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POST

5.1
2005


1
Check Points for AMIBIOS V6.24 15/07/95 . . . . . . . . . . . .



Flash ROM
BIOS
DIM

3
3
4
4
7

2
POST Codes for AwardBIOS V4.51PG Elite . . . . . . . . . . . .

POST ROM
POST Shadow RAM

3
POST Codes for AwardBIOS V6.0 Medallion . . . . . . . . . . .
POST ROM
BIOS
POST Shadow RAM

POST
POST
4
POST Codes for PhoenixBIOS 4.0 Release 6.0 . . . . . . . . . .
POST ROM
POST RAM


5
Error Codes for InsydeBIOS Mobile Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

POST RAM

8
8
9

10
10
10
11
12
14
15

16
16
17
19
20

21
21
22

American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI)


POST, AMIBIOS, 1995 . POST AMI - "check points"
V6.24, 15/07/95.
AMIBIOS V7.0, .

AMIBIOS
55h, AAh,
POST -
,
.

.
, AMI chipset specific stuff. 80h CCh
. , CCh , Intel,
PIIX - TX, LX, BX.
- RTC , . BIOS - . , , 10h, RTC, DDh. ,

POST.
CPU
. 43h POST
, AMIBIOS -
D0h.


(Uncompressed Init Code Check Points)
EE
CC
CD
CE
CF
DD
D0
D1
D3
D4
D5

AMIBIOS , BIOS

Flash ROM
BIOS
Flash ROM
RTC, SIO
NMI. . Boot Block,
Basic Assurance Test. 4
GB

. .

POST Flash ROM

D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DE
DF
10
11
12
13
14

CTRL+Home
Flash ROM ( E0)
, BIOS
BIOS
BIOS Shadow RAM
SPD (Serial Presence Detect) DIMM
MTRR
, SPD
.
.

STR (Suspend to RAM)
SMRAM (System Management RAM)

VGA BIOS

Flash ROM
(Boot Block Recovery Codes)
E0
E1
E3
E2
E6
EC
ED
EE
EF
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
FB
FC
FD
FF

INT19


CMOS, BIOS

FDC
IRQ DMA



AMIBOOT.ROM
AMIBOOT.ROM
FAT
AMIBOOT.ROM
AMIBOOT.ROM Flash ROM
Internal Cache
Flash ROM
Flash ROM
Flash ROM
BIOS

BIOS, ShadowRAM
(Runtime code is uncompressed in F000 shadow RAM)
03
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0E
0F

NMI.
. USB

APIC
CMOS
End/Ins



,

10
11
12
13
14
19
1A
20
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
37
38
39
3A
3B
40
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
57
58
59


End Ins, CMOS
DMA
L2

DRAM


. Keylock Switch
Manufacture Test Switch



Turbo Switch
USB.


LCD
, ROM
VGA BIOS,
VGA BIOS
INT 10h INT 42h
CGA
CGA
CGA
.
CGA
CGA
Mono/Color
8025
.


Hit DEL CMOS Setup

GDT IDT

.
A20
A20

Conventional Memory
Conventional Memory
Extended Memory


CMOS Conventional Extended memory

Conventional Memory
Conventional Memory
Extended Memory
Conventional Memory Extended Memory


POST Memory Manager
CMOS Setup

60
62
63
65
66
67
7F
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8B
8C
8D
8F
91
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
A0
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
B0
B1
00

DMA
DMA#1
DMA#2
DMA
Write Request Mask Set POST

NMI
PS/2


Keylock


Setup
CMOS Setup Conventional Memory.
Setup
Setup
BIOS

HDD FDD
FDD

ROM Scan BIOS

BIOS
System Management RAM




CMOS RAM


MTRR (Memory Type Range Registers)


RAM


BIOS Shadow RAM
BIOS E000h
BIOS
USB
INT13
AIOPIC
INT10
DMI

ACPI BIOS
INT19h Boot Sector

Device Initialization Manager


POST , Device Initialization Manager (DIM).
, .
2A
38
39
95
DE
DF


, Initial Program Load (IPL)
,
, BIOS

,
POST , . , .
:
0

1

2

3

4
(IPL)
5

6

7
, ROM
:
0
(DIM)
1

2
ISA Legacy
3
EISA
4
ISA PnP
5
PCI
6
PCMCIA
7
MCA
, 80h
DE, DF, , :
00

01
DIMM (, EDO SDRAM)
02
SPD
03

04

05
SPD
06

Award Software International, Inc.


AwardBIOS V4.51PG Elite

Award Software 1995


AwardBIOS "Elite", V4.50PG. V4.51, V4.60. P G PnP
(Green Function).

POST ROM
C0
C1
C3
C5
C6
C8
CF

External Cache. Internal Cache. Shadow RAM. DMA, , , RTC


,
256 DRAM Temporary Area. BIOS
Temporary Area
POST Shadow
, External Cache
BIOS

POST Shadow RAM


03
04
05
06
07
BE
09
0A
0B
0
0D
0E
0F
10
11
14
15
16
19
30

NMI, PIE (Periodic Interrupt Enable), AIE (Alarm Interrupt Enable), UIE
(Update Interrupt Enable). SQWV
DRAM

, F000h, BIOS
CMOS

- L2 Cyrix
. Power
Management SMI
CMOS. PCI .

. IOAPIC.
, FSB
MPC. . Award Logo
DMA 8237. . BIOS
DMA 8237
DMA
2
1-
2-
NMI
Base Memory Extended Memory. APIC. Write Allocation

,
31
32
39
3C
3D
3E
BF
41
42
43
45
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
60
61
62
63
FF

.
USB
Plug and Play BIOS Extension. Super I/O.
Onboard Audio Device
I2C
Setup
PS/2 mouse
External Cache Cache


IRQ12 PS/2 mouse .
. IDE

FPU


CMOS
32 HDD. ISA/PnP
BIOS.
PIIX. NMI SMI
DOS Time Real Time Clock
BOOT Sector

.
ESCD, DMI.
. BIOS INT 19h

Award Software International, Inc.


AwardBIOS V6.0 Medallion
Award Medallion BIOS, Version 6.0 12 1999
. , (Early), (Late) (System) . POST, , . , BIOS , EISA,
POST .

POST ROM
BIOS (Boot Block) Flash ROM,
91hFFh
91
CF
C0



External Cache. Internal Cache. Shadow RAM. DMA, , , RTC
C1
,
0

C3
256 DRAM Temporary Area. BIOS
Temporary Area
C5
, POST
Shadow. BIOS
B0
North Bridge
A0-AF -
E0-EF

BIOS
01
05
0B
0D
10
11
12
41
FF

Conventional Memory


VGA BIOS
BIOS ROM checksum error


FDD
BIOS

10

POST Shadow RAM



- CMOS Setup. POST E000h, 01h 7Fh.
01
03
05
07
08
0A
0E
10
12
14
16
18
1B
1C
1D
1F
21
23
24
25
26
27
29
2A
2B
2D
33
35
37
39
3C
3E
40
43
45
47
49

XGROUP 1000:0000h
Super I/O
, .
CMOS


. PCI
F000h
FlashROM
CMOS


Cache L1 L2

CMOS
Power Management
XGROUP
Hardware Power Management
. FDD. PnP
.

PCI
, VID (Voltage Identification Device).


APIC, .
, . .
IDE
, Carry Flag
VGA BIOS

Reset
DMA 8237
DMA 8237
DMA
Programmable Interval Timer (8254)
Master 8259
Slave 8259
. , ,
(NMI)
ISA/EISA
.
Writes Allocation AMD K5

11

4E
50
52
53
55
57
59
5B
5D
60
63
65
67
69
6B
6D
6F
73
75
77
7A
7C
7F


. - , Cyrix M1
USB
, (Shared Memory).



ISA PnP ,
CSN (Card Select Number). EPA

BIOS
SIO Audio
CMOS Setup
PS/2 Mouse
USB Mouse
IRQ12 PCI, PS/2 Mouse
L2
CMOS Setup
ISA PnP SIO

.
- ALT+F2 AwardFlash
IDE

, FPU CW

. DEL F1

,
82h, POST
CMOS. Shadow RAM (
E800h) - FFh.
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93


CMOS
Initializing Plug and Play Cards...
USB
, Carry Flag
SYSID DMI
, Carry Flag
ACPI
, Carry Flag
BIOS
, Carry Flag

, Carry Flag
IRQ12
, Carry Flag
Legacy-
, Carry Flag
,

12

94

95
96

FF

. . BIOS,
. AMD K6
.
Intel Pentium II
/ .

. Cyrix . ESCD "Extended System Configuration Data". DOS Time
Real Time Clock.
: Trend AntiVirus Paragon Anti-Virus Protection.
POST. MSIRQ

, Award Medallion BIOS,


. :
System Event codes - .
B0
B1
B2

Protected Mode
NMI
NMI

Power Management Debug codes - ,


APM ACPI.
55
66
D0
D1
D2
D3
D7
D8
D9

+12


CPU
ACPI
System Management Interrupt
CPU APM-
APM-

System Error codes - .

EC
ED
EF

ECC
HDD
F000h
Debug codes for MP system - .

A0-A4 Local APIC CPU


F0-F4 CPU Built-In Self Test

13

POST
CMOS Setup
"Quick Power On Self Test". POST (Quick Boot).
Quick Boot POST . Award Software POST, . Quick Boot
65h
POST 80h.
Award BIOS FFh.
65

66
67
68
69
6A
6B
70
71
72
73
74
75
77
78
79
7A
7D
7E
7F
80

SIO , .
, "".
. BIOS.
Flash ROM.
- L1/L2 ,
CPUID. , . Power Managment
CMOS . CMOS. . BIOS Data Area

i8259

, EPA
AwardFlash.
-
Setup. PS/2 USB Mouse
-
. Plug and Play . FDD
HDD

CMOS Setup,
IDE HDD
: Press F1 to continue, DEL to enter Setup
BIOS ISA PCI
Legacy
RSDT DSDT, FADT ..

BIOS
NumLock CMOS SetUp

14

POST
, , Hibernate. ACPI ("Advanced
Configuration and Power Interface Specification", Revision 2.0a 31/03/2002) S4 (Non-Volatile Sleep).
POST.
ACPI S4, , POST. . , ACPI
Reset, S4, 90h POST 9Fh.
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D

9E
9F

SIO , .
, ""
CMOS

- CPUID
,
. Power Managment
PCI


VGA
DMA8237

i8259
PS/2 USB Mouse. ACPI .
. Plug and Play . FDD HDD
PM- ,
Shadow RAM SMRAM. , USB , L1
Power Management, . SMI SMI. , PM
- L1/L2
. , CMOS Setup, PM RAM.

( Zero Volt Suspend)

15

Phoenix Technologies, Ltd.

Phoenix Technologies Windows95 PhoenixBIOS 4.0. Intel Pentium


. - Release 6.0 - BIOS.
Release 6.1 POST , , , .
PhoenixBIOS , POST 512 ( 2Ch,
2Eh, 30h), 80h ,
. ,
"2C 0002" , 1. "2E 1020"
, 12 5
. 386SX,
, 30h
POST
. :



: 16h = 00 01 01 10 = 1-2-2-3

POST ROM
01
02
03
04
06
07
08
11
09
0A
0B
0E
0C
0F
10
12
13
14
16
17
18
1A
1C
20
22
24
26

Baseboard Management (BMC)





PIC DMA
, BIOS,


POST

Internal Cache
Super I/O
L1/L2 CMOS
IDE
Power Management
MSW (Machine Status Word)
PCI

ROM BIOS
L1/L2
8254
DMA

DRAM

4Gb
20

16

28
29
2A
2C
2E
2F
30
32


POST Memory Manager (PMM)
640Kb




CPU

POST RAM
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3E
40
41
42
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4B
4C
4E
4F
50
51
52
54
55
58
59
5A
5B
5C
5E

Phoenix Dispatch Manager


ATX Power Button
, , /,
POST.
Watch Dog Service

Runtime BIOS ,
Shadow RAM
-
L2
BIOS
PCIPCI PCI
CMOS Setup
Read Hardware Configuration
ROM Pilot
CPU
ROM Pilot -

Set BIOS Interrupt
PnP
BIOS
I2O /

PCI

Quiet Boot - , POST
VGA BIOS
BIOS Copyright


EISA


USB

POST Display Service (PDS)
"Press F2 to enter SETUP"
CPU Internal Cache
Conventional Memory
Detect Base Address

17

60
62
64
66
67
68
69
6A
6B
6C
6E
70
72
76
7A
7C
7D
7E
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8F
90
91
92
93
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9C
9D
9E
9F
A0
A1
A2
A4

Extended Memory
Extended Memory
, (Patch1)

APIC
L1/L2
System Management Mode RAM
External Cache
CMOS Setup
Shadow RAM
Upper Memory Blocks (UMB)

CMOS

(System Password)
(Key Lock Switch)



/ SIO

RS232
IDE

ISA PnP
SIO CMOS Setup
MCD (Motherboard Configurable Devices)
BIOS Data Area

, Extended BIOS Data
Area
PS/2 Mouse

ATA

PIO
, (Patch2)

CD-ROM
Real Mode
MP Configuration Table
ROM Scan
SMART
ROM RAM
Power Management


IDE SCSI
DOS Time RTC

Key Lock

18

A8
AA
AC
AE
B0
B1
B2
B4
B5
B6
B7
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
C0

C1
C2
C3
4
C5
C6
C7
8
9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE

"Press F2 to enter Setup"


SCAN F2
Setup
, CTRL+ALT+DEL
"Press F1 to resume, F2 to Setup"
POST
POST

Quiet Boot
, Setup
ACPI BIOS
USB
DMI
ROM Scan
RAM



INT 19h -
Boot Sector. Boot Sector, ,
Setup
(PEM)



CMOS RAM
-
-
Boot Block
BIOS
BIOS /

Console Redirect
RAM/ROM
Console Redirect
PCMCIA


D0
D2
D4
D6
D7
D8
DA
DC
DD
DE
DF

, (Exception error)

,

,
SMRAM

Real Mode



A20

19

Boot Block
E0
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5



CPU

Super I/O
Recovery Jumper, BIOS Recovery
E6
BIOS
E7
BIOS,
E8
MPS
E9
4Gb
EA

EB

EC
: FPM, EDO, SDRAM,
Host Bridge
ED
. Host Bridge (DRAM Row
Boundary)
EE
Boot Block Shadow RAM
EF
SMM RAM SMI
F0

F1

F2
Real Time Clock
F3

F4

F5
, Flash ROM
F6
Real Mode
F7
Boot to Full DOS
F8
USB
FAFF PhDebug

20

Insyde Software Corp.

, BIOS.
SystemSoft, . MobilePRO Mitac Clevo,
Error Codes - Insyde Software
POST.


, BIOS Insyde Software 1992
, , - Boot Loader,
, - 1995 .
.
, InsydeBIOS,
. , , Boot Loader Manufacture's Diagnostic Port 80h,
PIO Port (Parallel Input/Output port for
diagnostic purpose), ,
378h. , ,
80h, .
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0F
BB
CC
88
99
60
61
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4


20 ( )




Flash ROM
BIOS
BIOS
POST
Flash ROM FDD

BIOS
Flash ROM FDD

LPC SIO
Flash ROM
ACPI
STR
Big Real Mode
SM Bus. SPD CMOS
SPD, CMOS

DIMM
DRB (DRAM Row Boundary)
DRA (DRAM Row Attributes)

21

AE
AF
E1
E2
EA
EC
ED
EE

DIMM,
Error Correcting Codes (ECC)
,
, DIMM SPD
DIMM
DIMM

CAS Latency
DIMM

POST RAM
InsydeBIOS 16-
. 80h 81h,
.
,
.
:
POST .
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A

-, CMOS
20. 8259.


ISA

CMOS

Conventional Memory
Flash ROM


, 6845
EGA
CGA
DMA


CMOS
Extended CMOS
DMA
DMA




22

2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Setup

CGA
EGA/VGA
VGA BIOS








20
-

DOS Time Real Time Clock


NumLock


FDD
HDD
Power Management USB
BIOS
NumLock

PCMCIA

Bootstrap
ACPI
Power Management
USB

23

, :
http://icbook.com.ua/

24