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CHAPTER 8LATE ANTIQUITY Short Answer Questions brief answers are acceptable here; sentences not required. 1.

. In the Dura painting, Samuel Anointing David, David is depicted with an Imperial attribute indicating his royalty. What is that attribute? The purple toga, which was the color associated with the Roman emperor, indicates his royalty.

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2. Why is the Christian community house in Dura-Europas only a small house? Until Constantine legalized Christianity, it was considered a crime often punishable by death. The places where the early Christians could not be overtly obvious, so they had to blend in as small houses, especially in the Roman garrisoned town of Dura-Europas. They also did not receive patronage from the state.

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3. The Roman State persecuted the Christians. What would account for this persecution? The Christians refused to pay token homage to the Roman gods, some of whom were old emperors. The Roman leaders at that time feared that as Christians grew and started to shun the Roman gods their imperial right-to-rule would be effaced by the new religion.

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4. What is the earliest datable period for Christian art? The most datable Early Christian art is found in the 3rd century C.E.

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5. After Christianity received acceptance within the Roman Empire, churches were constructed above the catacombs. What is the most likely explanation for such churches to be constructed at these sites? Churches grew from above the catacombs so that the pious could worship openly at the burial sites of the early Christian martyrs, who were integral parts of Christian tradition.

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6. How did one recognize a Christian sarcophagus? The Christian sarcophaguses were very much like Roman sarcophaguses (e.g. Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus), but they depict religious scenes from the Bible.

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7. In the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, a pagan who converted to Christianity, the sculptors illustrated scenes from the life of Christ. Name the scene that represents the allusion to the Crucifixion? The portrayal of Abraham sacrificing Isaac.

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8. The Christ as Good Shepherd from the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna is said to be deeply rooted in the classical tradition. What about it makes us say that? Christ stands in contrapposto and is free standing, a tradition of the Classical period in Greek art.

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9. Which of the following attributes was used to depict Christ after Christianity was officially recognized by Roman authorities? Laurel leaf crown, Imperial purple, Chariot, or Imperial armour. Imperial purple

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10. What was the entrance porch of Old St. Peter's in Rome called? The narthex

11. What building would be considered the predecessor for the Mausoleum of Costanza? The Pantheon

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12. Christ as the Good Shepherd appears in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia and uses many iconographic devices. What is one of those devices? The sheep surrounding Jesus represent his faithful disciples.

13. Of the following which is a basilica Santa Costanza, Old St. Peters, or St. Callixtus? Old St. Peters

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14. What themes represents the interior decorative program of Santa Costanza? How is that theme both Christian and Pagan? The depiction of Putti harvesting grapes and making wine was rooted in Bacchus, the Roman god of wine, but for a Christian the scene represented the Eucharist and Christs blood.

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15. What architectural element is found in Santa Sabina? timbered ceiling, arcade, clerestory, apse

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16. Who was the Ostrogothic king and patron of the church of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna. Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths.

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17. How does the painting from Dura Europos reflect Late Antique art? They stand in frontal rows, feature stylized gestures, and their feet seem to lift slightly off the ground.

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18. What is the significance of Old St. Peters? Built by Constantine, the first imperial patron of Christianity, Old Saint Peters consolidated the basilican design of the Romans with the spiritual movement of the Christians.

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19. How does Sta. Costanza mirror Imperial Roman architecture? The central planning and dome of the Santa Costanza mirror the central planning and dome of the Pantheon and other late Roman buildings.

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20. Why are catacombs significant? Catacombs helped the early Christians hide their beliefs and customs from early persecution.

21. How does the theme of the "Good Shepherd" reflect the heritage of the pre-Christian world? The message that early Christians wanted to portray was that Christ was a refuge for the weak and downtrodden. He wanted to bring back the lost sheep and nurture it.

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22. What are Orant figures? They are representations of figures with their arms outstretched in prayer.

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23. Although the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes from Sant' Apollinare Nuovo resemble Late Antique abstraction, what is different? Jesus, now beardless, has a gold sky behind hem suggesting the heavenly rather than a blue sky.

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24. Why are there very few depictions of the crucifixion in Early Christian art? Even in the depiction where Christ was crucified, he did not appear to be in pain. Christ, as a divinity that was poised to overthrow the foundations of divinity n Rome, had to appear more powerful and more personal than the pantheon of gods.

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25. How did the Early Christian style change art? Christianity birthed a revolution that continues to shape the Western world.The art of this time period was part of that revolution. Jesus Christ needed to be depicted as a Savior to the world a good shepard to the weak. To do this, Christian art took much from Roman ideas of deities and used them to shape its own ideals. The revolution of the church building probably best exemplifies these movements. It took the basilica design and central planning designs and transformed them into building that looked towards the apse looked towards the heavenly.