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2012

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............................................................................................................................ 5
.................................................................................................... 7
................................................................................................................................... 8
1. , .................................................................. 11
1.1. ................................................................................ 12
1.2. ............ 14
1.3. ......................................... 17
1.4. ................... 22
1.5. ..................................................................................................... 29
1.6. ................................................................................................................................. 30
2. ............................................................................... 32
2.1. ..................................................................................... 32
2.2. ....................... 33
2.3. .......................................................................... 36
3. ............................................................................................... 46
4. ........................................................................................... 51
4.1. . 51
4.2. ............... 52
5. .............................................................. 54
5.1.
............................................................................................................................................ 56
........................................................................................................................... 57
.................................................................................................................................. 61
.............................................................................................................................. 63
1: ....................................... 63
2: ................................ 66


1.

2. 9000
3. Lean Production
4.
5. TPS Lean Production
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.
15. Lean enterprise institute
1. DMAIC
2. Lean production

3.

4.
5.
Toyota
6.

7.

8. ,

9.

12
13
15
18
19
33
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
49
14
21
23
24
25
30
45
47
55



,

.
() Lean Production ( )
, ,
, .

.
5 90 % Best Plants ( )
Industry Week's Lean Production.
30 %,
1
33 %, 24 % 20092011 .
Lean Production
Toyota (Toyota Production System TPS).
TPS ,
.

,
,

Lean
Production,

, Toyota 1970- .
,
. ,
TPS, Lean
Production.
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.
,
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9000.

" ", // URL:http://leanunion.ru/content/budushchee-lin


( : 20.11.2012).


.

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2
McKinsey 2009 ,
: 26 %
; 30 80 %
. , ,
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,

.

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,
ISO: 9000 (117 , 97 % ).

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, . ,
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13 % 2010 .
,
,
. ,
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McKinsey Global Institute, . //


URL:http://gtmarket.ru/files/news/1986/MGI_Effective_Russia_Productivity_Growth_as_the_Foundation_2009.pdf (
: 20.11.2012).

,
Lean Production

(
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2011 (Dan Lachica ) .

.

.. //
URL:http://www.icss.ac.ru/userfiles/file/public_pdf1097.pdf ( : 20.11.2012).
4
- ;
.
5
.. (TQM) .

11

,
.
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(FORM, STORM, NORM,


PERFORM)
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6
Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM
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: , (6 sigma)
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(. 2)
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ISO 8402: TQM ( )


// URL: http://ohranatruda.ru/ot_biblio/normativ/data_normativ/5/5812/index.php ( : 20.11.2012).

12

2.
9000

: ISO

- ,
, ;

;
;
.

, TQM

,

.
,
.

7
DMAIC . 1.

. Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control: - .

13

1.
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D

Define .
(ROI, ),
(, ).

Measure
.
. ,

/
.

. ,
.
.

.
. ISO: 9000

: -

1.2.

()
. .

1910- .,
. 1920- .
,
,
8
.
1950- .
.
1950- 1960- .
,

. TQM // URL: http://www.klubok.net/article2427.html ( : 20.11.2012).

14

.
9
.

3.
Lean Production

: -


, .
1970- .
,
,
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.
,
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. / .. , .. , .. . / . - . .
.. .: , 1998.
9

15

, .
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, 1980- .,
(UNI, DIN, BS, AFNOR, ASME) (ISO 9000)
,
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Swatch,
.
10
, .
1994 .
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11
ISO:9000 1994 . :

, ;
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.
,
.

10

. , . , . . // URL:
http://www.cfin.ru/management/iso9000/newtqm/index.shtml ( : 20.11.2012).
11
. ISO 9000. // URL:
http://www.leanzone.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=182:-iso-9000-&catid=41:2008-12-22-17-5743&Itemid=90 ( : 20.11.2012).

16

.
12
.

1.3.
(Lean Production, LP),
13
Toyota (Toyota Production System, TPS)
Toyota. ,
14
. TPS
. ()
, , , ,
15
. ,

,
.
, TPS .
TPS ,
,
. TPS ,
Ford Sloan 1920- . .
, 1950 . TPS
Ford ,
16
, .. :

;
,
,
;

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, ,
.

12

,
, // URL: http://www.uppro.ru/journal/prozvodstvennye-systemy/andrej_malahov_kpmg_v_rossii_i_sg_a_rossijskih.html ( 20.11.2012).
13
Toyota Production System, TPS; Lean Manufacturing, Lean Production
.
14
: Lean Manufacturing History and Timeline//
URL: http://www.superfactory.com/content/timeline.html ( : 20.11.2012); Pete Abilla, Lean History and Timeline//
URL: http://www.shmula.com/lean-history-and-timeline-toyota-production-system/5993/#fnref-5993-1 (
20.11.2012); Lean Timeline// URL: http://www.lean.org/WhatsLean/Timeline.cfm ( 20.11.2012).
15
.
16
Lean Production. // URL:
http://deming.ru/Praktika/GL/Uslov_primenimosti_sistem_uprav_na_prim_Toioty/Uslov_primi_sis_upr_na_prim_Toioty.htm (
20.11.2012).

17

4.

: -

Toyota .
.
,
. , Toyota
,
, .

:

(
SMED single-minute exchange of dies).
, -
(Jidoka),
.
(
TPM),
( 5S). .

18

,
,

.
(just-intime)
.

5.
TPS Lean Production



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Kanban
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17
. Toyota

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, .

17

History of Lean Manufacturing// URL: http://leanman.hubpages.com/hub/History-of-Lean-Manufacturing (


20.11.2012).

19

20 . 1960- .
TPS Toyota. 1965
Toyota TPS . 1970- . TPS
. TMMT
(Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey) , 1994 .
3600 , Toyota
18
$10 , .. $2800 .
TPS (19731979 .),
Toyota ,
,
(83 % Toyota) 30 %
.
.
$5
, ,
19
Lean Enterprise Institute . Lean Production
,
, .
1980- . ,
20
, 1990- . Lean
, .
, , , , start-up ,
.
LP .
, 8090 %
, , .
: 510 % LP. ,
, 2009 .
68 % Lean, 2 % Lean ,
21
.
, 700 2006 ., 32 %
Lean

. - .
, ,

18

. // URL:
http://www.autoreview.ru/_archive/section/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=69787&SECTION_ID=1992 ( 20.11.2012).

19

Matthias Holweg. The genealogy of lean production. Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2
1AG, United Kingdom. 2006 // URL: http://mti.mercubuana.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/holweg-2007-history-of-leanprod.pdf ( 20.11.2012).
20
, 1989 . General Motors 5,5 775 . , Toyota 3,3
90 . .
21
http://slon.ru/business/68_rossiyskih_kompaniy_nichego_ne_znayut_o_berezh-178605.xhtml ( 20.11.2012).

20

22

5 % . ,
, .
LP , ..
LP , .
, , ,

23
, , , .
2.
Lean production

Lean production
1.

,
.

(
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3.

4.

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(EFQM .)

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3.

.

, ..
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4.

, ,
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5. .
.

:
-
; .

6.
:

Lean-

: -

22

, // URL: http://markus.spb.ru/kase/lean-russia.shtml (
20.11.2012).
23
. . 1// URL: http://www.arbconsulting.ru/subscribe/articles/articles_5.html (
20.11.2012).

21


.
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24
.
25

LP
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1.4.
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, ISO 9001,
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24

25

Lawson, USA. White paper. Lean manufacturing.

,
, // URL: http://www.uppro.ru/journal/prozvodstvennye-systemy/andrej_malahov_kpmg_v_rossii_i_sg_a_rossijskih.html ( 20.11.2012).

22

.
. ISO
26
9001 . LP
.
3.


Lean production
1. ,
(
9000)
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OEM

( )
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()

1. LP 3 5 %
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).
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(
)
2. : , ,
, , , ,
, -, , Sollers
(. -.
5S, SMED, VSM, ..

: -

LP ,
, .
Lean ,
, LP. ,
LP , :
(SMED, just-in-time,
kanban, SOP, TPM, 5S, VSM); (, Jidoka);
(, 5S);
(just-in-time, kanban, VSM). LP 2.

26

, ISO QS 9000 ,
: Ford, General Motors, Chrysler. VDA 6.1/6.2 ,
ISO QS 9000, , BMW, Volkswagen, Mercedes, Siemens.

23

4.

LP
Kanban

()

, ,

,

,
(" ")

, ,
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( ).

SMED
(singleminute exchange
of dies)
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Just-in-time (JIT)

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; ;
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3 ;
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5S

(SOP)

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(VSM)

: - Leaninfo, leanzone, leancore,

24

,
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Why . ,
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, ,

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5.

Toyota

Toyota

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: - Leaninfo, leanzone, leancore,

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Toyota ,
.

26

,
27
c 5S .
(Six Sigma) .


.

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, .
.
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Sigma .
.
.
.
, .

28
, DMAIC :

, ( );
, ;
;
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;
;
.

, ,
, ().

27

2006 .// URL: http://www.icss.ac.ru/userfiles/file/l.pdf ( 20.11.2012).


, -,
. , . DMAIC,
: define (), measure
(), analyze (), improve () control (),
, . ,
, //
URL: http://www.isixsigma.com/new-to-six-sigma/dmaic/six-sigma-dmaic-roadmap/ ( : 20.11.2012).

28

27

.
.
( , Root Cause Analyze,
) .

, ,
.
29

DFSS (Design for Six Sigma


)
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.
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.

30

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Toyota, ,
, . .
,
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.

29

: Air Academy Associates, Victoria, British Columbia . Using the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)// URL:
http://dtic.mil/ndia/2003test/kiemele.pdf ( 20.11.2012); Charles Huber, Seagate Technology. QFD and Design for Six
Sigma// URL: http://www.mazur.net/works/qfd_dfss.pdf ( 20.11.2012).
30
.. . . 3- ., . :
, 2003. . 240.

28

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;

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32

Toyota; Nissan

Institute, Goldratt Institute


: - NTPS, " "

32

, , .

30



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33
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34
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33

. Toyota: .
NTPS: ; " "// URL: http://www.uppro.ru/journal/zarubejnyj-opyt/ntps-integracija.html ( : 20.11.2012).
34

31

2.
2.1.
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35
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36
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35

. . , ..
// URL:
http://expert.gost.ru/NAV.php?ID=ME/HTML/ME_MQ_01.html ( 20.11.2012).

36

32

6.

: -

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2.2.
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( ISO:9000).
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Leanforum.ru, lean.org, www.up-pro.ru.

34

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39

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40
.., ..., ; (TQM)
// URL:
http://www.elitarium.ru/2006/04/14/koncepcija_vseobshhego_kachestva_tqm_kak_nacionalnaja_ideja_rossii.html (
: 20.11.2012).

35


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2.3.
2012 . - 129



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36

7.

: -

46 (36 %) , , 50
(39 %) , , 33
41
(25 %) .

The Manufacturer, 212 18 .
, 70 % , 11 % .
19 % 12 .
2001 .,
2012 . .
, (63 %) 20102012 .,
2,9.
The Lean Report 2011, 25 (11 %) 212
10 , 38 (18 %)
5 10 , (31 %, 66 )
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.
4,1, 1,2 ,
.

41

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46 .

37

8.

: -

46 38, (83 %)
.
45 (98 %) 44 (96 %) .
37 46 (80 %),
38 46 (83 %),
42 46 (91 %).

5
2009 . 2011 ., 138 (3 * 46
) .

. 9 (20 %) 2009 ., 18
(39 %) 2010 ., 29 (63 %) 2011 . 46 .
. 2009 . 0,5 .,
74 . 2010 . 0,35 .,
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3774 .

. ,
. ,
2009 .
1,3 % 2 % 2010 . 0,8 % 2011 .
, 29 46 .

38

9.

: -


42
(%/) . 2010 .
12,8 %, 2011 . 12,9 %.

43
. 10,8 %.
44

.
13,7 %.

45
. 2010 .
28,4 %, 2011 . 17,1 %.

42

3 (7 %) 2009 ., 8 (17 %) 2010 ., 14 (30 %) 2011 . 46


. 2009 . .
43
2009 . , 2010 . 2 (4 %), 2011 . 6 (13 %) 46
. 2011 .
44
2 (4 %) 2009 ., 4 (9 %) 2010 ., 8 (17 %) 2011 . 46 .
2011 .
45

4 (9 %) 2009 ., 9 (20 %) 2010 ., 12 (26 %) 2011 . 46


. 2009 . .

39

10.

: -

,
, ,
8
: , ; ,
; ,
.
( ) 41 46 (89 %)
5S ( ), 42 46
(91 %) VSM ( ), 39 46 (85 %)
TFM ( ), 37 46 (80 %)
( ), 36 46 (78 %)
TPM (
) SMED ( ), 38 46
(83 %) (
) 25 46 (76 %) Jidoka (
).

40

11.

: -

, 5S, , , -
. ,
, Jidoka.

.
. ,
3 , 4 .
(VSM TFM) (3 ).
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3 , 3 4 , TPM
3 8 , SMED 2 4 .
()
.
(
The Lean Report 2011)
(, ).

41

12.

: -

,
. , 31 %
, 50 % , 19 % 59 % ,
, 26 % , 15 % ,
. 5S 85 % ,
8 %; 37 50 % ; 82 %
, 16 %; 30 50 %, .
TFM Jidoka.
44 % 35 % , 45 %
33 % .

8 .
/
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43

, 3 (3 %) ,
46
.
14.

: -

( ) ,
.
(117 122, 96 %) ISO 9000
, . .
PDCA, 26
(21 %). 10%- .
TQM 9 (7 %),
SPC 8 (7 %), 4
(3 %).
:
AS9100; 15.002-2003;
, ISO
14001:2004 OHSAS 18001:2007.

46

: 47 , ,
122 .

44

7.
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45

3.


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(JUSE)

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, .
.
, .
,
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(JSA)



(ASQC)

1977
,
. 8,5 . ,

(CQM)

1990
TQM.
JUSE. TQM
CQM

(ASI)

Ford Motor Company 1981


( 4 15 .
).

(EFQM)

1988 14
. 70 . 500 .
, 55 , 1000

: -

47

.
ISO 9000,
,
. ,
ISO,
,
.

.
47

,
, , . ,
,
, .
, (ASQC, CQM, ASI .),
:
(JUSE) (JSA).
,
. JSA
MITI,
. JUSE JSA , ,
.

48
.
JUSE 270 33 560 , JSA 250
15 000 58 .
, LP ,
, . , LEI (lean enterprise institute)
LP. LEI
: -, . LEI
lean LGN (Lean Global Network), 18
:

47

// URL:
http://www.cfin.ru/management/iso9000/newtqm/glava16/index.shtml ( : 20.11.2012).
48
, 1991 5000 5- JUSE
9000 5- .

48

15.
Lean enterprise institute

Lean Enterprise Australia


Lean Institute Brasil
Lean Enterprise Academy
Lean Enterprise Institute Hungary
Lean Management Institut
Lean Management Instituut
Confederation of Danish Industries
Israel Lean Enterprise
Lean Management Institute of India
Instituto Lean Management
Lean Enterprise Center
Lean Enterprise China
Lean Enterprise Institute Mexico
Lean Enterprise Institute Polska
Lean Institute Turkey
Institut Lean France
Lean Institute Africa

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49

49

Lean Production :

APICS (The Association for Operations Management);


Association for Manufacturing Excellence UK;
APQC (American Productivity and Quality Center);
AMQ (American Society for Quality);
CCAT (Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc.);
CSCMP (Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals);
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI);
Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) Europe;
International Car Distribution Programme;
IIE (Institute of Industrial Engineers);
Lean Enterprise Research Centre UK;
LLPDE (Lean Product & Process Development Exchange, Inc.);
Productivity Alberta;
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: Denis Leonard. The financial impact of MBNQA// URL:


http://www.texas-quality.org/SiteImages/125/Reference%20Library/Financial%20Impact%20of%20the%20Criteria%20%20Leonard.pdf ( : 20.11.2012); R.S.M. Lau, Xiande Zhao, Ming Xiao. Assessing quality management in
China with MBNQA criteria// URL: http://gpsinc.us/files/Baldrige_in_China.pdf ( : 20.11.2012).

54

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56


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57

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28. .. . . 3- .,
. : , 2003. . 240.
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30. . ISO 9000. // URL:
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58

31. . TQM // URL:


http://www.klubok.net/article2427.html ( : 20.11.2012).
32. . // URL:
http://www.autoreview.ru/_archive/section/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=69787&SECTION_ID=19
92 ( 20.11.2012).
33. . : ,
: . . -: , .:2004. . 107.
34. - Six sigma// URL: http://www.sixsig.info/six-sigma/category/six-sigmareferenceslast ( : 20.11.2012).
35. .. / .:
/ o. . . . ; . -
. .: . , 2007. . 556.
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36. .. //
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; . . . , 2011. 354 .
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. ; . . .: , 2005. 370 .
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45. . . . .: , 2005. 192 .
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. - . . .. .: , 1998.
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// URL:
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. ., 2010. 135 . // URL:
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20.11.2012).

59

50. . , . , . . //
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20.11.2012).
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321.
52. . , // URL:
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60


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61

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71