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29 2010 .

U
N
C

S
D

. 1: 26 26- C.
18- . U,
D, N, S, E, W 6- .

x, y Z 3 . x y
6-, kxyk

1, 18-, kxyk
2 26-, kx yk 3.
1 . ,
6- ; 18-, 6- ;
26-, 18- .
, 6 . U, , U 1,
. D-, N-, S-, E-, W- .
,
UD, U (.1),
N, S, E, W, C,
D. : DU (D
= <N,S,E,W,C> = U); NS (N = <U,E,W,D,C>=
S); SN (S = <U,E,W,D,C>= N); EW
(E = <U,N,S,D,C>= W); WE (W =
<U,N,S,D,C>= E);

29 2010 .

( )
. [1].
, . ()
. ( ) , . ,
(. 1).
INPUT: Image;
OUTPUT: Skeleton;
1: Skeleton := Image;
2: repeat
3:
Skeleton := SubIteration( UD, Skeleton);
4:
Skeleton := SubIteration( DU, Skeleton);
5:
Skeleton := SubIteration( NS, Skeleton);
6:
Skeleton := SubIteration( SN, Skeleton);
7:
Skeleton := SubIteration( EW, Skeleton);
8:
Skeleton := SubIteration( WE, Skeleton);
9: until , ;
1: .
(UD)
U- .
D .
-, -, - - N- , S- , E- , W- . ,
.

26- . .
() . ( ),
.
().

(UD) 24 : (2

0
0
0

0
0

0
x

0
0

0
0

0
0

x
1

x
x

1
0
0

0
0

0
0

1
x

0
0

29 2010 .

0
0

1
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
1

x
0

0
0

0
x

0
x

0
0

0
0

0
0

. 2: . ,
,

x . .
), 90,
180 270 (.2). :
, ,
, .
, 1+4+
4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 21 , 2 ( 1)
90, 180 270
. ( 2)
(.3).
.
,
(UD) U- (.2), U-.
. 4 ,
( 1) 2 3

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

29 2010 .

0
0

0
0

0
1

0
0

1
1

. 3: 2 2 90, 180 270 ().


x
x
x

x
1

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
1

x
0

x
1

0
0

x
x

0
x

0
0

x
x

0
x

0
0

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0

0
x

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1

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x
x

. 4: ( 1 2) (DU), (NS),
(SN), (EW) (WE).
. 21
.

21 . ,
2126 (21 ,
26 ). (Look Up Table).
5. ,
, i- , i-
(i- ) .
4

23
20
17

24
21

18

22

14

15

C
10

16
13

11
6

25

19

12
9

29 2010 .

7
4

8
5

. 5: c (UD).
i- , i-
. ,
N.
. ,
N- .
, ( ),
, .
N (
) 1).

26 ,
, . 226
. 4, N. ,
N- . ,
2263 = 223 = 8 .
. , .

. , N. ,
0 226 1,
.
j, j- . 5

29 2010 .

1: . 1 UD 24 DU 11 WE.
UD DU NS SN EW WE UD DU NS SN EW WE
0
23
17
6
17
2
1
24
18
7
9
11
2
25
19
8
0
19
3
20
9
14
20
5
4
21
10
15
12
13
5
22
11
16
3
22
6
17
0
23
23
8
7
18
1
24
14
16
8
19
2
25
6
25
9
14
20
3
18
1
10
15
21
4
10
10
11
16
22
5
1
18
12
12
12
12
21
4
13
13
13
13
4
21
14
9
3
20
24
7
15
10
4
21
15
15
16
11
5
22
7
24
17
6
23
0
19
0
18
7
24
1
11
9
19
8
25
2
2
17
20
3
14
9
22
3
21
4
15
10
13
12
22
5
16
11
5
20
23
0
6
17
25
6
24
1
7
18
16
14
25
2
8
19
8
23
, j- ,
.
:

m1(x) = (x0 |x1 |x2 |x3 |x5 |x6 |x7 |x8 |x9 |x10 |x11 |x12 |x13 |x14 |
|x15 |x16 ) x4 x17 x18 x19 x20 x21 x22 x23 x24 x25 ;
m2(x) = x4 x15 x17 x18 x19 x20 x21 x22 ;
m3(x) = x4 x13 x15 x17 x18 x20 x21 ;
m4(x) = x4 x16 x17 x18 x19 x20 x21 x23 x24 x25 ;
m5(x) = x0 x1 x2 (x3 |x5 |x6 |x8 |x12 |x13 |x14 |x15 |x16 ) x4 x7
x9 x10 x11 x17 x18 x19 x20 x21 x23 x24 x25 ;
m6(x) = x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x7 x9 x10 x12 x17 x18 x19 x20
x21 x23 x24 x25 ;

, 2. (. 3) 21
90, 180 270 .
, j ( ), .
6

29 2010 .

2:
90

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

2 5 8 1 4 7 0 3 6 11 13 16 10

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

15 9 12 14 19 22 25 18 21 24 17 20 23
90 .

2.
, ,
,
. , j, .
, .
3 .
. . .

, . .
, (. 6). ,
. , .
, , . , ,
(. 6).
. , (. 7) 2030
, 515.
7

29 2010 .

ROI 1

ROI 2

ROI

ROI 3

. 6: : ; : .
, , . .

30
: ,
. 25
20
.
, 15
. , 10
. 5
.
1
,
Z

. 7: 2030
.
, 515.
. ,
. (. 2
. 3). , , .
- ,
. (
) , 8

29 2010 .

. ,
,
. , . ,
,
.
1: for all i do
2:
if state[i] = active then
3:
newState := active;{ }
4:
else
5:
if state[i 1] = active OR state[i + 1] = active then
6:
newState[i] := undefined;{ }
7:
else
8:
newState[i] := passive;{ }
9:
end if
10:
end if
11: end for
12: state := newState;

2: .
1: for all i do
2:
if state[i] = active then
3:
newState := active;{ }
4:
else
5:
if state[i 1] = active OR state[i + 1] = active then
6:
newState[i] := undefined;{ }
7:
end if
8:
end if
9: end for
10: state := newState;

3: .
.
.
9

29 2010 .

( ) ( 2, . 2). . , . . . ( ), ( 1,. . ., m)
. , : ( ), ( ) . ,
. ,
3.

0
0
,

m = max{vi } 2 m

i-
vi
vi + m
, i-
-vi

3: ,
,
.
,
. ,
(, ..) . , ,
. ,

.
, : . , . , (
) . 10

29 2010 .

. 8: :
) 512 512 120; ) .

( ).

8. 512 512 120 7 .
.

5.1

SK(X) X Rm
, X. , ,
X. , .
: ; ; c
;
; c ,
, .
: 11

29 2010 .

, .
[2]
.
,
. .
maxint,
0.
,
, .
.
. s-open, -open v-open
.
().
, .
maxint + i.
, , .
. .
:

. (). , , ,
.
[1, 5, 3]
.
. , .
, . .
, , .
, , , .
, .
12

29 2010 .

() ,
. ,
. , , 26
.
. , .
- [6],
,
. .
[4] 6- (6-subiteration reduction operation).
, .
-, ,
: (medial surface), (medial line)
(kernel). , ,
. .
[7]
. .
. , . ,


, .
, .
, .
: , 24 , ,
6- .

13

29 2010 .


[1] K. Palagyi and A. Kuba, A 3D 6-subiteration thinning algorithm for
extracting medial lines, Pattern Recognition Letters, 1998, vol.19, 613627
[2] P.K. Saha and B.B. Chaudhuri and D.D. Majumder,A new shape
preserving parallel thinning algorithm for 3D digital images, Pattern
Recoghition, 1997, Vol. 30, Num 12, pages 1939-1955
[3] K. Palagyi and E. Sorantin and E. Balogh and A. Kuba and C. Halmai
and B. Erdohelyi and K. Hausegger, A Sequential 3D Thinning Algorithm
and Its Medical Application, In proceeding IPMI 2001, 2001, pages 409415
[4] C.-M. Ma, Topology preservation of template-based 6-subiteretion
reduction operations, Pattern Recognition, 2003, Vol. 36, pages 1775-1782
[5] K. Palagyi, A 3D 3-subiteration thinning algorithm for medial surfaces,
Springer, 2000, pages 406-417
[6] E. Sorantin and C. Halmai and B. Erdohelyi and K. Palagyi and
L.G. Ny
ul and K. Olle and B. Geiger and F. Lindbichler and G. Friedrich
and K. Kiesler, Spiral-CT-Based Assessment of Tracheal Stenoses Using
3-D-Skeletonization, IEEE Transactions On Medical Imaging, 2002, Vol.
21, Num. 3, pages 263-273
[7] W. Xie and R. P. Thompson and R. Perucchio, A topology-preserving
parallel 3D thinning algorithm for extracting the curve skeleton, Pattern
Recognition, 2003, Vol. 36, pages 1529-1544

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