Traffic
Circuits
OCB 283
OCB 283 or
OTHER
EXCHANGE EXCHANGE
Sub A B Sub B
Signalling
(310xxxx) Data link (643xxxx)

An example of complete operation of establishing CCS#7 junctions is given below.


1. Signaling data link creation.
a) Creation of Individual Signaling data link.:-
@LDCR:↵
@ SRV=........, ILS= ..........,TYLD=.......,AFCTE= ........;↵
Where
ILS Identity of signaling link in 5 alpha numerical characters (For example in
case of an out going route to BOMBAY level 325 exchange it can be OB325
)
TYLD TYLD =1 National network
=2 Local network
AFCTE The channel which is assigned to carry CCITT Signaling messages for traffic
circuits.
b) Creation of Signaling link set or Group:-
@FSMCR:↵
@NFSM= ..,ILS= .... ,PS= .....,LAW= ....,COC=....,RANC=....,TSV=.....;SRV=....↵
Where
NFSM Name of signaling link set in 5 alphanumeric
PS Signaling point number, unique for exchange
LAW Traffic distribution law
COC Signaling channel number
RANC Rank of signaling channel in the set
131131

TSV PUPE number


c) Creating Signaling route or CONMBIBED LINK SET.
@ASMCR:↵
@ASM=..,NFSM=......,LAW=....,RANF=....;↵
Where
ASM Signaling route number
RANF Rank of FSM in the route
d) Creation of CCITT #7 signaling analysis
@ANSCR:↵
@PS= ........,ASMN=......;↵
e) Commissioning of link into service.
@CSMMO:↵
@NFSM= ......,COC=....,ETCS=ACTI+NBLO + NINH ;↵
This completes the creation of signaling link. Now we can create circuit groups with
CCITT #7 signaling and followed by routing and analysis.
2) CREATION OF CIRCUIT GROUP FOR VOICE: -
@FSCCR:↵
@NFSC=......,AFCT=..........+........ , GENR=M , SG=L10E7, PS= ....., CIC=1<30,
CSC= ...;↵
Where L10E7 indicates CCITT #7 signaling
CIC Cct identification code
CSC Continuity check option validation.
3) CREATION OF ROUTING
As per example 2.
4) CREATION OF ANALYSIS
As per example 2.
After this when the subscriber dials the call for the other exchange, he gets it. The signaling
messages for this calls are sent over the signaling channel setup

*************************

-131-
Digital Switching System
132132

EXAMPLE 2 Creation of circuit group, routing and analysis for out going call

In this case, we have to first create circuit groups, routing and analysis. The circuit groups may be
either both way or separate out going and incoming.

Examples of Out going Incoming & Both way Circuit groups with
reference to ‘A’.

i) Creation of circuit group at exchange A.

@FSCCR:↵

@NFSC=OE643,GENR=S,SG=L1E2,AFCT=216-1-1<30,GABC=R1,INDE=8888;↵

ii) Creation of routing at exchange A

@ACHCR:↵

@ACH=50,NFSC=OE643,TYPE=1,RPCE=4,RCR=6,DIS=C;↵

iii) Creation of analysis at exchange A.

@INDCR:↵

@IND=643,TRAD=1,ACHN=50-1<64,PTXN=28-1<64,RDC=7;↵

With these creations, when subscriber A dials the number of exchange


B (643xxxx) the call will be put through on a circuit. But when subscriber of ‘B’
dials the number of exchange A, its call has to come on an Incoming circuit group..
Hence, it is required, either to create incoming circuit group at exchange A or
alternately instead of creating out going circuit group, we can create a BOTHWAY
circuit group between exchange A and B. Also since routing and analysis for the
LOCAL PREFIX of A exists at exchange A, these are not required to be created
again & again.

*********************

-132-
Digital Switching System
133133

SEQUENCE OF COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALLING CIRCUIT GROUP,


ROUTING & ANALYSIS

FPREA

TYNU PREANALYSIS
PHASE
SEQUENCE OF
FIANA INTERROGATION

NROU INDIN
ANALYSIS FROU OR FLIA
ACH
ANALYSIS
FACH PHASE
ROUTING FSC ACHIN
FIFSC
NPTC FSCIN
FIDET
CIRCUIT GROUP AFCT
PS No, SG ETC.

SP (PS)

C A
SIGNALLING ANALYSIS ANSIN N
R
E A
A SIGNALLING ROUTE (ASM) ASMIN L
T Y
I DISTRBUTION LAW ON THE FSM LOIN S
O I
N S
SIGNALLING LINK SET (FSM) FSMIN

DISTRIBUTION LAW ON THE COC LOIN

SIGNALLING DATA LINK (COC) LDIN

SIGNALLING CHANNEL (COC)

-133-
Digital Switching System
134134

ANALYSIS OF DIGITS IN CASE OF CCITT #7 COMMON


CHANNEL SIGNALLING

When the system analyses the digits dialled by the subscriber, it finally
gets the identity of the circuit group (NFSC). When this record in FIFSC file is read,
it is indicated by SG=L10E7 that the circuit group has COMMON CHANNEL
signalling. This file also gives PS number. From this PS number the system further
analyses in UTC files to get signalling data link number over which message is to be
sent as shown in the diagrams .See Fig on last page.

PS (SP)

ASMN ASMS

FSM 0 FSM 1 FSM 2 FSM 3

COC0 COC1 COC2 COC3 COC14 COC15

Chart explaining concept of signaling point # PS , signaling route ASM , signaling


circuit group FSM & signaling channels COC in common channel signaling
working

*********************

-134-
Digital Switching System
135135

-135-
Digital Switching System
136136

EXAMPLE 4 Routing a call to modified number


We know that it is some times necessary to re-route a call to the number other than the dialled one.
For example when subscriber dials 198 the call is often routed to some other number (such as
310198). Now, we will see, what is required to do this.

1. Creation of routing.

@ACHCR:↵

@ACH=80,TYPE=6,NAR=310198,CAR=PRE1,RCR=3;↵

2. Creation of analysis

@INDCR:↵

@IND=198,TRAD=1,ACHN=80-1<64,PTXN=30-1<64,RDC=3;↵

*************************

-136-
Digital Switching System
CALL CHARGING PRINCIPLE IN OCB-283
In OCB-283, when a call is dialled, its digits are analysed in TR files.
At the end of analysis, we get route particulars (equipment no.) over which the call is
to be routed and the CHARGING PARAMETER(PTX) which describes charging
rate and method of charging. In OCB-283, there are two methods of charging:

i) Charging the call as per the charge rate calculated by LOCAL CHARGING
UNIT (TX)

ii) Charging the call on the basis of PULSES RECEIVED from the distant
exchange (e.g. a TAX)

These methods are defined by MML command at the time of creating


analysis. When commands are given the charge rate tables are also created in the TX
files.

FILES OF CHARGING UNIT:-

Figure-1 shows the various files used for charging a call. The calendar
file has one record for each date of the year. For each day of the year it stores ‘TYPE
OF DAY’ information. For example, in India Sundays and national holidays are
TYPE = ‘2’ (Indicated by parameter TYJ=2) and all other days are TYPE 1
(TYJ=1). This information is used to charge a call at half rate or full rate. The
‘RATE TIME BAND’ file is addressed by TYJ i.e. type of day and THE CURRENT
TIME. This file stores various time bands and the corresponding tarrif applicable
during that period. Whenever one time band is over and the next time band starts, the
system writes ‘ACTIVE’ against that tarrif in CTX file. So at any given time, one of
the tarrif (TF) remains active.

Now let us see, how a particular tarrif is taken for charging the call.
When a subscriber dials a number, the digits are analysed in TR. At the end of
analysis, the TR gives CHARGING PARAMETER (PTX) and the route particulars.
The PTX value is sent to TX by MR, when the called subscriber answers. The TX
addresses PTX file by this value.This file gives CTX which is the record number of
CTX file and is used to address that file. PTX file also indicates whether call is to be
charged by the received pulse or the tarrif is to be calculated by local charging unit.
The system now addresses CTX file with the CTX number received from PTX file.
The CTX file indicates whether it is a FLAT RATE CHARGING OR PERIODIC
CHARGING. If it is periodic charging, it gives the period, at the begining of which
the charge unit is to be counted. For this, system selects the tarriff which is active at
that time.

In this way, we can charge a call as per requirement by filling appropriate data in TX
files.
COMMANDS USED FOR CHARGING MANAGEMENT -

Charging management involves interrogation, modification or writing of data


in the files of TX corresponding to DAYS of YEAR , TIME BANDS OF the DAY,
DIFFERENT TARRIFS for DIFFERENT CHARGING TABLESetc. In this section,
we shall discuss the commands used for each type of file.

I) CHARGING CALENDAR FILE - There are two commands CLXIN and


CLXMO. The command CLXIN is used for interrogation to know whether correct
type of day is written for all the days of the year.

For example :

@ CLXIN : ↵

@ DAT=95-4 -1<15; ↵

The command CLXMO is used to modify the type of day TYJ or the number of day
in the week NJO. This command is used when calendar year changes.

For example :

@ CLXMO : ↵

@ DAT=95-4-23, TYJ=2, NJO=7; ↵

II) RATE TIME BAND FILE - This file has one record for each type of day. At
present, we use only two types of days in our country viz. 1 and 2, so only two
records of this file are in use. The command used for interrogation is TYJIN.

For example:

@TYJIN : ↵

@ TYJ = 1; ↵

The printout of the system shows the various time bands and corresponding tarriff for
type of day 1 and it also indicates the active time band at that time by writing ACT
against that time band.

The command used for modification is TYJMO.

For example:

@ TYJMO : ↵

@ TYJ =1, HR= , TF= ,: ↵

Where TYJ = Type of day (1 or 2 in our country)

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Digital Switching System
HR = end time of a band inHours-Minutes

TF = Tarriff number corresponding to time band

(1, 2, and 3 are used in our country)

III) PTX CHARGING TABLE FILE - This file is addressed by the PTX value
given by TR at the end of analysis.

The system finds out charging method and CTX file record no. from the record of
PTX file.

According to requirement, we can choose a particular PTX value from the already
created PTX or alternatively, we can create required data in the new PTX value and
use this for charging the call. The standard PTX values used in our country for various
types of calls are as described below.

VARIOUS PARAMETERS OF PTX

Type of call PTX No. MDTX CT GFD CPTX MCT


X

1XY ) Non metered special 0 NT - 0 0 1


services

1XY Metered special 1 P1 1 0 0 0


services

00.... International call 60 IM 62 1 0 0

0..... National call 62 IM 62 2 0 0

20 to 79 Local call with 5 2 P2 2 0 0 1


mintue charging

80 to 89 Group dialling with 3 P3 3 0 0 1


3 minute charging

In an OCB TAX, we have to create charge rate tables for NSD & ISD.
The commands used for creating above data in PTX file are PTXIN, PTXMO and
PTXCR.
a) Interrogation of PTX
@ PTXIN : ↵
@ PTX = 1 <32, ED = YES; ↵
b) Mdification of PTX
@ PTXMO : ↵
@ PTX = , GFD = , CPTX = , MCT = , MDTX =
, TXD = ;↵

-139-
Digital Switching System
Where
PTX - The record no. of PTX file.
GFD - Group of detail billing. (values 0 to 15)
=0 No detail billing
=1 Detail billing for ISD calls.
=2 Detail billing for NSD calls.
=3 Detail billing for local calls.

CPTX -Charging meter to be incremented. (values 0 to 3)


In India, so far only one meter, no. 0, is used for all types of calls.

MCT -Charge rate change mode in the process of conversation


=1 No charge rate change.
=2 Charge rate change at the end of current period.
=3 Immediate charge rate change.
(IN India MCT= 1 is used)

MDTX -Charging method.


=Pn charge rate available in the record no. n of CTX file.
=IM charge pulse to be received. The system refers record no. 0 of
CTX file in this case.

TXD -Charge account dumping


= Yes charge is directly recorded in DISK and not in TX.
= No charge recorded in TX1 and TX2 only.
(in India TXD= No is used)
____________________

c) The command PTXCR is used to create a new PTX.


For example :
@ PTXCR : ↵
-----------
@ PTX = , GFD = , CPTX = ,
MCT =, MDTX = , TXD = ;↵

IV) CTX FILE :- This file stores the charge rates for various tarriffs.
The commands used are CTXIN and CTXMO.

a) Interrogation of CTX file record.


@ CTXIN : ↵

@ CTX = 15 , ED = Yes;: ↵

-140-
Digital Switching System
b) Modification of CTX
@ CTXMO: ↵
@ CTX = , NTP = , MTX = ,TEMPO = ,CTXS = ,
TYP = ;: ↵
Where CTX - Record no. of CTX file.
NTP - Number of charge unit at the begining of each period.
MTX Charging mode for a particular tarriff.
=Q - P - R
Q = Call set up charge
P = Charging period in seconds
R= Charging period in milliseconds.

TEMPO - Time period at the end of which second tarriff (CTXS) will
be applicable.

CTXS - CTX number applicable after the first tarriff.


(In India at present both TEMPO and CTX values are Zero).

TYP - Charging code (type)


= 0 charging code not
= 1 Flat rate charging (duration independent)
= 2 Periodic charging without warning tone.
= 3 Periodic charging without warning tone, first period being
different from others
= 4 Periodic charging with warning tone.
=5 Periodic charging with warning tone, first period being
different from others.

THE CTX NUMBER AND THE VALUES OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS FOR


INDIAN CHARGING PLAN ARE AS INDICATED BELOW.

CTX STT TF TYPE MTX NTP Remarks


Number

1 1 1 1 001-0000-000 0 Unit fee metering

2 1 1 4 001-0300-000 1 5 minute charging

3 1 1 4 001-0180-000 1 3 minute charging

62 0 0 0 000-0000-000 000. Charge pulses to be


received from TAX

****************************

-141-
Digital Switching System
HANDLING OF CHARGE ACCOUNT & DETAIL BILL DATA RECORDS

This aspect of charginh management covers the READING , STORING &


REZGENERATING of data file of subscriber’s CHARGE ACCOUNT &DETAIL
BILLS . The procedure & commands of this are discussed in DATA
MANAGEMENT chapter of SYSTEM APPLICATION MANAGEMENT Course.
Wecan find that the system provides full flexibility for every type of charging.
Depending on the requirement, we can create or modify data in CTX & PTX files.

-142-
Digital Switching System
PRINCIPLE OF OBSERVATION OF LOAD & TRAFFIC
14. Observation resources enable to measure the following
:

- Load and occupancy data on exchange resources (Circuit Groups, Multi


registers, etc.)
- Quality of service provided by the exchange
- Quality of service provided by attached exchanges and/or their transmission
routes

15. The quality of service data can be used for rapidly


detecting a deterioration in the quality or grade of
service provided to the subscribers by the exchange
resources, the circuit groups and attached
exchanges.

16. 2. Types of observations


16.1. There are two principal types of observation

a) Constant or permanent observations

These observations are permanently operating and the operator activates or stops their
output. They measure the load/traffic on the exchange equipment, circuit groups, etc. and
count failures during call set-up, etc.

b) Temporary observations

These observations operated when activated by operator command. Examples of


these observations are :-

OABLA Subscribers line observations


SABLA Subscribers charge observations
OFNLA False numbering observations
OTPLA Time of preselection observation
OTDLA Traffic dispersion observation

-143-
Digital Switching System
OBSERVATION PROCESS IN OCB-283 EXCHANGE

INTERNAL INTERNAL
OBSERVATIONS OBSERVATIONS
OF OWN EQUIPMENT OF EQUIPMENT
RAW DAT COUNTERS RAW DAT COUNTERS

EQUIPMENT 1 EQUIPMENT 2

INTERACTING OBSN. INDIRECT REPORT


DIRECT REPORT

INTERACTING EQUIPMENT 3 OBSERVATIONS


EQUIPMENT OF OTHER EQUIPMENTS
RAW DAT COUNTERS
O&M FUNCTION
PROCESSED
INTERNAL PROCESSING OBSERVATION
OBSERVATIONS DIRECT REPORT DATA
OF RAW DATA
OF EQUIMENT FOR STORE
RAW DAT COUNTERS /OUTPUT

SMM
O&M TERMINAL

The Raw data reports are received in O&M function (OMC) of the exchange .On the basis of
these reports the counters in OMC are incremented or modified.There are following types of
counters in OMC which are shown by the figure below.
1. CCO ,
2. CRO ,
3. CHO,
4. CTO
EQUIPMENT OF

-144-
Digital Switching System
After processing the OMC puts the results in OUTPUT Files

Exchange

Raw data load Traffic raw data

OMC

CCO CRO CLOCK CHO CTO

MN HOUR

LIST OF SOME OF THE OBSERVATIONS


Function of OBSERVATION Command Out put file

TEMPORARY OBSRVATIONS:-

Group and heavy traffic lines OLXLA OBSP


Circuit group addition OTFLA OPTR
Traffic dispersion observations OTDLA OPTR

-145-
Digital Switching System
Link Observation OMALA OPTR
Preselection time Observation OTPLA OPTR
CCS 7 Signalling link observation TCSLA OBSR
CCS7 Signalling link supervision SCSLA OPTR
Charging Observation OTXLA OPTR
Subs line Observation by sampling OABLA PSAD
Path finding Observation ORILA PSAD
Incorrect number observation OFNLA PSAD
Call forwarding observation ORVLA PSAD
Results of subs charge monitoring SABLA OSAB

PERMANENT OBSERVATION

Periodic counter Observation OCHLA OPTR


Interrogation of CCO & CTO meters OCIN PSAD
LOAD Result Counter Observation OCRLA OPEC
Threshold out-of-limits observation OSELA OPEC

-146-
Digital Switching System
MAN MACHINE COMMANDS FOR LOAD & TRAFFIC
OBSERVATIONS

BUSY HOUR AND PRINTOUT PERIOD


BUSY HOUR is the hour during the day, week or month when the exchange traffic is at
its highest. It is the most significant period for traffic observation. .

PRINTOUT PERIOD is the period for printing of observation results. The period may be
30 or 60 minutes
The above two significant data are storeed in OMC so that pRINTING of the results of
permanent observation of TRAFFIC called OCHLA can be activated automatically at the
time specified in BUSY HOUR parameter HCH & at a interval of Printout PERIOD
specified by parameter PER.

@ HPRMO::
@HCH=11-30, PER=60;

PERMANENT OBSERVATIONS

1.TRAFFIC OBSERVATION (CHO):-


The traffic observation is done in exchange continuously as follows & printed on OPTR file.
Command for this observation is OCHLA & its counters are called CHO.
EXCHA

RAW TRAFFIC DATA

CH

HO

LF
TELEPRI =
LFN = OPF

Fig. 3. CHO TRAFFIC OBSERVATION

-147-
Digital Switching System
2.LOAD COUNTER OBSEREVATION (CRO)
The result of this observation can be obtained in OCRLA printout.
EXCHANGE

RAW MN VD
DATA U
LF
COUNTE CR N=
R O OPE
C

LOAD result counter CRO Display

TEMPORARY OBSERVATIONS

These observations work only when activated by the operator.


These observe the occurence of the concern events at a given moment or during a given
period fixed by the operator.

TEMPORARY OBSERVATION MANAGEMENT IS DIVIDED IN 14 MAIN GROUPS


SL. COMMAND FUNCTION
1. OABLA SUBSCRIBER SAMPLE OBSERVATION
2. SABLA SUBSCRIBER CHARGING SUPERVISION
3. OLXLA LINE GROUPS OBSERVATION
4. OTDLA TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION OBSERVATION
5. OTFLA CIRCUIT GROUPS ADDITIONAL OBSERVATION
6. OMALA CHANNEL OBSERVATION (LOAD BALANCING)
7. ORILA PATH FINDING OBSERVATION
8. ORVLA FORWARDED CALLS OBSERVATION (NOT RECORDED ON
MAGNETIC TAPE)
9. OFNLA WRONG NUMBER OBSERVATION
10. OTXLA CHARGING OBSERVATION
11. SCSLA SIGNALLING LINK LOAD OBSERVATION

-148-
Digital Switching System
12. TCSLA SIGNALLING LINK SUPERVISION
13. OTPLA PRESELECTION TIME OBSERVATION (CSN)
14. NSSIN NSS COUNTERS OBSERVATION

Subscriber Sw itching
UR + CX C ircuits

Sam ple
T raffic
subs. obs. M eshes O bservation
obs.
Subs. line C ircuit
supervision group
Patb O bs.
additional
observation
L ine group Forw arded
observation
calls obs.

Fig. 5. Temporary observations


1.SUBSCRIBER SAMPLE OBSERVATIONS OABLA
Subscriber observation OABLA is done to detect various events of call setup & release
for an individual Subscriber . The command is OABLA & parameters are ND or NE.

-149-
Digital Switching System
SMT
SMA etc
CSN SMX
O&M
TERMINAL
LFN=OBSP

SMM
SMC SMC DISK
LFN=OPFA

SUBSCRIBER OBSERVATION OABLA


IN OCB-283 EXCH.

2.SUBSCRIBER CHARGING OBSERVATION SABLA:-


Inthis observation an INDIZVDUAL Subscriber’s CHARGING can be observed call by call &
results can be obtained after every 100 calls.Command is SABAL & parameter ND.

-150-
Digital Switching System
3. SUBSCRIBER LINE GROUP OBSERVATION OLXLA:-
It is used to observe various events of a PBX groups lines .

4.CHANNEL OR CIRCUIT OBSERVATION OTFLA


In this observation all the cicuits of an specified circuit group are observed for various events
like Seizure, release, Metering & success of call . The command is OTFLA & parameter is
NFSC

E
X
S
C
S
H
M M
A
T
N
M
G
E

Fig. 8. OTF Observation


4 TRAFFIC DISPERSION OBSERVATION OTDLA:-
In this observation the distributionor DISPERSION of traffic on various routes is observed.
The command is OTDLA & parameters are ACH ,INDO.,URAetc..

D
Subscribers URA S e
s Routing Code
o t ACH = ........
u i
Access Code n
PREO=....... r a
c t
i
e o
Incoming Cct s n

Groups NFSC=.... Indicative (IND)


TRAD No.

-151-
Digital Switching System
Fig.9 Traffic Dispersion

Exchange

TR S
LFN = OPTR
MR M

M
Call Disk
processing

Fig. 10. OTD Observation


Examples of OTDLA use
@OTDLA:
@ INDO = 1-3261, URA = 1<2, SCE = OUI, T = 2-10;

@OTDLA:
@ ACH = 216, URA = 1<2, SCE = OUI, T = 1-30;

@OTDLA:
@ INDO = 1- 22220 + 1- 22221, NFSC = AR208, T = 1-50, SCE = OUI;

@OTDLA:
@ ACH = 1, NFSC = AR216, T = 1-10, SCE = OUI;

@OTDLA:
@ACH = 1<10, NFSC = AR216, SCE = OUI, T=1-25;

Where
SCE = OUI = Observation of a destination for 1 or more
sources
= Observation of a destination and result
classifying by sources
SCE = NON = Observation of destinations from given
sources

-152-
Digital Switching System
= Observation of a destination independent of
the source

-153-
Digital Switching System
EXAMPLE 1:-
@OTDLA:
CEN=1/95-02-19/18 H 49 MIN 00/OBSERVATION OF TRAFFIC DISPERSION
@INDO=1-9654,URA=1<2,SCE=OUI,T=1-20;
Process TOTLA ACC
Prosecc TOTLA EXC
@OTDAR;
CEN=1/92-02-19/18 H 52 MN 47/STOP OF OBSERVATION OTDLA
Process TOTPT ACC
@ ED=OUI
NCEN=JBPOCB/95-02-19/18 H 52 MN 47/RESULTS
/OBSERVATIONS: OF TRAFFIC DISPERSION
* SCE=OUI
* T=0000-02 LST=00
INDO=01- 9654
* URA = 001 NBAP=0000000004 EFF= 075% + 025%
NAP=0000000003 NAEF=0000000001
* URA =022 NBAP=0000000005 EFF= 100% + 080%
NAP=0000000005 NAEF=0000000004
NCEN=JBPOCB/95-02-19/18 H 52 MN 51/FIN RESULTS
/OBSERVATIONS: OF TRAFFIC DISPERSION
Process TOTPT EXC
EXAMPLE 2:-
@OTDLA:
@ACH=54,URA=1<2,SCE=OUI, T=1-20;

@OTDAR;
RESULTS
* SCE=OUI
* T=0000-02 LIST=00
* CMA=0000000002.00
ACH=0054

-154-
Digital Switching System
* URA=001 EFF=100%
NBAP=0000000003 +0000000003 - 100%
+0000000000 - 000%
+0000000000 - 000%
NAEF=0000000002
* URA=002 EFF=100%
NBAP=0000000003 +0000000003 - 100%
+0000000000 - 000%
+0000000000 - 000%
NAEF=0000000003
FIN RESULT S

EXAMPLE 3
@OTDLA:
@NFSC=FA004, INDO=1-22220+1-22221,T=1-55,SCE=OUE;

@OTDAR;
@ED=OUI
RESULTS
# SCE=OUI
# T=0000-01 LIST=00
# CMA=0000000001.50
INDO=01- 22220+01- 22221
# NFSC=FA004 NBAP=0000000005 EFF= 100% + 080%
NAP=0000000005 NAEF=0000000004
FIN RESULT

EXAMPLE 4
@OTDLA:
@NFSC=FA004,ACH=1,T=1-55,SCE=OUI;

@OTDAR;
@ED=OUI

-155-
Digital Switching System
RESULTS
# SCE=OUI
# T=0000-01 LIST=00
# CMA=0000000002.00
ACH=0001
# NFSC=FA004 EFF=100%
NBAP=0000000002 +0000000002 - 100%
+0000000000 - 000%
+0000000000 - 000%
NAEF=0000000002
FIN RESULT

EXAMPLE 5 :-FOR INCOMING JUNCTION THIS COMMAND IS NOT AVAIABLE


@OTDLA:
@NFSC=FA0004,ACH=1<30,T=1-55,SCE=OUI

* #R0030/039/ACH =0003/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE


* #R0030/039/ACH =0004/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0005/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0006/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0007/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0008/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0009/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0010/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0011/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0012/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0013/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0014/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0015/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
* #R0030/039/ACH =0016/OBJET NON EQUIPE OU NON OBSERVABLE
TRAITEMENT TOTLA EXC
@OTDAR;
@ED=OUI

-156-
Digital Switching System
RESULTS
# SCE=OUI
# T=0000-01 LIST=00
# CMA=0000000001.50
ACH=0001+0002+0010+0017+0018+0019+0020+0021+0022+0023+002
4+0025
ACH=0026+0027+0028+0029+0030
# NFSC=FA004 EFF=075%
NBAP=0000000004 +0000000003 - 100%
+0000000000 - 000%
+0000000000 - 000%
NAEF=0000000001
FIN RESULT
***********************
CHARGING OBSERVATION OTXLA

EXCHANGE
S
TX LFN
M =OPTR
METERS
VARIATION M

DISK

Fig.11 OTX Observations

-157-
Digital Switching System
MAI=SE E
X S
U C
R H M LFN = OPTR
CN A A
N M DISK
G
E
MAI=MS

Fig. 12. OMA Observation

SIGNALLING CHANNELS OBSERVATIONS SCSLA

This observation observes the number of frame bytes sent and received by the
exchange signalling point on various signalling links.

The results are output on the OBSP terminal at periods fixed by the operator.
To start
@TCSLA:
@FSM=.....,COC=..+..,T=HH-MM,PER=30,ED=YES;

To stop
@TCRAR;

CCS NO 7 SIGNALLING LINK SUPERVISION TCSLA

It is used to observe frames exchange and lost by the system on a particular link
set.
Results are output on the OPTR terminal
To start
@SCSLA:
@FSM=...,COC=...,T=HH-MM, AFUR=1,COC=0(+1),T=HH-MM;

To stop
@SCSAR;

***************************

-158-
Digital Switching System
IOP : INDEX TO OPERATOR INTERFACE

IOP Service designation Network


0 Signalling network management National
1 Signalling network tests and maintenance National
4 TUP National
15 MTP traffic generator National
16 Signalling network management Local
17 Signalling network tests and maintenance Local
18 CSN down loading SSUCH Local
24 TUP Local
26 SSUEM for the CSNs Local
27 MTP traffic generator

-159-
Digital Switching System
PRESELECTION TIMES OBSERVATION

The preselection time is the time between ‘OFF HOOK’ and dial tone being received.In this
observation the delay in provision of DIAL TONE in a particular CSN can be observed.
The results are printed on the OPTR terminal.
To start
@OTPLA:
@AFUR=1,VB=i+j+k+l;
where
VB limit values of the preselection time.
T1=i x 20 ms T2=j x 20 ms T3=k x 20 ms T4=l x 20 ms
To stop
@OTPAR;

Results C1=....C2=.....C3=.....C4=.....
C1= number 0f calls where t<T1
C2= number 0f calls where T1<=t<T2
C3= number 0f calls where T2<=t<T3
C4= number 0f calls where T3<=t<T4
C5= number 0f calls where t>T5

PATHFINDING OBSERVATION
this observation observes the path finding process through th switching network from a particula
r CSN. or URA
E
X S
C
U H M
R A
AÒ N M
G
E

Fig. . ORI Observation

FORWARDED CALL OBSERVATION ORVLA


This is used to observe forwarding of calls to TONES or ANNOUNCEMENTS

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Digital Switching System
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Digital Switching System
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Digital Switching System
CHARGING MANAGEMENT

17. Introduction
Telecommunication is a commercial service providing basic voice telephony and many other
bearer services. The measurement of the charge of calls and realising the revenue from its
customers is one of the most important management activity.

In electronic exchanges the process and related O & M procedures for recording of charges and
calls details is called Charging Management Procedure. Charging management needs
identification of the factors on which the charging of a call depends and define the same
appropriately in a data base form in different tables. During call processing this data base is used
by call processing programs to impose correct charging and increment the subscriber’s charge
meter accordingly.

The charge can be calculated by the exchange by following methods

• using the digit analysis at the local end along with the source of the call, to determine the
metering parameters elements, for example in a local call.

• using the charge metering pulses or information from forward system allowing the calculation
of the charging based on inward pulses.

A call can be non-metered / charge free if

• the called line is charge free line

• information in the translation files indicates that the call is not to be charged.

18. Factors on which charging depends


Charging depends on the following factors

• Source of the call (subscriber or junction) - identified by a charging category (CT)

• Destination of the call - determined by the digits dialed.

• Type of the day, for example on normal day imposing normal charge, where as Sundays
which is holiday the tariff is reduced, exceptional days like National holidays.

• Time of the day- administration can decide different tariff rates at different time periods of
the day.

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Digital Switching System
• Duration of call conversation reckoning from the instant the called party answers.

Charging management deals with the CReation, MOdification, LIsting and INterrogation of the
above mentioned parameters appropriately.

Charging categories (CT) are defined to identify the source of the call. Digits dialed by the
subscriber along with the call source is used by Translator to determine charging parameter. A
charging category (CT) may be devided to a maximum of 64 Zones (ZG) as second level
indexing.

DIGITS & CHARGING CATEGORY (CT)

TRANSLATION

CT1 CT2 CTk CTn CT128

PTXa PTXb PTXj PTXn PTXz

ZG1 ZG2 ZGk ZGn ZG64

PTXc PTXd PTXx PTXy PTXy

18.1. Detailed billing


In addition charging management takes care of the management of detailed billing of each call
made by the subscriber. Detailed billing for national and international calls only are presently
being given by the Department.

The parameters related with charging are divided into two categories

1. Administrative charging parameters

2. Charge computation parameters

18.2. Administrative charging parameters


Administrative charging parameters are the guidelines regarding how to charge the call, which
meter of the subscriber is to be incremented, which charging code is to be used etc.

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Digital Switching System
Administrative charging parameters are refered to as PTX. It defines CPTX, GFD, MDTX, MCT
& TXD.

CHARGING PARAMETER

MDTX CPTX MCT TXD INDTX GFD

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Digital Switching System
Digits + CT

Translation analysis phase I

PTX=a PTX=n
CT=1 CT=128 File FLIT

Second level indexing (Optional)


Different PTXs as per
Translation phase different ZG
ARCH=XATR

For each PTX File FPTX


MDTX, CPTX, MCT, INDTX,
TXD, GFD n
ZG
....
CTX n ( If MDTX=Pn) G2
1Z
ZG

Tariff type scheme table File FICOT


TYJ STT
Type of day
from FICLX
Tariff table pointer File FISTH
Time of the day STH
as per clock
Tariff time band table File FIHTX
XATX Archive
CTX
Tariff File FIMTX

Q P’ P NTP TYP CTXS TEMPO

18.2.1. Details of Charging Parameters


18.2.1.1.CPTX (Subscribers meter Number)
OCB 283 provides 4 charge counters per subscriber. Any one of these can be used for different
type of call made by subscriber. One charge counter (meter) may be for local calls, one for
national calls, one for international calls and one for chargeable facilities.

CPTX is the charge counter number.

CPTX = 0 means first charge counter. CPTX can have values 0<3.

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Digital Switching System
18.2.1.2.GFD (Detailed billing group)
Number of charging parameters can be included in one GFD and detailed billing for calls using
these charging parameters can be allowed selectively for national and international calls
depending on the detailed billing category allotted to subscriber. The grouping may be as
decided by the administration in FGFD file.

Subscriber category
CAT = FD0 Detailed billing for ISD and STD calls (Default)
= FD1 Detailed billing for ISD calls only
= FD2 Detailed billing for STD calls only
= FD3 No detailed billing
= FD4 Detailed billing for all calls
Charging parameter
GFD =0 Detailed billing for local calls and wake - up activation
=1 Detailed billing for ISD calls only
=2 Detailed billing for STD calls only
The following table determines the detailed billing

CAT GFDi GFD2 GFD1 GFD0


FD0 1 1 0
FD1 0 1 0
FD2 1 0 0
FD3 0 0 0
FD4 1 1 1

18.2.1.3.MDTX (Method of charging)


There can be different methods for charging.
(1) MDTX=Pn
MDTX=Pn indicates local periodic charging using charge code (CTX) number ‘n’. The periodic
interval defined with the charging code will be dealt in detail later in the handout.
(2) MDTX=IM
Charge pulse to be received from the forward network.

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Digital Switching System
(3) MDTX=RTI

Charge band to be received from forward network ( applicable to charging information received
on CCS#7 link).

(4) MDTX=RC

Charging interval received from forward network ( applicable to charging information received
on CCS#7 link).

(5) MDTX=NTSR

No tariff when no answer signal is received from the forward system.

(6) MDTX=NTSE

Case of no tariff and no answer signal to be sent.

(7) MDTX=TMn

Manual charging with CTX=n. Charging to commence with manual intervention..

18.2.1.4.MCT (Transition of charge rate)


MCT defines how to change the tariff on transition from one charge rate to other
MCT =1 No change in tariff.
=2 Change in tariff after one complete period extended between one tariff rate to
another.
=3 Immediate change in tariff at transition.
Charge rate change time

Call metering pulses before change time Chrge meter pulses after chnage time
MCT=1
P1 P1

MCT=2
P1 P1 P2

MCT=3
P1 P2

18.2.1.5.TXD (Call details record)


With TXD parameter included in the charging parameter the switch keeps the charging
information like calling party identity, digits dialed, time of start and end of call, duration of
conversation etc. stored so that subsequently charge can be determined. If TXD=YES charge
will be computed later by a computer. TXD= YES is not used in our system.

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Digital Switching System
18.2.1.6.INDTX (Charge band number)
INDTX is charge band number which will be transmitted to the originating station from the
forward system through CCS#7 link. The PTX which has got the corresponding INDTX will be
used for charging.

LOCAL EXCH. Incoming Circuit group


to have CTA=DFA4 TAX DESTINATION
EXCHANGE

PTX=65MDTX=RTI
CCS#7
PTX=14, INDTX=14
A PTX=14 INDTX=14 B

Example:

A is dialing to get B. Local exchange uses PTX= 65 in which the MDTX= RTI initially to
connect the call to TAX. After analysis of number of digits which can decide the charge, the
parent TAX intimates charge band INDTX=14 to originating exchange, which searches through
the PTX table to find PTX=14 matching with INDTX=14 and starts charging accordingly, after
getting answer message (ANM).

All the above factors are managed by translator and thus is a part of translation management.

18.3. Management commands for charging parameters


1. Creation

@PTXCR:↵

@PTX=11, GFD=2, MDTX=P11,CPTX=0, INDTX=11,TXD=NO: ↵

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Digital Switching System
Note:

PTX=0 means no charging

CPTX=0 by default

TXD = No by default

2. Explanation regarding use of GFD

File FGFD in Translator archive, having 16 records, is used for 16 possible detailed billing
categories.
GFD y
CAT 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 0
FDx 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

15

16 bits in each record correspond to detail billing groups LSB being GFD0 and MSB GFD15.

A call for which PTX belongs to GFDx will be detail billed for a subscriber having category FDy
if at the cross point x-y there is a 1 written in the file.

In this example subscribers belonging to category FD0 will be detailed billed to GFD1and GFD
2 only.

PTXMO, PTXSU, PTXIN & PTXIL commands are also available . Listing with a criterion like
INDTX is possible.

19. Charge computation parameter


Charge computation can be done either by determining charge at originating local exchange level
or by charging information received from the parent TAX.

Note: In case of NSD/ISD calls, at local exchange level the charge computation parameters may
not be arrived at for out going calls, as the depth of analysis required may be insufficient to
determine charging, and hence information is obtained from TAX .

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Digital Switching System
If however charge is to be determined by an exchange locally then method of charging indicated
by MDTX, associated with PTX shall be ‘Pn’ type where ‘n’ refers to the charging code CTX
and this CTX leads to the ‘charging unit’ where charge computation will actually be done.

19.1. Management done at Charging unit.


19.1.1. Charging calendar management
This means writing in the charging unit calendar the type of day and rank of day for each day.

19.1.1.1.Commands used
Assuming that calendar programming is done on January 1, 2000, and Monday is taken as the
first day of the week.

TYJ defines type of day

TYJ=1 for normal day and TYJ=2 for holiday (Sundays and National Holidays are treated as
TYJ=2).

NJO defines rank of day in the week. (1=Monday, 2=Tuesday, ...... 7= Sunday)

@CLXMO: ↵

@DAT=00-01-01, TYJ=1, NJO=6: ↵

@DAT=00-01-02, TYJ=2: ↵

@DAT=00-01-3<7, TYJ=1; ↵

Interrogation by

@CLXIN: ↵

@DAT=00-01-8<15; ↵

will reveal that every NJO=1<6 will be TYJ=1 and NJO=7 will be TYJ=2. Thus what is required
to be managed is calendar for one week, subsequent week will automatically assume similar
calendar with respect to TYJ and NJO.

19.1.1.2.Exceptional day
CLXMO cannot be done for a date beyond 1 week of current date. If some date is to be allotted a
different TYJ, then the introduction of exceptional day becomes necessary.

January 26, 2000 is falling on Wednesday which will have NJO=3 and TYJ=1. But this day is to
be treated as National Holiday and will have to be made TYJ=2.

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Digital Switching System
@FJFAD: ↵

@DAT=00-01-26, TYJ=2; ↵

FJFAD can be done for 275 day in advance and after 90 days the day automatically becomes
normal day as per normal calendar.

Writing of exceptional day by FJFAD also manages the creation of extra day in the leap year.

The normal type of day, on exceptional day, will be masked by the type of exceptional day. In
the subsequent week the same rank of the day will assume normal day.

19.1.2. Time bands and tariffs


The tariff for local and regional calls in the country are periodic but, the same tariff is applicable
through out the day while for national and international calls the tariff rate changes at different
times of the day. Administration may define different time bands for the purpose of charging
differently.

The actual time band tariff relationship as followed in the country is given in form of actual
printouts from the field in the Appendix.

There can be different time band - tariff relationship in differnt type of day. Also there can be
different time band - tariff relation in the same type of day. This is enabled by introduction of yet
another variable parameter STT (Tariff Type Scheme) which is linked with both time band - tarif
relation and CTX (Charging code).

Table for relation between day, rank of day and type of day from 01-01-2000
DAY=1 TYJ=1 NJO=6
DAY=2 TYJ=2 NJO=7

DAY=366 TYJ= NJO=


On Type of day = TYJ1 now 5 STTs are there.
TYJ STT Time band Tariff rate
1 1 00.00 - 24.00 1
1 2 00.00 - 06.00 4
1 2 06.00 - 07.00 3
1 2 07.00 - 08.00 2
1 2 08.00 - 19.00 1
1 2 19.00 - 20.30 2
1 2 20.30 - 23.00 3
1 2 23.00 - 24.00 4
1 3 ........................ .........................

1 5 ......................................... ..........................

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Digital Switching System
Note: Time band - Tariff table are to be defined under different tariff type scheme (STT) as per
national charging plan.

For this OCB283 provides for maximum of 16 types of days which can be divided in 20 possible
time bands. A tariff type scheme enables definition of different timeband - tariff relaionship in
same type of day.

19.1.2.1.Tarif Type Scheme (STT)


This is a parameter pointing to different time bands scheme in same type of day. In normal days
(TYJ=1), local and regional calls are charged at the same rate through out the 24 hours of the
day, while national and inter national calls are charged at different rate at different time of the
day.

A table below clearly differentiates the time band - tarif relationship for a particular type of day.
The charging code used for computation of charge is also linked with the STT.

If the CTX linked to PTX for charging belongs to STT=2 then the time band - tarif table
pertaining to STT=2 will be applicable.

The management therefore needs defining a CTX under one STT and then creating a table of
time band - tarif under the same STT.

19.1.2.2.Management commands
a) Interrogation of timeband tariff relationship under one tariff type scheme.

@TYJIN: ↵

@TYJ=1, STT=1; ↵

b) Time band - tariff relation under scheme 1 (STT=1) will be printed out.

Interrogation of timeband - tariff relationship under different schemes (STT).

@TYJIN: ↵

@TYJ=1; ↵

c) Creation and modification of timeband - tariff relationship.

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Digital Switching System
LOCAL CALL

STT1

Normal day Holiday & Exceptional day

TYJ1 TYJ2

TF1 TF1 Time band


0-24 Hrs 0-24 Hrs

CTXi CTXi
MTX1 MTX1

PTXn IND=326

Active
Normally a day will necessaryly have one time band i.e. 00 to 24 Hrs.

This 24 Hour period can be divided into maximum 20 time bands and there can be 16 possible
tariff rates applicable in time bands, as per the requirement of administration.

@TYJMO: ↵

@TYJ=1, STT=1, HR=24-00, TF=1: ↵

@TYJ=2, STT=1, HR=24-00, TF=1: ↵

@TYJ=1, STT=2, HR=6-0+7-0+8-0+19-0+20-30+23-00+24-0, TF=4+3+2+1+2+3+4: ↵

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Digital Switching System
@TYJ=2, STT=2, HR=6-0+7-0+20-30+23-0+24-0’ TF=4+3+2+3+4; ↵

Similarly there can be different tariff schemes created with different STT values .

NATIONAL CALL
(Say IND = 0xy)

STT2

Normal day
Holiday / Exceptional day

TYJ1 TYJ2

Time band
TF1 TF2 TF3 TF4 TF2 TF3 TF4

CTXa CTXa CTXa CTXa CTXa CTXa CTXa


MTX1 MTX2 MTX3 MTX4 MTX2 MTX3 MTX4

TF1 0800-1900 Hrs TF2 0700 -2030 Hrs


TF2 0700 -0800 TF3 0600-07-00
1900-2030 PTXk 2030-2300
TF3 0600-07-00 TF4 0000-0600
2030-2300 2300-2400
TF4 0000-0600
IND=0xy
2300-2400

Active

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Digital Switching System
XATR FLIA TYPTX=1 Charging without indexation
Routing chain TYPTX=2 Charging with indexation,
FIANA NLIA CT-ACH
Digits & there will be array of PTX for all ZGs
from MR
TYPTX
GFD
CT-PTX MDTX
NLIT 128 CTs CPTX
PTX
XATX FLIT Max 512 FPTX
MCT
CTX *
CTX defined by TR
CTX
1 to 255

FICOT FICLX 1 to 31 FISTH FIHTX FIMTX


0 1 1 STH 1 to 32 H-M-TF TYP
NTP
16 0 to 15
STT TYJ MTX
1 to 16 TF
255 366
DAY 32 records (0-31) CLOCK
Gives tarif type 32 record for 256 records for CTX
Calendar file maintains one per STT
scheme (Max31) 32 time bands each with 16 items for
type of day and rank of day each with 16 items,
for each CTX each with 20 items time bands.
for each day. one per TYJ
(Max 256) for tariff rates.
16 type of day possible.
CTX 0 not used.

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Digital Switching System
As many as 31 STT values are available.

Presntly for local, national and international calls there are 5 different time band schemes
available and three STTs are in use. (For actual printouts see Appendix)

19.2. Charging code management


Charging code defines all those parameters required for actual charge computation.

The parameters are

Q = Number of unit fee to be imposed on answeing by called party

P’ - P = Interval defined in seconds and milliseconds at which the call is to be


charged again.(P’=Seconds, P=Milli seconds)

NTP = Number of unit fee to be imposed at intervals P’-P

TYP = Type of charging


= 1 Flat rate charging
= 2 Periodic charging where first and subsequent periods are same and
there is no warning tone.
= 3 Periodic charging where first and subsequent periods are different.
= 4 Same as TYP=2, but with warning tone.
= 5 Same as TYP=3 , but with warning tone.

TF = Tariff Number (1 < 16)

CTXS = Subsequent charging code.

TEMPO = Time in seconds after which CTXS will come into effect.

19.2.1. Management commands

@CTXMO: ↵

@CTX=20, STT=2: ↵

@CTX=20, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=1, TF=1, TYP=2: ↵

@CTX=30, MTX=0-90-0,NTP=1, NTP=1,TF=1,TYP=2: ↵

A Special Case of excess metering and solution:


In OCB 283 exchanges charging parameter may either be arrived at by analysing locally or on
information received from forward network, may be originating TAX. Usually for regional and
internal calls the charging parameter is locally determined while for other station calls it is

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Digital Switching System
determined by originating TAX which sends either the charge pulses (R2MF) or charge band
(CCS#7).

In case charge pulses are received from forward system the processing register in TX takes care
of incrementing the meter by number of pulses received including the one received just on
answering by called party. The subscribers charge meter is incremented at the completion of the
call.

In case of local charging or charging by receipt of charge band the corresponding PTX points to
appropriate CTX.

It is seen that the number of charges is one more than what it should be owing to the fact that one
charge is imposed on answer message (ANM) or signal (R2 signalling) and another charge takes
place equivalent to NTP number of pulses in the begining of a period as defined by CTX.

In order to resolve the problem of one excess metering the following management for charging
code is proposed.
1. Chose CTX=2(say) which is not created as yet and is proposed to be associated with the PTX
for charging with 180 sec pulse.
2. Create a CTX=102 (say) to be used as CTXS to CTX=2 of TYPE=2 as follows
@CTXMO: ↵
@CTX=102, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=1, TF=1, TYPE=2; ↵
3. Link CTX=2 with CTX=102 as CTXS
@CTXMO: ↵
@CTX=2, CTXS=102; ↵
4. Include the initial tariff by the TYPE to 3
@CTXMO: ↵
@CTX=2, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=0, TF=1, TYPE=3; ↵
TEMPO=0 by default.
If an existing CTX is to be changed ....
If the CTX 2 is already existing and was not linked to any CTXS then the following procedure
may be followed.
Make all items in the record of CTX in FIMTX file NULL by CTXMO command, making all Q-
P-R values to 0 in all MTXs.
Example:
@CTXMO: ↵
@CTX=2, MTX=0-0-0, NTP=0, TF=1, TYPE=2; ↵
Then..
@ARCMO: ↵
@ARCH=XATX, FICH=FIMTX, NUME=<CTX No.>, NUMA=0<15, CHSI=N-0, AF=ALL:
@ARCH=XATX, FICH= FICOT, NUM= (CTX No. say 2), CHSI=STT-0, AF=ALL; ↵
This will make the CTX un-used (NNU) and procedure as discussed in the previous para can be
followed.
Use of TYPE=3 CTX ensures periodic charging. Only answer (call set up charge) is levied
during the first period and then periodic charging is continued as per CTXS after the end of the
period defined in the CTX as TEMPO=0.

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Digital Switching System
XATR FLIA TYPTX=1 Charging without indexation
Routing chain TYPTX=2 Charging with indexation,
FIANA NLIA CT-ACH
Digits & there will be array of PTX for all ZGs
from MR
TYPTX
GFD
CT-PTX MDTX
NLIT 128 CTs CPTX
PTX
XATX FLIT Max 512 FPTX
MCT
CTX *
CTX defined by TR
CTX
1 to 255

FICOT FICLX 1 to 31 FISTH FIHTX FIMTX


0 1 1 STH 1 to 32 H-M-TF TYP
NTP
16 0 to 15
STT TYJ MTX
1 to 16 TF
255 366
DAY 32 records (0-31) CLOCK
Gives tarif type 32 record for 256 records for CTX
Calendar file maintains one per STT
scheme (Max31) 32 time bands each with 16 items for
type of day and rank of day each with 16 items,
for each CTX each with 20 items time bands.
for each day. one per TYJ
(Max 256) for tariff rates.
16 type of day possible.
CTX 0 not used.

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Digital Switching System
XATR FLIA TYPTX=1 Charging without indexation
Routing chain TYPTX=2 Charging with indexation,
FIANA NLIA CT-ACH
Digits & there will be array of PTX for all ZGs
from MR
TYPTX
GFD
CT-PTX MDTX
NLIT 128 CTs CPTX
PTX
XATX FLIT Max 512 FPTX
MCT
CTX *
CTX defined by TR
CTX
1 to 255

FICOT FICLX 1 to 31 FISTH FIHTX FIMTX


0 1 1 STH 1 to 32 H-M-TF TYP
NTP
16 0 to 15
STT TYJ MTX
1 to 16 TF
255 366
DAY 32 records (0-31) CLOCK
Gives tarif type 32 record for 256 records for CTX
Calendar file maintains one per STT
scheme (Max31) 32 time bands each with 16 items for
type of day and rank of day each with 16 items,
for each CTX each with 20 items time bands.
for each day. one per TYJ
(Max 256) for tariff rates.
16 type of day possible.
CTX 0 not used.
@CTX
=20, CTXS=30: ↵

@CTX=20,TEMPO=0,TYP=3; ↵

Special note:
For regional calls on circuit with R2MF signalling it is noted that on ‘Answer Signal’ “ONE”
metering takes place and is further incremented at the begining of the periodic interval defined.
In order to avoid extra meter increments it has been decided to manage the same as follows:

Say the PTX for R2MF call is 11 which has MDTX=P11 i.e. CTX applicable is 11.

For regional calls where charge is uniform through out 24 hours of the day we can have only one
tariff - time band scheme indicating TF1 applicable in the single band 0-24 hrs on all days
irrespective of type of day (TYJ).

Say the time band tariff relation is defined under STT=2 (see the correct STT to be used in
REDA). Then CTX11 must be defined under STT=2 as follows:

@CTXMO: ↵

@ CTX=11, STT=2; ↵

For additional charge and to make periodic charging effective it is decided to go for charging
code (CTX) of type 3 i.e. first and subsequent period are different. Chose a suitable CTX as
CTXS. Create it as per the required interval.

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Digital Switching System
Say for CTX11 , CTXS is 111.

@CTXMO: ↵

@ CTX=111,MTX=0-180-0,NTP=1,TYP=2, TF=1; ↵

This include CTXS as parameter of CTX so that right after answering of call the subsequent
charging is governed by CTX=111.

@CTXMO: ↵

@CTX=11, CTXS=111, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=1, CTXS=111, TEMPO=0, TYP=3., TF=1; ↵


Similarly for regional calls with CCS#7 signalling since the answering condition is as charge
message with out any charge information (as per Indian specification) similar modifications are
carried out with the difference that in the initial CTX call set up charge (Q) is included.

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Digital Switching System