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. .

II

81 86
95-06-31829
81
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, ,
G GAD.
ISBN 5-88766-045-7

.., 1995 ...

. . , 1995 ... , 1995

.5
I
-
< <=> 8

1.
8
1 1 9
1 2 " <=> 10
1 3 - ()- 11
1 4 - () 16

1 5 - 26

2. 29
2 1 29
2 2 35
2 3 41

3. 47
3 1 49
3 2 53
3 3 56
3 4 64

4. 68
4 1 69
4 2 74
4 3 80

5. 88
88
98
100

102

1. 102
2. 103
2 1 103
2 2 105
-114

1. ( ) 114

1 1 114
1 2 116
1 3 120
1 4 121
1 5 123

2. 124
2.1 126
22 128

3. 129
3 1 () 129
3 2 133

4. 133
134

-
135
1. 135
2. 136
2 1 136
2 2 137
2 3 139
3. 141
3 1 141
3 2. 143
3 3 144
4. 145
4 1 145

4 2 147
4 3 149
4 4 152
154

156
1. 156
2. 157
3. 163
3 1 164
3 2 164
3 3 165
34 , , 165
3 5 166
36 168
4. 170
5. 174
176


178
1. 178
2. 179
2 1 179
2 2 183
3. 187
3.1.
189
3.2.

190
4. 194
196
197

199
1. 199
2. 202
2.1. 203
2.2. 204
2.3. 204
2.4. 209
3. 210
3.1. ? 210
3.2. - 215
218


219
1.
219
2. 226
3. 234
4. - 238

II.
242
1. 243
1.1 243
1.2. 248

1.3. 252
2. 256
2.1 256
2.2 260
2.3 269
2.4 270
2.5 295
2.6 296
2.7 301
2.8 305
3. 305

305
1. 305
1.1. 306
1.2. 307
1 3 310
2. 311
2 1 312
2 2 313
2 3 318
24 320
2 5 320
2 6 322
3. 324
3 1 325
3 2 325

3 3 , , ,
326
3 4 328
4. 329
4 1 329
4 2 330
4 3 332
4 4 , , ,
333
5. 334
5 1 - 335
5 2 336
5 3 337
5 4 338
6. 339
7. 340
7 1 341
7 2 342
7 3 343
7 4 344
7 5 344
7 6 345
7 7 346
346
348

:
348

1. 348
2. 349
3. 352
31 352
32 355
4. 367
5. 374
386

:
389
1. 389
2. 392
404

: 405
1. 405
1.1. 406
1.2. 407
2. 1 3409
2.1. 410
2.2. 1 3415
2.3. , 421
2.4. 422
2.5. 423
2.6. - . 427
2.7. 430
431

: 434
1. 434
2. 438
2.1. 438
2.2. 438
2.3. 439
2.4. 446
2.5. 447
2.6. 448
2.7. - 450
2.8. 451
2.9. 452

III. .
453
1. 453
1.1. 454
1.2. 455
2. 458
2.1. 458
2.2. : 459
2.3. 461
2.4. 463
464

466
1. 466
1.1. .466

1.2. : 469
2. 476
3. 478
483

485
1. 485
2. 487
3. 490
3.1. 490
3.2. 493
502

(
) 503
1. 503 1 1
503
1 2 508
2. 512
2 1 512
2 2 513
23 515
3. 518
4. 528
536

IV.
538
V. -2

1. -2 554
2. , 559
3. -2565
4. 577
-582

:
584
1. 584
2. 588
3. 589
3 1 590 3 2
,
, 592
3 3 , 593
4. 596
598

VI. MISCELLANEA

598
1. 598
2. 603
3. 608
4. 609
5. " <=> " 621

622

629

1. 629
2. .630
3. 637
4. 640
5. 645
6. 648
650

"" 651
1. 651

2. "" 653
2.1. ""653
2.2. 666

3. "" 670
3.1. ""670
3.2. "" 673
3.3. "" 678
693
695

711
712

.
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; , ( 1.5 3.4.2 3.4.4)
.
Sonderband 1 Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, Wien, 1980.

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==9

" <=> ",


1974 ( . 1967). , ,
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==10
I.

( ) (
) .
1.2. " <=^> "
" <=> "
, ,
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"", "", ,
1964 (Katz and Postal 1964)

, " <=> "


: (4i)
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; (4ii)

,
( ); (4iii)
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2 (. Gruber 1976: 3).
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.
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(
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1967, 1978);

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==11

- () , ,
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(. Lakoff 1970); "" ,

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- 6 (,
. 1974), ,
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( ., ,
1977) , ,
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(5ii): (5i) ,
(' '), (5ii) ,
(' ').
, (5i) (5ii) - .
- , , - (5i)
veH
- (5ii). "'' ^ Y

- (5'i)
'', 6"''""1 >
- (5'ii)
'':

- ...
==13

(5'i)

(V),

(V),

i1

v
2

21 COREF (Z1,Z) Zl =- Z (. e. Zl Z )

(5'ii)

" -

./\ , -

COREF(Zl,Z)iiZl

, -
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- .
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(6i) (

) :

==14
I. (6'ii)
VI
'

(Caus Func^),,,,

"... "

/ v

(6'i) ,

- ,
(6ii) (6vii) , (6-i): (6ii)

( <=> <=> Syn(X)), (6iii)

( <=> ), (6iv) -

( <=> - <=>
Conv2i(X)), (6v)
( <=>
<= Copul Si (X)), (6vi)

( <=>
^ Copul Sz (X)), (6vii) -
( <=> -
X Y ^ Y ^4 AdviB (X)).
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==15

); 2) ,
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par excellence. ,

, -,
. (
So, Ao, Advo, Vo, S Sresi Sioc, Smstr. A Able,, Adv,)

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,
( ).
(Syn, Conv, Anti, Gener, Mesur, Sing, Mult )
( , )
. - (1-6)
, . .
,
. ,
-
,

(. (6i)-(6vii));
. 1967.
, .
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, : -,

- ,
; -, ,
,

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==16
I.
1.4. - ()
" <=> " ,
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(), .
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( ) ,
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() , ,
.
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() .
,
, , .
- ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, . (Wierzbicka 1972), .
(. Fillmore 1969, 1974, 1974),
, (. McCawley 1971,
Lakoff 1971, Chomsky 1971).

- ...
==17

, ,
, .
.
, , ,
.
,
, (. 1934,

Jakobson 1959, 1960).


. , ,


, , ,
, 6. ,

,
, .
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,
, .
' -.' ,
, , , (, ,
), sortir.

,
,
(7i), (7ii): (7i) , (7ii) 7
.
, - sortir en marchant,

, ( , ),
- , , , ,
, sortir.
(81), (8ii): (81) Le chien est sort! de sa niche, (8ii) ?Le
chien est sorti en marchant de sa niche.

==18
I.


: ( ),
( ), (), (), ()
franchir (la frontiere, les Alpes, un fosse, un fleuve, le seuil).


,
franchir le fleuve a la nage '
'. , -
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,
. - : (9i)

, (10i) ?He !
: (9ii) , (lOii) He !,
,
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. (9ii) (lOii) (Hi)
(12i) (9i) (10i): (Hi)

Paul se trouvait pres de la fenetre, (12i) Ne reste pres de la fenetre!


,
: (Ilii) Paul se trouvait debout pres de la fenetre, (12ii) Ne reste pas debout pres
de la fenetre!7
.
(.
, , , , , ,
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, ). , (.
1979),
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, '

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==19
' , ).
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) .
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(
) - ( ).
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- .
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.


==20
I.


, , . ,
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: -,
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(. (6i) (6vii))? , , -

.
(6i)(6vii) - ,
(6i)<=> (13), ,
: (6i) .
(13) .
(13) ( ) - (13').
(13')

7
8

COREF(X5,X2)

(6'i) <=> (13') - ,

"" , ,
(6'i) (13')
, . . , .
(6'i)-(13') , ,
(6"i) (. ).

- ...
==21

.
,
.
(. McCawley 1968, Lakoff 1971),
Katz and Postal 1964
Chomsky 1971 "
", :
(15) John almost killed him : (15')
' , , ,
' (, , ).
(15" )' , , ' (,
,
). (15'") ' , - , '
(, ).
. ,
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"" . ,
, almost kill ,

(16) kill s 'cause to begin to be dead". almost 'cause',

'begin' 'be dead'. (15'), (15" ),


(15"') .
,
, .
, .
. , .
, , , ,
(), (. Weinreich 1966),

. ,
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, (. , 4.2.),

==22
I.

.
.
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: () ,
() , ; ()
("" )
,
; ()
.
- :
() ; ()
( ) .

: ,
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.

/ , .
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, indefinibilia

,
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==23

( , ) .
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(. - 1.3.). ,
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( ) (6'i) , ,

(6i); (13')
(13)8. . (6"i).
(6i) :
(17) = ' '.
(18) S ' Bz X;

Y; -; Bi ; Bi bz ; bz '
(
, ).
(19) Z-oe s ' , Z, , '
(
Z).

, . , , ,
,

. (. )
, ,
.

==24
I.

- ...

==25
,
: () X; ()
- (. ); ()
, (): ,
" ", - .
1974.
, - ,

, . ,
: , ,
,
.

1.5. - .
- " <=> " -
- - , . .
(20) {} {} .
(20) , . .
(21) () {()}.
,
(22) () => {}
,
. , ,
, , ,
, , .
(21) ( , ) ,

==26
I.

. , .
(23i) , (23) < > , (23iii)

.
(23i) : (23'), (23-): (23') '
', (23") ' , , , , ,
, , , , '.
, (23ii) (23) , (23) (23'), (23iii)
(23").
(23i) ,
, , . . ,
(. (23')) ( )

" " (. (23 ")). (23ii) (23iii) ,


(24) (V), ,
.
<=> : , (23i), ,
, (23ii) (23iii) .
(23") (23ii) (23') (23iii) ,
. ,
9.
=>
. ,
(25) ,

. ( ?, -)
- ,
(), .

(26)
,
,

- ...
==27

, ,
. ( ?),
( ), (
), - ( 0 ) ( ) .
( ) -
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, ,
(27) , ()

-. 3
; = ( ),
3, 1 (.
) 2 (.
) .

. , . . => ,
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10. ,
.
. (23i), ,

, (23) (23iii) .
( ). ,
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-, =>
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:

==28
I.


( => );
; (,
) . , ,

, ,

. =>
, .
00.htm - glava02

2.
2.1
" ", ,
( ),
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, " " ,
() ,
.

- ...

==29
,
- ".
, , , , , ( ),
, , , . . (V), , ,
(V), , : (28) <, , > , (29) *0
< , , > .
.
. (
- " <= ") ,
(),
. (30)
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=
Y: (30) (V, ), Y .
, , . ,
. ,
,
(. - 1975).
, , : (31) <
>. ,
, : (32) <> .
, () ,
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() ,
150,
,
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(
) .


==30
I.
, . . -
.
,

(30)
, .
''. ,
= ' ', = ' ', = ' ' = ' '
. . (30) : (30') (X)
'', Y ^ . , , , (30') ,

'' ,
(V), , , .
(33) <, >
, , , , ,

''. , () ,
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,
12.

. -,
; -,
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, . . ,
. :
, (-) -
-13.
, . .
Austin 1962 ,

(., , Fillmore 1969,


, ,
),
.
.

- ...
==31

,
(34i)

X(V), 1, , , , .

, , (34)
<> , . . :
(34iii) < >, .
(34iv) , .

(34v) , , -

(Praesens historicum).
, , . . ,
''/'', .
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(. (34i)); . (35i), (35ii) (35iii) (35vi):

(35i) , , .
(35ii) , , , .
(35iii) ", <>, .
(35iv) *, <>, .
(35v) *0, <>, .
(35vi) ?emp, <*>, .
,
, . , , . . , , ,
, .

==32
I.

.
,

.
,
; .
(36i) [Mi] [^} [].
(36ii) (= 0).

(36) ?ocmu (Mz= 0).


(36iv) * (Mz= 0, 0).
(36v) * (Mi= 0).

, m)= 0 = 0, : (37)
, .

, , ,
1970, , (38') (38i), (38ii):

(38') ' Y,
'.
(38i) " !" [], [X] [Y).
(38ii) "!" [], [X] [Y].
,
(. ), ,
X, . (39i), (39ii): (39i)

<> (Mi= 0 - 0).


(39ii) ', <> (= 0).
, ,
(. (37))
(.(39)). ,
- .
,
2.2.3.
1.5 => .
,
.
, , , - ,

,

- ...
==33

, , , , , , . . . =>
: -,
, , , ; -,
.
.
,
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, , '
', ' ' ' ' .

, , , , . .
, ; . (40i)

, (40) (40iii) : (40i) , .


(40) ... ( Praesens historicum, . .

).
(40iii) ? (. (23iii)).
.
, , (41i), ""

(41) , , (41 in): (41i)



(41 ) , !
(41iii) , , .
, "" (42i), (42ii)

(42).
(42i) ?
(42ii) ?
(42 , , !
, ,
. , ); . (42) ,
! >
, >
. . , ,
. => 1,
.
3686

==34
I.
,
: .
, , ,
,
.

(43i) <= RT^ X'|X =(?), , (
), R i-ro (

'', '' . . ), 'X'


- , Y> - ,
('') - -.

(43ii) (-.) , R^ ( R^).

2.2

.
, , . .
, (., , 1947;
1968; Forsyth 1970; 1971).

,
1977, 19776, 19806.
, , ,
: -, (. (23) (40i) ),

(. (23) (40) )
( ). :
, , .
, , ,
.
.

(44) - , ,
: - , . -

- ...
==35

, ,
, (. 1968: 28).

(45) " "? .
, ,
, .
, ,
19806, . ,
(46i) (46)

,
.

(46i) ( , - , .
VS. ).
(46) , ( - VS.

).

: '', '',
'', ' ', ' '.

.
2.2.1 -
. , , , , , ,
, , , , . . , , , ,
, , , , , , . . -
, , (47i) = ' , , ,


, '.
(47) = ' , , , ,
14
' (MAC) .
1967 ,
, (48)
(49): 2*

==36
I.

(48) < , , , , >.


(49) < , , >.
(48) , (49)
. , .

(50i) * < , , > .


(50ii) * .
,
.
(48)(49),
, ,
, ,
.
- , (.
, ).

' ',
' '.
- ,
- , , - ,
, , , , , , . .

: (51) = (V, ' '), , '' ^
' ' ' '.
, , (48),
. , -
( () ) :
,
- .
(52) = (V, ' '), , ^ '' ^
' '.
(49),
, , .

- ..
==37

2.2.2 1948 , , , , ,
, , , , . .
; . (53i)(53iv),

() ,
: (53i) *0 , (53ii) *
, (53) * , (53iv)
*, < >.
, , ,
(* ),
(* VS. ... , *

VS. ... )15,


.
, , :
-.

, -,
, , . ;
. - -, .
, , < >.
, ,
-. -,
, , ,
, ( 1948): (54i)

, (54) , , ? -,

,
, , ; , ,

, : (55) *0 < ,
>.
, ,
. , , ''. ,
,
,

==38
I.

. -,
: (56) '
Y', (57i) , (57ii) Co

, (57) , , .
'' , ,
, , , ,
, , . .
: (58) = (V, ''), , ''.
, ,
(, , ),
''.
' , ,
, .
2.2.3 2.1
.
; : (59)
= (V, ''), , , , , 1, , ''.
(59) ,
: (60) * , .
(60) Praesens historicum. ,


Present continuous ,
. I promise
you, swear to you, beg your pardon, apologize, I am promising you, swearing to you,
begging your pardon, apologizing,
, Present continuous.
2.2.4 ''. ,
: 1) , . , , , , ,
; 2) , . , , ; 3) , .
, , ; 4) , . , , .

- ...

==39

'' '',
(. 4)), .
, '' ,
' , . , , .
'' : (61) = (V, ''), , ^
'' ^ '' ^ ' '.
, ,
(62i) *3 <> , (62ii) *
<> , (62) * .

(63i) .
, , ,
( ). ,
, . ,
(63ii)
, (61),
.
'' . , ,
( ,
, , -, , ,
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(. *0
(*, 7 ) , , , *
?). ,
- (. *
, <7nouaem> )16.

. ,
.


==40
I.

2.3
, ,
, ,
, , "" . " <=? "
, ,

. ,
, .
. 3.3.
2.3.1 Fillmore 1969 , , ,
.
, ,
, .
. , :
(
),
. ,
, , . .
, ; ,
, .
, ,
:
,
.
(. 1974: 111-112).

(64i) , (64ii)

,
: (64') Y- = 1. 'X
Y-a, Y , Y-a,
Y-a' | Y = ('').
- Y- Y-a :
(, ) ,

- ...

==41
. \ (.66').

(65i) , (65ii)
, : (65')
Y- = 2. 'X Y- , - Y-a ,
Y-a -
, - ' | Y = ('').
(' '),
- Y-a .

2 ,
: , ,
, 10
,
, , ,
.
- Y-a ''
() .
- -
"Y X" "X ", , (65ii).
, , , 10-12 ,
(65ii), ,
. , "Y-X"

, "X ", :
, ,
(65ii).
, mutatis mutandis, (67').
.
(66i) , (66ii) .
(66' ) Y- = 1. 'X Y-a, , Y
, Y-a, Y-a' | Y =

('').
(67i) ,

==42
I.
(67ii) .
(67') Y- = 2. 'Y - , - Y-a

, , - Y-a
, Y-a ' | Y =
('').
,
, .
2.3.2
. -,
, ,
.

Bierwisch 1967

1974. , ,
, .

,
, , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, . .
(68i) <> , (68ii) < > .
, (68i) (68ii) : ()
(), , ( , ,
) . ()
: () ,
() .

(, ),
.
,
, ,
, / , , .
, , -

- ..

==43
, , , , ,
, , , .
,
. ,
, ,
. '
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, (,
) ,
.
(68i) (68ii) ,

(. Wierzbicka 1972 101): (68'i) <


> - = 1. ' Y X,
-, ' | =
(' /').

(68"i) < > - = 1. ' Y X,

-, ' |
= (' /').
(68'ii) < > - 2. ' Y X,

-, ' | =
(' /').
(68") < > - " 2. ' Y X,
-, ' | (' /').
.
(69i) <> < >, <>
.

==44
I.

(69'i) Y - = 1. ' Y X,
-' | = ('
/').
(69"i) Y -

1. ' Y X,
-' = ('
/'). (69) <> , <>

.
(69'ii) Y - = 2. ' Y X,

' = ('
/'). (69"ii) - - 2. ' Y X,
' | =
(' /'). 2.3.3. 1974
,
. :
(, ,
; . 19).
, ,
(). , , .
, (, , . . ),
()
. , , ,
, .
.
.
.

, : )
(. = ' ',
, , ); 6) ,
(. , , , ).

(, , . <>), (,
) , ""
(, , , , ).

- ...
==45

, , ,
, , -, ,
, .
" ",
.
,
. , "" :
, .
, , ,

. "" < . . > :
, ()
.
, , , -
. ,
, ,
17. .
, , ,
, , (
). ,
, , , .
,
.
, -
, , .
. .
, , .
, , , ,
(70i)(70iii),

, (70i)(70iii): (70i)
VS. \ (' '), (70U) VS.
, (70) VS. .

==46
I.

,
, , , 18. :
<> () "" ,
<> () . ?
<> (), <> (),
, , ,
.
<s^> : (70') () > Y(Adv, ')
19

= ('') .
00.htm - glava03

3.
,
.
,
,
. , , ,
( ,
. 1974).
,
(. 1974: 178 .), , (71)

*1 (S)

<ffr

'

?3''

I"" . /\

^2

*1 ^^

/Y*

''

(71) , .
Xi -"^4 ,
, ,
- .

- ...
==47
: ,
, ,
(71) . , , ,
, . . ,
(71), ,
, , -.
, , ,
, ,
. ,
( ): ,
() . ,
, , , .

3.1.
, , .
. , -, , ,
(Frege 1892). , 60- (Fillmore 1969)
. "" Garner 1971;
, .
, , ,
; , , .
: (72) S 'X Y,
Z, Y, , Z'.

==48
I.

(73) X S 'X Y, Z, Y, ,

Z'.
(73), ('X Y') ,
, , , ,
.
,
.
, (
), ,
. ,

. 20.
, ,
, .
, , ,
,

. ,
, .

(74 i) , (74ii) -
- "
", " , ".
, - . (74i)

(74ii), ,
.
.
(74'i) ~ 'X Y; , Y;
, Y' ( , Wierzbicka 1969).
(74'ii) X-mo - 'X Y; , Y;

, Y'.
(74'i) , Y, , (74'ii)
. , (74'i) , Y, (74'ii)
, Y.

- ...

==49
(75i) ?, (75ii)

? : <> ?,
<> ?. <> ?.
<> ?, <> ?,
<> ?.
?. - ?.
?. ?
1960: 645 " ...
"; " ...
". ,
.
: - '? ?', - ' , , ?' (: 1972); "
' , , ', - '? ?
, , ' (MAC), '...; , ', -

'' ().
, .
( ) ,
.
, , )

, ; )
, ; )
(-2 1969), (-3
1969). ,
.

. "" ,
, (-3), ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
.
, ,
.


==50
I.

, , , ,
: (75'i) ? S ' , ;

, ;
, , '.
(75'ii) ? s ' , ;
, ;
, ,
, '. ,
,
. ,
(75'i) (75'ii) .
(. " "),
, , '
, ', (75'i) (75'ii)
, .
,
, .
, , -
(74'i) (74'ii), (74"i) (74"ii): (74"i) ^ 'Y Y;

, Y, ; , Y,
'.
(74"ii) - s 'X Y; , Y, ;

, Y, '.
:
, .

,
, ,
.
.

: , - ' ', = '
'. ,
: = ' ', = ' '. ,

- ...
==51

, . . .
,

. ,
"", , , :
= ', , , ,
, '.
, ,
:
, , ,
(. ),
(. ).
, , ,
- . 1978 ,
.
.
(76i), , ,

: (76i) , , ,
, , ,
, .
,

.
( ) ,
. , , , (
)
.

- (74'i) (74'ii),

(76) * - .

(74"i) (74") ,

, (76ii) ,
(76i) , .

:

==52
I.
, . , , ,
, 1) ()
, 2) , 3)
, .
4.

3.2.
,
. , , . )
, ) , , , ) ,
. , (77i)(77iii) .
1979: (77i) , (77) , (77)
.
U (, ), W (, ), (,
), Y (, ), Z (, ). : U
; W ; ; Y
; Z .
: U Y- Z-y; Z W -;
W -.
, .
, , - , .
.
, ,
, . , ,
, ; ,

- ...
==53

, , .
,
:
, . ,
' ,
.
, .
, , , , , ,

.
.
.
(78i) Y-y Z S ' Y Z;

Z Z '.
(78ii) S ' Z,

Z Z '.
, ( ,
-) . ,
( )
(
), , .
(79i) Y-e (, < >
) gg '
Y, Y-a'.
(79ii) X Y- Z- = '

Z Y, -
- - , Z
'.
(79i) (79ii)
.
(80i) W Y-a Z = ' Y Z,
W, Z Y-a'.

==54
I.
(80ii) X Y-e = ' Y
'.
, '' : ,
, ; . < * > . ,
, , Z,

, . <, ^ <
. (. (47i), (47ii)),
,
: ' ',
, '
'.

(811) Y-a W Q = ' , Y W

Q; W Q, Y-a Q
-'. .
, , ,
' -. ':
, .
, , (,
)
', ': (81ii)
Y-a Z-e W Q = ' , Y
W Q, Y Z;
W Q, Z-e
Z-, Y-a Q -'.
, Y-a,
Z (. )
, Z (.
).
: (81iii) Y
/ Z-e W Q -= ' , Y W
Q, W Q,
Y / Z-e - Y / Z, ,
Y-a Q -'.
, .
VS. .

- ...

==55
?, , (
' ').
3.3.
,
,
.
.
3.3.1. 1967 , ,
, , , .
,
.
(i) (ii): (82i)

, (82ii) , (83i) , (83ii)

, (84i) , (84ii.)
.
, , , Y,
(i) (ii)
: (i') ' , Y W-e' VS. (ii') ' W-e'.
, (i) (ii), ,
.
, (i)
(i') ( ,
, , .
. ;
): - X,
, . . , (),
. , , , , . . ; , , , , , 1 ()
, , , 2 ( ),
; - - Z

();

==56
I.

- ,
( ()), z
.
, , ,
, , :
(), ()
, z; , (),
() , z
(. VS. ).
' -
22
', (i) () .

, . .
<=> , : (85)

1
,(, 1[()] )
' 2

'

'

2.
'(,)/ (Adv, )

'
(X = () Z - ('')

3.3.2. ,
" ", . . ,
, , , , , <, ,
>, , , , , , ,
, , < , > -., -, -, ,
(., , 1935: 363, 1947: 739, 1960: 151,
1973: 148).
(. , ,
. . ) ,

- ...

==57

. . . , , ,
" , ,
: ". .
( 1978) , ,
,
. ,
(. , , , , , , ,
, , - . . ), ;
(. , , )23,
. .: (86i) ,

<, > , , (86ii)


" , < , > ,
. (871) <, >,
, (87ii) < , >,

. (88i) , < >

, , (88ii) * , <>
,
.

(89i) < >,

, (89ii) <>,
.
.
, R,

: (90) ' ,
R-a,
, R-a '.
(90) (86i) (86ii) .
; R
, . (. (86i)),
, R-a . (. (86ii)),
, , R-a: ' , ' ,

==58
I.

, ', '. :
, R-a , R-a

.
(86ii). ,

(90), (88ii). , (87) (89)


, ,
.
3.3.3. , , .
,
. :
, ,
.
:
(: , , ),
(: , , ).
, , ,
, , , ,
(, , ), , "" (
1978), , .

( 1948, 1967,
1974: 83-84, 1977, 19776, 1980).
, . ,
1977,
, .
,

,
.
, , . , ,
,
.
(91i) s ' ti ; t? ; tz
, ti'.
(91ii) s ' ti ; t;, ts,

..., tn-i , , -, Pn-i> , Pi+i


, );

- ...
==59

Pi, , ..., , tn '.


' '
, , "
"; . , , , ,
, ( ) , ,
, , , ,
( ) , .
(92i) Y-a (, < >) S '
, Y '.
(92ii) Y-a (, < *!> )

S ' Y , Y
'.
(92i)(92ii) '0 ', , ,
, () , ,
. , , ,
, , ; .
Continuous Lakoff 1968.
(92) , , '' , . ,
,
'Pi ', .

(93i) (93ii): (93i) X Y (, )


= ' , Y,
Y-e '. (93ii) Y S '
, Y,
Y-e ; '.
, (93i), '1 ', ,
(92), . ,
, -, , , (92).

, , , ,
.
. (93ii)
. ,


==60
I.

Y , Y-e ,

, , Y-y.
(93i) (
' ...'). ,

("" ), ,
.

, , . ,
.
(94i) Y-a (, ,

) s ' Y , Y-a;
Y-a, - Y-
'. (94) Y-a s ' Y ti,t2, ...,tn-i
, Y-a, Y-a,
- Y- ; tn, ,
ti, tz, ..., tn-i X Y-'. (94i)
( ) , (94);
'X Y-a,
- Y- ',
(94i). , Y-a ,
Y-a ( ). ,
Y-a, , Y-
; , tn Y-a ,
, .
(95i) Y-a (, ) s '

,
Y'.
(95) Y-a (, ) ^ '
, Y, ,
-, '.
,
.

, , ,
, .

- ...

==61
( <> ),
, , (
) .
(91) (92) ; (93)-(95) ;
(96) :
(96i) Y-y S ' W

, Y-y '.
(96) - S ' W

, Y-y '.
(96) ,
'' ''. , ,
,
.

: 1)
. ,
, . ,
(
),
.
, ,
, . .
, (. 1980).
, .
2) , ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
( , (91)
(93)), , , ,
.
: -

==62
I.


, ,
, ;
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
3) : ,
,
, .
3.4.
, " <=> ", :
( ), ( )
.
, ,
, , , ,
. -
.
<=> ,
.
3.4.1. . , pea
(97i) <, >?
; .
(97) (, )?
. "" .
"" (. (97i)).
(. (98), (99))
(. (100), (101)): (98i) * , (98ii)

- .
==63

(99i) *0 , (99)

, (99iii) * , (99iv)
, (lOOi) *' , , () ,
, (1011) ?Ka ""
, (101 ) . "" .
3.4.2. .
(. 1.5.).
,
, . " <=> "

, ,
, .
, , ,
- ,
(
, ,
).
.
(Adv, ) (Prep, ): (102)

< , , > .
(5), () : (103) .
,
, (
1974): (104) ,
.
- (S)p, (),

(5), (), (), (), (), (Num), (Adv), (Prep) (S): (105i)
<, >, (105) ,
(105iii) , (105iv) ?, (105v)
< >,

==64
I.

(105vi) , (105vii) , (105viii)

.
, -
: (106i) <, >, (106)

, (106iii) .

. ,
,
,
(, , 1935: 127, 211-219;
1976: 300-325. ).
1. : ,
, (
).
2. ,
, ,
(.
VS. ).

3.
, , , -
.
4. ,
( , ,
).
,
.
(107i)
: , (
), , -
( ).

(107) (107iii).

- ...
==65

(107ii) , (107) .
(107i), (107ii) (107) .
, .
,
,

.
, , 25
.
3.4.3. . (. 2.2.), ,
.
,
(*, *) ,
.
,
(108i) <> ,

,
(108ii)
, (. * ).
( ; , ) ,
( ) .

(,
, !), ,
, .
, , ,
,
.
3.4.4. . ,

.
, .
.
'Xi' 1) ,

2) , 3) , 4) , 5) , ,
, 3 3

==66
I.

.
.
[X] , (5) (S)op[Y].
,
(
): (1091) < ,
>, (109ii) <, ,
>.
, , , , ,
, (S)op (5).

,
. , , , , ,
, , , . . ( ): (llOi)
< , , ,
>, () <, ''',
''', 7meeau>.
, , (5),

( ): (llli) ?, (11 lii)

.
14 ( , )
( ): (llliii)

().
00.htm - glava04

4.
, , ,
. , ,
, , .

, ,
. 15 . ,
.

- ...

==67
, "
<=> ".
" <=? "
,
.
, , ,
() ().
, ,
, .
1974: 84-94, .
4.1.
4.1.1. .
4.1.1.1. (1121) (112ii): (112i) X , . Y

Z = 'X Y-a Z, , Y Z', (112ii)


, Y Z = 'X Y-a Z , Y
Z'.

(112ii). ,
, :
, , , , 26.
(112i) (112ii)
: (112ii) ( Q) = Q.
, ... ... = '... (... ...)' = '... ... ...' =
'... ..., ..., ... ...'.
(113i) , (, , ) ^ 'X
, ' (
1970: 23), (113ii) X , S 'X
'.

(112), (113) , ,
(''),
.
*

==68
I.

. (
) ,
.
4.1.1.2. , . ,
( ) " " ( 1958: 377; . 1924 .). .
: (a) not lukewarm '() ', not half full '

() '; (6) does not read three books a year '


', does not see her once a week ' '; ()
The hill is not two hundred feet high ' ', His income is
not 200 pounds a year ' 200 '.
, ,
, .

(""), : "",
"".
,
( '', ''),
, ,
(. 1974: 81-82).
,
, .
, ,
, ""
"" .
27: )
, ) / , ) ,
) - .
, , : 1.
. : )
; ) ; )
; )

- ...
==69

(114) < < , ( - <>


).
2. "" .
: ) ; ) ; )
; )
, , , .
, . (
), ( ), ( ), ( ), (
), ( ), ( ), (5000 ),
( ), (-. ), ( ), ( 100
), (200 ), ( ) .
(115) < ,...> (, 50 , 50 )
= 'X <,...> , '28 : (115')

attr

.(V,i[''], '')
S)E

&.W |(, ,,, NOMP

3. "" . :
) , ) , )
, )
- , , , .
(116i) ( ,
), (116) ( ,
), (116iii) < >

( ).


==70
I.

4. ""
( ). :
1) ) , ) , )
, )
, , , , ;
2) ) , ) , )
, ) , , , .
(117i) ( ,
), (117ii) < >
( , ,
), (117iii) ( ,
), (117iv)

( ,
, ), (117v) < >

( <> ,
).
. , (.
1.-4.), , , ,
, . , ,
, ) ), 1:
(118i) 40 < > ('
, 40 < >')29, (118ii) ( '

,
, ') , (118iii) ( ,

).
(. (115'))
, , , . 4.1.2.
. 4.1.2.1. (119),
, ^119'), (119"): (119)
. (119') ' '. ,(119") ' '.

- ...
==71

1974: 114, (119') (1201)


(120iii), (119") (120i), (120iii) (120iv): (120i) X

S '- '. (120) - S '- '. (120) 'X,,.->Y.>P'- V; (120iv) ^- Q'-'P Q'30. , (119) , =
' ' = ' ' ' ', . . (119').
(119) = ' ' = ' ' '
', . . (119").
.
, , "" ,
, ,
. (. " "),
. () , ,
.
( -., . (121)),
( -., . (122)):
(121) S ' '.
(122) S ' '. ,

.
(
).
4.1.2.2. (123)
, , (. (15)
(16)): (123) .
(123') ' , '.
(123") ' , '.
(123'") ' , (") '.

==72
I.

(., , McCawley 1968,


) (123') (123"') ,
(),
' , <>
'. . (123') (123'")
.
, ;
(124i)(124iii) : (1241)

('... '), (124ii) ('...
'), (124)
('... ').
, (123')(123 '") , ,
.

4.2.
: -
, - ( ); -
, - ,
, . . ( "");
, - (
); ( ) ,
( ).
. 4.2.1. (125i)

,
(.)
, ( ) ,
: ,
( ,
, . . ,
), , ;

- ...

==73

(125ii) a
,
.
,
. ,
, , <=> :

(V)

! tli

4.2.2.
(127i) ,

, , . .
. , (127i) , ,
, , .

(127) ?0 ,
, ,
' '.
, (127i) " ",
, (. (120iv)

28).
: -, ,
, , , .
.
(127) , (127ii) ,

. , (127)
, (127i), ''
: ' ', -

==74
I.

, , , , .
4.2.3. (127iii)

, ,
.
,
: ; , '', '', '',
'', '', '', '' (. );
'', '', '' . . (. , = '
, , ', "... , ');
'', '', '', '', '' . .
, , ,
,
.


(128i)

, , ,
. ,
, (128),
(128iii): (128ii) , (128iii)
.
, . . .

. (128i).
, (128i) : (129')
1 Y-a S ' X Y', (129")

2 Y-a Z s ' Z
Y'.
1 = ' ...', . . (128ii), 2 = '
...', . . (128iii).

- ...

==75
. , 'Bi' ';'
,
; .
(130) " ', , ' VS. ',
', (131) =
', , ' VS. ' ,
'.
(132) (
, - .
). , (128iv)

:
, , ,
. ,

.
.
,

(133) ,
___1___ (133')
(133")

, _____2_____

(133') (133) ', ' (.


300 000 /), (133") ' ,
, ' (.
).
(128i)

: ) ,
( ),
( ); )

, , () ,
.
, :

==76
I.
________
(128)

, 2-

(128i")

.
. ,
( ,
.
(134) Y-a Z S ' Y

Y Z'.
-
( -) ,
'', (128): (135) Y-a S '

Y Y Z'.
( ( -),
Y, , (128):
(136) Y-a S ' Y

Y '.
, (128i) ,
() .
,
, .
, ,
--.

(137) ,
, (
, ).
. ,
(134)
.

(138) , (139)
, (138) ,

- ...
==77

(128), (139) , (128iii). ,

,
.
, , -
, ; .
.
, , , ,
; (140i) , (140),

, (' '), (''):


(140i) , (140ii)
.
,
'' ( ' ') ''. ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
(. (139)).
, ,
, . . ( ,
().

. ,
,
'' ''.
(141) .
, , -,
(142i) <> (

(128ii)).

(142ii) (

(128iii)).
,
. , , ,
, , , ( (128ii)) ,
, , ( (128iii)). , ,
.

==78
I.
, , --. (143i)
, (143), () . . , ( 128ii)),
, : (143i)
<>, (143) <>. ,
: ,
.

4.3.
, , : X,
'X', 'X' 'X + , ''
.
: -, 'X + '
X, ; -, , 'X + ' ,
, , 'X'.
, . ,
, .
, . , ,
'X' 'X + , , = 'X' ~' +
', , . , 'X' 'X + '
X, , =' +
, = 'X'.

(. , 1967). - ( 1970-1976),
" ".
,
,

- ..
==79

'X'. .
4.3,1.
(144i) < , >, (144ii)

(144) .
(144i) (144)
(144') Y Z S ' , Y,
, Y Z'.
(144) : (144" ) Y- Z S '

, Y, , Y
Z Z'.
(144') (144") , (144") '', '
' ' ', ' '.
-
: (144i) (144ii)

, (144) , (144i)
(144ii) , (144iii)
.
(145i)

(145ii).
(145i)
Ml =

2 Y

- Z

1. (S),

1. (S), 2. (S),

1. (,)

1)
1)

"2 = 2.2

2) Z -
= 2, =
(145ii)

... ... , Z, Z'


==80
I.

(144').
, (1441) (144m)

1 2 .
.
,
2 ( ,
), 1. ,
,
, , .
4.3.2.
(146i) , (146)

: (146i)
, ,
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,
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.
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.
.
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==81
(' '). ,
" ".

, . .
4.3.3. , , , ,
: (1471)
MiX

Ma-Y

- Z

M4W

1 (S),

1. (S),

1.(S), 2. 0 (S),

1. (S),

1) - Da2- 4 =
(147) , (147iii) , , (147iv) /
,

(147v) ' .

(147) (147v), (S),


VS. (S), : () ' , ' VS. '
'; () ' VS. ''.
() ( ) (S), (S), . (S),
, (S), , ; . VS.
, VS. .
() : (S), (.
), (S), (. }.
() , , . .
, , . . ''
, :

==82
I.

(148)

(, ...)

''

.''

4.3.4. : (149i)

Y W / Z S ' ,
Y, - , W

Z '. : (149U)
Mi -X

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-W

M4=Z

Ms- P

1. (5),

1. (s),bhh

1. (,) 2.
(1,)

1. (,) 2.
(Adv,KOHe4H)

1. (5), 2.
3A(S),Ttop 3. (),


( -. <=> -. ),
. , (S),

( -. <=> ' -.
'), , ,
.
:

- ...
==83
(149)
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( , ...'

:i
2

4.3.5. , ,
, 1970-1976.
, (, , , ,
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, , , ),
. : (150)
, - X

Mz- Y

1. (S),

1. (nump),hm 2. (NUMP),
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(150), ( , .
, 500 , ), ( , .
, ).
,
.

(. (133)),
(1511) , (151ii) , (151iii)
, (151iv)

==84
I.

(151i ) ' , ', (151') ' ,

' . . , ,

. : (152)

(...)

'... (, ..) -, (, ..) Z


"2 "2.4

, , , ,
, , . . , ; . ,
.
, .
(153)

.'

1
'... Y -, , -'

( ( }). (154)

"2 = "2.4

'... -, Z-a , Z-

'

( [] [2], [X] }.

- ...

==85
(155)
<=^ '... Y |.

X, Z'
Z { ).
(156)
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1

Z'

Z ( ()).

==86
I.

00.htm - glava05

5.
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3. "" "", "" "" . ,
" <=> ", , , ,

==88
I.
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() ( ^ ' ,
' ), ()
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4.
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: () ' ' () ' '. ()
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(') ... < -> ... ( ) (') ... <


[ -> ...] ( ). . 19786. 1979
, ,
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,
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> < ,
> < ,
,
.
.
5. " " . (Fillmore 1968), (. Schank 1972),
,

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==89
, , , , , , , , . .
, 1974.
19746 .
, .
, ,
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6. . (. 3.3), , ,
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, ,
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commencer . , ,
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), .
7. 1966, 1972, 1972.
(. Ullmann 1952), , ,
; ., , couper, decouper
, , , (), , , , , , , , ,
, , ; layer , , , (, ), , , ,
, , (, ), . ,
, . couper (.
), ebarber ( , ), ebrancher, elaguer ( ), rogner ( -. , ), tondre
( , ). arpenter ( ), cuber, jauger (
, ), sender ( ). .
, ,


==90
I.
, , , , ,
(. Kluckhohn 1961).
8. (")
.
("", ),
, . . , .
(6"): 1) , ,
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: ,
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. (
) , ( , . XI, 2, 6, 12). ,
() .
9. , , . (23i)
, .
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, " <=> ",
. . . 1979.
10. , <= <=
, ; .
11. -, - . -
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. , ( <, , ...>),
(-

- ...
==91
<, ...>), ( <, , .:>) DEF(INITION)
Operi (Y), Y .
- , .
- , -
.
12. , . , ,
'', .
, , . . .
13 - , ,
.
14. , , :
, ; - , , , -
; , , , ; . .
15. , ,
( , ).
, ; .
3.4.
16. - . 1980.

17. - ( ) , . , , ,
, . ,
. . 1964.
18. ' ', , , Magn (. Lim 1975) , ; . , ,
, , , , , ., -., ^ , " , 7ueao , '
, * , * . . , ,
, ,

==92
I.
19. . , , "" ,
, , "" ,
. , , "" , ,
, "" , . ,
, -, , .
, , , .
, ( :
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). 2
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, 1, , 1, 2 (
, 2, , , , 2). , ,
, , .
,
.
20. . . (
) , , , modus '
, ...' (., , Bally 1950, , . Fillmore 1969).
, ,
. ( ) ,
,
. .
Wierzbicka 1969, .
, . . : "... , - "
( 1947: 738). MAC ( - ' ') ,
1972: " ' ( , , )'.
21. , : 1) '
, ' VS. 2) ' ,

- ...
==93
'.
' , , ' 2' = ' 1 '.
, ' '
' -. ' ; . < > VS.
< >, VS. . .
, ,
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,
: 1 ' ' '| . -? VS. ? ( , );
VS. (
); ( : ); 2)'' ' ', . VS.

( ) ( : ); 3) '' ',
Q', . (38)(39) " ", , ''.
22. , , . .
, (1), , ( ). ,
, ,
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, ,
.
23. , , , , ,
, '' : , ^ ' ,
, '; , ^ 'X , '; S ' ,
'.
24. , , . . , , , , .
.

==94
I.
25. (, , , , , ),
, ; .
.
26. , (11211) (), Weinreich 1966.
, ,
.
27. . -,
( ) (
"" ); . 19786. -,
, , , ,
"" . , -, ,
,
<> . . ( ,
, , , ""),
"" ( , , ).
28. , , ,
, . (115)
. ,
. , ,
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; . ' ( )
*0 ( ).
29. , "". , ,
' ', , , . , Y-a ^ ' Y Z, Y Z (); Z'
, Z ()'. - 'Y-a = ' Y Z, Y
Z', Z' , Z' = '... Z' , Z' = ' ... Z , Z' ', . . - Y-a,
.

- ...

==95
30. 1974: 114 (120iv) " "; . negtransportation
. 1974: 154 " ".
. . 1978.

31. , , -, :
() (), .
. . ,
: , . .
: 1935 ( )
Jakobson 1936, 1964, 1972 ( ).
Wierzbicka 1980.

==96
I.

, ,

()
()

()
,

0
()










1-





-




- ..
==97

(Adv) AdviB(X)
attr CausFunco(X)
(Conj) Conv2i(X)
Copul(X)
coref(x|, Xa)
D,j, d,|<
(Num)
(NUMP)
(Prep)
(S)
S,(X)
Syn(X) (V)
X='Y

, , ( ) X, .
, - -
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[], [], [], []
(, )
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[] |
i-

, i- , ()
= , S; () = )





Y

-, . .

4 3 686

==98
I.

1967 . . .

., 1967.
1974 . . . . .,

1974.
1978 . . // Tekst. J?zyk.

Poetyka. Warszawa, 1978.


1979 . . // Wiener Slawistischer

Almanach. 1979. Bd. 3.


. 1979 . ., . ., . ., . ., . .,
. ., . 3. - //

.
II. ., 1982.
1976 . . .

. ., 1976.
. .; ., 19511965 (
). . 1-17.
1977 . . :

? // . . . . . 1977. 3.

1978 . . .

- . 1978 .107.
19786 . .
// Studia grammatyczne. Krak6w, 1978.
1971 . . . ., 1971.
1969 . . . ., 1969.
1947 . . . . ., 1947.
1966 . . . (

). ., 1966 .
1972 . . //

1971. ., 1972 .
1979 . .

. . // Slavica, XVII
Debrecen, 1981.
1977 . .
//
. ., 1977.
19776 . . //

, 1977. 3.

- ..
==99

1980 . .

. ., 1982.
19806 . . (

) // 1979. ., 1980.
1960 . T.I.: . ., 1960.
1970 / . . .
. . ., 1970.
1958 . . ., 1958.
1967 , , . . //

. 1967. .19.

1977 . . . . .,

1977.
1973 . . . ., 1973.
1979 . . .
// } , 35, 1979.
1975 . ., . ., , .

. 1. // . . 2. 1975. 7.
1967 . . . ,

1967. . 2.
1970 . .

// .
1970. . 13.
1972 . . . .,1972.
1967 .

// . . 1967. 2.
1967 . .
// . 1967. .10.
MAC : 4 . ., 1957-1961 ( ).
1948 . . // . , , VII.

1948. .4.
1974 . . " <= ".

1974.
19746 . . ( .
). 1 // - . 2. 1974. 6.
4*


==100
I.

1960 . . - //

. 1960. . 4.

1975 . ., . .

. // -
. 1975. .64-66.
1964 ., 1964. .8
1964 . . Praha, 1964.
1972 . . . ., 1972.
1974 . . . ., 1974.
1935 . . . 5- . .,

1935.
1968 . . . ., 1968.
1972 . . . ., 1972.
1979 . 3. : ,

// Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. 1979. Bd.4.


1934 . . . ., 1934.
1978 . . . VIII

, , 3-9 IX, 1978.


1970-1976 - . 1970. .2; 1970. .4;
1970. .7; 1971. .23; 1972. .26; 1972. .28; 1972. .29; 1973. .34; 1973. .35; 1973.
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1975 . . (

) // .
. , 1975. . LXVIII. 1.
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*
00.htm - glava06

1.
()
: , .
, .
, .
:
,
, .
.
, , , xj,

,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
, () .
' The language and verse of Russia. UCLA Slavic Studies. New Series. In honour of Dean S. Worth on his
sixty-fifth birthday. M., 1995.


==103

00.htm - glava07

2.

, ,
, .
2.1.

, .
: ( ) ,
; () , ; ( )
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() , ; () , ;
() , ; () , ; ( )
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, ; () , ; (
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: (
) , '.
.
,
.
-, . , ,
, , ,
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, ,
' ., , . . . . . ., 1935-1940 ( );
.; ., 1948-1965 ( ); . ., 1957-1961 ( 1); . . 2-. ., 1981-1984 ( -2); . . . ., 1988 (
); . . . . . ., 1983 ( ); . .
. .; ., 1947. . 508 .; . .
. . . 2. , 1960. . 190.

==104
I.

, , . ,
, .
-, ,
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,
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, .
. .
)
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). - ,
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) , -(--) -- (--)
, .
-. (-. )
. ()
, MAC2, ( *),

() ( -.), , (
*). ,
, .
.
.
--, : -- --.
. : , ;
, ;


==105
, ; ;
, ; , .

, ( )
, , :
-- . ,
apec .
-- , ; ; .
.
-- H .
; .
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.
-, .
: , (); ,
(-. ); , (); ,
(-. ). - - ,
() ,
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- (*, *). (, . .)
(, , ). ,
, 7 , '''').
: ? -
,
,
. - ,
. .
2.2.

, :

() ; () ; (
. .) . -

==106
I.

2. ,
, ,
. , : . ()
; ( ) ; () ;
() . imperfectiva tantum,

,
, . . , , .
,
.
(1) ,
, . . . , . .
, . . , -1 (
). , ,
( , . .),
, .
, , - .
, .
- (, ' '),
, . , ,
,
. . -
, (.
. . :
, ).
,
2

., , . . . . . 508 .; . . . . . 167-172; . . . . 1984. .


69 .; . . // . ., 1975; . .
., 1976. . 97 .; . . . . ., 1974. . 174-175; . .
- : . ... = . . ., 1986. . 209 .


==107
, . *

, , , 3.

(2) :
. , -, -2,
. -2 ( -1)
,
. , ,
. , ,
, , -2
, . . , , .
: , . .
. . ,
- . ,
, : 1, , (
) - 2, , ( ).
, ,
.
( ) ,
, . . . :
(),
.
( ) ,
.
.
(3) ,
,
, , .
3
. :
), - ('), (*), () ('),
(*).

==108
I.

: , ,
. ,
, .
, .
, .
, , , .
, ,
,
. ,
. -2 , ,
, , . :
( ) . ; ( )
; () . ; (
) . : ( )
; ( )
; () ; ()
. : ()
, . . -2
, , .

, 3, ,
,
, .

. ; ,
; ; ,
; ,
, 4.
4

. : . . . . . 477 .; . . . ., 1976. . 28-42; .


. . . , 1934. . 115; . . .,


==109

. , ,
.
. , ,
, . . ,
. ( , -2)
. ,
.
.
.
: , . :
( ) , () . : ( )
, ( ) , () - , () ,
( ) , () , (
) , ( ) , ()
, () .

. ,
.
. , ,
. , , , . ,
. : . , , .
, . , , , , , ,
, . . - => . , 1980. . 66-67;
. . . . 209-213.


==110
I.

, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , , , ,

. .
, . . ,
, . .
. ,
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(, -2 ).
, , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
-
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; . ?M , *
( . ,
). , -
; . ? 3500 (: ), ?Ce
(: ).
, , ,
, ,
. , , (),
, :
. .
1. ( praesens

historicum) (. ,
,
).
2.
.
, ,
. ,

, ,
.
:
-


==111
. : ( ) ,
( ) . : ()
, () , ( )
, () , ( )
, () , () ,
() , ( )
.

, ,
.
, , ,
,
imperfectiva tantum. ,

, , ?
, . , :

- ,
. . ? . ,
; ? .
,
, ,
, (.
).
. , ,
; . ( ) VS.
( ) ?.
, . . .
, ,
, ,
.
, , : 6..., .
, :
.
. : ( )
, () . : ( )
, ()

==112
I.

, () , ( )
, ( ) - , ()
, () - .

.

, .
, , ,
( ), . .
. " , "
.
,
- . .
.
.
, ,

. . <>
: ' ', ' . .'.
<> : ' , ', " ' , '.

. , (, , ),
, ,
. ''' <> , >,
.
,
imperfectiva tantum.
, :
, .
: () , () ,
() .
,
, ; .
. : ,
(. . );
(. . -


==113
). ''
.
, , ,
.

imperfectiva tanturn, . . .
.

==114


*
%
,
[, , 1982; , , 1984].
, , ,
. ,
[Mel'cuk, Pertsov, 1987] , [
., 1989].

, ,
. [, 1986].
.
,
( ) , , , ,
.

00.htm - glava08

1.
1.1.
, ,
( )
" ", ., 1988


==115
( ). , ,
, , , , , , ,

. ()
, .
() , !
(1) <, , , , >, .
(16) <, >, .
, ,
.
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.
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< >.
(26) < , , ...>.

, , .
() <, >?
(36) <> <>.
,
. ,
: (4) ,
< >.


.
, , , ,
,
1: (5) * <>, .
(56) * <>, .
(5) * , ?
, ,
: (6) * <, , > < >.

==116
I.
(66) * <, , , , > <>.
, , ,
.
1.2.

:
( - ) ( ). ,
.
, ,
, , .

:
, , :
(7) <> <>.
(76) <> .
(7) <, > .
.
,
( ) .

.
, , ,
- , :
(8) .
(86) .

(8) <> .
(8) .
(.) -
-., ,
: (9) ?
(96) , ?


==117

-., .
(10) .
,
, , , , , ()
. .; ; .
() .
(116) .
(11) ?

.
, ,
( ): , 1,
, : (12) <>
<>.
(126) .
(12) <>,
.
(12) <, > ,
.
(12) <> <, >, <>
.
(12) , <
>.
, ,
.
(12)
, , .

,
.
, (12),
. , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, . . ,
, .
, -

==118
I.

. ,
.

, ; . (13), (136),
(13): (13) . (136) *
. (13) * .
., , ,
: (14) . (146)
.
.
(15) <> .
(156) <> . (15)
, , (156),
, (15).

(16) .
(166) .
(166), , , (16)
()
[, 1973]: , () , ,
() .
,
.

: (17) <> (
).
(176) <> ( ).

, (17) , ,
(176) .
(176)


==119
(166)
, , .
(18) , > ,

, ; .
(19) .
(196) . * , * .

(156), (166), (18), (19),
; ( )
.
, ,
, , , , .
, (12) (12)
, . .
, (12) (12)
, . ,
(12) (12)
. . [1974, . 159], [1982, . 44-57]
( ), [1980, . 5758] ( ), [1980, . 351] (
).
.

(20) [Z] [X] [Y] .
(206) [X] [Z] [Y].
(20) [X] [Z] [Y].
(20) [X] [Z] [Y].
(20) [X] [Z] [Y] , .
(20) [X] [Z] [Y]. , , , ,
. (20) (20)
, :


==120
I.

(20) (20) - , , (20) (20)


, . ,
, ,
. Z

Y.
(12) (12) ,
, .
, ,
. (12) (12)
, , , .
1.3.
.
.

.
,
.
,
. ,
: = ' , '. ,
,
; .

(21) , * . ,
,
, ,
. , ,
(22) , <> * <> .
,
.


==121

, ,
: (23) <, >,
VS. <, > .

, ,
. ,
, . , ,
- , , ; .
(24) <, > < *>.
(246) <, > <*>, .
-, ,
; .
(25) <> <>, .
(256) <*>.
;
.
1.4.

.
, .
,

(26) , [Y], [X].
(266) [Y], [X] .
(26) [Y], [X]
(26) (26) .
, (26),
. , (26)
: [X] . [X] [Y],
, , ,
.

==122
I.

,
; .

(27) * <, , , >, .


, :
, , , ,
, , , ,
. .
,
.

. ,
[. , 1984]. , , ,
. , , ,
. , , , ,
; . <> ., <> -.
. , , , ,
, . . , , . <>
<> -
.
, , , , , ,
, , ; . (28)
(28), (28): (28) <> .
(286) .
(28) <> .
(28) .
(28) *0 <, , > <, , ,
...> , , ,
, , , ,
, , . <, ,
> -. , , ,
, , ,
.


==123

, , ,
, , .

.
(29) <>, .
(296)
, ,
(30) < , , >.

1.5.
, ,
. -; . [Postal, 1974;

Ruwet, 1981; Ru^icka, 1980].



. ,
believe think, croire penser, glauben denken

: (31) I believe <think> it possible


' '.
(316) Je le crois <pense> possible
' '.
(31 ) Ich dachte (mir) deinen Bruder anders
' () '.
(31 ) Er glaubt sich sicker
' '.
, ,
-. ( ) ,
, .
(hold, tenir halten)
. ,
-. ', .
(32) / hold you for a friend
' '.
(326) Je tiens ce fait pour bien assure
' '.

==124
I.
(32) Ich halte dasfur Unsinn
' '.

hold, tenir halten ,

: .
() / hold him to be wrong
' , ' (. ' ').
(336) I hold it a point of honour
' '.
() le tiens comme propre frere
' '.
() Was halten Sie von diesem Menschen?
' ?'
, hold

,
; .
(34) Plato holds that the soul is immortal
' , '.
,
: .
,

. ,
, ,

00.htm - glava09

2.
( , )
(. .
. ). -

.
, , .
. .
, , .


==125
.

.
(), (). ,
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).
, . ,
, .
. ,
, , , .
. ,
, .

. , , , , ,
, ,
. ,
.
.

2.1.

( ): , ;
, ; ,
. ,
.

==126
I.
2.1.1.
(1) (4), (7) (12) . .,
, ,
, .
, .
(1), ,
( , ) 1 (
, )
1.
(7),
. -, ,
.
. -,
. ,
, , (.),
, , , , , .

.
.
2.1.2.

(2) (3), ,
2, , , , .
, ,
.
(12) (12),
. -, ,
, 1, ,
(. 1.2).
. -,


==127

,
, , , . . -, ,
.
, (.
<> , ).
-, ,
, ,
,
(. 24).
, (7) (12),
. -,
( ) . , . -,
( ) , ,
. -,
,
, ,
(. (7) (12).
(11), . , , , , , ()
. . -, ,
.

.
2.2.
, ,
, .
.
,
.

==128
I.
2.2.1.
-
.
, - ,
. ,
, 1.4. (
). (
), (
), - ( ): (35)
. ).
(356) , . ,
).
(35) , . ,
).
(35) , . ).
(35) , (. ).
(35) : , . , ) [,
, , 1978].
, ,
. -
, , .

,
.
2.2.2.
- ,
.
. , , (28) (29),
-.
- , (28), .
, , , , .
. , .


==129

,
00.htm - glava10

3.

, ,
.
, .
.
3.1. ()
, :
.
3.1.1.
.

.
, , ,
, :

1. 1 .
1

1. . 1. 2. ,
.

(1), (7).
, , (. (21)
(23) ), -
.
,
, ,

. , .

53


==130
I.

,
.

, - ,
: () <, >
.
(366) < >
.
() - <, >,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
(), ().
( ) ADV

( ), .
ADV (
< >) ( -. ).
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. .
,
,
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.
,
. ,
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,
.


==131


.
, ,
, ,
, , .
3.1.2.

, [Mel'cuk, Pertsov, 1987],

, ,

. .
,
(12), (156), (166), (17), (18)
,
, , , , .
.
,
, , , , , , , ; , ,
, , , , ; , , , , ,
, . . ,
, () (
): (37) < >.
(376) <>.
(37) <>.
, ,
, , ,
; . (12) (126).
, , ,
, , ( -,
) ( )
, .
.

==132
I.

(38) , .
(386) , .
(39) , .
(396) , .
, , , , ,
, .
, ,
. ,
, ,
1, , , ,
, , , ,
. ,
, ,

, ,
.
, , ,
,
. ,
,
.

, .
, , , ,
, 32, . .

, ,
.
, , ,
, , ,
.
, 1,
, .


==133

3.2.
, .
. ,
(, ), , .
,
. , ,
2.1.2, , 2.2.2.

00.htm - glava11

4.
, , ,
,
. ,
. - . .
. . , , -2 [
., 1989], . - ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .

. . . . .,1974.
. . : //
. , 1980.

==134
I.

. . // . . 1986.

N 2.
. ., . ., . ., . ., . ., . 3., .
. -2. ., 1989.
. ., . ., . .

// ja3HK. CKonje, 1978.


. ., . : .
, 1982. . 12.
. . //

. 1982. ., 1984.
. .

: . ... . . . .,1982.
. . //

. ., 1980.
. . . ., 1973.
, ., . . - .

- . , 1984.
. . :
. ., 1974.
Mel'cuk Igor A., Pertsov Nikolaj V. Surface Syntax of English. A Formal Model within the Meaning-

Text Framework // Linguistic and Literary Studies in Eastern Europe. Vol. 13. Amsterdam;
Philadelphia, 1987.
Postal P. On Raising: One Rule of English Grammar and its Theoretical Implications. Cambridge;

London, 1974.
Ruvset N. The epistemic dative Construction in French and its Relevance to some Current

Problems in Generative Grammar // Festschrift Manfred Bierwisch. Reidel; Dordrecht, 1981.


RH&cka R. // Russian

Linguistics. 1980. N 4.

==135
00.htm - glava12

*
1.
,
, ,

, ,
[1] , (
, . )
.

1) ,
,
( ).
2) ,
, ( )

, ,
, , , ,
() .

. ' " ", , 1988

==136
I.
,
, ,
. ,
'.

2.
(, , ,
) : 1) , 2) ,
3) .

, , , ,
,
, , .
,
.
2.1.
, ,
; ., , , ,
.
: , ,
/.
.
. : - = ' ,
, X'; . ,
, <>.
, , , -
. ,
. ' , XVI
[2], . . . . [].
Syntax and Semantics [4], [5]; [6]; Journal of Pragmatics, .
[7]; . 3. [8].


==137
- -, ]
- ; . <, >,
< > ( ).
,
. -
; . ,
, <>.
.
,
.
: . ,
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.
/.
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.
.
, , , , [9, , 246]. .
. ,
,
.

2.2.
:
(, , , )
.
.
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , -, , , , . .
[10], ; .
; , ; , .

==138
I.
, , ,
. (., , [10, . 51-58], [II], [12]).
, , , , ,
, ' ' [11, . 74]. , ,
<>,
. , () . . , = '
, , '.
, , ,
, [12, . 101-104]. : )
?; ) - ?
[] (. . )
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.
- -
.
. , ,
, . .
, , , , , , . . , ,
,
(, , ).
,
, ,
. , , , ()
.
; . -


==139

( ). (]
; . [13, . 728]).

, ]
" .
.
[14, . 90 .]
' '.
.

, ,
: ? < , >.
: ? * < >.
, ,
, ,
; . , <>, . ,
( ),
: . ,
,
.
2.3.
,
, ,
, .
, , .
.
(, !)
, -.
( ) . (
. [15].
, .
, , ' '
; .
, .


==140
I.

, , ,
. ,
. , . .
, , .
.

. 2,
, ;
, '*.
1, .

,
. . , , ,
, , , .
(. ).
.

, , . . [16, . 70], .
, .
. .
.
: ,
, .
.
,
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, .
. ,
.
. , (!) ,
(! !),
( , !), .

3.
: 1) (
); 2)


==141

, . . - ; 3)
.
3.1.
, , ,
, , , , , .
,
, .
, . . : , ~ 'X
, , , '. -
, : = '
, , , '.
<, >,
,
.
, ,
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, . . ('' ''),
('' ''), , (' ' ' '),
(", ') (' ,
').
, , ,
, . .
, ,
, ( )
, , .

. :
, , ,
. [17, . 61-62].
,
(
; . ,

==142
I.
). .
( , )
() .
( , , )
,
.
.
,
. . ,
, , / , /
, / , / ...
,
[18, . 605]
[19, . 76-77]. , ,
: , .
,
. ,
, . . , , . .
[20]; . [21]. ,
, , ,
, , ,
: - !, !, !,
( , ).
, , ,
, .
. .
, , ! (. ), , ?!
( ); (. . ),
! ( );

! (. . ), ( , ,
[18, . 593]). . [18, . 593-604], [9, . 106 .], [22,
. 50-51]. . (., , [23] [24]).


==143
3.2.
,
, . ,
, , .
, , , ,
? ( . . , ); ,
. ),
, ) ,
, .
: 1) (), 2)
( ), 3) (.
" ), 4) , 5) .
/
, .
.
: '', ''.
, . ! (. . )
, .
. :
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, : , /
, (. ).
, ,
. .
3.3.
,
. .
-, , ,
() .
[25, . 4142] , .
,

==144
I.

.
, . ,
. . .
.
. , ,
. , ,
, , .
, , .
, ,
.
. , , , ( ),
.
; , .
, . .
Y-y = 'X Y-,

Y-a; X
, Y'.
-,
. . ,
, , , ,
.
, . ,
. -
,
, .
. . - - ' ; , X;
X'. ()
, . . .
,

, .

.
, .


==145

4.
,
, ,
.
: 1) , , 2)
, 3) , 4)
, 5) , '.
4.1.
, (), (),
(), (), (), ), (), (),
(), () .
;


.
()
.
,
.
[26,. 361].
,
; . , , , , , ,
, , . . (, , ,
, , ) (),
. (, , , ...)
' ', ' ' . .
() , ,
.
, , , . .
* , , ,
, .

==146
I.

, , -
.
. , , , ( )
,
. ,
, , . . 2.
.
, ; .
.

, - ; . ,
, , , , , , ; ,
, .
. <>, ,
, , 3.
, , ;
. ,
, , , , , ,
. , , , ,
.
(, ,
), - : <>
<?>.

, .
: ' <> -
*.
- .
,
. '
2
, ;
, . ' ' ' '
.

. [10, . 46], , . . .


==147

X, - ',
' X,
'. . , , , .
.
,
.
4.2.
(., , )
, .
.
[27]. .
, , ,

. :
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. .

, ,
. . , ,
.
. , ,
- . ,
.
.
,
; .
,
.

, .
, , , .

, , |
:

==148
I.

, .
.
.
, , ,
. ,
. : ?
, , -
?
,
''.
''.
. , ,
'' , , .
, , ; .
. , ,
'' , , .
, , , , . .
(. [31, . 243-244]).
, '',
.
.
) () ,
, , . .
''.
(), , . .,
.
) () .
, : ,
'',
. .

.

.
==149

4.3.

,
, .
, , , ,
, , , , , . .
. ,
,
, .
: , , ,
, , , , . .
, . . , ,
. (., ,
[28, . 132-136]) .
, , , , , ,
, . . .
.
''.
,
.
,
, , .
,
, . ,
, , , , .
.
, , , ( ,
, ) .
, .
, ,
, , . .
, ; " , *
(


==150
I.

. ).
, , .
. . [19, . 72].
,
, . . , , , , ,
. . , -,
. , , ,
: ' , ; , , ; , ;
, , , , '.

,
, . , : ,
, / : / , / (. ).
,
. . , , / . , /
. , .
,
. , - ' , ,
; , , '. . , <
>.
,
; (* <>, ).
, .
< >
, : = ' , ; ,
'. ,
< , >
. , ,
(), , .
, ,
, , , . . , -, .
; . , (. .
) ~ '... '; , = "...
'.


==151
,
, . . ,
='... ...'; : , , / (. .
) = '... ...'; : , = '...
...'.
,
.
,
. [29, . 106 .]. ,
, . . ,
. ,
. , . .
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
. .

() -, -, ,
, , . .
.
, ,
, , . .
,
.
, .
, , .

: , .
: , ~ ' , ; ,
; , ;

==152
I.
, '4.
. \
4.4.
, ,
,
. ,
.
[30, . 290-292]. , -.
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) (
); 4) ; 5) ; 6)
. .
, .
( ?), (,
?), ( , 1 ), , ,
(, ; , , ),
( , ), . ,
, ,
; . , , .

: ( ,
, ); (
).
4
' ' . ' '.
; . , ,
, . ,
, . ' ' - :
'' '' , , . ,
, , * (
). ' '.


==153


.
( , )
, .
,

,
. , , ,
, , , .
: ,
? , .
? (. , ). ,
5. ,
, ,
. .
, ? ,
, . ,

, ; . ?. ,
?
, . . ,
, ,
.

, ,
.
.
, 1015
, , .
6.
3
() . . ([15, . 29])
.

. . . . ,
.

==154
I.

1. . . // . . 1986. 2.
2. . . XVI. . ., 1985.

3. . ., . . , //
. . XVI. . ., 1985.
4. Syntax and Semantics. Vo'l. 3. Speech Acts. N. Y.; San Francisco; London, 1975.
5. Syntax and ueiiiantics. Vol. 9. Pragmatics. N. Y.; San Francisco; London, 1973.
6. . , . . . 1981. 4.
7. Journal of Pragmatics // Special Issue on 'Particles' edited by Anna Wierzbicka. 1986. Vol. 10. N 5.
8. . 3. (. . ): . .
... = . . ., 1987.
9. . . II. . ., 1980.
10. . . -
. // . . 1958. No 6.
10a. Wierzbicka Anna. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw; Warszawa; Krak6w, 1969.
11. . . . .
// Zbornik radova instituta za strane jezike i knjievnosti. 1983. Sveska 5.
12. . .
// Zbornik radova instituta za strane jezike i knjievnosti. 1984. Sveska 6.
13. Lyons John. Semantics. Vol. 2. Cambridge, 1978.
14. . ., . . //
. . . ,
1984.
15. . . // .
1986. . 28.
16. . . . ., 1979.
17. . . - "
" // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980.
18. . . . ( ). .; 1947.
19. . . // .
., 1982.


==155

20. . . . , 1888.
21. . . // . 1972. N 5.

22. . .
// . 1961. N 5.
23. . . . ., 1971.
24. . . - : . ... =
. . ., 1985.
25. . . //
. 1986. . 28.
26. . . I. . ., 1960.
27. . . // . . . . . 1986. N 3.
28. . ., . . . . ., 1986.
29. . // . . VIII. . .,
1978.
30. . ., . , - .
- . , 1984.
31. 3. // . . XVI.
. ., 1985.

==156
00.htm - glava13

*
( )
1.
"" . . . .
, ,
. .
. . , ,
, , , ,
, , , , .
[, 1977, . 71-73],
[ , . 85-86], , [ , . 88-90],
"
" [ , . 28]. ,
.
" , , ,
.
, ,

. , , ,

-, ,
. , ' " . ", ., 1992.


==157
.
, . ,
, ; [ 1977, . 163].
XVII ,
, , .
. . ,
. .
, .
, , . . .
: ,
, (. [, 1988, . 8-16]).
, .
. ,
.
, (, ), ,
, .
[, 1988]. .
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) .

2.
, "" . , , ,
XIX ,
(. [Webster, 1951, . XIV .]). "".
, "" (, -) -

==158
I.

, . , righteous

'' just '', . .


XIX Selection of Synonyms (1851): "Righteous
, ,
just .
just, righteous" [Webster, 1951, . XVI].
, ,
, ,
. . . swine's flesh '

' pork ''. .


, . . ,

(presents to the mind a gross idea), [


, . XIV]'.
"" ,
(.
, [Isacenko, 19726, . 82-85; Komlev, 1976, . 127-128; Bartminski,

1984, . 13-16; , 1986; , 1989]). ,


"" XX : 1) "" =
, , "" (- ,
. . ); 2) "" =
(- , . ); 3)
"" = " , " [Isacenko,
19726, . 84-85]; 4) "" =
[Tokarski, 1988]; (
"" [Konotacja, 1988];

[Majer-Baranowska, 1988]).
' , , . . .
. . . . (29 1845 .): " ,
, , , ,
. . ,
. (), ., ,
" [, 1977, . 165-166].


==159

, , ,
. ,
.
"" :
, , , (
= '... ' = '... ' ),
, , , .
.
"" "
, ".
"" . ,
, ,
.

.
[, 1974, . 6768],
[, , 1980, . 196 .]. . : "
L , L

".
[Bartminski, 1980, . 13-14]: " ,
",
" , ,
". , , .
.

,
.
,
. ,
' '.
; ,
, , - -,
. '' . ,
,
, .


==160
I.

,
, , , , .
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
' , ', '',
', '. . ,
(. . ); ; ,
(. , ). ' '
, <>,
<>. , , . . ,
, .
, ,
, .
,
[, , 1980, . 201-202]. .
. L . L

' ' , .
, . ,
'' 1 = '' ,
.
2 = '' ,
* .
, ;
. * " .
. , L. ,
, , ,
L; . , 1 =
' ...' '', 1 = '
...' ''.
. , ''
(, ' ')


==161

1.
.
, '' (, ' ')
1.
. L '',
, , , . ''
L, (
), L. , ' '
. ,
, , ,
.
.
, ,
.
, , 1 1
, . * *
<> , , '' , ''
. ''+'', '^ ''
.
, () .
, ' ', , ,
, '', L. ,
'', ,
'' ' ', .
<> -., '
-.' , , ''
, () , ,
''; . -
.
, ,
.
,
(, , , , , , . .).
, , : ' ,
, , , ' (). 63

==162
I.

( )
MAC'e, ', . . . .

[, , 1984, . 722] [Bartminski, 1984, . 10].


,
, . ,
, ,
, . ,
,
> . ,
,
, .
, , "-" , . . ,
.
, ,
. ,
. ', -'
. , ,
, . , ,
' -' ? (.
" " [, 1988, . 37-43]).
, ,
. . . [Isacenko, 19726,

. 82] . , , . .
[Bartminski, 1980, . 24; Bartminski, 1984, . 10, 13, 16, 18, 19]. , ,
' ,
, , ' ()? . .
. "
, (, ), (,
, ), ( , )" [. .].
? . .
; ,
'' '' .
,
, , ,
.


==163
-, ; ., ,
( ) ( ).
,
. ,
; . " ".
-, ,
.
.
-, , ,
. , ,
. ,

(" ) ,
.

3.
, , , , , ,
, , , ,
. .
3.1.
, , , , (.
[, , 1984, . 722]). '' (, \), '
' (, ), ' ' (, , (.
, ).

==164
I.
' , ': ,
. (. , ).
' , , '
, , , , .
' , ', , , . .
, / , / / / ...
, ,
, . . : . ,
. , , ... , ... ,
, , , (. ). , ... " ",
. , " ", . ...
(. ).

3.2.
-,
. ( )
( ). . : , ,
, , , . ...: ,
(. ).
. ,
', ' , ,
''; . [] , (. ,
); , , , "" (. -, ).
: , , . .
, , , , ,
, , ( . 3.3.).


==165

3.3.

, . .
', '; ' ' ', '; ''
', '; ', ', . ; -',
' ' ' ', . ,
, (. ).
' , '
, , , ,
. , -: ,
< ->; ... , -.
(. ).
,
', ' ', ', . , .

3.4. , ,

= ' , , ,
'. , . . , .
, , ,
,
, , .
.
, , , , .
3.5.

X; . ; - ,
(. -

==166
I.
). .
, . ,
, , " , " [Grice, 1975, . 52]. . ,
, ,
, . , , , ,
, ,
.
" " .
" " .
( , ), ,
, . , - Boys will be boys
' ' ( ), , , ,
; , [Wierzbicka, 1987, . 106].
Boys will be boys : [ ]. . [,
, 1988, . 295-296].
-, ,
. , . . [1985, . 42]
. . , "" , "",
, . . .

, , , ,
, , .
. () ,
() .
, (
) , .
, , , ,


==167

,
. , , , .
,
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
. .
, , . ,
, ,
,
^ , ?0mpou , ?Tecm , ?y
, ?aa , ? ,
. , ,
, 2. , ,
, ( - ),
. , ,
,
, ,
.
3.6.
< Y ,

- ( )
Y, ,
, - -. , ,
.
.

(. 2
,
. . ... . (" ?" " !"
. , ; ;
) (. ).

==168
I.
). , ,
' '. ,
, ' '.
, :
, .
, ,
, . , , , . . <>,
' ' ' ', , ,
'' '' ( [Lyons, 1977, . 278]).
, , , ' ', ,
. . ,
, , , (, , ).
. -
, , , ,
, , , "
", , , . , .
"" <""> <> .
<> . , ,
, , , . ,
' ', ' '.
, , , .
, , . . . 3. ,
, (., ,
[,


==169
1987, . 252 .]). ,
, .
, . ,
, , , ,
. , .
.

**
, , , , , ,
, .

, , . , , :
.

4.
, ,
. ,
- . ,
, , , ,
. [, , 1984] ' ',
[, , 1980, . 204] : " ... , , ,
, ". ., , = '
1 '. , ,
.

.
-


==170
I.
, , , , ,
, , , . . [1948], " "
. .
. . Ziege, . . .
, , . .; .
dumme Ziege ' ', alte Ziege ' ', mager wie eine Ziege ', ', neugierig wie eine Ziege ', ',
wahlerisch wie eine Ziege ', '. , "
() , .
" [Isacenko, 19726, . 79]. , , ,
. .
(. [, 1984, . 117]); . , .
. , , ,
, ( ), ( ), ( ), ( )
. (
) . : , / , /
, / . . : , . / .
. / / .
, , .
. ,
.
Dutch ''. ,
, , . . Dutch bargain ', ', Dutch comfort <consolation> ' ', Dutch
concert ' ', = ' , ',


==171

Dutch courage ' , ', Dutch defence ' ',

Dutch feast ', ', Dutch metal '


( ), ', Dutch treat
', '. . Dutch :
in Dutch ' ', double Dutch ', ', It beats
the Dutch! ' !'. Dutch
XVII

. ,

Spanish '' .
(. , -, , , )
(. , , , , )
.
(. , , < > ) (.
, , , , ).


, .
.
. , ,
, ; . . ,
, , ; . , , ,
, , , . ,
,
. [, I960],
, ,
.
'' ( ) '', '', '', '',
'', '' . ., '' ( ) '',
'', '', '', '', ''.
. . ,
[, , 1974, . 260266] [, 1987, . 171]. ,
. . . . , ,
, -

==172
I.
, -, , , , ,
, . ., , .
,
. ,
. [, 1974, . 67-68] (
; . !) ( ); . , ... .
) (. ); ( ) ( ); (, )
( , ); ( ) ( ).
.
, . ,
. ,
, , ; . ,
. , , ,
' , '; . .
. , : , , ,
. . , , , , !
.
, , -, ,
' '. . , <
>. , . , (=
' ') .
( [Isacenko, 19726, . 79]). , ,
(. -, ), , , (.
, , , <, > , !). , -


==173

, ;
.
, .
. ; . .
(, ) ( ). ; .
. , , ' " ", '.
, , . ,
, .
. . [1958, . 86]: " , , ;
' ' , ,
'' (eau de ris, eau d'orge). ,
, eau ".
. ,
, , , , , , ,
. , (, , ),
(, , , ), (, , . .).
, , , , ;
. [Isacenko, 1972a, . 9].

5.
.
,
.
,
,
-

==174
I.
. , . , , .
, , ,
(. [, 1974, . 185]).
.
, , , : 1 " ' ', 2 = '
, '. , . 1
2 = ' , ', 1 2 = '' . .
, : ,
, , .
-, .. . .
, ,
, . , ,
, () . , ,
: 1) ' ', 2) ' '.
: 3) ' ', 4) ' '. , ,
[, 19726, . 84 - 85).
, .. ( )
. , 3 ~ ' ' . ,
, , - , , , 4.
, , (. [,
19886 . 72 73, 78]). .
, . , " "

( [, , 1980]), , ,
. -


==175
, , , :
2 = ' - 1 ' .

= , 70- .
- , . . ,
. , .. , ,
.

==176
, 1948: . . // . .; ., 1948. . XI.
, 1974: . . . . ., 1974.
, 1988: . . //
. - . ., 1988.
, 1977: . . . . ., 1977.
, , 1974: . ., . . . .,
1974.
, , 1980: . ., . , //

Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. 1980. Band 6.


, 1988: . // .
. XXIII. . ., 1988.
, 1989: . . // .
. 1989. N 1.
, , 1984: . ., . .
. . , 1984.
, 1985: . . .
. ., 1985.
, 1987: . 3. (. . ):
. ... = . . , ., 1987.
, 1986: . . . .,1986.
, 1984: . . - // .
. ., 1984.

, 1987: . . ,
// . ., 1987.
, 1960: . . "" "" ( )
// . . 1- . . . - . ., 1960. . XXIII.
, 1958: . . //
. ., 1958. . 1.
, 19886: . . //
. : . ., 1988.


==177
, , 1988: . ., . .
// .
. ., 1988.
Bartminski, 1980: Bartminski Jerzy. Zahizenia teoretyczne s^ownika // Stownik ludowych stereotyp6w jezykowych.
Zeszyt . Wroclaw, 1980.
Bartminski, 1984: Bartminski Jerzy. Definicja leksykograficzna a opis JQzyka // Stownictwo w opisie j^zyka. Prace
naukowe Uniwersytetu Slaskiego. Katowice, 1984.
Grice, 1975: Grice H. P. Logic and Conversation // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3, Speech Acts. N. Y., etc., 1975.
Isacenko, 1972a: Isacenko A. V. Opening remarks // The Slavic Word. Proceedings of the International Slavistic
Colloquium at UCLA / D.S. Worth. The Hague; Paris, 1972.
Isacenko, 19726: Isaeenko A. V. Figurative Meaning, Derivation, and Semantic Features // The Slavic Word.
Proceedings of the International Slavistic Colloquium at UCLA / D.S. Worth The Hague; Paris, 1972.
Komlev, 1976: Komlev N. G. Components of the Content Structure of a Word. The Hague; Paris, 1976.
Konotacja, 1988: Konotacja. Praca zbiorowa pod redakcja^ Jerzego Bartminskiego. Lublin, 1988.
Lyons, 1977: Lyons John. Semantics. Cambridge, etc., 1977. Vol. 1.
Majer-Baranowska, 1988: Majer-Baranowska Urszula. Z historii uzycia terminu konotacja // Konotacja. Praca
zbiorowa pod redakcja^ Jerzego Bartminskiego. Lublin, 1988.
Pisarkowa, 1976: Pisarkowa K. Konotacja semantyczna nazw narodowosci // Zeszyty Prasoznawcze. Z. I. 1976.
Tokarski, 1988: Tokarski Ryszard. Konotacja jako skl-adnik tresci s-bwa // Konotacja. Praca zbiorowa pod
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Webster, 1951: Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms. Springfield (Mass.), 1951.
Wierzbicka, 1987: Wierzbicka Anna. Boys will be boys // Language. 1987. Vol. 63. N. 1.

==178
00.htm - glava14


*
1.

, () .
[, 1986]. .
, (
, . . , )

. , 1) ,
; 2) ,
.
.
1) , 2)
, 3) , 4) , 5)
(- ) , 6) ,
. .
, ,
. .

(., , [Webster, ' "
", , 1990


==179

1981] [Barnhart, 1982]). , , ,


.

2.
: ) (,
, )? ) , ?

2.1.
, .
: 1) , . .
[, 1960-11, . 77]; . [, 1960, . 23-25; , 1977]; 2) [,
1949; , 1978, . 61-72, 178; , 1982, . 97; , 1982, . 85 .; , 1987, . 5-6].
, , .
, , (
).

, , , ,
[, 1982, . 97]. , ,
.
(. . ) ,
, , , , , ,, . . (., , [, 1969, . 31
.; , 1978, . 126; , 1979; , 1982, . 60 .]). ( ),
: 1) (), 2)
, 3) (), 4) .


,


==180
I.


(, )

.
,
( ), (!)

.
, -, .
, , .
, , .
(,
, ) .
, ,
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, .
/ , . . .
, :
;

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. ,
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.
.
) ,
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, .
, ,
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) ,
. , ,
.


==181

, . . ,
.
. , ,
: , , (. . );
, , (. . ); ,
, , (. . ); ,
, , , ( )
, , , ( . .
). , , . 14
, . . - 16, . . - 22 (. [,
1969, . 117-118]).
, ,
, - ,
'.
, ,
,
. .
, (, . .)
, .
, ,
() , .
, , ,
. ,
: ( ), (, ,
. .), (, , . .),
(, , , , .
.).

. ,
( )
.
,
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, -

==182
I.
. , -6 -7
.
, ,
.
( . ) ,
. , ,
.
, , ,
, . ,
( "") . , 3, . . , : ) ( ?); )
( ); ) ( ,
); ) (, , ); ) (
..,).
,

.
(, . .),
.
, . ,
,
("") . ,
, , (, -), (-, ) ( ),
, . (
) .
, . . ,
.
, , .
:
.
. -, , , , -, .
(.


==183
[, 1974]). -,
, .
, , ; , ,
, . . , .
,
. .
, , .


,
.
.
/ / ; : / , / , / ;
' , ' ,
' , '.
, ,
.
2.2.
, , .
. , .
, (. . ) ,
, . . (., , [, 1960] ).
, , ,
, .
, ,
.
,
. , , ,
, .

==184
I.

(26)(2) (3) [, 1949, . 112 .; , 1955, . 11;


, 1969, . 15, 7071; , 1969, . 28, 75; , 1978, . 19-20, 28; , 1982,
. 58 .; Sappok, 1986, . 233237] .


, .

, [, 1977].
(1) /
, :

.

' <'> ( ) =

' < >'


<> ( <> ) ( ) =
' <> '; ' = '
' = ' '.

- .
,
. ; . , , ,
, , . .
, , , ,
. , ,
; .
' .

.
(2) /
,
.
-
.
() .
', '; , , '
' .


==185
(6) . /
/ ; /
/ .
() .
? (-2) ! (-7, ''); ? (-2)

! (-7, ''); ? (-2) ! (-7, '


'); ? (-2)- ! (-7, '').
() .
? (-2) ! (-6, ' '); ? (-2)
! (-6, ' '); ? (-2) ! (-6, '
'); ? (-2) ! (-6, '').

()
. .
() ,
() .
,
.
() -2 , -7
.
-2, -7.
(): ,
, -6.
(2) .
-,
. , ,
(, , ,
, ),
.
,
(, . .) ,
. :
-

==186
I.
. (2) (2)
. -7 -6
, .
(3) /
-
.
, , [, 1985, .
122]; , [,
1979; , 1982, . 54-55; , 1985, . 123-124]; ""
, [, 1987, . 8 .]; , ,
, , , [, , 1988, . 11 .].
. . . . .
: ' ,
.
(): ' (, ), ' (, ).
, ,
. . ' ( , ) '
( , ).

, .
. .
: ? , . ' <'> .
', ', '
. ' , '
. . , '
(. ). -,
.

, . . ' (' ') , ' (-'
').
, , ' -
'; . ' .


==187

' -.': '. ,


. ' '
, .
,
, , ,
. , ,
.
.

.
( ).
( ), .
, . ,
,
.

3.

/ , . .
. , 2.1., ,
: , , (), .
.
. .
, , , :
, -, , , . .

, ,
. ,

; . ,
, , .
. -,
, ,
; .

==188
I.

, ; , ; , . .
. . , ,
, . .
: (), (;
, ) , \
( ; ,
).
- 3 3 : ?!
, ? ?!
?! , ?
1 1 2 2. 1 1
: , ; , .
2 2 , : , , /
(. . ); , ' /
(. ); , ?; , ' ?
() ,
,
.
, , ,
- ,
. . ,
, , .
, .
3.1.
1) .
) 1 . / .
/ . : '
, '. :
,


==189

, :
' 6) 2 ,
, , .
.
. .
, . : ' <

> Q' = ' , Q, Q "^ Q>'.


: .
) 3 ,
.
, ^ .
^ .
^ (=' ' ).
: ' '.
: .
) 4 . . .
.
: '
'. : -, . : , 2)
.
) 1 . ^ . \-
< >. , 4- . 4- . : ',
'. : .
) 2 .
. .
: () = ' , ();
'. : , .


==190
I.

3.2.

1) .
, [, 1985],
.
) 1 () () = '(1) () //; (2) (),
//'. : ' ' ( , , ,
); ( , , , ).
) 2 () () = '(1) ti R(x), Qi

//; (2) t2 (),


, R(x), Qa //'. :
' ( - ,
); ' ( , . . -
, ); []
...
(. ); -
).
1 2.
1 () :

-, . 2 ()
, : R(x), ,
(), .
1 , , ,

, 2 , ,
.
1 .

, , -. 2
R . ,
. , , . .
.
. .
. , 2
: * . . *
. .
1 . 2 -

, ,
.


==191
2) .

, , , , ,

, ,
; , . .
, < >, ; , < ,
>, . ,
. .
, < , >, *0 , '
<' , ' >. ,
, , , ,
: ' < ' ,
' >.

() ()
. (. . )
.
, (),
, . ,

; . ' < ', '> .
. . ' .

.
3) .
()
.
( )
. .
. ? . , ,
(. ). .
? , .
( )
. .
? . . ,
.

==192
I.

:
' '. [, 1985, .
54-55, 71 .].
, , ,
..
.

( ) ,
.
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
: < , >, <
, >. , , -
: <> , <>
. ,
, ()
() .
, . (. . )
-
, . ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.

, . ,
; . ( )
( ).
.

: ? .


==193
(. ).
() ,
: ' .
, , , ,
.
, . .
( , ) (
) <> ( ,
) , ( ).
,
.
, , .
, , ,
, . ,

, , ; . ? ?0 .
.
, , . ,
, , , .
, , .
, , .

4.

. , , ,
.
. .
1) .

? ? . <>
?. <> ?, <> 13

==194
I.

?. <> ?.
?. - ?.
?, ?
-
[, 1980, . 51-52]. .
,
,
) , (, ,
); ) , , -2, . .
, -3, . . . :
[, 1969, . 124].
.
, ( )
: ? = ' , ;
, , ; - ,
[]; []'.
? = ' , ;

, , [];
;
, , []'.

, (
) . ? ?, ?
!
[, 1960-1,
. 645], .
. [ , 1982;
, 1985] [, 1972, . 437-464].
2) , , , , , , , , , . .
2.2. . ,
, ,
, , .


==195

.
, ,
. , ,
( ?) , .
.
( )
( ).
.

' ? ?
- ^'
? ?
- "[' ? ? '' ? ?
- ' ?
?


( Q,i

, Qa
): Q,i(P)? = ' , ();
,
; , , (), ;
'.
. ' , ()'
' , ';
' , '; ' , '; ' , ' . .
, , , , , , . .
, . ' , ,

Q2(P), ' ,
, , , , , . . .
, ,
q.i Qz

.
(,
)

. . , : ?, ,
,
- .
7*

==196
I.

.
:
, ,
3.

' , . ,
, . -()-, , ,
(. [, 1975]). : ''; 5-6 : ''
(), '' (), '' (), '' (), '' (); 15-20
, , '' '' (), '
' (), ' ' () '', , ' ' (,
), ' ' (, ), ' ' () . ., . ,
. , , :
, , 4-6, . ,
, '' '', '', ''.
2

, , , .

3
. . , . . . . ,
.

, 1980: . .
<=> . // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband I. Wien, 1980
, 1986: . . // , 1986, 2.
, 1985: . . '' ''
. / / . ., 1985.
, 1969: . . . ., 1969; 5- . ., 1977.


==197
, 1982: . ., . .
// . , . . ., 1982, 4.

, 1988: . ., . . (
): : . ., 1988.
, 1949: . . .-., 1949.
, 1975: . .
// 1972. .
. ., 1975.
, 1960-1: . . I. . ., 1960.
, 1960-11: . . II., . I ., 1960.
, 1974: . . . ., 1974.
, 1978: . , 1978.
, 1969: . . . .,1969.
, 1979: . . "": ,
// . ., 1975.
, 1982: . . ., 1982
, 1985: . . . . .,
1985.
, 1987. . . .
. . . ., 1987.
, 1972: . . . Oslo-Bergen-

Tromso, 1972.
, 1979: . . . //
. ., 1979.
, 1982: . . . ., 1982.
, 1985: . : . //
. XV. ., 1985.
, 1969: . . . //
. . . -. . 36. . , 14, 1969.
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I.

Barnhart, 1982: Bamhart . L. Bamhart R. K. (Eds.) The World Book Dictionary. Vol. I-II. Chicago-

London, 1982.
Sappok, 1986: Sappok Chr. Gliederungsminimalpaare.// Slawistische Beitrage. Bd 200. Munchen, 1986.
Webster, 1981: Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language. Unabridged. Springfield
(Mass.), 1981.

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00.htm - glava15

*
1.
. [I].
.
, . [2, . 163 .] . [3, . 299 .]. .
, ,
. . , ,
.
( . . .), . ,
... , , ,
[2, . 163]. , , ,
. , . ,
, ...
"". , ,
, "" ,
, ( ).
.
,
( ) ,
. .
.
' " . ", 1986, 3


==200
I.

(. ). , ,

, , . . .

. , . , , , , ,
(. ).
, (.
2 3).
, .
.
.
([1; 4, . 84 .], [5, . 189193; 6, . 48] .), .
(1) ( expositives), .
, , , ( ),
, , , , ,
, , , (
), , ,
; : ; , ,
, (.
); , . (. ).
, ,
, .

. , . . ,
(. , 3.1).
(2) , . , ( ), ,
( ), :
, . (. .
).
(3) ( commissives), . , ,

, () , , , ,
( ), , , :
<> .
(4) , . , , , ( ),
. .
? ,


==201
*

.

([4, . 85; 7, . 234 .] ). , ,
, (. 3.1).

(5) ( exercitives), . (

, , \ . ), ( ), 1 (),
, ( ); 1,
( <> ),
.
(6) , . , ; ,
, , , . .
, 7 .
(7) , . ( ),

( ), (
), 2 (
), (
), , ( ( .)).
(8) , . ( ), ( ),
( ); , ( ),
, .
(9) , . , ( );
( , , , ), ,
( -.), , (,
). : , ,- . (. );
: , (. ).
(10) , . (-. ), , 2 (
), (.
), ( , , ,
, , , ).
(11) , . ( , ), ( ;
CRITICIZE ),

==202
I.

( , ), , .
(12) , . , (), ( ,
).
(13) ( behabitives), . ,

, , , , ,
, : , ,
(. ).
(14) , , , . ., .
, (-.) , , , ,

(-. ), , , ,
( ), ( -.; .
), (-. ), (-. ), (
), , (-. ), , ,
( ), .
(15) ( operatives), . (

), , ,
( ), (-. ), (
).
2.
, , ,
. -,
(,
, , ). ,

, .
,
, .
2.1.
(1) 1 ,
. ,
,
( ) -


==203
. () ,
.

. ( [1]-[3]).
) ; .
; ; <, >: .
) - ;
. . (
. ); .
) ; .
, , .
) ; .
<
> ( ).
) , , ; . .
<> ; ;

, , (. .
).
) (. [8, . 154-156; 9, . 28]
[5]); . <, , > , ,
; ... , (.
). , , .
.
,
.
. . \
, \ ,
. , ^. ,
<, >, . , ,
.
(2) - ,
. ,

==204
I.
,
; . , .
.
2.2.
(3)
. .
) ,
; . ; ,
.
. . * ?
<>. .
, ,
.
, ; .
.
)
-.,
. -.,
; . < > , .
, VS. -.

, ; ., ,
[10] [4] , .
2.3.

(4) -
, .
) - ,
(, , , , ),
(, ) (, ).
,
.


==205

6) , ,
, , ,
, , , . .
< , > <> (, ,
'- , ).
j) " .
, , . , ,
.
(5) , . .
, ,
[3, . 307], ,
. ,
, : '
, '. ,
, : ' , '. .
,
, (. . ).
(6) .
, .
,
. .
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1. Austin J. L. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford, 1965.


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220-232.
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==219

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==220
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==221

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., : Osgood Ch. E. Where Do Sentences Come from? // Semantics. An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Psychology.
Cambridge, 1974. P. 497529; . : Dowty D. Towards a Semantic Analysis of Verb Aspect and the English Imperfective Progressive // Linguistics
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( ) // . . XV: . .,
1985. . 227249. . . // . ., 1982. . 785;
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==222
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Kucera H. Aspect in Negative Imperatives // The Scope of Slavic Aspect. Columbus; Ohio, 1985. P. 118-128.

8
Timberlake Alan. Reichenbach and Russian Aspect // Ibid. P. 153-168; Flier Michael S. The Scope of Prefixal Delimitation in Russian // Ibid. P. 4158;
Russel Pamela. Aspectual Properties of the Russian Verbal Prefix na-// Ibid. P. 5975.

9
Vlach Frank. The Semantics of the Progressive // Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 14. Tense and Aspect. N. Y. etc., 1981. P. 272-292; Mourelatos Alexander
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10

Russel Pamela. Op. cit. P. 72.


==223

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==227
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17

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Vendler Z. Op. cit. P. 103.

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==229
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22

Vendler Z. Op. cit. P. 106.

23

Kucera Henry. Op. cit. P. 124.

24

Tedesci Philip J. Op. cit. P. 259.

25

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==230
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34

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==233

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==237
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The Univ. of Arizona Press, 1970. P. 79-97; RossJ. R. On Declarative Sentences // Readings in English Transformational Grammar.

==238

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D. W. Meaning and Truth in the Theory of Speech Acts // Ibid. P. 139; . . . ., 1976; Vendler Z. Telling the
Facts // Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language. Minneapolis, 1979. P. 220232; . .
( ). ., 1985; Lyons]. Op. cit
42

Austin}. L. Op. cit. P. 56.

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==239
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Vendler Z. Say What You Think // Studies in Thought and Language. Ed. Cowan J. L. Univ. of Arizona Press. 1970; , Telling the Facts. Op. cit.


==240
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==241
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, , ' "- ", ., 1979.
: . . . . 1974, Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms. A Dictionary of
Discriminated Synonyms with Antonyms and Analogous and Contrasted Words. Springfield, Massachusets, 1968.


==243
, -.

1.
. ,
, , , , ,
.
.
-, ( ,
). , , :
. , , , ,
, .
,
.
1.1
, , ,
, . . ,
. , .
, , . victim
prey *he has fallen a prey to an accident, : prey
, , , he carefully marked down his prey before dealing the blow '
, '3. ,
. ,
1) , 2) 3) ().
(, ), (''),

==244

II.
victim, victim, prey, ,
, : they could not
identify the victim nor the man who had killed him ' , '; The victims of an earthquake [a shipwreck] '
[]'.
: , surprise, ambush
: to surprise [ *to ambush} the enemy camp [the fortress] ' [ ]'.
, , , , to ambush
[ *to surprise} motorcyclist: surprise (
), a ambush ( ).
. *he has fallen a prey to an accident , .
. . he desired me to stay:
' , ' ( he wanted /wished/ me to stay), '
, '.
, ,
. ,
; , ; , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
( - )
( ).
healthy, healthful, wholesome, salubrious, salutary '
'. (). , , .
, ,
.


==245
, ^salubrious diet ' ', ^salubrious mineral waters ' ', ^salubrious way of life "
', : ,
, . ,
( healthy diet, salutary mineral waters, healthy way of life). ,
- , , salubrious, ,
air '' climate ''.
*he sprang the fence ' ', - - .
jump, leap, skip hop, ', '
, (to jump /to leap/ a stream over a stream ' ',
to hop a hedge over a hedge ' ', to skip a pool over a pool ' '), spring
to spring over smth.
, , ,
().
, , , ,
. . , .
, , , , ; ,
, , , .
,
. (. he writes short stories <=>
he is a writer of short stories, he sold me a book for two dollars <=! bought a book from him for two dollars, he is never present when needed most <=>
he is always absent when needed most, linguistics is his hobby <=> linguistic science is his hobby, <=> the science of language is his hobby,
). ,
.

==246
II.

, , ,
" "
. .
, ,
.

, . ,
, -
. ,
. , -,
, -,
. ,
.
gather
collect , dust gathered /collected/ in all the corners '
'. ()
menace threaten ''.
: to menace smb. with ostracism [new miseries].
: "If you interfere with my sister, I shall
call an officer", he threatened. menace threaten
(), , ,
, , ,
: the dog menaced /threatened/ them with bared fangs.
,

, .
,

. , , , ,

. ,
,
, ,


==247

, " ".
, ,
.
, , ,
, .

, , , situation place place, situation, position, post, office


", ' : situation wanted '
', situations vacant /available/ ' '. , : ^ place wanted, 7 places vacant.
office, , place , )
office , place ; ) office , place
; ) office , a place
. "" , post
office (a diplomatic post, the post of State Secretary),
place: the first post of his medical career, to get the post of a governess.
, , ,
, , .
, ,
, - , .
, ,
, , (, ,
). , , ,
, .. ,

==248
II.
.

1.2.
,
: . , , :
.
, , ,
, - . ,
, , , ,
, .
-, , , fire
.
, . , , , a fire .
,
, =>fire.
to chop: ,
(to chop wood, to chop (up) cabbage), (to cut the ropes), (to fell /to
hew/trees) to chop .
, , ,
. , , (, ,
); , , ; , , ,
, , , ; , ,
-. , - , ,
, . , , , : '
(


==249
!), *.
, , , ,
. ,
: to split /to chop/ wood (

), to break ice ( ), to crack nuts. ,


,
. , , thrill , What a thrill it was to
go down the rapids in a tiny boat s ' , '. Thrill
, , ,
. , ,
, , .
, ( ), ,
, , .
, , abandon. ,
, . -,
; , , : to sing
with abandon , to act with abandon , ( , ), he spoke with
complete abandon , , Se .
"" :
, , . , ,
, , ,
. .
, , : ' Ti Ti'. ,
, , ( -


==250
II.
\) stop. ;
stop (.,
, cease,
). , stop , ,
.
( s fire, S

to chop, thrill S , abandon s , ),


.
: , ;
-, ,
, , .
help, aid, assist

, . Help :
(to
help smb. to chop the wood [to solve the problem] -.
[ ]), , ,
. . (to help smb. with money [with advice] -.
[], to help smb. across the street [into the car] -.
[ }).
( ,
).

, , , - , ,
, , .
help aid assist

. Aid ,
(to aid in the preparation of the funeral)
,
: to aid the underdeveloped countries, to aid the
government with subsidies. Assist, ,
, , ,
( ,
).
.

choose, select, opt, elect, pick , , ,


choose ,


==251
. Select ,
; opt ( , ); elect ; pick
(to pick new words). . ,
( , );
, , .

, ,
.
, ,
, , ( )
, ,
. , , ,
: , ,
. , ,
, , .
, , ,
, ,
, .
.
, , , , ,
. , ,
. , , .

==252
II.

1.3.

.

, , ,
.
"
" . . (.: , 1970, . I; 1971. . 2). -,
,
: ,
, . "
"
. -, ( , )
, ,
, .
.
, , Webster's New Dictionary of

Synonyms, , ,
1968 .
,
:
, - (implications,
applications, connotations).

.
,
, ,
. , 50-
, , , .
: ) ,
,
, , door '', gate '', portal ', ', postern

' ', doorway ' '.


,
-


==253
.
6) , .
, , . , mend, repair, patch, rebuild
: 1) '', '': to mend one's dress; 2) ', ': mend your
manners /ways/; 3) '': the wound mended slowly. Repair : 1) '': to repair a car; 2)
'': to repair the lack of early education; 3) '': peace can be repaired. Patch : 1)
'': to patch overalls; 2) ' ': to patch up one's marriage; 3) ' ': to patch a car together from pieces out of the
junkyard; 4) ' -. ': his life must be patched together from scattered
references. , rebuild : 1) ', ': to rebuild a house; 2) '': to rebuild a
typewriter. , (., , mend, repair, patch
rebuild) ; - ,
, ,
. , (. , 2.1).
) , , ,
( ). , ,
, , , . ,
give, lend, render '', , to give /to lend, to render/ assistance; foot, bottom '', head, top '', , the foot /bottom/
[head /top/} of the stairs; back, ago '', , a few years back /ago/; get, bring, make '', , I couldn't get him to help me, she
couldn't quite bring herself to do it; good, clever '', , to be good /clever/ at arithmetic. courage ''
heart, , . "Rawdon had not the heart for that manoeuvre" (Thackeray); perform, fulfil . .

'' do, perform fulfil , . to do /to perform/


one's duty, to do /to fulfil/ a function. , )
, . ,
, ,

==254
II.

.
, ,
( 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 2.7).

.
) . ,
. , ,
, , , child, . kid '', head, .

chump '', '', lie, . tale ', '; , effrontery, gall . .


'' face, brass, sauce; courage, mettle
'' spunk.
) ,

,
.
, , , .
( 2.1) , ;
, ,
70- .
, ,
. ,
, .
,
(. 1.1).

, ,
, .
,
,
, .
, , ,
. , ,
, .
.


==255


( , )
( , ).
,
, : , . .
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
. ., .
,
, : ,
, .
, :
,
.

, - .
,
, ; ,
,
, .
,

, .
,
,

2.
.
,

==256
II.

(
, , ;
, , 2.2).
( )
; ( )
. , ,
, .
400 .
, . ,
,
, . , ,

, .

: 1) , 2) , 3)
, 4) , 5) , 6) , 7) , 8) .
.
2.1
, . . ,
.
. : )
, ; ,
solitude, seclusion, isolation '' loneliness,

solitude.
) ,
. , remember, recollect, recall '' remind,

' -. ', ' -. -.'.


recede, retreat . . ', ' retract '',
. slide, glide, glissade, slip . .
', ' coast ' ' tobbogan
' '.
) ,
-


==257

. , , ,
. , , swing '', sway

'', undulate '', fluctuate '', oscillate '', vibrate


', '; shake '', quake ', ',
shiver ' , '; .
jump, leap, spring, bound, vault ', ' skip,
hop ' , '.
) , ,
,
. .
, ,
() . ,
, . ,
, , .
: 1) '
'/' ' 2) ' '/'',
' ' /'', . intelligent [stupid] man ' []

' intelligent [stupid] look [answer] ' [] []', merry [sad] boy
' [] ' merry [sad] eyes [smiles] ' []
[]', deft [awkward] animals ' [] ' deft [awkward]
movements ' [] ', honest [sly] person ' [] '
honest [sly] question ' [] '.
, , (
), , . intelligent mind ' ',

sad soul ' ', deft hands ' ', upright character ' ';
,
, , , .
,
,
, , .
intelligent, clever, bright, smart . . '', angry, wrathful,

indignant, mad . . '' .


, ,
, ,

93

==258
II.
. threaten, menace -: 1) ' -.
': to threaten /to menace/ smb. with destruction [to kill smb.]; 2) ' -. ' (.
): the clouds threatened rain, stones and loose earth menaced to bury him entirely, tears [smoke] threatened /menaced/ to choke him; 3)
' ' (. ): a fog [death, the earthquake] was threatening /menacing/.
, ,
. . , summon, call, convene,
convoke, muster : 1) convene, convoke, call, summon, muster ', ' (, . .); 2)
summon I, call, muster ', , ' ( , , , ); 3) summon II, call ',
, , '.

, , ,
, ( ). (.
2.5).
) ,

.
) , , .
, , summon, ', ',
'': , summon, convene,
.
) (, , )
. ,
, . . . , slide, slip, glide, skid, glissade, slither
slide, glide, glissade, slip, skip, slither glide, glissade (
, ) slip, skid (, ,
).
) , , ,
-


==259

.
, ( )
,
, , ,
, , , ,
, .
,
.
face, countenance, visage '' , ,

, ,
, : the monkey's face, "The face of
Katy ( . . A.) was a tiger's face" (Steinbeck). Countenance visage,
, ,
, ,
( 2.2).
effrontery, nerve, cheek, gall ', ' ,

, , effrontery.
,
, to have the effrontery /the nerve, the cheek, the gall/ to do smth., smb.'s effrontery
/nerve, cheek, gall/ (maddened him), the effrontery /the nerve, the cheek, the gall/ of smb. (was
maddening). Cheek nerve it's (awful) cheek
my coming so late give: "Nothing but genuine inspiration
could give a woman such cheek" (Shaw). , , , the
effrontery of looking into her soul, a kind of haughty effrontery, the cool effrontery of a Yankee
cheek, nerve gall .
, ,
(, ).
, . ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, . .
9*


==260
II.

2.2
, . .
(, ) , , , . .
(, ).

: 1)
, , , , . .; .
, ,
, .
(, ) ,
, .

distant, far, far-off, far-away '' .


remote , ,

, : I went abroad to a remote spot
where I thought I wasn't likely to meet anyone who knew me.
2) , . . , . . ,
, , , . .
,
( , , , ), ( ,
, ), ( , , ).
. ,
. , ,
,
.

.
() : "
, '.
, ,
, : .
, -


==261

* ^ ,
. ,
, - ,
.
. S ' ;

; , ',
.' = " ;
; ,
', '.
, , ,
,
. , , take care bother

'()'. Take care


, : the criminal took care to rub off
his finger-prints. bother :
, ,
, , the criminal didn't bother to rub off his finger-prints; do you think he
will bother to rub off his fingerprints?; he would scarcely bother to rub off his finger-prints.
*the criminal bothered to rub off his finger-prints.
take care bother , bother

, take care.
: bother (to do P) =
'() ; ,
' (. 2.6), ( ,
) ,
,
. ,
, ,
, , , ,
, , ,
.
, .
, bachelor - ',

' ('') bachelor,


. , Peter is not a
bachelor, , ;
, . -

==262
II.
- ,
.
.
, ,
, .
prey '', , - ,
, , . victim .
,
grateful, thankful ', , ,
' (. , ). Grateful
, -. , a thankful ,
: you've helped me, and I'm grateful to you: I'm thankful that his life was spared in the accident.
, , , , ,
, , . stem, severe, austere, ascetic
', , ' ,
, , .
stem ascetic. severe , ,
: a severe teacher ' ', he was as severe with himself, as with others '
, '. , severe : he is a severe one. Austere, ,
, . . , , : an
austere character ' ' an austere father ' '. severe austere, , '
' ' ' , ;
'', '', '', ''4.
4

, , .


==263


. , salubrious

climate air (. 1.1), , '' ''


:
salubrious, .
,

. , ,
.
.
, , 1.2,
. ,
, , , ,
,
.
,

( ).
Grateful, thankful . ; : '

(gratitude)'.
Attachment, affection, love ', ,
'. :
', , (is genuinely fond of) . -.'.
Hatred, detestation, abhorrence, abomination, loathing ', ,


'. : ' (aversion),
'.
Enemy, foe ', , -., '.

: ' , (is hostile)


'.
Misfortune, adversity, mischance, mishap ',

'. : ' (bad luck)


(adverse fortune) '.
Accident, casualty, mishap ' ,

'. :
' , '.

==264
II.

Jump, leap, spring, bound, skip, hop ')

, , ) '. :
'
(by or as if by a muscular effort)'.
Beat, pound, pummel, thrash, buffet, baste, belabour '
, '.
: ' (repeatedly)'.
: )
, ; ) ,
; ) ,
, , ; )
,
; ) (''),
; ) ('', '',
'', '', '', '', '', '', '', '', '', ''
), .
, .
: ) (.
). ,
: -,
, , ,
hatred , a detestation

(. grateful thankful . 262); -,


,
(., , attachment, affection, love
hatred, detestation, abhorrence, abomination, loathing; misfortune, adversity, mischance,
mishap accident, casualty, mishap).
, ('',
'', '', '') ('', '', '',
''). ,
. , grateful thankful,

, , 'gratitude';
, thankful 'thankfulness'. Hatred '', ,
aversion '': ,
. misfortune bad luck, attachment fondness.


==265
, -
, .. . , , '':
, . :
desire, wish, want '' (: , ).
) . , ,
; ,
. . ''
.
' ' , , ' , '.
'' , , open = ' ', kill = '
' . . , '' -

.
open, kill, break, grow, burn . . to cause. , to cause
: to open (the door) = 'to cause (the door) to open', to kill (a bird) = 'to cause (a bird) to die', to break (the window) = 'to cause (the window) to
break', to burn (the toast) = 'to cause (the toast) to burn' . . , , , to cause
, . he caused the door to open by tickling Sally who was pressed against it,
*he opened the door by tickling Sally who was pressed against it: , . , John's negligence
caused the toast to burn ^ ""John's negligence burned the toast . . , to open the door, to burn the toast
, to cause. to
open (the door) = 'to cause (the door) to open' .
to cause :
; , ^ ' '.
open, kill, grow, break ( )
, , (, ), (, ), (, ),
(, -

==266
II.
), (, ), ( , ), (, ),
(, ), (, ), , . .
: , '' ,
.
, open, break, burn ,
. , ''.
) , , , ,
, ; , ( )
( , ).
, , :
, , . . ; ,
(. ).
, . .
, , ,
. .
: desire, wish, want, crave, covet 'to have a
longing for something' long, yearn, hanker, pine, hunger, thirst 'to have a strong and urgent desire for something'. crave
, 'implies strongly the force of physical or mental appetite', covet 'implies a strong, eager desire'.
, . , desire longing
? , : longing 'strong and urgent desire'; desire
wish want 'longing', ?
, , ? , crave covet
, ? 'strong and urgent desire' (long, yearn, hanker . .) 'strong and
eager desire' (covet), ' '?
- (


==267
, ) 'means a strong and urgent desire' 'implies strongly the force of physical or mental appetite',
, ? ,
, .
,
. , , , (
) : ,
, , .

, ,
. ,
, , , .
( ), '': , , , , , ,
, . .
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , . .
, , ' '
' , . .'.
, ,
: ( ), .
, , , .
, , , ; , ,
, , . . ,
,
; , , , . , ,
-

==268
II.

. ,
, . ,
, , , , /, / .
.
, , , ,
.
,
2.3
, , :
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , want, wish, desire, crave,

comet , , ; care, concern, solicitude, anxiety, worry


, , , ; throw, cast, fling, hurl, pitch, toss, sling
, , , .
, ,
: frigid climate

, frigid wind , chilly weather , chilly wind


; proficient /expert/ player , proficient /expert/ in the art
of selfdefence .
- ,
: attachment , affection

, love ; cold ; cool , frosty


.

, 1.2.

(sharp, keen

'', victim, prey ''), . , ,


brawl, broil, . row, . rumpus, . scrap(e),
, , , ,
,
( , , ), ,
-


==269

. ,
, .
, .
, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
: invaders looted and robbed throughout the entire country

; a group of officials who looted the


treasury , .
, ,

: ...You have robbed me of my wife's affection like a low hound (R. Aldington) ...

. , .
2.4

.
, .
, . ,
, ,
(roam S ''),

,
, . . (rove S ''), ,
(meander), ,

(, , ), (.
roue meander) ( ,
).
, ,
, .


==270
II.
, , ,
:

, ,
. , , ,
. ,
.
, ,
( , , help!, *aidl *assistl),

, , (,
, firm, , ,
hard, , ).

.

,
, .
, , . .
, ,
. : 1)
? , 2.2, : )
, , ) , ) , , )
, .
2) ? : )
, ) .
3) ? : )
, ) .
,
, ,
. ( )
, . . (. .
), , ,
.


==271

2.4.1

)
,
, .
, , . ,
,
() .
, , , .
,
,
, .
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ( ,
). , , . .
(, , , , )
(, , , , , , ,
, , , . .).
, ,
. ,
.
, . escape, avoid, evade, elude '
' escape ,
(he managed to escape punishment, he escaped death by a
mere chance); avoid ,
(to avoid an accident [responsibility]); evade ,
,
(to evade one's pursuers [one's duties, military service, the question]); elude
, , (to elude
the enemy [the creditors]).
Temerity, audacity, hardihood '' -

: temerity ,
-

==272
II.

(such temerity in attack can be expected only of young and


inexperienced leaders); audacity ,
(to show audacity in speech [in dress]); , hardihood
, ,
(it took hardihood in Copernicus to deny the current
conception of the universe).
, . ,
. , throw '',

; cast , , toss

, hurl, , : to cast fishing rod, he


cast his cigarette ash on the carpet, to toss a penny to the beggar, tossing pebbles on her palm, he
tossed an envelope into the fire to hurl a spear at the bear [wood into the fire].
, , ,
, , , . , ,
imagination, fancy, fantasy ", '. Imagination

, ,
-
: he had enough imagination to see the possible consequences; she has a
powerful imagination and systematically thinks the worst of everyone (.
). Fancy fantasy ,
: the power
of fancy /fantasy/, a flight of fancy /of fantasy/. Fantasy
(his fantasy has created an unreal
world), a fancy , .
desire '' (he received the
position he desired, people desire political reforms), a wish crave
: I wish I were a Gipsy, to crave for fresh fruit in winter.
. swing, wave, flourish ', ' wave,
, ,
. . ,
: to wave to the man to go on.
commend, recommend, applaud, compliment ' -

-.', '' ' --.,


': I did not fail to commend these
things as they deserved; he is an expert watchmaker and greatly recommended.
applaud compliment


==273

(. . ): we applaud

your decision; to compliment a lady on her appearance.


:
( ), . ,
.
, . beat, pummel, thrash, buffet ''
- (, ) , pummel
, thrash , , buffet
.
defend, protect, shield, guard, safeguard ", '


: to defend oneself with a stick, the fortress is protected with walls, to shield one's eyes

with one's hand. ,


, : to guard a fortress, to
safeguard children who play in the street.
, . lean, spare, gaunt ', , '

, : lean,
good-looking young men, he had an excessively long and lean brown face. Spare
, ,
(. , ): he was slight and spare. ,
gaunt , ,
: a gaunt old man, his gaunt, weatherbeaten features pinched with cold and fatigue.
Try, torment, torture ''

: the great heat of the sun tries his body, rheumatism tries me a good deal; the horses
are tormented /tortured/ by flies, headaches [suspicions] tormented him.
rack , ,
: his body was racked with pain, to be racked with doubts [jealousy].
Co . Intimidate cow ''

, , .
Intimidate ,
, : to intimidate workers by the
threat of discharge; her deficiences in this subject intimidated her. Cow
, :
the population of the colony was thoroughly cowed.

==274
II.
. Examine inspect ' ,
-. '. Examine
(he examined the passersby, then with the same lack of intensity he
examined his fingers), (he raised his eyes to examine her face very
carefully; the jury examined the cups closely). inspect
, , ,
: to inspect each car [the pearl under magnification, the fire-prevention
system of the plant], to inspect every length of cloth for defects.
Sharp '' (sharp knife [blade, needle]),
, (the sharp edge of a table, sharp elbow, sharp
icicles). keen ,
, : the keen edge of a knife, a keen razor,
*the keen edge of a mountain.
.
, , , swing, wave, flourish, brandish

', '. ,
. Swing : to swing a scythe in
mowing, to swing the pump-handle [the hammock], to swing one's arms to circulate the blood, to
swing one's arms [one's stick] in walking. Wave
,
(, , ), ,
(, , . .): to wave flags,
the excited men waved and shouted to them, he waved his hand in return, to wave (to) the man to
go on, to wave smb. aside [away]. Flourish '
-. , , ': " flourished the certificate in Andrew's face"
(Cronin), the deer flourished his first antler and was very proud of it.
brandish : to brandish a sword [a club, a stick,
a revolver], "They began to shout and brandish their fists" (Winsor).
. Pain, ache, twinge, stitch ' '. Pain

, ,
,
: she felt a sharp pain in her back [the knee, the chest], he felt pain when the needle
touched bis skin. Ache ,
: a dull ache in one's bones, the racking ache seemed continually an
element of her being, muscular aches. twinge
, , , : a twinge
of gout [of rheumatism].


==275

, stitch ,

, : a stitch in the side.


. Associate, pal comrade ', '
;
, ( ,
. .). Companion . Crony
, ,
, : his cronies at Harrow.
, . ponder, meditate, muse . . '' ponder

,
(. ): to ponder the situation [the mystery, the problem of how she could
help him], the government should ponder well whether the prize would be worth the cost.
Meditate ,
: to meditate on the
nature of happiness [on holy things, on the hypocrisy and spiritual stagnation of the High Church
party]. , muse ,
,
: to muse on the happy events of
one's childhood; where Elisabeth hesitated, mused, suffered, Fanny acted; up till then he had
been musing but now he woke up with a start.

Pain ' '

: she felt a sharp


[dull] pain. Ache , pang ,
(I feel a sharp pang if I touch an aching tooth . ), a
throe , ,
, : the throes and grippings of the belly.
. Expert , skilful: skilful surgeon
' ', expert surgeon ' '.
surprise '', astonish '', amaze ''; cool
'', cold '', frosty '', icy ''.

. ,
, , , , . .
, . summon II, call, muster

' (, ,
) ,

==276
II.
' (. , , , ) muster , summon call.
, , , ,
, : she resolved to summon (up) her courage to
refuse him; you'd better call (up) your pluck and resolution before starting the conversation. muster (up) ,
, ( , ,
), , ,
; , , ,
summon call: it seemed as though she could not muster enough strength to move again; they could see the effort with which she mustered up her
self-command.
[] . loving affectionate ''
: let us continue to be a loving and united family. Affectionate
, , ,
: she was gay and sweet and affectionate, an affectionate brother [child], you are much too
affectionate to me.
afraid, aghast ,
, ,
. . ( . ).
() (). Afraid '' (to be afraid of the dark [of snakes]),
( ) (he was afraid to fall, don't be afraid), a aghast ' '
: the door opened, and a big dog ran in; the girl stood aghast.
honest upright '' honest (he is an honest man) (be honest about it), a upright (.
he was an upright man, *be upright about it).
-. crass, dull, dense . . ''
, : "crass minds
whose reflexive scales could only weigh things in a lump"

==277

(Webster). Dull dense ', ,

', . .
: a dull pupil, it is difficult to explain even
elementary arithmetic to a dull child; a particularly dense group of students.
quick-witted, smart bright

', , '.
,
: he was quick-witted /smart/ enough to see the danger and change the
subject. bright ,
,
: a bright boy [pupil, student].
-. Awkward clumsy ', '

: awkward ,
: he is an awkward dancer, awkward in gait
[in gestures, in manners], some animals are awkward on land, but very clever in the water.
, clumsy, ,
: ,
: he was rather heavy and clumsy, clumsy in shape and
build.
-. Passionate ''

, : a
passionate nature, he was hot-blooded and passionate. ardent ''
,
- -
: an ardent stamp-collector [theatregoer, globe trotter], an ardent follower of an idea
[advocate of a principle].
. Thoughtful

, ,
,
: the thoughtful girl undertook the house-cleaning for her sick aunt, "Leaving me to
gather the sticks... Not very thoughtful of you" (Cronin). Considerate ,
, ,
: he was too considerate to let her see his distress at her sickly
look; to be considerate to smb. in his grief.
-. gather, collect, assemble ' -.
' gather : he soon gathered a crowd around himself

==278
II.

, , , ,
, . Collect

(to collect the flock [the pupils, the group for a


lecture]), a assemble ,

(to assemble the committee [the government]).
Stop cease '' ,

: to stop /to cease/ stroking the dog [trembling]. quit,


discontinue desist : to quit
laughing [talking], to discontinue a subscription [payment, systematic training], to desist from
one's occupation [from one's intention to write to a friend].
, remember '',

: he remembers every detail of that occurrence, he suddenly


remembered an appointment I can't remember his name, I tried to remember his name but
gave it up. , recollect,
: recollect where you were on the night of June 17.
,
,
. ,
(, ) , .

, . 246.
, , : "Caesar: Are you trembling? Cleopatra (shivering with dread):

No, I I ..No" (B. Shaw, "Caesar and Cleopatra") tremble ( ,


, ) shiver
( ,
) . ,

( , . 284
290).
,
,
.
,


==279

: " never had an ache or a pain, ate his food with gusto and ruled his brothers with a rod
of iron" (Th. Dreiser "The Financier"). "M alone: ..My father died of starvation in Ireland, in the
black 47. Maybe you've heard of it. Violet: The Famine? Malone (with smouldering passion):
No, the starvation. When a 'country is full of food, and exporting it, there can be no famine" (W.
Collins, "The Moonstone").

)
2.2, , ,

. ,
,
.
Vehement ' ' intense

,
: intense heat ' ', vehement heat =
" ' ( intense cold vehement cold, intense pain vehement
pain), intense red ^ ' ', vehement red gg '
'. , , , intense
, :
the letter was of intense significance, *the letter was of vehement significance,
5.
Stir, flurry, fuss, ado ,

(. , , ).
, , ,
5
, , .
, , ( , ,
, ,
, , ), .
, , ( :
).


==280
II.

.
Sharp keen '
' (. , , , , , , ,
. .). Sharp :
,
: a sharp voice [whisper, cry,
yelp] ' [, , ]', a sharp flash of lightning '
', sharp wind ' '. Keen ,
- ,
, : keen savour of the roast-beef, the wind came keen with a
tang of frost.
)

Jump, leap, spring, bound, skip, hop ' '

: jump . Leap
, , ,
: to leap into the saddle, the chamois was leaping from crag to crag, I love to watch a
dancer leap. Spring , , bound
, bound :
to spring across the stream, the cat sprang upon the bird, to spring onto a moving train, she
sprang to her feet and bounded across the intervening space like a tiger. Skip hop,
,
, , . Skip ,
, , : to skip along the road
[out of the way], to skip upstairs two at a time. Hop '
, , ,
'; , , : the kids chalked out a
/-skotch game and began to hop around its squares, the sparrows hopped nearer, how far can
you hop on your right leg?, he hopped on one leg and then the other to shake the water out of his
ears.
Tickle regale ' '
,
: tickle ( '')
, , regale (
'') : the joke will
really tickle you; to regale smb. with one's story; when in humour, he would regale her with the
choicer gossip of the town.


==281
Naked, bare ', ',
, , , . ,
: (naked woman), , (naked children playing on
the heaps of rubbish), , (a charming naked baby, a perfectly shaped naked body).
imagination, fancy, fantasy , , ,
, ,
, .
imagination, , fancy, fantasy, ,
. ( ), imagination
,
: a job that requires imagination; poets, artists, and inventors need imagination; "it's only through imagination that men
become aware of what the world might be" (Russell); he is a man of no imagination. ( ,
), fancy, fantasy, , , : he had believed
implicitly in the smiling future his imagination has wrought; she has a powerful imagination and systematically thinks the worst of everyone. ,
, fancy fantasy,
.

)
Stoop, condescend ' ,

' (. , ). stoop
( ),
condescend (
): to stoop to stealing [to cheating, to meanness, to begging], to stoop to lies; to
condescend to trickery; he said he would never condescend to their society.

Hard, difficult ', - ,

'. hard
: we have a hard lesson to learn; chopping wood is a hard job; it's a hard thing to fulfil
the plan ahead of

==282
II.

time. Difficult ,
: she came across a difficult passage in translation, he
is a difficult writer, it was a difficult problem for a pupil of the fourth class, designing a sputnik is
a difficult task.
Sparing frugal ' ', ',
'. Sparing : he is sparing enough and
never runs into debt. frugal ,
,
: with fifteen shillings a week and a family he had to be frugal (
, ).
Guard safeguard , 2.4.1) ),
, .
. guard (. , )

: the entrances are well guarded, the president is always guarded by secret
service men. safeguard ,
,
, : to safeguard
our health ' ', to safeguard one's country from a surprise
attack ' ', to safeguard children who play in the
street ' , '.
, , , ,
. , ,
.
2.4.2
, :
.
.
)
2:
. , , ,
.
(, , -


==283

. . 259 267268), - .
. ,
, ,
, .
, , , . sharp,

keen, acute ' ' (


, . ) ,
. ,
; sharp
(sharp eyes [sight, hearing], keen
(keen eyes, a keen sense of smell), a acute
(acute hearing); acute eyesight, acute sense of smell .
,
. ,
, (.
), (. calling vocation '': to

make one's choice of a calling /of a vocation/, to mistake one's calling /one's vocation/,
(. healthy . healthful '
': healthy /healthful/ diet [exercise]),
(. damn, bit, snap . . I don't care a damn /a bit, a snap/
about it), (. far-off far-away
'': far-off/far-away/ hills [sounds]).
,
.
,
, ()
. Anger, wrath, rage fury

', ' : ^ (wrath ,


anger, a rage fury , wrath); 2) ,
( , wrath, ,
rage fury); 3) (anger ,
wrath -

==284
II.

, a rage fury
). , the anger of the sea, the

math of elements, the jury /rage/ of the storm,


. ,
; ,
anger, wrath, rage fury ,
, a rage /, -, .
. Hunger thirst ",

', ''
' ' ,
- : to hunger /to thirst/ for
knowledge [for information], to hunger for friends, to thirst for peace, to hunger /to thirst/ for
power [for wealth, for revenge].
Hard difficult ' ' (

, , . .): hard cough, difficult breathing, hard /difficult/ birth


[death]. . hard difficult,
(. . 281282).
Large big : larde /big/ profit [number, score, price].

large
(a large basket [man, field], a big
(a big stone).
Summon (up) call (up) '
': to summon up one's energy [one's courage, one's wits, one's selfcommand], to call up all one's pluck [one's wits, one's resolution, one's dignity].
6)
,
, ,
: .
, '', , -
, (),
, .
, :
, ,
, , . . .


==285
. Ci '', (,
Ci) . , ,
''. CiCa '' , 2 .
, ) , , ,
Ci - ''. .
Stay ' -' remain : stay
, remain : to stay to dinner [to supper], I can
stay here for about an hour; we remained there much longer than we expected. remain , stay, ,
- , : few remained in the building after the alarm was given; he
remained behind. , (, ,
decide, intend, wish, try . .) , stay

remain , : he stayed to learn the doctor's verdict, he remained on the platform to wave a farewell to
his friends; we decided [intended] to stay /to remain/ in the hotel till the end of the month; I had to stay /to remain/ at home till I felt better.
Remember, recollect, recall '' : 1) - (remember
, , a recollect recall ; , , no one remembers the
exact number of casuaties recollect recall ); 2) ( recollect
recall , remember ); 3) ( recall , recollect ,
remember ). , , ,
, : try to remember /to recollect, to
recall/ his exact words [where you were on the night of June 17].
, stay remain, remember recollect recall ( ) ,
, , ,
.

==286
II.


.
, . stay
remain remember recollect recall, ,
, ,
:
. : remember, recollect
recall
. , ,
.
support uphold ''. to support
the principle [the demand, the decision] , [,
]
, , , []
. to uphold the principle [the demand, the
decision] , [, ]
. uphold
, ,
, support uphold : he could not support /uphold/ their
behaviour. ,
uphold, support, .
, , '' ''
'', '' .
, ,
: , , ,
. ,
, ,
.
, .
,
, : , ,
.

, ,
,
. Odd, queer quaint

'


==287

', : odd ,
: an odd fellow [laugh]; the old man
and the boy have formed an odd friendship; the odd thing was that he was happy through all that
hard year. Queer , ,
: queer character /bird/; queer aches in his body; it's
queer that he's made a lot of money lately he is not very clever at business. Quaint, ,
, ,
- ^ quaint old castle; there are many
quaint nooks and corners in this town; she was a quaint kind old woman; "the quaintest and
simplest and trustingest race" (Twain).
: it was an odd /queer, quaint/
way to look at things; he had an odd /queer, quaint/ habit of using phrases of hers.
hard difficult, ,
2.4.1) ), : it's a hard /difficult/
problem [book, language].

. stupid I, dull

' ' ( ,
, , . .) ,
. Dull
( ),
, . dull persistency [apathy],
dull face [look].
, ,
.
it was stupid /dull/ of her to invite so many guests; how stupid /dull/ of you
to expect his coming!
,
,
.
Want '', wish, , ,

: "...the young
Forsyte meant having what she wanted" (Galsworthy); they wanted only truth, justice.
want
(. ).
, wish,
, ,

==288
II.

, (.
): he wished to be alone; eagerly, I wished for tomorrow. , wish

, ,

: I wish I were a Gipsy; I wish the week were over. wish
want , : want

. ,
(Accusativus cum Infinitive), want wish
(
),
( ): "She was
ambitious for me. She wanted me to rise in the world" (Anderson); I want you to come for the
afternoon next Sunday; do you wish me to see him about it?; "Now, with this visit in prospect he
wished her to accompany him" (Cronin).
Grateful thankful ''
: grateful , a thankful
(. . 262).
: grateful ,
, (grateful to smb.) (grateful for
smth.). Thankful , :
, , ,
, ( ) ,
: I am thankful that he is no worse [that there were no
casualties] ( , grateful).
thankful to be thankful for smth., to be thankful to
smb., to be thankful to smb. for smth.
grateful thankful ,
: I'm grateful /thankful/ to you (for help), I'm grateful /thankful/ for all you
have done for me.
, .

Apt liable ', ',


: apt
, . . , ,
: idle children are apt to get into mischief, he is
apt to lose his head under stress, china cups are apt to break, dry wood is apt to take fire.
liable ,

==289

: he is liable to be punished [to be killed], he is liable to encounter

difficulties. , (
) , apt liable
: this car is apt to skid ( ) cars
are liable to skid on wet roads ( , ).
, :
, apt liable ,
, , : snow is apt /liable/ to fall in these
parts as early as September, difficulties are apt /liable/ to occur.
leave, abandon, desert ' -., -.', ''

leave : his fear left him, her assumed bossy manner left her.
, , leave, , ,
, : his gaiety [his selfcontrol]
abandoned /deserted/ him.
, , ,
(. ). leave, abandon desert
, ,
. leave, , abandon
desert, , : his eyes never left /abandoned,
deserted/ her face.
. Doubtful

dubious ',
-.' (. , ). doubtful
, , - ,
. .,
, ,
. .: he was doubtful about the outcome of this project [of the prospects of the
rebellion]; "He was more than ever doubtful whether the battery would last him home" (Greene).
Dubious doubtful (
, ), :
dubious , ,
: I'm dubious about his stories of early success,
I'm dubious of his honesty. ,
,
, : I'm doubtful /dubious/ about
what I ought to do.
John was doubtful /dubious/ about his ability to cope with the situation: 10 3


==290
II.

John his (

), doubtful dubious
; John his ( ),
.
2.4.3
: ()
(, , )
, . .
; ) ,
, /
, . , ()
,
().
,
, .
.
, , :
(, ) (, ).
,
, , . .;
, ,
, ,
. . ,
.
)
Calculate, compute, reckon, estimate ', , '

1) , 2) , 3)
. Calculate

,
, ,
, : to calculate the


==291

velocity of light [the speed of a rocket, the cost of furnishing a house, the purchasing power of eighty cents for a
dinner]. Compute reckon calculate

, , ,
: to compute /to reckon/ the number of women in
American colleges. , , (compute) ,
, (, ,
. .) ; (calculate)
,
, ,
, . . , compute

reckon, calculate ,
, , reckon
, : to
reckon (up) the bill, to reckon the number of people present. Estimate
, ,
.
Discuss, argue, debate, dispute ', ' 1)

(,
, ,
); 2) (
); 3)
( , ). argue,
dispute debate discuss,

- . discuss argue,
, debate,
, dispute,
. , debate dispute
, -, : debate
(,
), ; dispute
,
.
)
Sullen, morose, sulky, surly, glum, gloomy ', '

: 1)
*

==292
II
, 2) ( ), , 3)
. sullen morose ,
, : he was a sullen /a morose/ man, suddenly he grew sullen /morose/.
. Sullen morose , sullen
, , a morose
, , : "Sheridan was generally very dull in society and sat sullen and silent" (Webster), one must be very
cold-blooded and morose not to like this book. Sulky surly glum gloomy ,
-, , glum gloomy,
, , . sulky surly ,
. sulky ,
surly , he turned sulky and did not answer the question '
', the surly maid shut the door in my face ' '.
glum gloomy (. ): glum ()
, , gloomy : you sit there as glum as the mutes at a funeral; he was gloomy all these days
because he didn't see a gleam of hope.
Sly, cunning, crafty, artful, tricky, foxy, wily ', ' ( ,
, , ). Sly cunning , , ,
. , ,
, : it was not intelligence, but a low kind of cunning /slyness/. Crafty

artful, , , ,
, . Foxy wily
. '' '', '' '
'. Tricky , -


==293

, : "Fear a tricky opponent more than a


crafty one" (Webster). sly-cunning ,
,
, :
women are sly and catty and wanting to get their own back. Cunning, ,
, : he was very cunning in dealing
with his customers. crafty-artful
, . .: crafty man of affairs [moneychanger];
being artful she cajoled him with honey-mouthed flattery. foxywily
,
, ; foxy
: he is a foxy old man. Wily foxy
, sly cunning,
, : a wily fox! we never knew what a
rascal he was.
polite, civil, courteous, courty, gallant, chivalrous ', ,

' . Polite , , civil


,
. polite ,
: she was always polite to servants; he was too polite to ask such questions. Civil
,
: he forced his son to be civil to the stranger; the servant was sullen, but civil.
Courteous courtly
, , .
courteous ,
: the young man was quite courteous and helpful; he was so charming and courteous to
the old lady. Courtly ,
, ,

: a courtly and stately old gentleman '
'. Gallant chivalrous ,
. gallant
, ,
: trying to be gallant, he bowed. Chivalrous (. )
, : he was kind
and chivalrous to women of all ages, he felt strangely chivalrous and paternal to her.

==294

II.

2.5
, , , ,
, (
), .
desire desire, wish, want . .: to desire

smb. to do smth. ' ' (he desired me to stay in a peremptory tone)


. : love, affection,
attachment ', , ' ,
, ' ': love at first sight, to
fall in [out of] love.
, , .
, , . ,
, , .
.
, .
,
,
.
angry, indignant, wrathful, irate, furious, acrimonious, mad ' ,

' angry, wrathful furious.


'', '' ( ),
() ; . an angry /a
wrathful/ sea, a furious storm.
,
. , support I, uphold, advocate, back (up), champion '',

' -.' support back (up) ,


: 1) ' -.',
. he could not find any arguments to support /to back/ his story; 2) '
-.', . this information supports the suspicion, the bills will not be
discounted unless they are backed by responsible names.
, , ,
.


==295

2.6
,
. , .
, ;
.
, , , , , -
,
.
.

, .
it , .
try, torment, torture, afflict rack '' it,
, : it tried /tormented, tortured/ him to think that, *it afflicted /racked/
him to think that. hard, difficult '', , arduous, : it was hard /difficult/ to
climb up the steep slope , a *it was arduous to climb up the steep slope .
Condescend deign '' , deign , ,
, ( hardly
scarcely): to deign no reply, I do not [will not] deign to reply to such impertinence, will you deign to answer my question?, he hardly /scarcely/ deigned a
comment. Condescend : he condescended to his younger brother [to the suggestion, to accept the
message], to condescend no answer, will you condescend to answer my question? . . abstain ' -.',
, resist, withstand ' -.', : he abstained from drinking I can't resist a cigarette, I
could harly resist a cigarette, the curiosity that I could scarcely withstand, human nature could not withstand those bewildering temptations, will you be
able to resist /to withstand/ such a temptation?
budge stir '': budge
: 'he did not budge, he could hardly budge'.

==296
II.

,
. -, stir budge, condescend deign, abstain withstand

.
,
, .
budge, , : budge = ';
, ,
*. *he budged
,
, . . , , , .
, .
: 1) ,
2) , .
, ,
.

. pleasure, joy, delight ', '

with (with pleasure, with joy, with delight), delight


in: to jump in delight, *to jump in pleasure /in
joy/. Rest ease '', comfort,
at: my mind is at rest /at ease/ (about it), *my mind is at
comfort (about it).
( )
( ). affectionate, devoted, fond, doting . .

, , a doting
: an affectionate /devoted, fond, doting/ mother, she is
affectionate [devoted to me, fond of him]; she is doting on her daughter
, doting , .

watchful, vigilant,
alert wide-awake ' ':
, ,
, : to be watchful /vigilant/ of /against/ danger
[the enemy], to be alert /wide-awake/ for /to/ a new adventure, a watchful /vigilant/
sentinel, *an alert /wide-awake/ sentinel.
, ,
,


==297
.
.
, , bare, naked nude. , bare
, naked , ,
, , nude
. bare naked to smth.,
, a nude : bare /naked/ to the waist, "nude to the waist.
wave '', swing flourish, ,

, ,
(
). wave to wave
to smb. ( ), to wave (to) smb. to do smth., to wave smb.
to smth. (, to silence), to wave smb. away [on, aside,...] (
). Swing flourish, ,
, , .
,
(. stir budge . 295).

.
, , leap ', ' ,
(to leap over a fence to leap a fence), spring
(to spring over a fence); attain ''
, (to attain success [glory], to attain to power [to
prosperity]), gain (to gain success [glory]).
.
,
,
.
, ,
, : ,
. wave smb., to smb.

(
, , , , , , ,

, , , , . ., . . ,
);
(smb.) (to smb.) ; ,

==298
II.

() to ().
, ,
( , ),
(,
, ), (
), .

, , , . .
discuss, argue, debate, dispute ()

().
: to discuss /to argue, to debate, to
dispute/ a point. argue debate
(up)on, about, over round: to argue /to
debate/ on art, to argue /to debate/ about /over/ religion, to argue /to debate/ round the topic.
dispute about /over/
smth., on smth. (to dispute about /over/ religion), discuss debate
(to discuss /to debate/ how to do it).
Beg, entreat, beseech, implore, supplicate, adjure, conjure ', , '

.
.
,
: to beg /to entreat, to beseech,.../ smb. to listen [that he should grant permission],
"Help me", he begged /entreated, beseeched,.../. , adjure
conjure, for smth.:
to beg /to entreat, to beseech,..., *to adjure, *to conjure/ smb. for a loan.
;
beg entreat, ,
of smb. : to beg /to entreat, to
beseech, to implore,.../ smb.'s help [smb.'s protection], to beg /to entreat/ leave of
smb.
Commend, applaud compliment '' ,

;
for smth., on smth.: to commend /to applaud/ smb. for his
performance, to compliment smb. on his presence of mind. Commend applaud
-


==299
, compliment: to commend /to applaud, *to compliment/
smb.'s presence of mind.
Companion, comrade pal ", ' to smb., ,
crony buddy associate: he was a good companion /comrade, pal/ to me.
Hard difficult '', arduous, , : the lesson was hard
/difficult/ to learn, *the lesson was arduous to learn.
Appear, emerge '' from smth., : to appear from nowhere, he
emerged from the side door of the house. Appear, , , ,
emerge: to appear in the doorway [on the threshold], the city appeared beyond it.
.
love '',
: for smb. ( , , love for children) of smth. ( , . ., ,
love of one's country). attachment, love, (,
) to smb. [to smth.]: attachment to one's daughter [to one's home]. attachment for smb. ,
.
attentive, considerate, thoughtful ', '
. attentive to, thoughtful of,
, : attentive to a friend [to smb.'s needs], thoughtful of other people [of his son's well-being].
considerate, to smb., , of smth.,
: considerate to old people, considerate of the comfort of old people.
Discuss, argue, debate dispute, , .
. ,
argue, debate dispute ; , discuss,
, -


==300
II.
: to discuss the people who attended the funeral; we are discussing you, not mankind in the abstract.

2.7
,
.
,
. doubtful dubious '' ,
, to feel, to look, to seem, to sound, , , to turn out. even after they had been assured that there
was no danger, they looked [felt, seemed, sounded] doubtful /dubious/, *he turned out doubtful /dubious/ about it. ,
doubtful dubious ,
.
, ,
, . escape, flee, fly, abscond, decamp ''
, : , : his best
two dogs escaped from the camp, the dog fled into the forest. abscond decamp .

. reach, achieve, gain,


attain ''. ,
: to reach /to achieve, to gain, to attain/ one's aim [the object of one's desires, success, fame, glory], to reach an understanding [an
agreement], to achieve a reputation for being rude, to achieve the realization of a dream, to gain /to attain/ the attention of the clerk [the confidence of the
mountain people]. , gain attain reach achieve:
*to reach /*to achieve/ the attention of the clerk [the confidence of the mountain people] ( ).
attention confidence, gain attain,
reach achieve, : ,
attention confidence, , gain attain: ,
, -


==301
- . gain attain ,
(, ), : to gain /to attain/ one's aim [success, glory]
, gain /attain/ .
reach achieve: ,
.
condescend deign '':
, condescend (he condescended to smile), ,
condescend (to condescend to smb.'s folly). deign
: he didn't deign to smile, *he didn't deign to their folly.
, , .
, , surprise '' amaze, astound ', '. , ,
. , surprise (he was a
little [not a little, very much] surprised, he was surprised out of all measure), a amaze astound ,
, : he was amazed /astounded/ to such a degree that he could hardly talk.
, , ''he was a tiny bit amazed, ^e was a little astounded. :
amaze astound , , ,
'', ''.
Concern solicitude '' '' , - ,
- . , ,
, (deep /profound/ concern /solicitude/), ,
: to feel concern /solicitude/, to express profound concern, to manifest /to show/ solicitude.
.
.

==302
II.

, , , cold cool '

'.
: I sat in the armchair feeling sick and cold; I'm perfectly cool, but
open the window if you like. cold
: his fingers [toes] felt cold, his
fingers [toes] felt cool ( '
'), ( : '
').

,
.
(,
, , , , , , . .),
.

, ,
.
.
, :
.
Reach, achieve, gain, attain ''

. reach achieve, gain attain,


, , , ,
: his words reached /achieved/ their aim /their object/, his determined
perseverance reached its aim, *his words gained /attained/ their aim.
, .
, * .
Reach, gain attain ''

- : they couldn't
reach /gain, attain/ the opposite shore. Reach , ,
: the boat reached the shore,
the train reaches Oxford at six.
Gather '' assemble congregate ,
assemble congregate ( )
, gather , . the clouds
are gathering, it will rain.


==303

Ponder, meditate ruminate '' , ,

() : to ponder /to meditate/ upon the


course of actions; to ruminate over the past; to ponder /to meditate, to ruminate/ the point.
ponder meditate ,
ruminate: to ponder on modern young men, he meditated on all those
people and the things they represented in his life.
Depress, oppress weigh down (upon) '' , ,

. . : a feeling of isolation depressed


/oppressed/ her, she was oppressed by fear, oppressed /weighed down/ by the heat. ,
depress oppress ,
weigh down (upon): the dim room depressed /oppressed/ her, she
depressed me.

2.8
, ,
: -, ,
; -, ,

.
, -
, ,
. . ,

, , , ,
, .
(, )
, , , ,
.
, ,
, XIX XX .
, ;
, .

==304
II.

3.
,
. , ,
, , .
, . . , ,
, ,
, .

==305

00.htm - glava18

1
,
2.

1.
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, ,

: ) , ; .
( <> ); ( <>
); ( >); (
<> ); ( < ,
, < > , < >); (
, , ); (
).
) , , ( ), ( ) . .; 1
, (), 2 (), 3 ().
,
. . () <> / <>), 1 () ,
2 () , () ; <> -.
<> -. . . -

==306
II.

, , ,
[] (. , ).
) - , , "" "
", " , " "
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( ) - ( ), (
) ( ). -
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, , . .
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,
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. .
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.
, , ,
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, , , , , , ,
, . , , :
- ;
;


==307

- , ;
;
-
; (
);
.
,
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, .
. ',
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, ,
.
1.2.
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. .
, .

. : )
(., ., . . .); ) (., ., , . .); )
(., ., . . .); ) ,
(., ., ., ., ., . . .); )
(., ., ., ., ., ., , . .); ) (., ., ., .,
. . .); ) (., ., . . .).

==308
II.

.
".", "." "." "."
".".
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.

; ;
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, , , , , , . .
(. . ), , , . . [ , ] (. . ) .
.
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. .
( . , . .).
, .
,
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; -,
.
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, ,
/ . ,
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,
. . -
.
".". ,
,
, .
- - ( .
. ) , -. "."
,
.


==309

".", ,
.
, (. ) (. ).
.
,
, ".".
. .
.
, .
, XIX
; . (. . , MAC),

[] ,
(. . , ).
"": ) ,
. . <>
?nopou ; ,
^ <>, ^ <>.

, ,
.
, <, >, ,
?nopou <>; ) ;
, * , ?nopou , ; )
, ; .
; ) ,
, ; . .
" ": - ;
; , , , , , , -
?
".". ,
. , , ,
; . , . / ,
(. , ).
, ,
" ".


==310
II.
".". , ,
. , :
, , , , .
"." , ".".
. ,
. . [ ], [ ], [ ].

1.3.
, .
, , , , ,
, . . , ,
, ; () , ,
, ; , , , , ,
. , , . . 2
: 2, , ; , , ;
, , , ; , , , .
. ,
.
1) , , . .
. 1, ,
, , , 2, , ,
. . <> < >,
<> < >.
( -
) .


==311

, (, , )
. ., , : 1 = ' (
-., -. . .)', 2 = ', .'();
1 = ', -; - , -
', 2 = ', , - ' ().
, 1994,
. 1 = '
-. - ,
,
'. 2 = ' ,
, '.
,
.
2) , (.
, , ), "
".

2.
(
, , , , )
,
, .
(. . ),
( )
.
2.1.
, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
-

==312
II.

,
. ,
.
.
, , .
: 1) , (
, , , ;

,
); 2) (
, , ,
); 3)
( , . . , ,
); 4) (

,
); 5) ( ,
); 6)
(.
); 7) (
,
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( ).
, , .
: 1)
( , ); 2)
(), (),
(), (); 3) ,
(
, ); 4)
( , ); 5)

( ,
, ); 6) -


==313
( , ); 7) ,
( ).

2.2.
, ,
, .
, . , ,
, . , ,
, (
,
). ,
, 3.
.
, . ,
.
.
. , .
,
.
. , , , , ,
, .
, . , . .
, .

, , . : ()
; () ; () ,
- (-

==314
II.

-) , ; ()
.
(), () ()
.
, , ,
.
- , ,
.
, ,
. .
,
4.
, .
.
. , ,
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.
,
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.
,

.
, .
,
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. . , ,
-


==315

. ,
, , , , ,
, , , . . .
, ,
, . ,
, .
, , .
, , , . . ,
, , <, >, .
, , , (, )
, . ,
,
.
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,
, . .
<, >, ?0 <, >. , .
( )
. , , . .,
, , :
! ! . <, >.
, , . . .
, ; .
,

==316
II.

, . ,
; . []
[]. ,
, , , , .
, , . . , ,
.
; . []
[].
,
.
, , , , . .
, 1990: 82
. .
, ,
: <> .
, : ,
. .
.
- , -
. , ,
- .
^ ; . . ,

, . . - ,
, .
,

: ' , ' ( , ,
).
,
.
: )
; ) , .
(
), .
(
, . .),
: .


==317

, ', ',

. ( )
,
. (
) : ,
, ,
. ,
.

, .
, - ,
- ; .
.
, , ,
. . ( ,
, ) ( ); ( )
( ); ( - , ,
) ( ).
.
, , .
2.3.
(., , 1992)
. , , ,
, , (= '')
, , , ,
. ,
, , ( ,
) .

,
.
,
, . . ,
(.); !; ,

==318
II.

, , , , ,

(. , ); . ,
, (.
, -). , ,
, . . [, ]
, , (. . ,
); , ,
! (. , );
, [] (. , );
(. ,
).
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
; . -?;
; . , ,
(. , ).
( , )
. - ,
, : ) :
; , , (.
, ); ) ,
: < > , ; )
, , , , ,
, : ,
; (.
, ); - ;
, ;
, / / (. , ,
). ,
.

==319
.
1 ( ) 4'
( ).
, -
. , ,
.
, (
). , ,
.

, , .
: ,
, -; .
( . 4.3).
,
: . ,
, .
,
- ( , ).
2.4.
1.2, : '
X, - ,
'. ,
<, , >, .
1.2,
,
.
, ,
(). . .
, ,
.


==320
II.
. ,
.
,
. ,
.
, , ,
, .

, , , ,
.
,
, , . ,
, - , , .
2.5.
, ,
, .
.
,
, . ,
-, , .
, ,
,
. . - , . : .
(. , );
(. , ); [ ]
(. , ); []
, [] , (.
, ).
, , , .
,
. , .
. () ,
() , -


==321
. . ( , , )
, ( , , ).
, . .
, (. 1992. N 29); . ,
(. 19.11.92).
, , .
. . . 11- (. , ).
.
, .
, , ,
: <>7; ,
, <> .
.
. , , , -
, : ;
! , (. , ); ,
, , , ,
(. , ).
, ,
, , .
, , , :
<> .

2.6.
,
: ) ,
11 3fiSfi

==322
II.
(
, . .); )
, ; ) ,
, . .
, , , . .
.
1. XIX XX
2, 1.3 : , ,
(. . , ); []
[] , (. , );
[ }
(. , ); ,
, (3. , );
, , , / , (. . ); ,
[. ] , (. ,
).

3.2 -.
< >; . , .
. . - - ,
(. 1992. N 3).
2. ',
-.', -.: .
, ? , .
3. , ,
, , . . . .
, , , ,
- , - (. ,
); , ?; ,
(. , ).
, , , , ,
.
1. XIX XX . ; .


==323

, (. . -, );

, (.
. , ).
( () )
, ' ,
X'; . , !;
, [.]; , :
, ! (. , );
", ? .
" (. , ).
2. ,
: ' ': . <> ,
: ? , (. ,
).
: ? = ?
, : ' ,
, ,
': ;
; [] ,
, , , , (. , ). (-.)
-. ,
. . ' , , ,
, ' 2', , . .
. . , ,
, .
, - ,
(. , ).
, , , , ,
, , ; . " , ",
<> . '' ''; .
...? ! (. .
, ), .

==324
II.

3. , ,
: ' -. '. .
, (., ).

3.

(),
, , , , ,
, , ,
.
. .
3.1.
( ) , ,
( , , , ), , , , .
,
, .
, . . ,
( , , ); ,
(, , ); ,
(, , ).
, , , , ,
, , .
.
: , , ;
.
, , :
; ?; , ,
--- (. , ).
, , ; .
'
.
, (
. -


==325

3.4). , , ,
; . , ; ,
(. , );
, (. , ).
3.2.
, , ,
.
, , , ,
.

: , / /
? (. . , 1816 ); , - [}
, , . , ,
(. , ). -

: ,
.
, ,
- .
3.3. , , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , , , , ,
,
. . .
.
( ),
. ' , ; , ';
, < > ' ,
[], ,

==326
II.
< >'. . ,
, (. , Fondamenta degli incurabili).
,

' ' : ,
, , , (. ,
MAC).

. . ,
~ ' '
, ~ ' , ,
'. . , ,
[. . ]
150 ! (. , ).
,
, , , 1-, ,
: 1) ; . , , -
(. , ); ,
, , , (. ,
);
(. . , ); 2) , , , 1-; .
; . , ,
3) (.
) 4) (.
; ,
).

( )
:
, . ., :
<> ?

. ( XIX XX )
, ,
, . .
?


==327
. (. , ).
, , , . ,
, , : ,
, , .
'' ,
. "" ,
, , , : ?;
, . ' .
, , ;
. .
1 , :
''. . , ; , .
, , ; .
, (, ) ,
(, ). ()
(. , , <> . .), ,
; .
, ,
, . 1982: 131-132.

3.4.
, ,
,
. , () ( , . .)
. .
,
. . ? . , -

==328
II.

; ? . .

,
, .

, , .
: <>
, .
, , .
5 .

4.
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, , , , ,
, .
4.1.
. .
, .
'. <, , >
.
, .
, , .
, --. -.,
:
; - ,
(. 12.06.84); ,
, - , , ,
(. , ).


==329
,
( , , ,
, , . .): < , > ;
, . ,
, , , ; .
< , >.
, , .
.
( --. --., --. --.),
<> -. --.

.
, , , ,
. , ,
, , , (
, 1-) . .; . [ , ]; , (. .
, ); , . / (. , ).
, . .
; . .

, ,
. ) ( -. < >); )
, ( < ,
>, ); ) , ( . < , >); ) ( ).


==330
II.

4.2.
,
"" , .
, , , , ,

. ^ < > , "
. . .

: . .
; .
= ' ' - ' '.
, - ,
.
,
. .: , .
,
.
'' :
, - . , ,
; . ' ,
.
,
: , , ; , ,
; , , ; ,
(. , ).
: ,
, ;
, , , ,
, , (. , ).
: ^ , , .

1 - 2-: ,


==331

; , <>, ?
, 2-, .
; . ' ,
, ; ' , , ; ',
.
4.3.
, , . .
: , ,
.
.
- , , , , , . .
, FUNCo ,

-. . ,
, . , , .
.
. ,
, , , , ,
, . , :
, - , , . . ,
, ,
. - ,
. . 6.
, ,
.
.
.
. . ,
' .
. 2.2,

: , , ,
, . ,
, , .
.

==332
II.

4.4. , , ,

,
. ,
. .

-, (). , ,
- , ,
. ,
, (. 1982): ;
?
, . ,
- . ,
(. ), . -,
. ,
, : , .
.
: [' '],
[' '].
( < >), , - ,
( < > ), ,
(- , . , ).
, ,
, , , . , ,
, : , , (.
? ). , , . ., :


==333

, ( ), .
, . .
: + , , . .
, - ( ), +
, , ( ).
, ,
.

5.
, , ,
, , .
( ) X,
Y,

'S'. , , ,
\\ , Y^ , ..., Y^ , X,
(). , , , ,
X,
Y, , ,
F .
: )
- Y- ,
; ) , -
( , , , . .).
, ,
, .
Y . ,

, .


, "-
".
.

==334
II.

5.1. -
, , . .
. ,
(, , . .) :
; ,
;
. .
, ; . ,
. , ,
.
,
. ,
, .
,
: ?0 <>.
-
, : <, >
<-. >.
, ,
, .
, , , , , , ,
. , "" ,
, ,
, , . . , , . . ,
, .
- , ,
--. -.
,
, .
, ' <>.
, , ,
; . <>.


==335
,
, , . . <, >

, <> .
?Eo , ^
.
: ) , ,
. ., : <>, ;
?; ?
( ?), ; )
, , , ,
: <, > <, >, ;
; <>
; <>, - . :
<, , > , .

5.2.
, 1, ; . ,
, .
. ; .,
, , . (.
). ' , .
, , , , , -
, , .
. ,
, : ' <> , ' <> , '
.

==336
II.

(
), :
, , ;
? ,
, .
5.3.
, ,
. ,
, , . ,
,
- , .
:
.

: ,
.
1 (, ,
, 1 '').
, ,
. 1
: () ,
. . .

, , ,
,
. 2
' , X, - -'. 2
. :
. , ,
, . ,
, ,
i
. . .


==337

,
.
5.4.
,
, 3.3 4.4.
, , . .,
-
Y- .
( , .
1- ),
: <>, , .
, . . ,
,
. (
<>, ) ,
, -
. . {} (
), , ,
, - (, 28. 11. 91).
(. <> )
(^ <> , ), .

. ,
- , , ,
. . < >.
,
: <, >,
; ,
< >; <>
-. . , ,
.

==338
II.

,
: , 180 ; ,
< >.
, .
, ,
, ' ', ' ': ,
. . '
': , .

6.
. ,
,
. ( 10-12)
: .
, ,
( ) .
.
, . .
XX . XIX XX ,
" ", , , ,

. .
, (, ,
, " " " " ) ,
.
, , . .
" " .
, . ,
, ,
(. 11.10.90) , ,
, , , , . -


==339


.
. , ,
. , ,
, .
, :
/ , , / / (. ,
); , / . / ,
, / ! (. , ).
, ,

''.
, ''.

7.

.
-,
.
:
.
-, , , (, ,
, ),
, (. ).

" " . . .
-, .
:
.
, ,
- ( ),
( ).


==340
II.
,
"" , . , , ,
- , .
, .
, .
. ,
, , .
,
.
.

7.1.

. ( / , ()
. .) ,
.
, :
.
.
, -
. . : ; : (-.); :
, ; : , ; :
; : , , <> ( ) ,
, , <> <> ,
; : .
7.2.

, ,
, ,
, ,


==341

. ,
.
.
. .
: , ; ; , ; 2.2; ;
; 2.1.
: 2, ; , , ; 1, , 1.2;
; , , ; ; ; , [ };
() [ ].
: , , ; 1; , [
<> };
-. [ ], , ; ; 1
[ }; [
(, 02.06.92]; -

-.; -.; -.
: 1; 3 [ , }, . 3

[. . , . }, 3 [
, , }; ; ; ;
.
: ; -. [ . .]; ; 2;
, ; ; ; 1; ;
; ; ; [
}, ; ; () .
: , ; ; , , , ;
, , , , ; , ; ; , ;
; , , , , ; , ,
, ; , ; , ; ; ,
, ; , ; [
(. , . )]; ; , ,

, ; , [
(. , ); ,
(. , )]; 2 ( -.), ; ;
, .

==342
II.

: , , , , , ,
[ }; ; ; , , ; ;
; , ; .
: ; 1; ; ; ; , [
[} , / , , / , /
(. , )]; 2 [, - ; .

1 }; ; [ :
(. , )].
7.3.
, , ,
, . .
10 10 , ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
.
,
. .
:
.
, ;
. . <> - Y-a

<>; Y - <>, Y-y, ;


;
<, > ;

.
7.4.
. , ,
,


==343

.
: : ; ; ; ;
<> .
1: 3, 3 [ ?; ;
; , },
.

: {
( ) }; .
: 2 [ }.
7.5.
, ,
, ''-'', ''-''.
;
. . ( ' ');
(= ' '); -, -,
- (''-''); (- ' , ,
, -
') (' , ,
, - ');
( ' , , ,
') ( ' , , ,
, '); ( ' ,
, , - ') ( '
, , , -
').
,
; . ,
, ,
.
7.6.
, , .
, -

==344
II.

,
- . ., ,
: ,
(. . , )
, ,
. ,
, . .
, ,
, , , , ,

; . ? () ?, ?
?. ?
? . .
( ) : : , ; ;
; , , ; ; 1, ; 2, .

: [ ], , , [

], [ ], ; [' , ,
'].
: (, , , , ; ;
; ; ; ; ; .
: 1, 2 [ }; ; ; (.
. . " "
1974: 738).
: ; ; ; .
; , , ; ; ; ;
, ; ; , .
: ; , , ; , ; .

,
,
,
(. ) .
,
. . , ,
, , , , ,

________
==345

, .

(
),
.
,
,
.
7.7.
,
,
7 .

1. , " :
", "
. " (., 1995).
, .

2. , , ,
. . , , . .
: , . .; , . .;
. .
3. , , , , "".
. : "
. . .
, " ( 1982: 394). ,
, . , :
,
. ,
, ,
. . . 1993: '
', ' ', " ' ',
' ', ' ', ' ' . .

==346
II.

4. .
.
,
: ,
. - ,
, ,
.
5.
. , , ,
(), . ,
. , , ,
, . , ,
, . . , , .
, , ,
, (
).

, .
, .
6. . .
" ( ,
)" / / : . 1995.
. .

1990 - , . //

. . ., 1990.

1992 - . . ( ) //

- . 1992. . 2. N 3.
1994 - . . // . .

. . . 1994. N 4.
. 1993 - . ., . ., . .

. ., 1993.


==347
1974 - . . . . ., 1974.
1982 - . . . ., 1982.
1982 - . . . ., 1982.
1982 - . // .. . ., 1982.

==348

00.htm - glava19

:
* 1
1.
, , , .
, , , .
, . [1: 93111, 2: 101199,
35] [], .
.
[712], . . . ,
" " , [2] , ,
"", . ,
, . ,
, , .
.
' " ", 1995 1 '
. . . .
. . . . . , . .
, . . , . . . . ,
.

==349
1. " " . ,
"" (, , , , ) .
2. ,
( , , [13: 101 .]), ,
- .
3. , , ;
( . [14]).
4. , ,
(. [1516]; . [17]),
. ,
(, , , , , ,
. .), ("" )
.
, , , , , .
"", , ( 2).
( 3)
, ( 4). ,
.
.

2.
(. , ,
, . .), .
.


==350
II.
-, , (., , [1825]). ""
; . , , [22],
, , (), (), , [23: 117 .]. ,
; ., ,
2.
-, , "",
. , ,
, .
, .
,
.
1. (=
) . ,
,
. -
, , .
,
.

2. ( ) ,
,
2
[26: 17] ,
. , ,
, , , ; ,
, , , , ; ,
, , , , ,
, ; , , ,
, , , ; , ,
, , , .
, ,
.

:
==351

-, .
3. , "" ,
. .
, . , , .

.
4. ,
(., , ,
. [27]), , . . ,
, , , ,
, ( -.) , ,
, , ,
, , , ( )
( ), . .
- . : "
" (, , ); "
" (, , , ); "
" (, ); " "
(, ); " "
(, , , ); " ,
" (, ); . . ,
, , .
.

, , , . .
, , ,
. , ,
. , , ,
, ()
.

==352
II.

3. .
"" .
( , ,
) , .
, . ,
, , , , . . ,
.
, , .
, ,
, . ,
. , ,
, .

.
, .
, , , ,
: -
, .
3.1 (). 3.2
, .
3.1.
.
, 3; , ,
.
3
( ) , [9: 5660],
" ". "" . . . . .
" ", , , ,
. , : " " (, ,
). , , . . , ,
.

:
==353

, , , ,
; . , <> , <, > ,
, < , >, , ,
(, , ).
, :
, .
, .
, ,
. . <> ( .), , , ( -.).
, , , , (. .
). .
(. -. ,

), ,
- (. , ),
, .
, . ,
, < >,
<> . ,
, , : < , ,
>, ,
<> . . , ,
<> .
:
, ,
. .
- , ,
. : ,
, . ,
,
123

==354
II.

4.
, ,
, ; . , (~ '
'), 2 (~ ', ').
, , . , .
- .
, , , ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
.
: , ,
, ,
.
4
, , . -
, . . " ,
, , ,
, , ,
; ,
, , " [28: 331332]. .
'', , [1: 9597]: "
, ", " ",
" ", " , ", "
, tabula rasa", : ",
.

" (. 97). . (Gewissen), ,


, : conscience '' ''.

:
==355

3.2.
, ; ,
,
; , , ,
. , .
(. [4: 10]); . [14].
1) (, , , , ).
(, , , 1, ). ''.
2) (, , = ' ', ,
. .). . ''.
3) (, ,
, , , , , . .).
(, , ) . . , ''
,
: ' ' ~ ' ti

[]; t; , , ti ,
- ;
'.
4) (, , , , , , ,
, , , , . .). .
'.
5) (, , , , , , ,
, . .). , .
, , ; .
<, >. -, .
, ; .
- ; , [} (.
, ). , ,
, . ''.
6) , (, ; , ; ,
; , ; , ; , ; ; , ;
, , , ; . .).
12*

==356
II.

(, ) . '', ''

, , . ;
. [14]' .
7) (, , , , , , . .).
, (, ), (,
, , , . .). ,
. ''.
8) (, , , , , , , ,
, , , , . .). 2.
' (-, )'. ,
, 5.
:
(3.2.1); (3.2.2.);
(3.2.3); (3.2.4);
(3.2.5); ,
(3.2.6).
3.2.1.
-
. , -, , -, ,

().
' . " : ".
5
., , : 1 Y-y Z = ' X , Z, ,
Y Z' [29: 71]. , :
- . ,
2 . , ( )
, , . . 1. . ,
, , ', '. -
' : , , , ,
1.

:
==357

. , ,
, .
( ),
. ,
, ; .
6. ,
,
; . .
- ,
, .
.
: '' '' ' '.
,
; . , , ( )
. , ,
.

(, , , , ),
( , , ),
( ) 3 5 = 15. -
.
: (-.)
, (-.) , () ,

6

(. , ), (. ), (. .
) . . . , . , "
, , " [30: 179]. .
[3132] . , , .
: ( ), ( ), (, )
(, ; . , , .
500 ). , ,
.

==358
II.

(. , ) ,

. . ,
(. , ).
,
. 15 .
(. ), ' '
: () , () .
'' ().
, ,
. ,
.
,
. . to see to be visible to look , to hear to sound to listen

, to smell to smell to smell (. / can smell apples Apples smell


good He bent over to smell a flower), to taste to taste to taste (. / can taste
something very spicy in the food The meat tastes delicious He raised the glass to his mouth
to taste the wine), to feel to/eel to/eel (. / could/eel the rough surface of the
table The water feels warm Feel the bump on my head).
He ,
(, , , ), )
, (.
[14]), , , , )
, ,
, , , , ,
, , , . . . , < , ,
, >; , < ,
, >. ,
, , )
, ,
() . , .. (.
[2: 115117]), , ,

; . , (
). ,
; . ,

:
==359

(, , -

).
,
.
3.2.2.
(
). :
. , , ,
. : .
.
, . ,
. ,
.
, .
"" (, , )
. .
(, ,
), , (),
(),
( ), ( ,
, ).
-, Cj ,

; , ,.
, Cj ..
, , , ,

, .
-, .
. ,
.
7
, , [3,
33]. ,

==360
II.
3.2.3. .
, , .
(). ,
. , , ,
. ,
(. , ). , ,
, , (, ,
). . , , .
, , , ,
, () ().
: = ' ', = ' ',
= ' ' . .
. ,
, - . .,
, ( < >),
, .
, , , , ,
(), , , (). ,

.
, (
). , .
. -,
, , .

:
==361

,
,
. . , ( ), (
), ( ), , ( ), (
) . ' ',
, .
, ; .
, . , '
-. ', . , ,
, -
, , . .
[ . ,
} , , , .
(. , ). ,
, .
.
, . .
; . , , ,
, , , , .
3.2.4. .

. , . , , . .
, .

. ,
. , -.,
, , , .
, -
, ; . , , ,
, .
. , , -., -.
-. . , ,
, ( , -.,

==362
II.
. .), , . ,
- ; , , ()
.
. - .
, .
. ,
. , ( ,
) , (
). . [11: 867, 34 361.
; .
-
, . .
. , , : " ,
, , ... , ,
, , . ,
, , ... ,
, " [37: 128129].
(. < >), (. ) (. ).
,
. ,
. , ,
. ,
, . ,
(. , , , '' . .)
-

:
==363

(, , . .).
. [3, 33].
3.2.5.
. . , , . .
; , , , , , ,
; .

; , (.
<> , , <> , <> ,
. ) , (. ,
, , .; . [11: 559 ., 38]).
.
, ,
.
. , , ,
, .
, ,
- ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, . , ,
. , , ,
.
.
50- . [39] :
80 % ()
, 20%
. , <>
, , , <> , , ,
, , , <, , > , ,
<>, . . ( ),
, (3. , -

==364
II.
), <> , , , . . ,
, , .
.
: (,
, - ), . , , , , ,
, , 300 .
. "" , , .
3.2.6.
3.2 , .
, ( ), ,
( ).
, 8,
, , , .
, () , , .
( )
"" "" (. "" "").
, , ,

. .

1) . , , ,
, , ,

8

. . . : " , ,
"", , " [1: 95].

:
==365
. . ,
,
(., , [2: 110 .] [40]).
, , ,
.
: 1) '' ( ,
, ); 2) '' ( ;
,
, (. ,
));
'', . , -.
. .; 3) '' ( <. > ?); 4) '' (
).
,
: 1) '' (.
[""} ,
(. , )); 2) '' ( = '
, , '); 3) '' (
, ?); 4) '' ( -, ).
. '' (, - ),
'' ( ) . .
2) . ,
, (. = '
', " ' '), ,
(. < >, >).
, - ,
- . ,
,
, , (, ),
. . ,
<>, , .
3) . , ,
. ,

==366

II.
. (. [41]).
, , , ,
, [41: 34]; . < >, < >,
< >. <> . .
, : , , , . .,
, , - . . ,
,
.
4) . , ,
, . ,
- ; , ; -.,
, ; -, ( [33: 184]).
,
.
(, ) ,
. , ""
. . , .
; . <, , > .
, , (. <> ,
), (. , , . .).
"", , , , . .
. [2] [23: 4445].

4.
( , -, ), ,

:
==367
,
, , ( , , )
. ,
, , , ;
. [1: 93 ., 2: 129 ., 46, 11, 15, 17, 22, 42: 39 ., 43: 67-70, 44: 142-157, 45-63]
.
, ,
,
.
[15], , .
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
; , (,
, , , , , , , ) . .
, ,
,
- -
. , , .
, , , ,
. ,
. [47]; .
[41].

<, > < >. .


. . ; .
, ; , ; , ; , , ;
, , ; , , , ; .

, .
, ,
. , ,
, .
1. () , , :

==368
II.
1) . ,
; , (, ),
. . , , ,
, , .
2) , ,
. .
(. ). (, , , ,
. .) - , (, ,
, , . .) - .
. , , ,
. , ,
, . . , .
, , . ,
.
3) , , , ,
. . 'to
feel good' ( - ) 'to feel bad' ( - ).
[46] ' ' ' '.
. . ,
.
, , . [41]
, . ,
, , (. ,
, , .

:
==369
. .). ,
(. [41: 34]).

, .
4) ,
. ,
, . . , , ,
, . . , ,
< >, .

5) , : ) ,
, ; . ( ) , ,
, , . .; )
, , ; . , ,
, . .
, , .
, ,
,
, . , (, . .),
, . ,
; , - , ,
, . , ,
, . , ,
; , ( ) ,
. , -


==370
II.

[, , , < 9.

. , [
, . [,
, ;
; , ;
, ; , : ,
, , .
2. ()
. , .
1 , ( ) ,
; (. [6]).
, , , , , ,
- ,
, . ,
. , , , , ,
, < , >, <>
. . [} . (.
, ); , , (. ,
). , , , , , , . .,

.

.
( )
( ). , ,
, , , , , , , . .,
, . , , ,
, ; <>
,
9

. [62, . 3031, 175177 .], [5, 45, 49, 61, 63].


, 1979 . (. [17]), , . "
"; . [6466].

:
==371
. < >. , ,
. , , ,
. ,
, . , ,
, . ,
.
3. . , ,
, , , . , , , ,
, , .
, ,
.
, :
(, , , , , , )
(, , , , , , ). (
), , .
, , ,
. , , ,
. ., . ., , , ,
, . .,
.
, ,
. . ,
, (, , ,
. .), ' X' ' X', . , ,
, '' . , , ,
.

==372
II.

,
, , .
,
; . , <> , ,
. . , . .
, ,
. , , .
, ''
, , .
4. , ,
. , , ,
, , , , , , ,
. , , , ,
, .
, ,
,

. ,
, - . , ,
' ' '
'. ,
; . ,
, , <
> . :
' ', ' '. . -
, , , ( ) , , , , (
).
5. . ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , .
, . .
<> < >, . .
;

:
==373

, , . .

.

. <> , <
>, ^ <> .
. ,
. . ,
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
. , , .
,
.
, ,
: , , , . .
: < >,
<>.
, ,
. ., , ""
, :
< >.
, ,
,
,
.
,
.

5.

2-4
, ,
( , ,
). ,

==374
II.
, , ; .
[17: 519 528].
, . .
. , , , . . .
.
.

. , , , . ., , , . .
, , . ., , . . ; ,
, [61].
1. , , .
1.1. .
1.1.1. . ; .
', . ,
; . . ,
, ; . .
,

; . , 10
1.1.2. . , .
( [61]), . ,
( ), () .
10
,
-, - , , -
, ( < >) . . ,
; . - -
, () , -
, , - <> . ..

:
==375

.
1.1.3. . - , -
. ; .
<> , ^ <> .

1.2. .
1.2.1. . , .
(), (),
(), , () . () .
: ,
- ; ,
(. , ).
: , , , ,
(. , ).
1.2.2. .
1.2.2.1. . ,
, -
. , , ,

.
1.2.2.2. . , ,
, , . ,
, , ;
, ;
, ; ,
. ( . .) ,
. ;
,
;
.
1.2.3. . -.
, . ,
, . ,
;
. , .

==376
II.

, , ,
. .; . .
, , .
, , - .
1.2.4. , , . ,
( ) , . ,
, . ()
, . ;
, , .
2. , , .
2.1. . ()
( ) .

, . ,
.
2.2. .
2.2.1. . ,
. ( '') ; , ,
; ,
(, ).
, ,
. , ; .
, .
( ) .
2.2.2. ( . .).
, ,
. , :
, , . .
. . .
2.3. .
2.3.2. . ,
.
, , ,
, .

:
==377

2.3.3. .
"" <"", >, " " <
>, .
: ' < >
, ,
'. ,
. ""
( ' ', ,
' '); ( '
- ', ' ,
'). ' ' ',
, '
. . . . .
:
( , . .), ,
, . . .
, ""
, .
, . .
- (. [67: 68]).
3. .
3.1. . , .
, ; . ,
.

3.2. . ,
, . -
, .
, , ;
:
, , - .
3.3. . ; .
, -
-. -

==378
II.
, ( ) , , (
). 4. , .
4.1. . , - . . , ,
, . ., .
4.2. . , . ,
( ) . ,
( , ), .
4.3. .
. , , , ,
, .
4.4. .
; -
.
4.5. . ( '') .
, , ,
; . <> . (
, . . ) ( , ).
5. . , () (), ; .
. (, ) (, );
, (, ); , , .
(, , ), (, , ); .
, (, ) .
6. . ' ' ; .
<> < , >. , , (.
-

:
==379

) .

( ,
),
( ).

7. , , , .
7.1. . (.
- ), , ,
, .
7.2. . , ,
, . .
, ,
. -.,
, . -
, , . ,
,
, -
- .
7.3. . ,
,
, .
8. . ,
, (. [33: 176
178). - ( , ), -
, . -,
- ; ( )

9. . , ;
. , ,
. - , , ;
. -.,
; .
10. , , . 10.1. -.
, . -.
; ., , () -


==380
II.

. - - ,

, ; . < ,
> -. .
10.2. . ( '') , , ,
. , , , ,
, . -. ,
.
10.3. . , , , ,
, . , ;

10.4. , , . ,
. ,
. ,
.
10.5. , , .
10.5.1. , .
, . . (
, ) ( , ).
, , ,
; . < >
, .
-.,
( ).
, . .
. . ( ) (
, . ?) (
, . ?); (. [68: 29, 55]).
10.5.2. . ,
, ( , , ?; ?) ; .
, .
10.5.3. . -. :
<>, . ; .
<>
. (, -

:
==381

< >), .
11. , , , , .
11.1. .
11.1.1. . ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
; . ( ,
. .) ( , . .).
11.1.2. . , ,
, , ; . -
, (. ) [
]. , () ,
.
11.2. .
11.2.1. .
, . . , ,

. . , ,
( , ).
11.2.2. . ,
. , ; ,
.
11.2.3. , . , ,
.
.
, ; , , ,
-
.
11.3. . , , ,
, , . ,
, , , ,
.

==382
II.

11.4. .
11.4.1. . , ,
-., .
, .
(. !), , .
11.4.2. . ,
. , .
11.5. .
11.5.1. - . ( --.)
( ),
. ( -- .) .
;
.
( )
( )
( . . ).
11.5.2. (, , ,
, ). , ,
( ) . . , , ;
, , (. , ).
, ; ... , ,
(. , ); " "
! , ,
(. , ).
11.5.3. . . , , ,
( , ), (

), . ,
.
11.6. .
11.6.1. . ,
. . , ,
;

:
==383
-.
11.6.2. . , .
, ; ,
. -, , , .
, , , , .
11.7. . , , , , , , ,
, -. . ( ) (
). , . ( '')
, , .
12. .
12.1. . , , ,
. ( '')
, .
12.2. . () ,
;
. <, >
.
, . .
12.3. . ( ' ')
- , -
. . - ,
, , ,
. () , ,
(), . .
12.4. . , . .

==384
II.

[. ] , ,
. " ", " " (3.

, ). . ...
.

12.5. . ,
.
, .
; . ^ (
; . ).

/ . ;
. <>, - .
13. .
13.1. . ( < , ->)
(- , ),
( <> ). ( )
, ( ) .
. , ,
, .
, ,
. ,
"" "",
. . ,
, , , .
13.2. .
, .

, ,
. ( )
, (
); , (
), .

:
==385

1. . . . ., 1976.
2. . . . , , . ., 1988.
3. Wierzbicka A. English speech act verbs. A semantic dictionary. Sydney, 1987.
4. Wierzbicka A. Semantics, culture, and cognition. Universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. N.
Y., Oxford, 1992.
5. . . Munchen, 1992.
6. . . //
. 1995. . 34.
7. . . // .
1964. . 8.

8. . . //
. 1964. . 8.
9. . . // . 1964.
. 8.
10. . . " <=> ". ., 1974.
11. . ., . . - ,
- . , 1984.
12. . . . . ., 1974.
13. . . " " // . .
., 1990.
14. . . // . . . . . 1994. N 4.
15. . . // . . . . . 1992. N 1.
16. . ., . ., . ., . .
. // . . . . . 1992. N 2.
17. . . // . ., . . .
- . ., 1979.
18. . . "" XIX //
. 1946. . I.
19. Bartminsky, J. Zah)zenia teoretyczne stownika // Stownik ludowych stereotyp6w

jezykowych. Zeszyt pr6bny. Wroclaw, 1980.


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==386
II.

20. Bartminsky, J. Definicija leksykograficzna a opis jezyka. // Stownictwo w opisie jezyka. Prace naukowe
Uniwersytetu slaskiego. Katowice, 1984.
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1984.
22. Wierzbicka A. Dusa ('soul'), toska ('yearning'), sud'ba ('fate'): three key concepts in Russian language and
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25. . . // .
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26. Greenwood T. G. International cultural differences in software // Digital technical journal. 1993. Vol. 5. N. 3.
27. . . // .
1986. . 28.
28. . . . // . .,
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29. . // . 1991. . 32.
30. . . ., 1958.
31. Fillmore Ch. Lexical entries for verbs // Foundations of language. International journal of language and
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32. Lyons J. An introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge, 1968.
33. . . //
. - . ., 1993.
34. . . : , // .
. ., 1988.
35. . ', // .
. ., 1991.
36. . . : / / .
. ., 1993.
37. . . ., 1957. . I.
38. . . . // . . . . .
1995.
39. Ullmann S. The principles of semantics. Glasgow, 1951.
40. . . "" "" ( ) //
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41. . ., . . // . .
1993. N 3.

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42. Wierzbicka A. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw, Warszawa, Krak6w, 1969.


43. Wierzbicka A. Semantic primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.
44. Wierzbicka A. Lingua Mentalis. The Semantics of natural language. Sydney, N. Y. etc., 1980.
45. Wierzbicka A. The semantics of emotions: fear and its relatives in English. // Australian Journal of Linguistics.
1990. Vol. 10. N. 2.

46. . .
// . 1970. . 13.
47. . . ,
// . 1972. . 16.
48. . . , , , , . // . .,
. .. - . . , 1984.
49. lordanskaja L. and Mel'cuk I. Semantics of two emotion verbs in Russian: bojat'sja 'to be afraid' and nadejat'sja
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50. . . // .

1979. . 11.
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13*

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63. . . // . ., . ., . .,
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" " // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980.


68. . . // .
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==389

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1. . . // Linguistische Arbeitsberichte.

Leipzig, 1986. 54/55.


2. . . // .
. ., 1990.

==404
II.

3. . . // . . . . . 1992. N 1.
4. . . ( ) // -
. . 2. 1992. N 3.
5. . . "" "" ( ) //
. . ., 1989. . 7-30.
6. . . : , // :
. ., 1988.
7. . "" "" //
. 1984. . 86-95.
8. . : // . .
., 1991.
9. . ., . . - . ,

1984.
10. Ruwet N. The "epistemic dative" construction in French and its Relevance to some Current Problems in
Generative Grammar // Festschrift Manfred Bierwisch. Dordrecht, 1981.

==405

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Hintikka 1962, Malcolm 1963, Chisholm 1966, 1982, Wittgenstein 1969, Vendler 1972
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==413
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==414
II.

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19946).
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Steizner 1984, 1988 . . .


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Q, (Hi) Q" (Scheffler 1965: 21); " t S , h ,


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==416
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==417

(. Bogushiwski
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Bogushwski 19946, Bogushiwski 1981, 1986. 1980


'' (. Wierzbicka 1980: 37, 156 Wierzbicka
1992: 10).
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==418
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==420
II.

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==421

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==422
II.
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>; <, >; (. ,

9
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168).

10

. 1988: 30-32).

==423
); / , / , / (. ,
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==424
II.
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).

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==425

:
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: , , , .

==426
II.
. . " , ? " / " , / : ?" / " , , /,
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(, < ?>), ,
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, , ( ?). ,
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==427
, .
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).
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==428
II.

,
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==429
, . . >. . (. , ); ,
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==430
II.

: [ , ~ -,
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: ; ; ; , , , , ; ,
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, , .

1986: . . // .

. 1986. N 2.
1988: . . //

. ., 1988.
1990: . . //
. . ., 1990.
19906: . .

// . ., 1990.
1992: . . // . . .

. . 1992. N 1.
19926: . . ( ) //

- . . 2. 1992. N 3.
1993: . . : //

. . ., 1993.
1995: . . : //
. ., . . , . ., . .
. . ., 1995.
. 1992: . ., . ., . ., . .

// . . , . . 1992. N 2.
. 1995: . ., . ., . ., . .

. . .,1995.
1988: . . . , , . .,1988.

: _________

==431

1984: . . / / . . , . .

. - .
- . , 1984.
, 1988: . ., . . :

? // .
. ., 1988.
, 1989: . ., . .

// .
. ., 1989.
1985: . . ( ).

. ., ., 1985.
1988: . . //

. ., 1988.
19886: . . : , //
. . ., 1988.
1992: .

// MUnchen, 1992.
1988: . . //
. ., 1988.
19886: . .
/ / . . ., 1988.
... 1995: . .

., 1995.
1964: . . //
. 1964. . 8.
1985: X. . //

. ., 1985.
1988: . .
? // . . .,1988.
1988: . . //

. ., 1988.
1988: . .

(, , ) //
. ., 1988.
19886: . . :

, , // . . .,
1988.

1993: . . " , " // .

. ., 1993.

==432
II.

Apresjan 1992: ApresjanJu. D. Systemic Lexicography // Euralex '92. Proceedings I-II, Part 2.

Tampere, 1992.
Apresjan 1995: ApresjanJu. D. Theoretical Linguistics, Formal Models of Language and Systemic

Lexicography // Linguistics in the Morning Calm. Seoul, 1995.


Bogustawski 1981: Bogustawski A. Wissen, Wahrheit, Glauben: Zur semantischen Beschaffenheit des

kognitiven Vokabulars // Th. Bungarten (ed.). Wissenschaftssprache. Beitrage zur Methodologie,


theoretischen Fundierung und Deskription. Munchen, 1981.
Bogustawski 1986: Bogustawski A. You can never know that you know // Semantikos. 1986. 10, 1-2.
Bogustawski 1994a: Bogustawski . . .
// Andrzej Bogustawski. Sprawy s^owa. Warszawa, 1994.
Bogustawski 19946: Bogustawski A. Savoir que p implique-t-il un autre etat mental? // Andrzej

Bogustawski. Sprawy stowa. Warszawa, 1994.


Bogustawski 1994e: Bogustawski A. " Diaczego wiemy, za powinnismy kochac Pana Professora?

diaczego*?"// Andrzej Bogus-l-awski. Sprawy s-rowa. Warszawa, 1994.


Borillo 1987: Borillo A. Deux aspects de la modalisation assertive: croire et savoir // Languages.

1987. N. 67.
Chisholm 1966: Chisholm R. Theory of Knowledge. Prentice-Hall, 1966.
Chisholm 1982: Chisholm R. The Foundations of Knowing. Minneapolis, 1982.
Cohen 1986: Cohen S. Knowledge and Context // The Journal of Philosophy. 1986. N 10.
Hintikka 1962: Hintikka . J. Knowledge and belief: an Introduction to the Logic of the two Notions.

Ithaca, 1962.
Knowledge ... 1976: Knowledge and Belief. Ed. by A. Ph. Griffiths. Oxford, 1976.
Lehrer 1974: Lehrer K. Knowledge. Oxford, 1974.
Lyons 1979: Lyons J. Knowledge and Truth: a Localistic Approach // D. J. Allerton, E. Carney and
D. Holdcroft (eds.). Function and Context in Linguistic Analysis. London, N .Y., Melbourne.
1979.

Malcolm 1963: Malcolm N. Knowledge and Certainty. Prentice-Hall, 1963.


Moore 1959: Moore G. E. Philosophical Papers. N .Y., 1959.
Scheffler 1965: Scheffler H. Conditions of Knowledge. Chicago, 1965.
Steizner 1984: Steizner W. Epistemische Logik. Zur logischen Analyse von Akzeptationsformen.

Berlin, 1984.
Vendler 1972: Vendler Z. Res Cogitans. Ithaca, N .Y London, 1972.
Wierzbicka 1969: Wierbicka Anna. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw Warszawa Krak6w,

1969.
Wierzbicka 1980: Wierbicka Anna. Lingua Mentalis. The Semantics of Natural Language. Sydney, N

.Y., London etc., 1980.

==433

Wierzbicka 1992: Wierbicka Anna. Semantics, Culture and Cognition. Universal Human Concepts in

Culture-Specific Configurations. N .Y., Oxford, 1992.


Wittgenstein 1969: Wittgenstein L. On Certainty. Oxford, 1969.
Yokoyama 1986: Yokoyama . . Discourse and Word Order. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1986.
Ziff 1983: Ziff P. Epistemic Analysis. A Coherence Theory of Know ledge. Dordrecht, 1983 .

==434

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/ / . . ., 1990; . .
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==437
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.

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3

1 [- ] , (.) 1 [ ] , 2

[ ], (.) 1 [- .

( want, wish, desire); Robinson J. Emotion, Judgement and Desire // The Journal of Philosophy, 1983. V. 80. N. 11; SemonJ.-P. Le
vouloir, la negation et 1'aspect // La Licorne. Etude de linguistique. Poitier, 1989. N. 15; Wierzbicka. Anna. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Universal
Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations. N. Y.; Oxford, 1992; .
. Munchen, 1992; . . ( ) //
: . ., 1987.
7

., : Wierzbicka Anna. . . . 428; . . . . 60-62; . . . .

8
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==438
II.
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11
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==439

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.


==440
II.

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==441
6) , ;
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==442
II.

)); (, ,
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, (. . ,
)); ( !
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, .
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); , [} (. ,
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==443
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==444
II.

, , (. 2.4).
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); , "
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==445
, , ; .
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). - , ,
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).
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. .
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, .

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; .
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==446
II.

2.4.
1.
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: ; !;
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==447
, , , (.
, ); ,
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.
, .
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2.6.
,

==448
II.

: ?; ?
: ' '; . ? =
' ?', ? = ' ?'
, ,
; . <>, ? ,
,
: <, > ~ ',
'; <, > = ', '.
, ,
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).
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).
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).
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;
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==449


==450

==451

==452
00.htm - glava23

00.htm - glava24

==453

==454

==455

==456

==457

==458

==459


==460

==461

==462

==463

==464

==465
00.htm - glava25

00.htm - glava26

==466

==467

==468

==469


==470

==471

==472

==473

==474

==475

==476

==477

==478

==479


==480

==481


( know, think, say), .

, ,
want, know, say . .,
.
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.
) ,
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, ; ,
). - ,
() . . [26: 30-32]
! , (~ ' '). (~ '
'), , (~ ' , 163

==482
III.

'), , (~ ' , ;
, '). , ( ).
. .
[27: 72].
6) , ( ,
< - >;
, ).
) ,
, (.
< >, ,
/ , ;
<, > ; ,
< >).
,
(, , ) .
, , , ,
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-
.
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. . ( )
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, , [22:
25 .] .
-, -
, .

==483

1. . . . // . . . . . 1992. 1.
2. . ., . ., . ., . .
// . . . . . 1992. 2.
3. . . : // .
. ., 1993.
4. . ., . ., . .
// . ., 1961. . 2.
5. . ., 1964. . 8.
6. . . // .
., 1964. . 8.
7. . . // . ., 1964.
. 8.
8. . . " <=> ". ., 1974.
9. . . . . ., 1974.
10. . ., . . - //
- . , 1984.
11. Mel'cuk Igor. Semantic Primitives from the Viewpoint of the Meaning Text Linguistic Theory // Quaderni de
semantica. 1989. Vol. 10. No.l.
12. Bogustawski A. Semantyczne pojecie liczebnika. Wroclaw, 1966.
13. Bogustawski A. On Semantic Primitives and Meaningfulness // Greimas, Jakobson, Mayenowa, 1970.
14. Wierzbicka Anna. Dociekanie semantyczne. Wroclaw, 1960.
15. Wierzbicka Anna. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.
16. Wierzbicka Anna. Lingua Mentalis: the Semantics of Natural Language. Sydney, 1980.
17. Wierzbicka Anna. Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor, 1985.
18. Wierzbicka Anna. English Speech Act Verbs. A Semantic Dictionary. Sydney, 1987.
19. Wierzbicka Anna. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific
Configurations. N.Y., Oxford, 1992.

20. . . // . ., . . .
- . ., 1979.
21. . ., . . . - . ., 1979.
1*

==484
III.

22. . . - "
" // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980.
23. . . : . .,
1985.
24. . . // Wiener Slawistischer Alamanach. 1993.

Band 31.
25. . . Munchen, 1992.
26. . . //
( ). 1988.
27. . . // .
., 1982.

==485

00.htm - glava27

'
1.
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,
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.

, ,
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,
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1) ,
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.
2) . ,
' " . ", ., 1990.

==486
III.

(, , ,
). (
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.
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.

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,
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==487

(. , , , , , . .), .
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.

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, , ,
), 7. , 8. . ,
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; ,
.
1. : 1.1. ( ); 1.2.
, , , , . . (.
, -

==488
III.

', ' ' - '


: , , ", ,
*0 ); 1.3.
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: , ,
, , ); 1.4.
(. <,...>.
2.
.
( ), :
,
, .
3. : 3.1. ,
(
), (
) ; 3.2.
(., , ,
,
. .; . . . . ,
); 3.3.
(.
: [
, ] [-
, ]); 3.4.
(.
() : = ' '
= ' '); 3.5.
, . . ( , ,
, ).
4. : 4.1. , ,
(. ?,
, , -

==489

); 4.2. (.
, ,
: , ); 4.3. , ,
(. ); 4.4.
, (.

, ,
).
5. : 5.1.
; 5.2.
(.
, , , , ,
, , :
, ,
, , : . ,
^ - . , ?).
6. : 6.1. ,
, (. - Y-a

/ , , , ,
, , , ,
, , ); 6.2.
(, - )
; 6.3.
/ ; 6.4.
/ ; 6.5.
(
, ,
,
).
7. , : 7.1.

(.
:
( ) *
* ); 7.2.
( ', '

?); 7.3. (
'


==490
III.

' - + , N
: < , , ,...>
); 7.4. ( ' - '
- + > N
: < , >
); 7.5. ( , ,
, ,

: ); 7.6. (

, : , , ); 7.7.
( ''
: , ); 7.8. (.
: ).
, ( ) ,
[]. , , , [],
,
, .

3.
3.1.
.
-, . ,
, ( , , ),
, ( ,
). , -, . ,
(
), ( ),
( , , ),
( ).
-, -,
, .

==491

, ,

.
, " * .
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( , *
).
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- -, ; .
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<>7. <> . ,
, .
.
, , , ,
, ( ),
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, ,
. ( S '

', = ' ',


S ' ') (
). , , '', '
' ''
, .

==492
III.
, ,
, "" ,
, ,
, , .
,
S ' ', S '

', = ' ',


= ' ', S '
', S ' ' . .
, ,
, ,
, , .
, , ,
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.
(.
3.2), (. ).
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; .
, ,
.
,
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-
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,
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, .

==493
() :
.
.
.
: 1)
, , , , ( ); 2) , (
); 3) , , , (
); i) , , , (, ); 5)

, , , ( <> ,
. ). , ,
,
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. . ,
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.
( ), .
3.2.
, , ; , -, -; ; ; ;
; 1.1. ", '; ; 1.2. ' ':
; 1.3. '': ; 2. ' -.':
; 3.1. ' ': ; 3.2. '
'; ; 3.3. ' ': ; 4. ',
': ; 5.1. ', ': ; 5.2.
', ': ;

==494
III.

5.3. ' ': ; 6. ' ':


; 7.1. '': ; 7.2. ' -.': ; 7.3.
' ': ; 7.4. ', ': ;
8.1. '': ; 8.2. '': , ; 9. ' -.
': ; 1.1. = ' , ,
' [ ' ' '
' , * , (: ),
; = : 1.1; . 3.1; 1.1,
2.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1; : 1.1].
NLV.
? . , , ,
(. ).
2

NL V {/^/ N^} [, , N - N']. <,

>. ( ) < ,
>
NL V {D/Pi N^}.
< , , - , - > . .
. , , (.
. ). , (. ).
, ( ).
NL V {D/Pz N^ }.
< , >. <
, , >. .
< , >.
. -, ,
, (. ).
, (. ). ,
(. ).
N^M V {D/ N^} [. ]. ?

< , ^
< , >.

==495
2

N^ V { njhh / ^} [N - ], ( ) <

>. ( ) , -
.
2

n^m V njhh [N ]. .

n^m V N^op [ N ]. <

>.
2

Nmn V N^op [N ].

. :
(. ).
n^m V [ - ].
< >. , -
. ( , )
(. ).
+ - , , .
[.].
, ,
, . <> .
1.2. - "
' [. 1.1; , . .; S :

1.3; 2.1; 2, 2; : 1.2].


NL V {D/Pi N^}.
. . . -
. , .
NLV{D/P2 N^}.
. .
< , >. ...
, (. ).
1.3. - Y - ' ,

Y, Y-y
- Y' [s : 1.1; 1.1;
1.1, 1; ss : I].
2

NL V {D/P N^} [D, P N - ].

==496
III.

< , , , >.
NL V {D/Pi NJ}.

. ,
.
NL V {D/P2 N^}. ( ) .
2-

N^M V { njhh / njhh? [N

]. .
< , >.
2. - = ' X,
' [X , , , , , , ,
; S : 2; 1.1; 1.1; :

1.1; = : 1.1; 3.2; 4.1].


^ .
< >, .
( ). , , ,
(. ).
nwh V njkh

[N2 , }.

, ,
, , - (. ).
3.1. - = ' , X,
, -, -' [S :

2.1; 3.2; : 1; S :
2.1; = : 3.1].
^ ^.
. 1956
. <
, >. , <...> ""
, ,
, (. ).
3.2. - - ' X' [s : 2.1].
N^VH3 ^.
. <
> [. ]. -

==497

< >. . .
<> .
nj^m V - .

- <- , - > .
2
- , n^m V n^h [N - , , ...}.

[] [""] ,

(. ).
3.3. - = ' X' [= :
2.2; . I].
NL V ^.
, . : .
4. = ' -
' [., ; ;
: 4; S : 1, 1; 1.2;

1.2; S : 2.1, ].
N^M V [ (, , ) " ,
'].
() <> . , .
NL V ^. .
2

N^M V N^H [N - ]. .
2

N^M V njhh [N - ]. < ,

> .
5.1. = ' ' [
, ; s : 3.1, 2.1, 1.2;

1.1; s : 1.1].
n^m V . ?
N^ V n^h.
.
, .
3

n^m V { / } {D/P N3x} [D, N - ]. <>

? < , ,
>.

==498
III.

5.2. "' ' [S :

1, 1.2, 5.2].
N^M V [ ]. <
, >. ,
(. ). ,
(.
).
n^m V [N' ]. .
.
N^M V [N' ].

< >.
n^m V [N' - ].

.
n^m V / [N* ].
.
2

n^m V N^p [N ].
"". "".
5.3. - = ' , ,
, , X;
,
' [. .;
' -': ,
; = : 2.2; 2.2; 1.3; :
3.2].
NLVHa n^h
, . ,
.
N^M V njhh ^.
, .
(. ).
6. - = ' X' [s : 1; .
2.1, . 3.2; 1,
, 1; : 1; = :
(); : 1, 3.1].

==499

n^[m V . .
NL V n^h.
. ... (..
). .
, (.
).
7.1. - Y-u = " , X,
Y,
, -' [ ' ,
-' , * , ,
* < , >, : ,
[X] , [Y],
(. );
, <, >
, ; . 7.2; =
: 2.2; 1.1; : 5; = : 7.2; =
: 4.2].
2

n^m V ^ [N - ].
< > . . (. ).
().
NL V [N2 - ].
- < >. <
> . .
(. ). ,
(. ).
7.2. - = ' X, ,
, '
[ ; ; "
' , ". <
>; - :
, ; : 2.2; s :

1.1; = : 1.1; 7.1; . 2.2].


NLVH3
. <>.
< > <> [. 7.1].


==500
III.

7.3. - = ' X, ,
, ' [ ;
; : 2.3; = : 5.4; = : 1.1;
2].
NLV. , , .
NLVH3 .
. .
.
NLVy . , (. ).
7.4. - = ' , X;
- X, ,
'
[ : : '
<, ^, : 2.4; = : 2.1;
3.1, 2.1; : 1.1; s= : 8.1].
n^m V D [D ]. <, , >.
2

n^m V (//N^op) [N , , ...].

. <> . <>.
.
, .
8.1. = ' ; -
, , -
' [ ; ]; S :

3.1, 1.1; 1.1, 1.1;


3.2, 2.2; 1.1; 2.1; 4.1; 2;
: I].
V [ ].
, , . / . (. ).
N,L V.
. . .
NL V D. <, , >.


==501

V , Conj S [Conj , ].
, . ,
(. ).
8.2. , = ' ,
' [ ; . ; S : 2.2, 3.1, I].
V. , , ?
V S.
, . , ,
(. ).
VS.
, ? , ,
(. ).
9. = ' , , '
[ ; S : ' '].
NLV{D/P2 N^}. < >. ?
2

NL V {D/P N^} N^op [N - N ]. .

<, > .
= ', '; = ' ';
= '' [.]; < > = ' -. ' [
]; = ' -. '; = '
'; = ' ' [. 3.2]; =
' -., ' [. ],
' '; - -. = ' - ';
- -. ~ ' . '; = '
'; = '
';
= ' '; = '
'; <, , ...> = ' <, ...> . '; - [, , , ...] = ' X,
- '; " ' -.,
'; -. = ' -., -. ,
'.

==502
III.

1. . . //' ". ". 1986. N 2, . 5770.

2. . ., . . . ,
1982, T.I2.
3. . ., . . - . ,
1984.

==503

00.htm - glava28

( )'
1.
1.1.
"" [I].
,

.

. , ,
-
[2]. (, ,
) [].
( .
[4]) .
,
. , [5-12].
, ; .
[13].
,

"- ", 1992, 2, 3.

==504
III.
,
.

, ,
, -
. , , ,
, , .
,
, .
,
, -
. , ,
.


.
, ,
, (.
, 3,
).

. , , ,
, , .
,
.
.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
( . [14]).

.
. ,
-

( )
==505
. , ,
.
,
.
,
.
, , (= '')
, : <>,
; , .
: <, >,
? .
, , .
( )
: <>, ; ,

; <, >, ?
(),
: <>, ( )?
, , ,
. , ,
: , ? (,
, ) , ? (, ,
, ).
, ,
: , ? ?0 , ? .
to understand: I understand your mother is ill * ,

' (, ), I understand your mother is ill '


, ' (, ,
).

.
.
, ,
.

==506
III.
: ,
(. . ); , , ,
(. ). ,
: . ,
- (. ); , . ,
(. ).
, ,
. ,
(
) (. [15]).
. . .
[= '
-.'] [= ''], . .
/ .
"" ,
[16: 8]. , , .

, .
: Y = 'X ,
-, ' (
). : Y = 'X ,
Y, ,
' (
... . . . ).

,

.
, ,
. , ,
() ' - , ,
. ,
; . ( - ,
).

( )
==507

Y-a . ,

; .
<>. ,
,
.
:
,
. ,
: .
, , ,
, ,
: <, > ,
. .
.
,
( , ,
) , '
( .
, ) ,
(. ),
(. ).
,
, .
, . . . ,
, : '
', .

.
: .
,
, , , , .
.
,

==508
III.

- . ,
, .
, ,
. ,
. [17].
.
1.2.
,
, , , , , ,

. , ,
, ,

.
,
.
,
: , , , .
, .
, ,
,
. :
, ( ),
. ( ,
); ,
, ; ; ,
; (,
) ; .
: ,
, .
. ,

( )
==509
; .
. , . .
; . , .
, . . . ,
, .
, .
, ( )
, () , () .

,
. .
, - (.
), (. , ).
, , . ,
, .
, - (. )
(. ). , ,
: - (. ),
(. ).
,
[18: 65 .].
,
, ,
. ' ,
' , , ,
: , , , , ,
( ). ,
, (),
: <>, <>.
, , ,
:
.


==510
III.
:
, , .
,
, ; ., , .
, , , .
, , .
(. ),
(. ).

; . , ,
, .

.
, , ,
.
(. [18: 58 ., 19, 20: 102]).
,
,
. , .

, (
) .
, , '' (. <,
> <, >) ' ' (
, . . ' ', , . . ' '. [ N]

(. . ), . . ' ').
,
; . , . . '
', , . . ' ' . .
, '
' .

: 1) ; . <, ,
> ( , ) <,
-

( )
==511

, , > ( ); 2)


; . <, ...>, <, ...>
' <, ...>, '
<,...>; 3) ,
; .
= ) ' ' ) ' - [,
], * (
); . ,
, , .
, ,
: (.
, ), (. , , ). ,
singularia tantum.
,
. '' '
' .
( , ),
, ( ,
).
. Xi , ,

, X.
X,
Xi ,
.
2.
2.1.

.
, .

.
, .

==512
III.
, (, ,
) . ,
.
.
. , ,
, ,
,
, ,
.

, .
,
( ).
.
, , .
, ,
. . :
~ ' ', ~ ' *, ~
' '. : ' ',
~ ' '. :
~ ' ', ~
'... '.
. , ,
. , .
, ,
.
,
.
, , (, , [21],
, [22-23]) ,

. [4]. -
,

( )

==513

. ,
( ) [4].
2.2.
,
. , , . ,

.
.
, .

.
,
, ,
. ,
. [24],
,
, .
: 1. , 2. , 3.
, 4. , 5. , 6. .
,
.
() ,
, : 1.1. '': ; 1.2.
' ': ; 2.1. '': ; 2.2. ' -.':
; 3.1. ', ': ; 3.2. ' ':
; 4.1. '': !; 4.2. ' , ':
<> ; 4.3. ' , ': ; 4.4. ', ': ;
5.1 ' ': , 5.2. ' ':
; 17 3

==514
III.

5.3. ' ': ; 6.1. :


; 6.2. : .
( // " ").
I. .
1. '': ; // '': ; 2.
', ': ; // ', ':
, // ' , -.': ; 3. ', ':
, ; 4. ', -.': ? ; II.
.
1. : ; 2. :
; 3. : ?

;
. (. ) ,
"" .
2.3.
, ,
, , .
1. . 1.1. . 1.2.
, . . ; . 0 -
. 1.3. : , ; ,
, , , , (. 5.3,
, 3-). 1.4. (.
6.1 6.2).
2. .
,
, , ,
, . .

( )
==515

1.1 (
) ? 2.2. . ,
, ( , ,
), - - (
(. . )) - (
).
3. . 3.1.
, ; . 5.1 - ' , X, - ,
, ' ( ). 3.2.
; .
3.1 = ( ,
) 3.1 = ( ), 3.3.
()
; .
: ~ ' ' ( ,
), ~ ' ' ( ,
, , , ). 3.4.
,
; . 2.1

: VS. . 3.5.

; . 1.1
( ),
(. ),
,
( ). 3.6.
, ( ), , .

4. ; . . ,
.
5. .
, , () ,
, , ; . 3.2
17*

==516
III.

0 3.2 : (= '
') (= ' ').
6. . 6.1. ,
() , ; .
5.1 - 3.1 . 6.2. .
(N , , V

, D , ,
, Conj , Rel , Num ),
(, , , ).

. ,
,
.
(, . .), .
(5")
; . <,
, , >.
/ . 6.3.
; .
"", (
), ( 1000 ), (
). (
) () ,
. 6.4. .
, , ,
, ,
+; . + 10 000
. 6.5. , . .
.
, . , ,
: -.
-. , '
-. . 6.6. , .
. , <=> .

7. . 7.1. ; . ,

. ., (
,
-

( )
==517
). 7.2. ; . <>
, 1.1 . 7.3. : )
,
1
; . 1.1 ^ VN2^op, N

, N2
: , ' ; 6)

; .
3.1 () nomina anatomica: ,
, . 7.4.
; . - (, , , , ,
, ), 1.1
. , - (, , ,
, , , ), 4.2
, . 7.5.
; . ( . . )
2.1 .
,
:
< , , >,
-
- : < , ,
>, < , , >. 7.6. ; .
, , ,
: , , . 7.7.
; . 4.1:
. 7.8. : )
, ; )
,
, ; )
, 4.1 (. ); )
, 5.3,
: ; )
, 4.2,
, : ,
< >.
8. . . 0. .

==518
III.

3.

. .
. .
( ),
, .
,
. ,
.
.
;
[25]. , ,
.
, , ; , , ; (); ;
; ( - ), (
/ ( 3- )2 ,
1.1 1.22, (. );
2- : , ,
? . , , ? (. , );
; , ,
: , , 3.
1.1. = ' ^ [
; ( ) ;
( , , , --- ,
, (. ), :
5; : ; : , ;
; ; ; ; ; 6.
1) f^mVD
. . , .
1=

^ V {//^} [ N

'' = :
< >;

( )
==519
= : ; = :
< >; = : ' ]7
. . <> . , (. . ,). ,
. , (. ). , , , / , / ,
, / (. ).

^ V {/^?} [ V = , N2 ; : 1) JV1 , , , a N2
, . .; 2) /
; 3) ; . . ? , '
' ? '']8
<> . . .
, (. . ).
!^ V f^HM [ . ., , N1 = N2 = '',
, . .]
< >. <> . <>,
. (. ). ,
(. ).

^mVPI^x
< , >. [. ? . 2.1]9 . <
>. . < >. . ,
(. . ). (. ).
^ V tfnp [N2 , , , . .; N1 ,
]
< , >. . . [.
2.1 < , }10.

^ V 1^


==520
III.

. . .
.
2) "
12.
1

{///^} [D, A, N - ]

13

<, >. , . , .
, . , (. . ).
2

{D1 / <, ; {D //} [D , - ]


< , > <, , >.
. , (. . ).
, , , (. . ,). (. ).
,
(. ).
2

^ {///^} [D, A, N - ]

<, , >. . <>.


[. 5.2 25]. . .

? . ? (. ).
2

{/ Conj S/Rel S/N'nponos}" V {D///^ } [D, A. N - ]


. (. ). ,
ftA. ,). (. ). ,
. , (. ).
, (. . ). <>,
. < >, . , <
, , >. .
2

i^tbop {D///^} [A, N - ; D - , ,

...}
. ? . ,
(. ). (. ).

. .
3) - ,
, , , , , [. 4.2.2)] 15
fNV? ^ D} V

( )
==521

. . (. ).

. (. ). .
. . . .
.
2

^ {^^ NyVD} V [N - ]
. . .
< >. (. ^.

- (. ,).
(. ^. .
4) [. 2.1.2), 3.1.2)16 ; . 4.1.2)]"
2

^ {D/^HM/NumuM} [D, N ]
< >. <> . .
<, > '8 . <> .
: (. . ).

(. ,). , (.
).

1.2. = ' 1.1 -* [ ;


, ]
^^
<>. . ,
(. . ,). , ,

, (. ).
(. ^. :
(. ).
2.1. <> - = ' <> -' [ ;
, ;
(),
; . = ' ',
, [. 2.2]; ,
- ; . " '...
'19 ; : ; -: , ; , ;
; . , . , , , . , . , .
}

==522
III.
1) N^V{D/PsN/}
< >. < , >. . ? [.
2.2]. <> [ -]. , (. .
). , , ... (. . ). , ,
(. ).

N^VPN/
. [. 1.1 }.
(. . ).
^ V N^p [N1 , , , . ., N2 , , ; .
1.1.1)] [] (. ). [] ,
(. ).
2) [. 1.1.4), 3.1.2)] 17

D/^^/Numm} {D/ ^ ;

^ V {
. < ,
, >. . (. . ).
2.2. <> - = ' <> -. ' [
; : ' <> X, <> '; :
; : , ; , ; , ; , , ; :
, , }
N^V . .

N^V{D/P3N2,}
? [. 2.1]. [. 2.1]. . (.
). - (. ).

V ^ [., ; N2 ] ? (. . ).
3.1. - = ' - ' [ ; ,
-

( )
==523
; , ,
. . - ; . ,
" ;
:
, ; . (
) ;
(, , . .), ,
4.1: <, > 20 ;
-
; - ,
- ; . ~ ' , '
= ', , '21; : ; : , }
1)
N^VyN/^
? . .
. <>\

. , , ,
(. ). ,
(. ).
2) [. 1.1.4), 2.1.2)J

17

^ V {D/N^MM/Numm} ^
, (. ). (.

).
3.2. - = ' - ' [
, ,
; ' '22 ;
; ; :
, ; . , , ; : ; : ]
n^v^^t
[' ']. ['

', ' ']. ? [' ? '].


, . .

==524
III.

4.1. X = ' [ ; ;
, ;
;
; . ;
,
; . , ;
2.121 ; : , ; :
, }
1)
MwV
, . , /
, , / I (. ).

, .../ ! , (. ).
, - (.
). . . . / .
. / , / , , (.
, ).
/ V {D/ ^
<, >. \ < >
- . - .
, / (. ).
2) [. 1.1.4); ]
V {D/N^}
< > . . .
.
1

4.2. = ' , X [ N "

, ,
21 : . . , , , ,
, (. ); (.
); , (.
); ; ": ; ; :
, ; }
1)
N^V

( )

==525
. > . 11 . 1941 . < >. .
<>. <, >. ... (. ).
2) -,
, , , , , , [. 1.1.3)]
VRelS
, < >. . . ,
. (. ).
^ V Rel S [N1 V ^ ~ N1} . < >.
^ (. ).
^ V Rel S [N1 - V}
< >. < >. <> .
(. ). - , - ? (. ). +
< >.
4.3. = ' [ ;
, ' , X'22 ;
; ; : ]
\r1 v ^ '
. , . < >.
[' ']. [' '].
4.4. -< = ' ,
X, ' [ ; ,
, ; : , ; ": , ;
, . , . , , ; ]
^ V ^ [f^1 ~ . , , ] , . .
5.1. - = ' , X, - ,
,

==526
III.

'23 [. .; ;
;
; \; : ; , ; -:
^
^
<>. . .
: , (. ).
5.2. - = ' ,
' [ ; ;
. ;
; . ~ ' , '; : , ;
, }

^ ^ [^2 ~ , -, - . . , , . , , ,

, ...]
() <>. .
: , (. ). ,

, (. ) [. 1.1.2)]
^ W ^
- , , . , ,
? (. ).
5.3. - Y-a " ' ,

, ,
, ' [
; : , , ]
^ < , >.
N/ [.] .
6.1. ,
[
- ,
26; .
; ^ ; ' ; : ]
"

( )
==527
< , > . . .
, . <, >
.
6.2. ,
[ , ;
: <> ;
, : );
: ( ); ": ; }

^ V
<> .
. , = ' , ' [: ,
, }; = ' , , , ' [:
, , ]; = ', ,
' [.; ; ]27 ; ! = ' ' [
]; = ', ' []; = ' ,
, ' [; ]; ? = ' ,
'; = ', , , ';
" ' , , ' [ ];
, 26 = ' , ' [ ]; , 23 =
' , ' [ ]; - = '
, , -'29 .

4.
1. 3- .

==528
III.
( " "): 1) , : , ; 2)
(): , , 3) (): - ? ; 4) ()
: .
, , ,
. . ,
.
. ( ).
[26] , , .
(. 1.1, 1.2, 3.2, 4.3).
, 3- , 3- (.
" ()").
: 3- , .
2. : "3 . . . . . (. ), 3 . . .".
, .
; ( ), ( ),
, ( ). ,
, . 3-
Cue , (. ), ,
.
3. .
.
4. ( ) ( ).
, : ,
, . . .
5. . , (, )
(.), , , , : , ; .
(. . ). .
, . . 1.2, -

( )
==529
: -
( . [27]).
6. , , ,
, . . , , .
7. , ( [23: 70-71])
, ''; . , ,
? .
, ,
.
8. , ,
. .

, ,
.
9. "" (. [28: 190, 18: 179 .]).
.
, .
. , ,
: (. , ) (. ,
). . ,
, , , , .
, ( )
.
10. .
. , , 9,
.: . =>
? , , , 1.1 Y-e Y 2.1 -,
( .), ( . .),


==530
III.
' -.' ' -.',
. 1.1 -. 2.1 -. (
Reali Fact) ).
11. . .
,
, , . ., . . : . ? .
:
, , . , , ,
.
12. , :
(-) (. [29]). ,
; ; ,
, ( , , ).
, , , , , :
= {3- /} { >. , ,
, : . . [30],
[31: 336 .].
13. " ". [32: 301- 308],
" " , , . , ,
, , , , . . , , ,
. [33].
14. , , . .,
; . , = .
15. () ,
. [34],
; . [35] [36].
. ,
, : <> .

( )
==531

, ,
,
, "" ,
, , [3739]
16 9 , , ,
, , 114),
212) 312), , ""
[40 8], , , "" [18 179 ] ,
( 17)
,

, , (),
( , ) ()
17 ,
, (4 1 2)) [41 133135], [42], [25 556]
""
<, > , ,
<, > ,
"" ,
18 , , ,
, - ,
,
, ,

19 [20] , [43]

==532
III.
20. " ", -
; . [34].
21. "" .
22. , , , . . '
', ' , ', [8: 27 .]. , ', ': ' ,
' = ', '. , .
. . . 3.2,
4.3, , , . ,
. , ,
200 .
, .
: () ? . ,
' , '. ,
, . , .
' , ', ' '? , -,
. ,
. , , . .
: [20: 74-79].
23. - , ,
, , . . . .
. , .
24. -
, .
, , 4.2, ( )
^ ' - (. ),
(. ), (. . ) . . ,
: 5.1.
, -

( )
==533
, ^.^- ^ ~ ,
. 1)
, .
, . 2)
, ,
, .
; . < > . . 3) ,
, , /.
( ), ( ). 4)
: , ,
; , ^ .
, .
25. , ' , ' ,
^ V ^ > N2 ' ' , , , , . .
, ,
. , ,
, , . ,
, 5.2 . ,
.
<> . .
, - ,
.
26. , .
27. ( , )
. , .
, , -, , , .
(. , ),

==534
III.
- (' , - ). .
28. , , , . . . [44].
29. . . , . . . . ,
.

( )
==535

1. . . // . 1964. . 8. . 3-16.
2. . ., . . - . ,

1984.

3. Benson M., Benson E., Ilson R. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. A Guide to Word Combinations.
Amsterdam (Philadelphia), 1986.
4. . . . // .
. 1990. N 6. . 123-139.
5. . . .
// . 1970. . 13. . 3-26.
6. . . ,
. // . 1972. . 16. . 3-30.
7. . . . 1. '' '* . // Russian Linguistics.

1985. N. 2/3. . 257-279.


8. . M. . . M.,

1985.
9. Wierzbicka Anna. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.
10. Wierzbicka Anna. Lingua Mentalis. The Semantics of Natural Language. Sydney; N. Y. etc., 1980.
11. Wierzbicka Anna. Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann Arbor, 1985.
12. Wierzbicka Anna. English Speech Act Verbs A Semantic Dictionary. Sydney; 1987.
13. . . // . . 1986. N 6. . 5770.
14. . . " <=> ". M., 1974.
15. ., E. . // .
. M., 1987. . 80-96.
16. . . : . . ...
. . . ., 1987.
17. . . // .
. M., 1990. . 70-95.
18. . . . . M., 1974.
19. Bierwisch M. Some Semantic Universals of German Adjectivals // Foundations of Language. International
Journal of Language and Philosophy. 1967. Vol. 3. No. 1.

==536
III.

20. . . - " <=>


" // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 1. Wien, 1980. 119.

21. Verhaar John. The Verb BE and its Synonyms. Philosophical and Grammatical Studies. Parts 1-6/ Ed. by John
W. M. Verhaar // Foundations of Language. Supplementary Series. 1967. Vol. 1.; 1968. Vol. 6.; 1968. Vol. 8.; 1969.
Vol. 9.; 1972. Vol. 14.; 1973. Vol. 16.
22. . ., . . . ( ). M., 1983.
23. Chvany Catherine V. On the Syntax of BE-sentences in Russian. Cambridge (Mass.), 1975.
24. . ., . .

. , 1982. . 1-2.
25. Guiraud-Weber M. Les propositions sans nominatif en russe moderne. Paris, 1984.
26. . , // 1971. M.,1972.
27. . . . M., 1976.
28. Stem G. Meaning and Change of Meaning. Goteborg, 1931.
29. . . // . . ., 1974.
. 343-361.
30. . . - (
) // . M., 1966. .147173.
31. - M. // . . . . . 1984.
N 6.
32. . . // Russian Linguistics. International Journal for the
Study of the Russian Language, 1985. Vol. 9. N 2/3. , P. 289-317.
33. . . //
. . 1964.
34. . ., . . : , , //
. 1989. . 29. . 34-92.
35. Garde P. Analyse de la tournure russe Mne necego delat' / / International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and
Poetics. 1976. No. 22.
36. Holthusen J. Russisch necego und Verwandtes // Zeitschrift fur Slawische Philologie. 1953. . 22. Heft 1.
37. Lyons J. A Note on Possessive, Existential, and Locative Sentences // Foundations of Language. 1967. Vol. 3.

No. 4.

( )
==537

38. . . //
. . 1973. N 4.

39. . . //
. . ., 1977.
40. . . : . . ... - . . ., 1969.
41. . . . ., 1973.
42. . . // . 1973. N 3.
43. . . . ., 1982.
44. Wierzbicka Anna. Boys will be boys // Language. 1987. Vol.63. No. 1.
45. Ferrel, James. On the aspects of byt' and on the position of the periphrastic future // Word. 1959. No. 4, P. 362-

376.

==538

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; Vauquois- Boitet, 1985; Nagao et al., 1985; Bennet-Slocum 1985; Isabelle=Bourbeau, 1985; Biewer et al., 1985.

-2
==555

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Brinkmann, 1981, Computational Linguistics 1985 . (vol. 11, N 1 vol. 11, N 2-3); . :
Brinkmann, 1979; Melby, 1981.

==556
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==559

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==560
V.

()
9
INDAPOK

()
Instru- .
The Future of Electronics in mentation.
Advances due in spectroscopy, chromatography, spectrometry and electrochemistry.
In recent years, government regulations, technical demands, microprocessor development and a host of other influences have forced a revolution in
chemical, biochemical and industrial instrumentation.

Thirty five years ago, significant breakthroughs were achieved in chemical analysis instrumentation, and UV and IR spectrometers, mass spectrometers,
and PH meters became available. The search for a synthetic substitute for natural rubber, for example, accelerated during World War Two and spurred the
development of instrumentation that could analyse molecular structure in the laboratory. In the early sixties, chromatography became an analytical tool
(now the most highly used instrumental technique in the chemical laboratory). Nuclear instrumentation, which appeared in the late fifties, dramatically
changed medical diagnosis. Improved detectors and sampling technology have led to more exotic instrumentation methods, such as gas chromatography
mass spectrometry (GCMS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray fluorescence and plasma emission spectroscopy.

, , , .
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.

9
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.

-2
==561

steering curve for a bucket conveyor. Diffusion bonding of aluminium alloys.


Pendulously suspended bucket with .
.
11. Hydrocarbon oil based silicone anti- foams.

12. Static changing device for drive brake operation of variable speed asyn-
- chronous motors fed by a current con- , verter.

.
13. Stripless electrical wire terminal (for distributors of telecommunication in-
, stallations, especially telephone instal- . lations.
14. Conveying apparatus for sheet-or foil- like material,

15. Planetary gear train for automotive transmission or the like.


.

16. Gas-insulated electrical apparatus. , 17. Flat-card-shaped semiconductor device


with electric contacts on both faces and process for its
manufacture,
.
18. Optical phase grid arrangement and cocoupling device having such an ar-
.
rangement.

() , -2 -1033
200 000 / (
). 1520 ,
PL-1.

.
(2530 )
, , 34 .
810 ( 1/3 )
1 . 10.

, -1045 ( 880000 /) 2,5-3 ,
-1046 (1 200 000 /) 3,8-4 , -1061 (2 000 000 /) - 4,5-4,8 .

==562
V.

.
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.

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.
, . . .

11
. 1980 .
-1 -1033 -50 (. . )
. -1 15 5
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-2
==563
(6).
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12
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.

==564
V.

-2 .
, , -, 1% . , ,
.

(-2) Holder

. , ,
. :

(-2) , .

Method of making an elec-
trical synthetic insulator,
and insulator made by the .
method.
Electric rotary machine having superconducting ro- - tor.

Method of manufacturing /- stack of laminated plates -


for electric machines and -
devices,

, , ,
. , -2, .

Capacitor element. Static changing device for drive-brake operation of variable speed asynchronous motors fed by a current converter.
Solid-state laser scanning system and electrophotographic machine including the same.


. / /
.
/ / .

(-2)

.
, .
, .

-2
==565

, -2,
, .

3. - 213
-2
-1,
, 14.
, -2 -1, ,

-2.
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. ,
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-2 ,
( , -2 , , 1982. 14 -1 .:
., 1978, ., 1981; -1, 1985; -, 1984; -III, 1984; -IV, 1983; -V, 1983; -VI,
1985; -VII, 1985; - .: ., 1977; , 1986; ., 1982.

==566
V.

. .), , . .
,
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. .
3. -2 . ,
, .
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; . ROUND '' (), '' (), ''

(), '' () '' ().


, . ROUNDS '' ''.
, . ROUNDING '' '',
ROUNDED '' ''.
, . ROUNDING '' ''.
,
. : electric device '
' electric devices ' '.
. : claimed he was ill => '

, ', ' ', The man I saw


yesterday => ', ', ' '.
.

,
.

-2
==567


; .

semiconductor
device


overvonage

zero

protection

insertion

labncation '' '' '' ' ':

circuit '' ''

'""-

*" "" ''

'' ' ':

''

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, .
, , (, , )
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, .
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.
, , , ,
. , , , ,
.

==568
V.

" ",

. ,
, ,
. . , ""
, ,
. : High voltage direct current transmission apparatus

' '
' '.
Ringing signal supply ' '

' '.

-
.
-2 .
.
-2 , -1.
" =>
", -2.
, , , ,
1974, . .
(, , 1975; Mel'uuk, Pertsov, 1987; ,

, , 1975; , , 1975; , 1976; , , ,


1978; , 1979; , 1981; , 1982; , 1980). ,
, 1975 ,
, ,

,
( ) .
- , -
(, 1979).
, " <=> "
. , , -2
, , . .
,
-2

-2
==569

( ) : (i)
; ()
; (iii)
; (iv)
; (v)
; (vi)
; (vii)
. .
(i) (vii)
. ()
() .
(, )
,
, . (iv)-(vi)
,
, ""
.
: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
; 4) ; 5)

(); 6) , ()
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; 7) ,
, , ;
8) , .
,
.
(iii)-(vi) ,
.
,
,
.
(i)
, .
, -1: ) (
it'll, it's . .); ) ; )


==570
V.
-2 . ^a ,
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(BY MEANS OF '', WITH REGARD TO '' . .).
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.
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" => " , (
)
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() . ,
- . , NEED, NEEDS
: '' ''
.
(THE ), , NEED, NEEDS
.
,
. ,
, .

. -

-2
==571
( ) .
- ,
,
<1
, ( The train 4
stopped '

'),
1 compi
(to debug the program ' '),

(modern modl{ computers ' ') . .

,
, ,
.
,
- . ,
, . . , ()
.
, ,
,
. ,
. , The firm bought a computer for 1000

dollars ' 1000 '


for a 1000 dollars: bought for a 1000 dollars ' 1000 ' a
computer for a 1000 dollars ' '.
( 2-) ,
.

. , ,

, . 50 ,

, (iii)

. .
-, :
; MAKE, TELL, INFORM

(,
INF -

==572

V.

02); , -ING;


02; , THAT
claimed he was ill (. ); ;
.
-,
.
, :

semiconductor device fabrication


' ', overvoltage protection circuit
' ', zero insertion force connector
' '.
-2 ,
,
compos

compos

>

X,

compos

.\

, .
, .
,
. ZERO ''

INSERTION '',
, .
ZERO FORCE ''. , ,
, . ,
,
ZERO FORCE INSERTION.
,
:
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compos

compos

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insertion

force = zero insertion

force.

-2
==573
(iv)

, , , ,
.
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,
. ,

romp

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DEBUGinf '

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i-cotnpl

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DEBUG = , PROGRAM =^ . ,

, -,
.
, , ,
( ) ,
: ) , :
PRESENT, PERFECT, PROGRESSIVE 1 ( ), PAST, PERFECT,
f
)
PROGRESSIVE
has been working had been working

; ) , : John
being late we decided to go => , ; They talked me
into accepting their proposal => ; as many as
three years =? ; two inches long => ; five years older =>
.

==574
V.

, ,
, ; ) ,

,
( 1974), , : on Monday =>

, pay attention => , space resonance =>


, controlling field =? , interturn capacitance =>
, iron chute => .

.
(v)
- .
,
: ) ,
(, - => > > , - => > > )
(, , , =>
> , , => ) . .; )
; ,
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(,
); )
,
(, <- <- ,
was followed,
)
, (iii)(v) . ,
, ,
, . . .
; . (iii)-(v)
,
. .

-2
==575

, , (problems discussed => '

'), (, ),
( ,
. .).
. , ferrite-cored anchor '
' ' ',
ferrite-cored,
.
. ,
. ,
. -2 .

(vi) , ,

:
.
,
( , , , )
( , , , ,
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.
,
(, 1980):
(., ,
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==576
V.

. ,
.
, ,
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, :
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. . , (
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, (
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(vii)


.
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.
4.
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.

, . 1, , ,
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.
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-2
==577

, , , ,
.

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(. 1985).
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.
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.

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.
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19 3

==578
V.

(, 1979). ,
, ;
; ,
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. ,
.
2.3. . ,

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, , ,
(. , 1980) .
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,
, ,
.
, ,
.
(. ,
, , , ,
).
.
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.
, ,
; .
,
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-.

-2
==579
, ,

- .
-,
,
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,
, .
4. .

, -
.
.

.
,
. , .
. , - . ,

,
. , ,
, .
: ,

SILENTLY '' . ,
, :
FOR, (I'd
like for you to come earlier ' , '),
, (
There was no place where he could sleep').
5. . ,

( )
' . ,
, ,
(, ) (,
), .
,
19*

==580
V.

, , , -

, .
()
, .
.
, , ,
. -,
,
. ,
,
, , ; . , , ,
, , .
() . ,
, ,
. . ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .

, 1985: . , :
// . - "-85":
. . . ., 1985.
--, 1978: . ., . ., . .
// ja3HK. 1978. . 29. . 125-171.
., 1978:
/ . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . 3.
: . / , . "" . ., 1978.
., 1981: . ., . ., . . .
-1 // .
: , 1981.

-2
==581

-, 1982: . , . . -2 //
. : , 1982.
, 1979: . . .
// Jyocoec . 1979. . 35. . 19-53.
, 1979: . . : . / - .
. (. . . ) 122. ., 1979.

--, 1975: . ., . ., . .
. 1. // . . 2, . . 1975.
7. . 3043.
-, 1975: . ., . . . 2.
// . 1975. 11. . 22-32.
., 1977: . ., . ., . ., . .
: . - . . . (. .
. ). 91. .,1977.
, 1979: . . . .: , 1979.
., 1982: . ., . ., . . .
//
. .: , 1982. (, . . 2: . 6).
, 1974; .. " <=> ". .: , 1974.
-, 1975: . ., . . : .
- . . . (, . . ) 64/66. ., 1975.
-1, 1985: . ., . ., . . .
- -1. I. //
( ). : -
. -, 1985. . 2039. (. , : . 714).
-, 1984: . ., . ., . . .
- -1. II. .
: . - . . (. . .
) 154. ., 1984.
-, 1984: . . . . . .
- -

==582
V.

-1. III. : . - . . (.
. ) 155. ., 1984.
IV, 1983: . . -
-1.IV. : . - . .
(. . . ) 159. ., 1983.
-V, 1983: . ., . ., . . .
- -l.V. :
. . . . (. . . ) 160. ., 1983.
-VI, 1985: . ., . ., . ., . .
- -l.VI.
: . - . . (. . . )
166. 1985.

-VII, 1985: . ., . ., . . .
- -1. VII.
: . - . . (. . . ) 167. ., 1985.
, 1976: . . .
( ) // . . 2, . . 1976.
1. . 3843.
, 1980: . 3. ( ): . -
. . (. . . ) 137. ., 1980.
, 1981: . . -
// Wiener. Slaw. Almanach. 1981. Bd. 7. S. 155-215.
, 1982: . .
// Bull. Soc. Pol. linguist. 1982. Fasc. 39. .91-107.
, 1986: . .
( " ") // . 1986. 27. . 82-120.
., 1982: . , . , . ., . ., . .
. . -1 //
. : , 1982.
Bennett-Slocum, 1985: Bennett W. S. SlocumJ. The LRC machine translation system // Comput. Linguist. 1985.
Vol. 11, N 2/3. . 111-121.

-2
==583
Biewer et al., 1985: Biewer A Feneyrol Ch., RitzkeJ, Stegentritt E. ASCOF - a modular multilevel system for
French-German translation // Ibid. 1985. Vol. 11, N 2/3. P. 137-154.
Brinkmann, 1979: Brinkmann . . Perspectives d'avenir de la traduction automatique // META.

1979. Vol. 24, N 3. P. 315-325.


Brinkmann, 1981: Brinkmann . . Machine aids to translation // Ibid. 1981. Vol. 26, N 1. P. 67-75.
Isabelle-Bourbeau, 1985: Isabelle P., Bourbeau L. TAUM-AVIATION: its technical features and some
experimental results // Comput. Linguist. 1985. Vol. 11,N 1. P. 18-27.
Melby, 1981: Melby A. K. Translators and machines can they cooperate? META. 1981. Vol. 26, N 1. P. 23-34.
Mel'cuk-Pertsov, 1987: Mel'euk I. A., Pertsov N. V. Surface syntax of English. A formal model within the Meaning
<-> Text framework // Linguistic and literary studies in Eastern Europe. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1987. Vol. 13.
Nagao et al., 1985: Nagao M; Tsujii Junichi, Nakamura Junichi. The Japanese government project for machine
translation // Comput. Linguist. 1985. Vol. 11, N2/3. P. 91-110.
Slocum, 1985: Slocum J. A survey of machine translation: its history, current status, and future prospects // Ibid.
1985. Vol. 11, N 1. P. 1-17.

Vauquois, 1981: Vauquois . L'informatique au service de la traduction // META. 1981. Vol. 26, N L

P. 8-17.
Vauquois-Boitet, 1985: Vauquois ., Boitet Ch. Automated translation at Grenoble University //

Comput. Linguist. 1985. Vol. 11, N 1. P. 28-36.

==584

00.htm - glava31

:
*
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1.
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, . . , . . . 3. 1988
<=> , , 1974.
" <=> " ,
. . ,
(Mel'cuk, Pertsov, 1987, ).
' "Words are Physicians for an Ailing Mind" Munchen, 1991.

:
==585


. () ,
, <=> .
. , ,
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,
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( +),
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, , , /
, .

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==586
V.
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:
==587

-
.

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. (
2-) , , .
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( --. < , ,
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: (26) (
).

.
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. 52.
.
, , ,
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.

==588
V.

2.
(1),
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. ,
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, .
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(. (1)). (
) , ; .
(3) ,
2.
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(4) (), (5) ().
(4) , , (
). , ,
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, .
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:
==589

* , ; .
<> 3.
;
.
.
(6)
, .
. (7): (7) .
, 1985, .
, :
.
, .

(76) .
, ,
. .

3. .
: 1)
()
?; 2) ( )
?; 3)
?
,
.
,
, , , 1983,
, 1978.
3

. , 1979: 99 .


==590
V.

3.1.
, :
, , , , . .
, , : , , , , , . .; .
(8) .
, - , ,
, :
(9) <> < >.
(9) ,
.
, ,
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, ; .
(11) .
(10) (11) , .

, . . -
: (12) <, , ,...>. ,
, , : (13) <
, > .
,
, , : (14) <> .
,
,
, : (15) <> <>
< , >. .
,
,

:
==591

(16) , , , -
. ,
, ; , (17)
, (176) : (17) , (176) *0 .
, , ,
. , ,

. .
.
-,
.
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.
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(
). , , ,
, .
-, ,
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, , ..). ,
(19) , (196)

(' '), ' , - <, ,
..>, '). , ,
- , .
3.2. , ,

, , ( .
).
,
.

==592
V.

, ,
-: , , , , , ,
, . . ( . , 1988). ,
. (20), (20): (20)
< > , (206) * < > .
.
, ,
.
- ,
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, ,
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, .

, (.
, 1978).
(21 ) , (216) . .
(. ).
,
. , ,
.
, ,
. (. ).

(. ),
; .
(22) *0 , (226) .
, ,
; , ,
: (23) .

, :

:
==593

(236) * .
3.3. ,
, , , ,
, . (5),
.
, ,
.
,
.
(24) < , , > .
(24) ,
, .
, 1983. (24) , . . . -
, :
. 4.
,
.
(25)

, (24), . , . .
- .
. ,
. .
. - 5.
4

; . < >,
, , . .
.

; .
(' ', '', ).

==594
V.

;
. , .
, , ,
.
, .
. ,
,
. ,
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: )
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(26) <, > ( ^), (266)
<, > ( ); (27)
< , , > ( ), (276)
< , > (
); (28) < > , (286) ,
, ,
( . 1988. N 17).
. .
, ,
<> , .
, -
, . , ,
: <> .
(26)-(28) .
: )
; ) - (, ); )
.
(26) , , .
-

:
==595
, (. . )
; .
(29) * <> .
, , ,
. ,
,
.
(27)
: ,
: () *0 <, > , (306) *
<, > .
(28) , .

. ,
: (31 ) *0 , (316)
.
, ,

(32) <, > , -
.
, ,
(. ), - :
' ,
'.
, ,
, . .
() (), ,
,
: () , (336) ?
, () ?? , () * .

==596
V.

() , ()
. .

4.
,
.
: 1) ( ) '',
' ' (, , , , ..), '' (, ..),
'' (, , , , ), '' (, , , ,
,...), '' (, ,,..), '' (, ,...),
'' (, ,...) ; 2)
; 3) (,
. .), (, , , , , . . ).

.

.
- (' '
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, , ,
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.
.

- ,
.
, . . ''
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:
==597

(. .
).
,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, , , ,
. ,
6.

, 1978: . . // Tekst,Jezyk.
Poetyka. Wroclaw etc., 1978. . 129-152.
, 1988: . .

// . : . 1988. . 57-78.

, 1985: . . . ., 1985.
, 1983: . .

. ., 1983.
, 1974: . . <=? . .,

1974.
Mel'cuk, Pertsou, 1987: Mel'cuk I. A., Pertsov N. V. Surface Syntax of English. A Formal Model within

the Meaning <=> Text Framework. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1987.


Mel'cuk, 1979: Mel'cuk, Igor A. Studies in Dependency Syntax. Ann Arbor, 1979.
6

. . , .

==598

00.htm - glava32

*
1.
1.1. , ,
. ,
-
.
, ,
,
.
- ,
. ,
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. .
, . .
, . ,
-.
1.2. : ,
, .
1.2.1. . .
<= 1.
"Tekst. Jezyk. Poetyka." Wroclaw. Krak6w, Gdank, 1978.

==599


. (
) (
) : (), (), - () ..
,
.
, ,
- , .. ;
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.
, ,
,
, . . .
( "") ,
, . . .
,
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(
),
.
" <=> " , -, ' . . <=> . ., 1974.


==600
VI. Miscellanea

() ,
.
1.2.2. ,
,

'' ' 12.

1.2.3. , ,
3.
.
,
. .
, . -,
"" ()
. -, ( , -)
- .
, ,
- . ,
-
(. ). ,
- -, -,
.
- .
<> ^ >
( ) (, ,
).
1.3. ,
, .
2
:
.

. . , . . .: . . 19. 1967. . . .
. ., 1974.


==601
--

. , ,

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) .
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). ,
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==602
VI. Miscellanea
. *
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, , 4.

. , ,
( ) - ,
(. 7), , .
,
.
,
(.
) (. " , * ).

( , ,
4
, (. 4.3),
. ( )
, ^ ( ).
, ; . , .
, , : Seuren P. A. ., Negative's
Travels, : Semantic Syntax, Edited by Pieter A.V.Seuren, Oxford, 1974. . 197; . . .
. ., 1974, . 108-109. . . . ,
" " " " (. 108),
" ". :
( ) .
. , .
"" ( !) (. . . . ., . .296, 331).
( <=> " "), : '
' <=> ( <=> ) <=> ( <^> ).


==603
, ).
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.

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1. s,hh

1. 2. 3.
5 4. Sp

2. Sp 3. 4. Conjn,i
5. .

: Dzn: <, , ,
>; Du'- < , ,
, >; D'2,.3- ,
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,

==604
VI. Miscellanea

>; D^s. , < ,

>5.

: Dsi: (-.) < , ,

>; Ds2: (-.) < ,


>; : < , >;
Dy 4: () < , >.
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,
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2.2. - 2.1 .
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>, , .
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5
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: ( ) ( ). .


==605

*0 , , , .
,
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). ,
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.

==606
VI. Miscellanea
6) ,
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() VS. ( , ) .
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2.3.2. ,
. ,
, .

. . (Continuous) ; . Lakoff G. Instrumental


Adverbs and the Concept of Deep Structure // Foundations of Language. International Journal of Language and Philosophy. 1968. Vol.4. N.I.
: -
: ) , '', " ' (, , ); )
, '', '' ( -., -.,
); ) , '' , '' (, ,
, ), , , ,
, (-) .


==607

) , 2, ,
, : ( ,
) VS. ( , );

( , ) VS.
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.
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; , .
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, .

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==608
VI. Miscellanea

3.
2.3.1. 2.3.3 2.2 -
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==609
. ,
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==610
VI. Miscellanea

.
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. . ; . . . ,
. ., 1982.
9
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==611
4.1.2. , , , , Accusativus temporis

(, . .) (/ , / . .).
-
Accusativus temporis, :
, / , *
/ , *0 .
' , , ',

' '10.
: )
, . ,
Accusativus temporis, ; )

, , ,
, Accusativus temporis:
VS.
.
, Accusativus temporis

; . has been writing the novel three weeks ( * in three weeks )


VS. He has written the novel in three weeks ( *three weeks ), // e'crivait ce livre une (
*en une annee ) VS. // a ecrit ce livre en une ( *une annee )".
,
: , Accusativus temporis,


, , Accusativus temporis,
.

= ' ', 1 1 *0 - '
'.
10

.: U. . ..

" Accusativus temporis , , ,


, : Wierzbicka A., On the Semantics of the Verbal Aspect in Polish,[B:] To Honor Roman Jakobson.
Essays on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday, The Hague-Paris, 1967.

==612
VI. Miscellanea

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). , .
4.1.3. , . ,
. 12 ,
()
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, - .

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your pardon, apologize, pardon you>, */ am promising you <swearing to you> ..,
,
Continuous.
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: - " ", , .
4.1.4. ,
, , .
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12

Austin J. L. How to Do Things with Words. N. Y., 1965.


==613

,
: () , *
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==614
VI. Miscellanea

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; () .
: " ,
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(), () S ' (), ()'.


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( ) .
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15
. (Wierzbicka A. Dociekania semantyczne. Wroclaw etc., 1969).
, , ,
, .
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==615

, .
.
4.2.1. "" :
, ,
: <> (. ), * <> (. )
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==616
VI. Miscellanea
,
() , () , () (. ,
, ?), () () (. , ?), ()
(. , ?), (.
, , ?, ,
) .
,
16.

,
, , .
.
-, , , ,
, - . -,
,
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, , ,
, "" ,
(. , . 617)
, , .
16
., : Baker . L. Double Negation // Linguistic Inquiry. 1970, 1.2; Pieter M. Seuren. The Comparative // Generative Grammar in Europe/ Ed.
by F. Kiefer and N. Ruwet. Dordrecht, Holland, 1973.
, , : much (He didn't say much VS. *He said much), at all (He wasn't there at
all VS. *He was there at alt); slightest <least> (There's not the slightest <least> doubt about it VS. 'There's the slightest <least> doubt about it); bother
(He won't bother leaving the number VS.*He mil bother leaving the number), care (He didn't care to look VS. ^He cared to look), stand (I couldn't stand it
much longer VS. */ stood it much longer); be all that (He is not all that bright VS. *He is all that bright), lift a finger (He didn't lift a finger VS. * He lifted
a finger), can possibly (You can't possibly refuse him VS. *You can possibly refuse him), can help (I couldn't help it VS. "7 could help it)
. , , , , , ""
, . Do you think he said much?, Was he there at all?. Do you think there's the slightest doubt about it?, I am not sure he will
bother leaving the number <he will care to go there>, He could hardly stand it. Is he all that bright?, Can you possibly refuse him?, How can you help it, I
wonder? , , .


==617
,
. , S ' ;

, , - , ,
'; budge S '; ,
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*Peter budged ,
' '

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==619

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==620
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==621

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==622

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==623

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==625


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==627

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==628
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/ Red. M.R. Mayenowa. Wroclaw; Warszawa etc., 1978.


2. . . //
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1987.
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==629

00.htm - glava34

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==630
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==631
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==632
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==633
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==634
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==635
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==636
VI. Miscellanea

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==637
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==638
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==639
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==640
VI. Miscellanea

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==641
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==642
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==643

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==644
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==645

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==646
VI. Miscellanea

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==647

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==648
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==649

1. Wierzbicka Anna. Ethno-syntax and the Philosophy of Grammar// Studies in Language. 1979.
Vol. 3. N 3. P. 313-389.
2. Buhler K. Sprachtheorie. Stuttgart, 1965.
3. . . ., 1974.
4. Lyons J. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge, 1968.
5. Lyons J. Semantics. Cambridge, 1977. Vol. 2.
6. Speech, Place and Action / Ed. R. T. Jarvella, W. Klein. N. Y., 1982.
7. Here and There. Cross-linguistic Studies on Deixis and Demonstration / Ed. T. Weissenborn, W. Klein.
Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1982.
8. .., .. : //
. ., 1984. . 25-96.
9. Opalka Hubertus. Representations of Local Ni-Deixis in Swahili in Relation to Buhler's "Origo des Zeigfelds"//
Here and There, 1982. P. 65-79.
10. . .; ., 19481965. . 1-17.
11. Ehlich K. Anaphora and Deixis: Same, Similar or Different// Speech, Place and Action, 1982. P. 43-63.
12. Ehrich V. Da and the System of Spatial Deixis in German// Here and There, 1982. P. 43-63.

13. Reichenbach H. Elements of Symbolic Logic. N. Y., 1947.


14. Leech G. H. Towards a Semantic Description of English. London, 1969.
15. Clark H. Space, Time, Semantics and the Child// Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language / Ed.
T. Moore. N. Y 1973. P. 147-168.
16. . . . . ., 1974.
17. Fillmore Ch. Santa Cruz Lectures on Deixis. Bloomington, 1975.
18. . . //
; . , 1980.
19. Hill Clifford. Up/Down, Front/Back, Left/Right. A Contrastive Study of Hausa and English// Here and There.
1982. P. 13-42.
20. Hottenroth Priska-Monika. The System of Local Deixis in Spanish// Here and There. 1982. P. 133-153.
21. . . // Tekst i zdanie. Warszawa, 1983. S. 313-

339.
22. Fillmore Ch. Lexical Entries for Verbs. Foundations of Language // International Journal of Language and
Philosophy. 1968. Vol. 4. N. 4.
. . , ,
.


==650
VI. Miscellanea

23.Jakobson Roman 0. Shifters, Verbal Categories and the Russian Verb// Selected Writings. Vol.11,

Word and Language. The Hague, 1971.- P. 130-147.


24. Brecht Richard D. Deixis in imbedded Structures.Foundations of Language // International J. of Language and
Philosophy. 1968. Vol. 11, N. 4. P. 489-518.
25. Rappoport Gilbert. Deixis and Detachment on the Adverbial Participles of Russian// Morphosyntax in
Slavic/Ed. Catherine V. Chvany, Richard D. Brecht. Chelseca, 1980. P. 273-300.
26. Comrie Bernard. Tense. Cambridge; London, etc:, 1985.
27. . ., . . - .
- . , 1984.

==651


00.htm - glava35

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==652
VI. Miscellanea

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==653
3. , .

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==654
VI. Miscellanea
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==656
VI. Miscellanea

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1974, Stegner 1966, A book of Things 1974, Rowe 1971, 1974a, 1974b, 1979, 1981, Gregg
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(W.Rowe); Nabokov's Garden: a Guide to Ada (B.A.Mason); A Lolita Crossword Puzzle (K.Ahearn); Invitation to a Decoding. Dostoevski) as Subtext in
Nabokov's Priglashenie na kasn' (P. Tammi).

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==657

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==658
VI. Miscellanea
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alter ego .
, ,
.
8
, , ", , " ( ),
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"", . . ( 1990). .
" ", "" "" "" "" . (Davydov 1982: 239).


==660
VI. Miscellanea
, , , .

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.
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.

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==661

. " ,
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, - 9.

. . "": ", , ", . " ,
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(., , Zimmer 1980). .
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, .

==662
VI. Miscellanea

, , , ,
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==663
, , .
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10

, . . :
(Nabokov 1944).

==664
VI. Miscellanea

/ / ". .
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12.
" . : " " (Davydov 1982: 195).
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15 "" . . ,
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""
==665


, . , , ,
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2.2.
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. (Boyd 1990: 475). , , , . ,
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" (Johnson 1985: 96). ., , .
, ,
, (Boyd 1990: 462).

==666
VI. Miscellanea
, , -,
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.
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"", "", " " "" , -, ( 1990: 527).

" " "". ,
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".

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26 "Pale fire" ( 1962 .).

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Rex", ,
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/

""
==667

, / / , ;...
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13

, "", , -, "" (13 1930 ): " /


/ , / , , / " . . ,
, " "

==668
VI. Miscellanea

, , ,
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,
. , . Rowe 1974b

, ,
"Pnin", "Lolita", "Transparent Things" "Pale Fire".

, , .
.
Rowe 1979 (, . 85-123) " " 17
. , ,
, , ,
. , , , ,
, , , . ,
.
( "", . 1990: 94),
, ( ), Bend Sinister,
.

""
==669

, .
" " (Rowe 1979: 88). "Transparent

Things", , " " (


, . 93).
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00.htm - glava37

3. ""
3.1. ""
-, 1928 ,
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==670
VI. Miscellanea
,
. .
, 14,
,
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. . . . .
.
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.
15. , " ,
, " ( . 17 1945 , Boyd 1992: 85), "

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"). . . .
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1934 ., . . , ,
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. . ,
, , II
III.
. . : " , ,
, , ,

14

" , / , , / , / / ,
/ " (" "). , , ,
(Boyd 1990: 203).
15
, .,
. , . "
. -,
, , , " ().

""
==671

, , - "; "
, , ".
. . , ,
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16.
1933-1934
,
"". (Boyd 1990: 397 .)

, ,
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,
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, 1934
, ""
16

: " "" , -
, " (Field 1977: 30). , , . .
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17

"".
, , .

==672
VI. Miscellanea

"", ",
"18.
1934 "" " "
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1935 . "". 1936
. , "
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1936 "".
,
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1939 "" (. , 3.3.4)
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,
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XX , , "" .
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1952 "" ( "", -).
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. . : " ,
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-

18

, , 1936 ., ,
1938 1939 ., . . "" (Boyd 1990: 405). ""
1934 . "".

""
==673

, , , "",
in statu nascendi ,

" ( 1981: 8).


, . , , ,
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: 1) "" ; 2) "" ; 3) ""
; 4) "" ; 5) ""
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.
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.
. "" "
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" (Field 1967: 214).
. . . . "" " "
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" (Salehar 1974: 70).


"" . , "-
", " " (Davydov 1982: 188),

" , " " . .


" ( , . 211). ,
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2) "" . , "
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22 3

==674
VI. Miscellanea

, ... "" "


(Boyd 1990: 447).
3) "" ""
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19.
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: " ", "" " ". "
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19
. ,
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.

""
==675

, ""
" ", ,
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, , , . .
, , ..." (Davydov 1982: 199).
4) "" , ,
, ,
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"" . ,
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, " " (Boyd 1990:

480).
, , Karlinsky 1963, Johnson 1985, 1989,
Boyd 1990, 1990 .,
"". ""
(Karlinsky 1963), -
(Johnson 1985: 100 .),
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" ". " " -
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( 1989: 459-460). .
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,
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" (Boyd 1990: 93).
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20
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), , ", , ,
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" "). , : "
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22*

==676
VI. Miscellanea

5) "" .
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, ,
(Rowe 1981: 9). , ,

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,
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( , . 38).
"" " ".
, "",
Salehar 1974: " ...

" (Salehar 1974: 71). ,


" ". .

: , ,
(pattern) "" (Boyd 1990: 450).
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" ( 1990: 9).
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""
==677
- " ()2'.
. "-", , "
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.
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,
,
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"" , "
", . . 21
. : "
, ( ,
, )" (Nabokov 1966: 290).

22

" ", , , . (.
1991). ( "") , . ; . .

23

, " " (, Nabokov 1973: 78),


" " ().

==678
VI. Miscellanea

, (. 1985: 22, ""


). "",
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==679

. " , ",
, , . , ,
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(1926): ", : / , , / . ...
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( ),
: " , / , /
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"": ", / : /
, / . ,
/ , : , /


==680
VI. Miscellanea

/ ( ) / ,
/ , / , /
" (. "" "", . ).
"",
.
,
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. , .
3.3.1. ,
.
. ,

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""
==681
, " ",
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, ,
, 24
. , .
"" . " , " ,
, " " (Salehar 1974: 77; . Johnson 1985: 96 .).

==682
VI. Miscellanea

... ,
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), , , , ,
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""
==683
, , ) ,
.

3.3.2. ,
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25
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==684
VI. Miscellanea

", , -, . ", ? , ,
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".
, .
.
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""
==685
, , , ,
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), , , , , , ,
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.

, , .
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==686
VI. Miscellanea
,
. :
, .
3.3.3. ,
, .
.

" " ,
" ", " ", " ",
: ", !" (
Hear, heart ', !').
, -, ,
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26

, . , ,
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==687
, ,
. "
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.
: " - ,
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.
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, . , "0 " ). . ", , ", "
"" - " ( 1972: 369). ,
:
, .
27
. " " (1924) " " (1928): " / ";
", / / , . / ".

==688
VI. Miscellanea

". ", , , ,

, , , - ;
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.
- ,
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.
.

, , , . "
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. 16 1920 .: " , , , ?
, , , , !" (Boyd 1990: 177),

""
==689
, ".
3.3.4. ,
"" -. ,

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, . , ,
, :
,
.
,
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.
"" ( . ,
) , :
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" (Nabokov 1963: 11). ,

" ,
", . -:
Good-by, my book! Like mortal eyes / Imagined ones must close some day. / Onegin from his
knees will rise


==690
VI. Miscellanea
/ But his creator strolls away. / And yet the ear cannot right now / Part with the music and allow / The tale to fade;
the clouds of fate / Itself continue to vibrate; / And no obstruction for the sage / Exists where I have put the end. /
The shadows of my world extend / Beyond the skyline of the page, / Blue as tomorrow's morning haze / Nor does
this terminate the phrase.
, ,
.
.
Johnson 1974; .

, , ,
. ,
, 29. ,

, , .
, " " (Nabokov
1975), , ,
, -
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29
" , ,
" ",

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""
==691

. .
,
.
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: , "
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. ,
, .
,
.
.
", II", ,
1937 (Boyd 1990: 516). ,

1939 .
30, , -
.
.
-, ,
31. "", ,
.
30

, , , ,
Solus Rex, " " (1940, N 70), , Ultima Thule, " " (- , 1942,
N 1); . Johnson 1981.
31
- . , "
" (. Nabokov 1975: 16-17).
, , .

==692
VI. Miscellanea

-, .
,
. 32.


, ..
1- . : A (accent), G, ,
( "" "" ), (portrait), x
(extract).
""

"" - (- )

"" -

"d"

"f"

"g"

"G"
,


,

(, )
"" "L" "" ""
,
,
( , ,
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"102"
"" < >

,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,

46i, 91L
92, 344d, 350x
*456-457L
310sx, 375rsx, 378rx, 380rx 310sx, 375rsx, 378rx
446s
475, 543, 607vx (.) 104g (.) 104g
104g 366i 250 250
145
344d
213, 362, 375rsx, 549
344d
35Gx, 91x
624ix
35, 36Gi
('') 308sx
( ) lllg, 327-328gs
371L
(.) 56, 137, 191

( ) 459L
( ) 305s, 643x
305s
() 267
91L, 172
('') 267s
110G
544gm
367
367, 370
(.) 137
372, 381
( ) 459L
342

() 106g, 305s
() 106g, 305s
() 106g, 111-112g, 305s
( ) 69vx, 106g
( ) 106g, 109g, 110G
() 305s
() lllg
383
==53
32v, 202x, 204v
201

355, 365
( ) 367L, 373L
('') 475L
640, 641
44, 46i, 315-316s
() 548
36Gx
( ) 542, 547
lllg
171
17 lx, 545v
39
17 lx
42
172, 487d
541 Km
355, 460L
487d
('') 307i
147
378v
378v
173
31, 212
172
146

367
31gx, 67, 149-150, 343, 356, 367, 374isv, 381rx, 382rx, 439x, 546v
342

202, 376ivx, 378ivx, 383rx


168-169ix
() 139-140
108g, 206x, 543K
340s
==202
545v
35Gx, ==469
267
173
(-. ) 550, 551
93
35, 36Gx
79-80msv, 224x, 306s, 355x
('') 29fv
357
305s

==713

80dis
43
542
() 548
548
59G, 93m, 228G
() 265f, 306s
141m
170, 317
('') 267s, 468x
('') 31, 212
(' ') 94vx
(.) 4==411
434m, 488Gmv, 489x, 511-527P, 528gx, 529Km, 530, 531,532533
(.) 26-27fmv, 119fv ('') (-.) 27fm, 63v, 64-65mv
('') ( -.) 27fm, 63v ('') 27fm, 38Gx, 63v
('') (//-.)
27fm, 63v ('-') (-., -.) 27fm, 63v, 64v
- () 491 + . (, ) 80-81fi + . (; )
69-70i, 227i

+ . () 55ix
117L
372
372
117L, 127L

117L, 127L
117L, 127L
367
372
367
439
205ix
372
640, 641
640, 641
640, 641
375
640, 641, 643
640, 643
640, 641
('') 355x, 405s, 408iLv, 409x, 410, 417, 419, 420, 421gms, 422Gv, 423-424v,
425Gv, 426Ai, 427L, 428iL, 430cd, 549K 430 137 602L
35Gx, 54dr, 66iLv, 93m 267
224x, 310sx, 377iv 50, 51 , 382 475, 489v
('') 115-116vx, 123v, 355x, 35, 412, 413,414,429, 471 139sx, 335L,
402L (. .) 56, 57i, 93v, 137x, 139sx, 191, 207ix, 618iK 117L,
121gv 95v, 541 Km, 542K 42mx, 43m
42x, 43m ( ), 172 83vx
131v, 184x, 205ix, 372ms 69vx, 481x, 532m 35Gx, 54dr 306s

==714

170 596
161imx, 165dmx, 173x (', ') 165
('') 165 ( ) 594 213
310sx 59G 59G ('') 403d 219G, 225, 233
('') 383 ( )
360sx 108g
( -. <>) 342 615KLs 225
37G, 65g, 91g, 309sx, 325Gs, 327gx, 329v, 332GK 357 ('
') 37G, 62gms, 220G, [221], 309sx, 325Gs, 327gsx, 329v, 330K, 332K, 339i, 357x,
358x, 361r, 365m, 377m, 378iv, 449x, 471x,48Ix ('') 317As, 339i, 489x, 504A
('') 325s, 329v, 334iLv, 335iL, 389s, 392gx, 393Kv, 397x, 398x, 400g, 401 KL,
402L ('') 410s, 420s ( , ) 342, 375rsx, 382rx
342
(.) 55, 93v, 137x 643
() 225, 548 ( ) 316s, 331 , 383-384 379, 383
200 147
(' ') 319-320s 109g ( ) 316s, 331fK, 383384rx

91L
344ds
355, 357x,
549
59G
59G
(; -. -.) 342
310sx

*==156
*==156
69vx
640, 641
640, 641
() 265f
189Agm
- 151
145, 173x
145
35Gx
446s
201, 213
( . vs.
) 544 () 265f 360sx
202 151 355 39g, 437g, 438g 403d
35Gx, 66iLv 340s (. .) 57i, 93v, 191
117L, 121gv, 131v, 329i 360sx, 375iv 368r, 379iv, 382rx,
383rx 356, 368r, 370r, 381rx 39g
20 Ix 343 167
350, 352-353Lr, 354Lmr, 355x (.) 186Am, 6151L. , 631, , 636
366i 549

==715

('') 344d (' ') 344d


('') 340s, 343, 344d, 355, 375rsx, 382rx ('
')
344d
188-189Agm - 151 607vx 164,
174 31,212 201, 551 376rsx
103g 103g 103g 360sx, 37 lira, 372iLx, 380rx, 383
(' ')
362r, 376sx, 382rx
(' ') 32 v 201, 213 ('
')
367, 376sx, 382rx (' ')
32v 356, 368, 371, 372, 380rx, 383rx, 546-547V 186Am, 615JL, ,
631, , 636 160iLx 640, 641 117L, 127L, 130L 148, 211
344d, 487d () 548 235m, *457, 530g, ()
590 137
( ) 550 344ds 137, 141 (.) 602L (.) 2261
2041, 2261, 2381 602L, 6031, 624ix

(.) 137
91L
188Ag
(' ') 343
( ) 223, 228-229ivx, 355
542 224 ( ) 224, 233, 373L
( ) 549 149 107g
(-. ) 224, 2281 ( -.) 224, 602L
( ) 590 ('') 310sx, 330K, 382
( ) 119fv 235, - () 491 153, 489,
490L,644,646 ( ) 224 <250>, 251s 224
(-. ) 305s 430d

( ) 378-379v 75 381 ('')


375rsx, 376, 383rx
(-. ) 550 ( ) 316s, 493s ()
224 () lllg 324g 344d 344d
344d 306-307s, 324g, 332v () lllg
(" ') 14cfs, 23 430d
(' ') <265> 219G, 220G1

==716

( ) 201
() 224, 229
17hx, 384rx, 467x, 489x, 490dLv, 491im, 492Lm, 493ms, 494-501P, 512m,
('', .) 316s (-. ) 305s ( ) 552
17hx, 467x 108g 108g 59G 59G
() 267 474 <89> 104g 104g
104g ( ) 625 224, 355 (
) 493s (', ', .)
316s
() 112g (-. ) 550 () 112g, 113
17hx, 467x 17hx, 467x llOg
<89>, (-. ) 551 44, 45rx, 46i, 92m, 343a 83vx, 508509iLx, 510mvx, 51 lg, 639
147 342 <89> 59G
622v
( ) 223 81iv
( ) 112g ( ) 112g 104g
104g 104g llOg

llOg
225
225
() 549
('') 220G
( , ) 224, 379vx
640, 641
() 493s
212
105g, 109gx
344d
200, 380
185Agmx,194-195Amx, ==476
14s
(-. ) 552
267s, 268ir, 355x, 403L. 468, 471
267
267
267
508, 510mvx, 51 lg, 639x
44, 45rx
351
146
184
267s

267, 268ir
( ) 399s
35Gx
360sx, 369r, 370r, 371rx, 372x, 460L
() lllg
545v
38Gx
26gm, (. .) 57i, 93m, 107-108g, 200-201, 211, 356, 416, 481,
505,551 211 146 (' ') 160161imx, 356x
(' -.') 42 <> -. 1611 42
355x, 365Lm, 146 146 308sx

==717

35Gx, ( ) 380
43
38Gx, 149-151gx, 340s, 342x, 343, 35 lx, 367x, 378rx, 48 lx, 549K, 647
368r, 371r, 455r, 456 111-112g ( ) 331fK4 ( ) 373 L,
549K 355
() 139 342x () 548 () 305s,
541 Km, 544Km () 111-112g () 305s 355
212 143-144 356
367x, 368r, 372s, 542K 131v, 182x. 372m 131v 371iLr, ==455

('') 376iv, 378iv, 383 164


550
('') 29fv, (.) 66v
340s
200
200, 340s
202
201
() 200, 340s, 376rsx
109g, 542K
510m
48, 50, 51i, 533x, ==617
44, 45, 92r
624ix, 640x, 64 lx
350
267
640x, 64 lx
( vs. ) 544Km, 550
-==476
95v

() 548
172
202
(.) 56, 137, 505-

506 106-107g, 149x, 408i, *476, 482i, (-. ) 551 (


) 69vx 306s, 541 Am 202 235, (
) 590, 596
(-. ) 551 (-. ) 552 () 548
43
( = ', ') 115-116VX. 123-124v, 126v, 322s, 399s
143, 144
45r, 83vx, 508-509x, 5l0vx, 51 lg 44, 45rx, 46i 69vx, 107g, 532m
() 53 lx 59G, 35 lx 59G 382 202
(-. )
551
355, 410, 429 60 539v 60
59G, 324g 59G, 306s, 309sx, 321s, 324g, 326gG, 327gG, 328gs, 332v, 379iv
430d 226d ( ) 61G, 643Gx 59G
59G, 212 200, 551 344ds
204i, 226i, 238i, 590x, 594i, 596x 344d Tims, 191-193Am, 229i

==718

(.) 56, 137, 191


84iv
50, 51s, 145x
146
145x
50, 51s, 146x
351

103g
103g
103g
200
( ) 357, 381
('') 380
(' ') 213, 224
('') 115-116vx, 121122gv, 201x 226d
( ) 590, 596 376 344ds 131v, 371L
381
(-. ) 551 551 661 Lv 70, 94
( ) 539v ( vs. ) 544 (-.
-., ) 342 105g, 224x ( ) 69vx 105g
105g 624 224x ( ) 61G, 643Gx
( 40 ) 69vx ( -. '') 355, 380
(-. ) 552 () lllg 306s
225, 538mv, 540mv ( < >)
366L, 368L, 459L, ( -.)
546 () 139

623
394
('') (. .) 57i, 115vx, 122-123gL, 149x, 150g, 322s, 325gG, 328iv, 330K,
334iLv, 335iL, 3371KL, 362r, 384rx, 395s, 392gx, 393x, 394x, 395Kx, 396x, 397K, 398g,
399A, 400gK, 401K, 402 L, 403 , 41 Ox, 429x,476, 481x, 515Lx
( , '') 322s, 399s
(.) 481x
457L

( ) 331
('') 381
364
350, 355, 356
66iLv
117f, 119f, 126f, 130f, 132f, 476 137-138, 184 () 112g, 149x
53, 54dr
186Am, 190Am, 226i, 260-261. 316i, ==638
(' ') 449
355, 365Lm,
38-39Ggx, 311s, 324-325gx, 374375iv, 380rx, 382rx, 435s, 437gs, 438r, 439rx, 443x, 444rx, 445rx, 446m, 447g, 449iLx, 480x
224x 184
148, (-. ) 550 212, , 308sx, 320-321s, 322s,
323msv, 340s, 35 Ix, 356x, 374s, 377ivx
460L, 464, (' ') 355 () 112g 146x
(.) 31 () lllg 306-307, 309sx, 317s, 321s, 324g,
326gG, 328gs, 329v, 332-333Kvx, 340s, 343c, 344d, 380rx

==719

346d, 355x, 489dLx


346d
38-39Ggx, <265>, 311s, 317-318s, 324gx, 346dg, 390sx, 435s, 437gs, 439rs, 44 Ig,
442gsx, 443x, 446Km, 447gK, 448K, 449iLx, 450iL, 478x, 480x,481x

202
132v
( ) 643
44, 46i
168, 624
224
172
168
383
172
306s
379
+ (, ) 69-70i, 227i
+ (), 41-42 + () 82f 474 ( , )
543 , 544
( ) 226d 308sx 380 ( ) 223,
355x ( <>) 342 103g, 105g, 488g
103g, 105g, 488g 200
202, ( ) 550 481x 370Lr
103g, 105g, 488g
367, 368 224 (' ')
219G, 222
( ) 367L 103g, 488g 103g, 488g

103v, 488g
42
342

() 542, (- ) 552
() 224
42, 43-44
( - ) 625
350
112g
112g
344d
( ) 367L
471
378
201
() 267
( , ) 543
200
344ds
(' ') 223
168iLx
108g
( ) 542, 543
() 383
() 383
306s, 361sx
('') 224, 236r, 325Gs, 329v
('') 91L
104g

104g
104g
() 475, 607vx
408i, 482i
( ) 91L
108g
108g
366L
108g
355x
212
201, 208ix, 213x, 222, 224, 229i, 343a, 356, 551
315s

==720

226d
( ) 367L, 373L
200
306s
314s, 334iLv, 376rsx
( ) 367L, 373L

( <.>)
342 344ds
( ) 367L , 107-108g 103g, 107-108g 103g
( ) 367L () lllg () lllg
367, 368 (-. )
224
() 265f 105g, 224x 105g 105g
136-137ix, l59x 306s ('') 306s, 361sx
() 223 ( , ) 543 104g 104g
61G 61G
( , ) 543 224x 437g, 447g
('') , 39gx 59G 59G 194-195
136-137ix, 144, l59x 306s 200, 551 37Gx, 223x
*==162
( ) 201
() 616, 625 ( ) 542, 548

() 549
55ix, 205ix, , 631, , ==636
146
147
45mx, 91L
172
( . ) 643
171, 172
267s, 468x
591
368r, 378iv, 379iv, 382rx

370r
371rx, 372x
170
, 430d
38-39Gx, 55v, 149x, 150gv, 220G, 317Asx, 355x, 382rx, 405s, 406m, 408iLv, 409,
410, 411, 412vx, 414x, 415, 416, *417v, 418vx, 419x, 420x, 421gms, 422Gv, 423-424v,
425Gv, 426Ai, 427L, 428iL, 430cd, 449x, 476, 48 Ix, 488x, 505A, 607vx
409
409
( ) 625
267, 468x
267, 355x, 357,
('') 309sx, 325s
402L
107g
(' ') 317s
46i, 91L
35, 36dGi, 149x, 220G, 355x, 469sx, ==491
( ) 308sx ( ) 33 If (.) 641-642 250251rs 420s 170 410, 430 430d 200
213, (-. )
552 202

==721

640, 641
- () 641
- () *==476
108g
108g
() lllg
() lllg
() 224
108g
89, 108g
305s
305s
104g
104g
104g
219G
( ) 481
493s
213
77
372iLx, 371irx
439
543, 607vx
344d
512sx
() 119fv

38Gx
(.) 115-116L, 126L, 130L, 335iL, 402L
(.) 151 136i, 159 383, 468
212 355, 430d (-. ) 224 355
200, 212 344d 340s, 342, 343, 344d
91L 420s *454 *454
360s 493s 430d ('') 493s

643 (.) 151 172, 317sx


596
(.) 56, 137
119vx, 342x, 375, 381, 384, 403
(.) 115L, 126L, 185Agx, 188Agm, 335iL
() 188
(.) 188, 307i, 402L, 449-450, 619-620
(.) 137-138
<, ,
(.) 56
(.) 56
(.) 441iK
643
() 335s
185Agx, 194-195Amx, 619-620A
( ) 459L
202
267, 268ir
50, 51
43

() 344d
224, 235, 236
36Gx, ==54
( ) 308sx
35Gx
219-220G, [221], 225, 235, 236
145
145-146
315s
200, 542
44, 46i
('') llGvx, 126v
80msv, 306s, 541 Km
(-. ) 305s
205ix
342x, 35 lx, 378rx, 549K
224, ( / ) 552
148, 211
('') 362

==722

==59
G, ( ) 60G, 64359G, ( ) 60G, 643 344d
38Gi, 200x
379
172
() 117f, 119f, 126f, 130f, 132f, 204i, 226i, 2381 () 185Amx, 194195Amx, 476 355
170, 172-173 172-173 172-173 342
( ) 342 146 225 ( )
<248>rs, 248-249, 355, 378v, ( vs. ) 544, 552
201, 549 647 623 361 42
(.) 56, 137-139, *138, 191, 206-207ix, 618iK 201,
213, 377iv, 377iv 545v (.) 104g,
607vx (.) 104g 104g 379iv, 381rx, 382
29fv, *222
644Gx
644Gx 162 344-345ds 376rsx 108g
340s 44, 45mrx, 46i 109g 248, <250>
( ) 355

( . ) 643
44mx, 45mx, 46-47ir
342
607vx
205ix
212, 35 lx, 375rsx, 376iv, 383rx (',
') 53 45

146 44, 46i 36Gx () 548 (-.


) 551 ( ) 112g ('') 376iv, 378iv, 379rx
('') 315s (.) 151 194-195Amx - *476 43
() 185Amx, 194-195Amx 87g 344d 68-69vx
224, (-. ) 552 108g
172, 317sx
('') 383rx
148, 211, 375
378
171
42, 171, 172, ==639
315s
355
487d
( ) 590, 596
131v, 530g
109g
35Gx, 66iLv
35Gx
( ) 590
59 lx
487d
( ) 108g, 344d, 487d

==723

( ) 344d
369, 371, 372, 381, 383
334iv, 439x, 371r, 374sv, 380rx
( ) 308sx
308sx
378iv
84iv, 355x
336As
() 223
59G
(-. ) 224
( ) 543
() 355x
( ) 224, 228
457L
145
351
38-39Ggx, 356x, 367, 380rx
367, 368
368, 371r, 372, 380rx, 545v
351
351
149
( ) 108g

(' ') 383


306s, 314s. 334iLv. 376rsx, 383rx ( )
616 186
571, 93, 613 6241 172 172
172 310sx 145 145 162
219G, 225 172 643 235 344d
2041, 2261, 2381, 343 (.) 151

44, ==461
378v
108g
() 11 lg
() lllg
343, 381
() 108g
() lllg
*==346
87g
168
() 105g, 109x, lllg, 327gs
235
306s, lllg
31 lx, 324gx, 374-375iv, 380rx, 435s, 438r, 439rx, 443x, 444x, 445x, 446Km, 447g,
448K, 4491L, 480x
342
61G, 541 Km
('') 267s

225, 547
() 590, 596
344d
172
122diL, , 403d
344d
('') 322s, 390s
105-108g, lllg
(.) 105g
(.) 105g
105g
(, ) 276
(.) 56, 137, 191
131v
146
200
145
(-. ) 552
109g
145-146
235
225, 547
191-192, 476, 606im
146
172
355x

==724

(' ') 449


66v
153
(', ')
116vx, 126v,322s, 399s 403d <89> *162 212
55ix
+ . ( ) 475
( ) 358
() 117L, 127L, 130L
( ) 358 59 G 59G ( vs.
)
544 27Lm 375rsx () 137-138 640, 641
224, 375rsx, 380 308sx 104g 104g
344dm, 356, 362, 368, 370 31gx, 308sx, 310sx, 312-313s, 340s, 343a,
344d, 356x, 367x, 376iv, 380rx, 382rx, 439x, 444x 131v
(.) 191 546v 202, 222, 224, (
-.) 550 202 *222, 223i 409, 430 ('') 392g
201 108g 201 319-320s
344ds 108g

108g

(-. ) 224
541 Km
229i
() 607vx
344d
340s
224
('') 200
(' ') 310sx
402L
(, ) 276
(.) <89>, 103g
(.) 103g, 173
103g
202
() 224, 343a
344ds
* 156-==157
201
105g
105g
105g

186,

505-506, 507

(5000 ) 69vx
103g
103g

103g
(-. / -.) 607mv
213
(-. ) 219G, 220G1, 223, 228, 233, 235, 236
(-. ) 551
('') 37G, 115-117vx, 121-122gv, 126v, 128-131Lv, 132v, 150gx, 317Asx,
322s, 325s, 328-329iv, 331x, 334i, 335iL, 384rx, 389s, 392gx, 393x, 395x, 396x, 400gK, 401 ,
402iL, 403L,410x, 489x, 505A
(.) 18h, 512sx
(.) 27f
42
89g
( ) 58G

==725

( ) 61G, 643Gx 29fv, 30, 89g, 123im, 151x, 337iL, 402L


( ) 58G ( ) 61G, 643Gx 68-71, 88f, 94x, 208ix,
490x, 6131 625 625 616, 625
625 53 171, 172 205ix 430d
430d 430d 624 117L 77, 122iL
185gx 315-316s 624ix, 640x, 641 235, ()
590, 596 204, 226i, 238i, 590x, 5941, 596 117L, 131v
306s 131v 430d 361 71,
205ix, 2161 186
38-39Ggx, 356x 368r, 369r, 371ir, 372, 382, 545v
==471

117L, 118g, 131v 117L, 335i, 402iL 77, 122iL


122iL 184 <249> 184
371Lr, 545v 186 <249> 344d

471
187-188Ag
(.) 56, 137, 207ix
35Gx, 54, 55m
*49, 50, 194
117-llSgL
117L
42, 43
44, 45rx, 46i, 91L, 343, 509L
640x, 641
42, 43 ( ), 172
624ix
624ix
*169
146
145
355
35Gx
235, () 594
368r, 380
( ) 355
131v
3291, 335i, 402iL

('') 213, 306s, 322s, 323,383 357, 361


623
201, 379, 383
380
( ) 590x, 596
104g
( ) 551
91L
344d
344d, 379
200, 208, 208, 219, 340s, 342, 344d, 351, 356x, 374s, 376rsx, 377iv,
380rx, 470, ==473
340s
213
647
378iv, 381rx
(-. ) 551
('') 375rsx
344d
59 G

==726

383
59G, 211
( ) 343
308sx
108g
108g
308sx
( ) 223
188
31
() 305s, 544g
372
324g
355, 357,
357, 358
() 549
( ) 61G, 644Gx
344d
(.) 105g
(.) 105g
105g
<89>
(' ')
212

( ) 61G, 644Gx 542, ( vs. ) 544 ()


224 430d 132v, 200x, 202, 356 223
212 71sx
335i, 4021L 379 224
200x, 374s, 379rx, 380 211 *454, 463
('') 306s 475 212 90fv (
< > vs.
) 544 186 *169 201, 208, 273rv

344d 306s, 324g, 328gs, 332Kvx, 343, 379rx ()


355, 382, 409, 430d
( ) 367L, 372L ( ) 224, 409 (., )
493s 90fv
( ) 224 ( ) 224
306s, ( ) 361sx 141 55ix, 531x 267 153, 647
153, 647
( ) 459L ( ) 222, 224 382rx, 546v
455 344d 224, 233G 202
344d 109g 109g 542 44, 46i
212
(.) 105g (.) 105g 105g 344d
344d 212 212 202 310sx
('') 160ix, 171mx, 317sx ('') 160ix ( ) 355, 382rx,
409 (. ) 590 378iv 202 103g,
488g 103g, 488g

==727

103g, 488g 355 201

( -.) 550 ( ) 224 103g


103g 75 103g 546v 306s,
361sx 146 205ix <89>
('') 201, 383 225 355, 357,
358 531
( ) 607vx 202
(' ') 212 () lllg 202
(-. ) 552 369r, 382rx, 460L, 463, 545v 319,
516v ( ...) 226d 39, 355 77di
77di, 1221L 201, 202, 208 224 361
344ds
( ) 223 ('') 200 194
516v, ( -. ) 587v 202 91L
<89>
541 Km, 543 , 607vx (-. ) 551 ( ,
) 481 (-. ) 552

(-.) 224
()202'., 552
() 226d
(/) 104g, () 112g
(/) 104g () 112g <89>
202 77, 1221L 475L 571, 93, 200, 613
342
( ) 551 344ds 60G 306s
"156 60G <89> <89> 202 343
(-. ) 223 188 59G
59G 356 356, *362, 368, 370, 371, 372iLx 172
('') 378iv, 383rx 74-75imv, 76iv, 77-78x, 122iL
('') 530g 306s, 361sx, 366L (.) 56, 137, 207ix, 416
132v 3071, 449, 622-623iL 267s, 468x 267 226g
308sx, 344d 117-119gL, 131v, 329i, 344d, 380rx

==728

344d 117L, 131v, 358 365


357
108g
() 616, 625
('') 173
() 616-617, 625 363 Lx
360sx, 370r, 381 164, 169 109g
357, 358, 549 487d 201, 322s 42
(-. ) 551 ( ) 475 103g
103g 103g (: '') 40-41, 42, 384
(.) 42 42, 43-44 *156 324g
306-307s, 324g, 332v 344ds 475 18h
( ) 475 475 <89> *222, 223i 18h
18h 18h 108g 108g <89>
( ) 475 344ds 29fv, ==30

<89>
18h
223
( ) 151
201

173
107
36Gx, ==469
159, 160, 174-175
==160
==160
164
368
372s
(-. ; ) 552
172mx, 489x
('') 374s, 376iv, 378ivx, 383rx
149, 481 () 306s, 314s, 334iLv, 375rsx, 376rsx, 378v, 383rx
481 170, 317sx 380 35Gx 109g 206ix
213, 308sx, 322s, 377rx, 383 340s ( -.)
550 308sx 109-llOg ('') 469 77, 1221L, 206ix, 3281
44, 46i, 122iL, 168iLx, 475L, ==476
35Gx, 66iLv + . 80-81fi
( ) 362, 367L, 373L 224 544g
() 106g () 11 lg () 106g () 11 lg 171 596

==729

310sx, 319As, 330K, 331, 335Kr, 379rx, 382rx - (.) 56


55v

( ) 61G, 644Gx - 137


( ) 61G, 644Gx 56 151-152
( ) 367L 315s 91L 539mv
202 ('') 212 ('') 250-251rs
(-.) 224 267, 268 [221] [221]
212 103g 103g 103g 545v
<273>
306s, 317sx, 324g, 379iv, 380rx 344ds 379rx
105g, 106g, 109x, lllg 105g, 106g, 109x, lllg, 327gs ( , .)
355 93G 351 () 305s, 544g
306-307s, 324g, 380rx 115-117vx, 126v ('') 355, 429
379rx 141 37G <89> 344ds
[221] [221], 351 351 488g

488g
488g
<250>s
200
('') 392g, 515Lx
() 223
37G, 544
151, 200
(.) 56, 139
39g,437g
235,

65g, 551
201
184
202
('') 342, 378iv

77, 1221L
55v
226d
59G
() 204i, 226i, 238i
(' ') 378v, 384
( ) 351
(' ') 643
( ) 224, 468
17hx
87g
( ) 367L
543, 607vx
115vx, 121-122v, 128v, 317Asx, 322s, 325s, 328-329iv, 330-331K, 334335iL,
337iKL, 355x, 384rx, 389sx, 393x, 395x, 396x, 400gK, 401K, 402iL, 410x, 489x, 505A
310sx, 312s, 382rx, 379rv
350
596
13 Iv
43
91L
623i
77, 1221L
475L
( ) 223-224

==730

() 607vx
() 607mv
(, ) 224, 379vx, 493s
('', .) 316$. () 493s
( ) 493s
( .) 493s
344d
376iv
39g
108g
61G
340s
< , > -. (.) 56
355
<250>s, 545v
- (.) 56, ==571
351
(. ) 590

38-39Ggx, 149x, 150gv, 224x, 317Asx,322s, 355, 356, 380, 382, 413,414,
471

('') 374s, 376iv, 378iv, 379rx, 39g, 55v, 56x, 615Ls


( ) 224x
( ) 224x
( , .) 342
==324
( ) 226d
81iv
81iv
201, 383
() 266f, 306s
309sx
375rsx
( ) 201
(-. ) 202
36Gx
<250>
( .)
- 165
(-. ) 202

( ) 202
55v
55v
224x, 375rsx, 380
224x
82

*==476
42
235,
('') 327gs, 392g
72-73i, 204i, 226i, 2==381
105g
105g
105g
106g, 108g
(' ') 94vx
344d
('') 39g, 392g
( ) 550
(-. ) 223, 380
355, 365
- (.) 56x
( ) 367L, 373L
361
360sx
4==411
187
186-187
( ) 367L
344d
607vx
(' ') 310sx

310sx
*==476
==23
( ) 368L
81iv
194-195
( ) 373L
81iv
(' ')
==222
('') 322s, 399x 6241
(' ') 378v ('') 37Gx (. .)
56x, ==571

==731

335L, 402L
3==291
42, 161, 171, 172, ==639
201, 213
( 5 ) 69vx
77
() 224

201
91L
201
149, 201, 381
551
(. .) 57i, 115-116vx, 121-122v 355 201
201, 211ikx (, ) 355, 375rsx, 382rx, 429
(., ) 403 ( ) 342, 384
351 149, 201, 356, 381 1211L
546v 545v 201 475L, 624
59G, 249 29fv 59G (.) 105g
(.) 105g 105g 18h 201, 213
() 224 160iLx, 163x 382rx
() 224 37Gix, 223x, 592ix, 610i 52-53rv, 378v
223x 229i, 551 229i, 551 (' ') 14s
202

342 ( )
225 (', ')
308sx, 310sx 37Gimx, 219G, 223x, 592ix, 610i
( ) 266f 37Gix, 219G, 223x, 592ix, 610im
() 223x ('') 310sx, 311, 319As, 330K, 331, 335, 382rx, 472m, 516v
('') 310sx, 311 149 , 201 202
37Gix, 223x 219G, 223x, 592ix 2291, 643 310sx
( , ) 276 115vx, 117-118gv, 121-122v, 126-132v
, 201 200 201 229i, 643 149, 201, 213,
310sx, 356
375 378v 53rv 310sx, 375rsx
378v
37Gix, 223x, 592ix, 596, 610i 59G 59G 344d
('') 310sx, 375rsx 376iv 344d
() 11 lg () 11 lg () 225
104g 104g

==732

104g
643
(- -. )
225 ('') 115-116vx, 122v (', ')
322s
310sx, 375rsx, 380rx 37Gix, 219G, 223, 592ix, 610im
() 266f 223 224 () 223
310sx, , 331, 335, 382
223
37Gix, 223, 592ix, 6101 223 () 551
() 225 310sx ( ) 625
310sx, , 335, 382
59G 59G 343 223, 592ix 468
200, 377iv, 379rx 37Gix 375
('') 378 310sx 225 ('') 310sx
310sx, , 331 , 335,382 344d 37Gimx, 219G, 220Gi, [221], 2221, 223x, 230G,
235, 236, 592ix, 596, 610im 226g 14s () 266f

() 226g
( ) 106g, 109-110g

( ) 106g, 109-110g
(-. ) 551
() 305s
('') 312s, 375-376rsx, 384rx
( ) 358, 361 141 () 306s 596
( . ) 544 ('') 375rsx ('') 430d
430d
132v, 200x, 202 201, 211ikx *156 6869vx 107g 29fv, 30 402L 380rx
69vx, 306s, 324g (2 ) 69vx 430d 409, 430
( ) *222 () 224 383
91fv
( ) *476, 493s ( ) 226d 224, 379v
(' ') 14 (' ') 94vx. 224x, 379vx
( ) 644Gx 31 202 345ds
596 ( ) 108g ( ) 108g 225
378v <89>

==733

( ) 226d
<89>
201
345ds
149, 200, 203, 204, 214, 24lx,356x, 380rx ( ) 109g
( ) 109g, 110G <89> 36lx
383 546v 20lx (- -.)
552

201 ( ) 644Gx () 112g


() 112g 648 31 202, 213,
( vs. )
544, () 552 202 ( ) 225 ( )
362 109g 381, 546v (-. ) 224
( ) 224 (-. ) 551 340s
340s ('') 29fv 309sx, 623i 108g
() 267, 268ir () 549 312s, 375-376rsx, 384rx
() 267, 268ir 145
596
149, 220G, 355. 481. 594
48lx
70

70
367
334iv, 356x, 367, 368, 371 , 374-375iv, 376rsx, 380rx, 439 117L,
131v, 329i, 372, 367, 368r, 369L, 370, 371, 380rx, 381, 383rx, 456
267 59G, ( ) 106g, 228x, 305s, 541 Km () 305s
( ) 224, 228x 59G, ( ) 106g, 305s
() 305s 59G 49, 50, 193-194 306s ()
224 65g 65g llOg llOg 382
() 225 374iv, 378iv, 379rx, 383rx ()
lllg () lllg () 305s 375iv
59G, 374iv, 378iv, 379rx (.) <89>, 103g (.) 103g
103g 149, 201, 208ix, 213x, 224, 229i, 343a, 551
() 224 () 225, 229 345ds 430d
(.) 56, 57i, 93v, 137138, 191, 206-207ix 117L, 119gL 374-375iv 81iv, (-.
) 552 184 345ds 342

==734

109g
109-llOgG
374v
201, 213, 310sx, 351x
() 549
546-547v
378iv, 379rx, 383
540, 541
103g
103g
374-375iv
103g
200, 213, 551
('') 115-116vx, 122L, 322s, 325s, 329v, 334iLv, 335iL, 365s, 389s,
392gx, 393Kx, 397gx, 398x, 400g,401KL
( 100 ) 69vx ('') 310sx, 312s, 382
109-llOgG 374iv, 382rx 108g, llOg ()
360sx llOg 103g 103g 103g 201
344d 59 G
115-116vx, 122L, 126v () 112g () 112g
306s ( 1. ) 551 ==355
70r, 71L, 370, 371L 186 <89>, 172-173, 355, 541, (-.
) 551 342 (-. -.) 201, 203, 324g,
326gG, 377iv, 551 (-. -.) 201, 550 475-4761L

170
() 59G, 60, 220G
(', ') 322s
() 59G, 60
306s, 314s, 334iLv, 355, 375rsx, 376rsx, 378v
340s ( ) 351x, 378iv, 342, 549
( ) 342 87g 306s () 224
306s, 308sx, 322s, 374isv, 377v, 383rx <248>rs, <250>, 355x, 378v, 489x, (-.
) 551 () 107g 202, 273rv, 340s, 356x, 374s, 376ivx, 378ivx, 383rx
549 380 146 344-345ds 624ix
372
372
372
204ix, 238i
372
372, 367
205ix
336Ams
344d
43
344d
201
146
38
109g, 110G
109g
( ) 224
() 106g, 111-112g, 305s

() 549
() 106g, lllg, 305s
() 224

==735

( ) ==224
430
() 173
( ) 367L, 373L
() 542, 549
(-. ) 551
172
*==346
( ) 305s
*==346
( ) 305s
( ) 367L, 372L
() 549
109-llOg
351
==416
200

165
165
165
165
165
161-162, 163mx, 164x, 165d, 172, *174-175 109-llOg 310sx
105g, 106g, 109x, llOg 340s 105g, 106g, 109x, llOg,
(. ) 551 () 11 lg 379rx 111-112g lllg
475 202
('', .) 384 68-69vx 59G 59G 106107g () lllg 235, (.) 596
205ix,,631, 632, ,636 205ix, 2161 590, 596

==469
378iv
356, 367, 381
160-161imx, 355x, 356
355x, 365
168iLx
212, 306s, 308sx, 320-321s, 322s, 374isv, 375rsx, 377rx, 383rx 146
( ) 459L (-. ) 551 310sx, 375rsx
640, 641 38Gx, 65g, 91g 312s, 384rx 170 375
( ) 367L () 549 27g, 107-108g, 416, 476, 505
108g 109g 337iL, 403L 185gx, 194Amx
108g 108g 455
(.) 137 83vx, 510m 109g 141
() 548 343 ( ) 112g ( )
112g 383rx ('') 306s, 308sx, 322s, 323, 362, 375rsx, 383rx
146 146 202, 213 42, 634 545v
() 224 (.) 71sx 14s (.) 115L,
126L, 130L

==736


109-llOg
109-llOg
38
170
36Gx
172, 317sx
( ) 342
355, 357,
==731
(' ') 94vx, 224x, 379vx
('') 493s (' ') 351, 357,361r, 377m
( ) 109g, HOG () lllg 403
37G, 65g, 91g 37G, 220G, [221], 357, 358, 361r, 365, 377, 449, 471,
481, 607vx
('') 410s 342. 381, 357
( ) 108g HOg 310sx 108g 14ds, 23,
172 369, 373 L ( -.) 351 HOg 62s, 119120v, 206ix, 267x, 268ir, 339i, 351x, 357, 361r, 377m ( - '') 115vx, 122L,
325s, 327s, 329v, 335iL, 389s, 392gx, 393Kx, 397gx, 398x, 399G, 400g, 401
389iv, 381rx, 382rx 615KLs <89>

(-. ) 551 475 () 607vx (


) 202 202 68-69vx

367
173
355
11 lg, 343a
lllg
202
(, ) 276
('')
() 224x
46i, 91L
353Lr, 354r, 355
149, 201, 203, 208ix, 324x, 326gG, 356x, 377iv 46i, 91L, 509L, 623i
(. ) 201 351x lllg
() 112g, 305s () 112g () lllg 225
200 356x 389 87, 343a 321s,
368 145, 162 145 145, ==156
571, 93, 141, 613, 627 117L, 329i 366r
356x, 550, 551 () lllg
() lllg 65gm, 545v 545v 225
(200 ) 69vx <89> 156 39, 481
481 146 109g 109g , 201, 208, ==208

==737

42, 634
335L, 402L
('') 212
149, ==608
69-==701
108g
108g
205ix, 216i
344d
(.) <89>, 103g, 488g
(' ')
212
(.) 103g, 488g 103g, 488g 474
() 107g (-. -.) 551 (-. ) 552
201 312s 172 38
379iv, 382rx, 542K <89>
(-. ) 551 ... () 335s (5 ) 69vx, 481x, 532m
145
( ) 459L ( , ) 623 ( ) 18h,
355x ( ) 331fK 343
<>
343 ('') 306s 117L ('') 449
371r, 380rx, 460L, 464 356, 360sx, *362, 366L, 368-369Lr, 370Lr, 371rx, 372x, 381rx,
382rx, 455r, 456, 458r, 459-460L, 463, 464 546v 184
('') 378v 59G, 80iv, 225x, 489

( ) 344d
355x

596
106g, 108g, (-. ) 551
() 549
<89>, (-. ) 551
308sx
219G, 225x
469sx
361
369, 373L, 382rx

38Gx, 149x, 150-151g, 343a, 367, 379iv, 381rx, 382rx, 481x, 677
372x
131v, 372x
(', ') 115116vx, 122L
84iv, 350x
416
172
200, 213, 351, 374s, 376rsx
340s
173
<273>
38Gx, 94vx, 512sx
109-llOg
109g
109-llOg
109-llOg, 225x

() 224
('') 380rx
38
368, 372x, *==455
39g, 326gG, 392gx, 399G
('') 38-39Ggx, 66v, 114123vx, 126-129iv, 130-132Lv, 133x, 149x, 150g,
220G, 317Asx, 322s , 325gG, 328v, 329iv, 330-331K, 334iLv, 335iL, 337-338iKL, 355x, 362r,
384rx, 389s, 392gx, 393x, 394x, 395Kx, 396x, 397K, 399AG, 400gK, 401 KL, 4021L, 403K,
410x, 411A, 412v, 414x, 429x. 481x, 489x, 505A, 515gx (.) 57i
340s 119v, 408

==738

107g 344d 112g 112g, 113 ,


146
(.) 115-116L, 126L, 335iL, 402L
(.) 307i, 449x
(.) 307i
488
*==476
55ix, , 631, , ==636
() 267, 268ir
35Gx
('') 607vx

35Gx
109-llOg
648
==156
(.)
355, 364
( . ) 643
83vx, 84-85iv
44 li
(-. ) 552
541 Km
() 119-120v, 224x
( ) 625
223
172
308sx
( ) 331fK
161, 163, 168-169ix, 172-173x
146
146
355
- (.) 48, 50, 51i, 533-534x, 615L
, 631, ==637
219-220G, 225
('') 213
146-147

146-147
45rx, 509L
508, 510mv, 51 lg
47-48. 186, 195
44 li

45rx
219G, 225
334iv, 368r, 374-375iv, 376rsx 187 1211L
350, 368r, 370, 371L, 372 316i,,631, , 636 205ix, 216i
() 81iv, 541Km ( ) 112g 403d
() 112g 361
( -.) 224x 267 546-547v 67, 201,
208ix, 214, 356 94vx
( ) 37 li 107g 367 (-. )
552, (-.
) 552
225, ( ) 548 ( ) 545-546v (;
) 540 225 471 131v
381, ( -.) 546v llOg, () 548. (-.
) 553 () 225 ( ) 546v 225 ,
205ix, 216i 205ix 152-153, 308sx, 476, 489, , 631, 644-646
172 131v 648 310sx, ( vs. -.
) 544

==739

( ) lllg, 327-328gs
( ) 11 lg
200, 212
( ) 417
168iLx
59G
59G, 71, 72
38-39Gx
545v
200
( ) 417
*362,
200, 241
327gx, 332K
[221]
(', ') 392g
310sx
('') 607vx
213
378
212
380
222, 224
350
81iv

219G, 225
329i
77, 1221L
117L
39g
356, 369r, 371x, 372x, 461L
(' ')
38-39Ggx, 367x, 439 (' ') 32v 117L, 131v,
370r 200 59G 59G, 643 370r, 371rx, 372iLx ... (-)
(.) 617 260-261, 316i, 4411, 638 44, 461 59G, 228-229ix 59G,
188, 420g, 430d, 603-605lv, 604, 606gm 205, 643 ('') 493s

81iv
383
108g
108g
( )
616, 625 84iv
472, 473-474 356
625 77, 1221L, 205ix 14d 222, 223i
105-108gx, lllg 105-108gx, lllg 200, 241, 362-
() 607vx 643 37G 108g 108g
93 108g 108g 37G 308sx, 310sx, 312-313$,
376iv, 379rv, 381rx, 382rx, 439x (-. -.) 552 202
344d 376iv 549 200 213
202, , 376, 383 (. ) 596 [221]
325s, 329v, 3351L, 389s, 392gx, 393Kx, 397gx, 398x, 400g, 401K, 402L 392g
70, 224 70, 94 1221L 104g 103g
(-. ) 224

==740

( )
616, 625, 627, 628 (. ) 57i, 200x, 205 344d 344d
235 37G 84iv 355, 471
344d
344d
342
( ) 590, 596 84iv 351 42
109-llOgG 342 343 344d
38Gx, 65g, 91g
143-144r
315s
84iv
273rv, 35 lx, 356x
201, 213, 351, 378iv, 549K
53, 201, 213, 343, 344d, 35 lx, 356x, 375rsx, 378iv, 549K 344d
344d 344d
() 109-llOg ('') 29v, 70x ('') 70x, 94
42 42 344d 344d ('') 306s, 308sx,
322s, 375rsx, 383rx 200x 35, 36Gv, 91x ('') 355,
366L, 460L 146

205ix
168

164mx, 165x, 168-169iLx


44, 46i, 91L, 122iL, 168ix, 475L, 476, ==480
74-75i, 76i, 77-78x, 122iL, 205, 328i
38-39Ggx, <265>, 306s, 311s, 317318s, 324gx, 326gG, 328g, 346g, 355x, 362r, 374iv,
380rx, 382rx, 390sx, 435s, 436x, 437gs, 438rx, 439rs, 440Aix, 441gix, 442sx, 444x, 445x,
446m, 447gK, 448K, 449iLx, 450iL, 476, 476,478,479, *480,481
306s, 390sx, 480, 491
(.) 626
*169
146
383rx
83vx
117-118gL, 131v
91L
31, (-. ) 552
204ix, 226i
(.) 137
376
( ) 459L
45, [91]
235,590, 596
185gx
( ) 69-==701
( . ) 643
35 lx, 383rx
172
171

171
171
(-. ) 551
() 112g
117L, 131v, 3==291
93, 149
() 266f
479
1 () 55v, 56x, 112g
2 ( ) 55v

==741

() H5f, 117f, 126f, 130f, 132f, 150f, 188A (.) 115L, 126L, 188A, 194195Amx 336As - *==476
() 117f, 122f, 126f, 130f, 132f *476 342
342, 343, 344d, 381rx 71-72 358 (), 365
344d
468, 472, 473-474
43
('') 267s
145
(' ') 36Gx

80dis
80disv, 306s
95v, 548K
383
( ) 548K
31, 212
==469
( ) 357
45r, 508x, 510vx, 51 lg
45r, 509L

147 93 43
() 548K ( ) 548K (' ') 317sx
342, 378iv, 549K 361
('') 344d
<250>, 360sx
469
75
205ix
(.) 115L, 126L, 476, 615L
3161,,631, , ==636
476, ,==631
351
('') 37Gx, 223x
137
() 355

() 356
137
590, 596
372iLx, 356, 360sx, 369r, 371irx, 381rx, 460L 117L,329i

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30. // . . 1962. N3.


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35. ( ) // . .
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39. [ . ., . .} //
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42. -
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43. // .
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61. [ . ., . ., . .} 11 // . .:
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74. [ . ., . ., . .} . 2 // . .:
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75. [ . ., . ., . .} . 4 // . .:
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93. - " <=>


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