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CHAPTER-2 1. What is power transmission system? Specify its types.

The power transmission system is a group of equipments working together and used for transmitting power or force from the place of energy generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful works like moving heavy load by light applied load, travelling to many places, machining the parts, lighting the space for living purpose and so on. Depending upon the use and nature of construction, the power system classified into four categories such as 1. Electrical system 2. Hydraulic system 3. Pneumatic system 4. Mechanical system 2. What is prime-mover? In what ways it is differed from machines? Prime-movers are power producing machineries. They produce power by themselves and supply the power to machineries for their operation. Examples for prime movers are electric motor, I.C engine, turbine and for machines are lathe, milling machine, automobile vehicle and so an. Prime movers only supply power to machines and the machines are employed for doing useful work. For operating prime-movers, they require some energy sources like fuel, current etc., for operating machines prime movers have to supply the power to them. 3. What are the differences between slider crank mechanism and cam mechanism? Even though both mechanisms are employed for converting rotary motion into linear motion, there are some differences between them. 1. In cam mechanism, only rotary motion of the cam can be converted into linear motion of follower and the converse motion is not possible, i.e., the linear motion of follower cannot be converted into rotary motion of the cam whereas in slider crank mechanism, both the conversations, such as conversation of rotary motion of crank into linear motion of slider into rotary motion of crank, are possible. 2. In cam mechanism the driving and driven and driven components (i.e., cam and follower) are having direct contact where in slider crank mechanism, an intermediate link such as connecting rod has been fixed with rotating crank and linearly moving slider. CHAPTER-3 1. What is a power drive? Mention their types. The power drive is a set of machine members employed to transmit power or energy produced in one machine to another machine. Their main types are (1) Mechanical, (2) Hydraulic, (3) Pneumatic and (4) Electrical drives.

2. What is meant by mechanical drives? Classify them. The drives which transmit power by means of contact forces are called as mechanical drives. They can be classified based on (a) Way of power transmission. (i) Friction drives (Eg. Belt drives, chain drives, Rope drives) (ii) Toothed drives (Eg. Gear drives, Chain drives) (b) Centre distance between power shafts (i) Long distance drives (Eg. Belt drives, Chain drives, Rope drives) (ii) Short distance drives (Eg. Gear drives) (c) Intermediate link between driving and driven members. (i) No intermediate link (Eg. Gear drives) (ii) With intermediate link (Eg. Belt drives, rope drives, chain drives) 3. State the Law of Belting Law of belting that the center line of the belt when it approaches the pulley must lie in the mid plane of that pulley which should be perpendicular to the axis of the pulley. Otherwise the belt will run off the pulley. 4. Explain the term Crowning of Pulley Pulleys are provided a slight conical shapes (or) convex shapes in their rims outer surface in order to prevent the belt from running off the pulley due to centrifugal force. This is known as crowning height may be 1/96 of pulley face width. 5. Give the details about driving and driven members. The elements of power supplier such as shafts and pulleys of motor or engine are called as driving members, whereas the shafts and pulleys of various machines like blower, crusher, pumps which receive power are termed as driven members. 6. Briefly explain about friction and its applications. Friction is said to be a resisting force that is developed between two relatively moving surfaces. For some machines, this frictional force may be unwanted force and hence it is to be reduced to the maximum level. For some other machines, this is considered as an essential force without which the machines cannot be operated properly. Bearings are the good examples for the first category and brakes, clutches are the notable examples for the second category. 7. Define Co-efficient of friction: Co-efficient of friction () is defined as the ratio of the force (F) required to cause uniform sliding velocity of a block (A) on a surface (B) to the normal pressure (R) between the contact surface as shown in figure. = F/R

8. Why are the belts drives called as flexible drives? In belt drives, slight deviation of shaft axes from their parallel position will not affect their function much whereas this is a very dangerous fault as in gear drives. Also the belt pulleys are freed from some critical parameters similar to gear module and hence the slight change of pulley diameters will have no effect on engagement. So belt drives are considered as flexible drives. 9. What are the types of belts? (a) Flat belts (b) V-belts (i) Single V-belt (ii) Multiple V-belt (iii) Ribbed Belt. (c) Toothed or Timing Belt. (d) Round Belts. 10. State the materials by which the belts are made of? Belts can be made of leather, cotton fabrics, rubber, animals hair, silk, rayon, woolen etc. 11. Indicate some merits and demerits of belt-drives. Merits: 1. Belt drives are used for long distance power transmissions. 2. Their operations are smooth and flexible. 3. They have simple design and their manufacturing cost is lower. Demerits: 1. They need large space. 2. Loss of power due to friction is more. 12. By what materials, belt-pulleys are made? Belt-pulleys are made of cast-iron or steel. 13. What is meant by the ply of belt? Flat belts are made of thin strips and laminated one over the other in order to get thick belt. These thin strips or sheets are called as plies of belt. Usually flat belts are made of 3 ply, 4 ply, 5 ply, 6 ply and 8 ply belt etc and 4 ply belt is thicker than 3 ply belt and so on. 14. Mention the difference types of joints employed for joining flat-belts. (i) Cemented joints (ii) Laced joints (iii) Crest joints (iv) Hinged joints

15. What conditions should be followed when flat belt drive is installed? 1. The axes of power transmitting shafts should be parallel. 2. It should have optimum between the shafts. 3. The tight-side of the drive should be at the bottom side of the pulley. 16. Why tight-side of the belt should be at the bottom side of the pulley? If the tight-side of belt is at the bottom side of the pulley, and slack side is at the top side, then the sag caused by the self-weight of belt, for long center distance drive will increase the arc of contact of belt with pulley and hence the effect of power transmission is increased. This is the reason. 17. Differentiate open-belt and cross-belt drive. In open-self drive, the directions of rotations of driving and driven pulleys are same whereas in cross-belt drive they are opposite to each other. 18. What is belt rating? Flat-belts are made of different sizes such as 3 ply, 4 ply and V-belts are made of different grades such as A, B, C, D and E grade belts. Belt rating is defined as the power transmitting capacity of unit size flat belt or a particular grade single V-belt. 19. Fill in the blanks of the following. (a) For long distance belts are employed. (b) When the axes of driving and driven shafts are arranged in 900 belt drive is operated. Answers: (a) Flat, (b) Quarter turn 20. Why are thin wide flat belts preferred than thick narrow belts? Since thin wide belt possess more surface contact area with pulley than thick narrow belt, thin belt can transmit more power than thick belt for a constant weight. Hence thin wide belts are preferred. 21. Name of four types of belts used for transmission of power. 1. Flat belt 2. V belt 3. Toothed or Timing belt. 4. Round belt. 22. Specify the application of round belt. Round-belt is applied in sewing machine.

23. State the significance of centrifugal tension transmitted by belt-drive. The centrifugal tension has no effect on the power transmitted. This can be proved as follows. Power transmitted, P = (T1 T2) v when there is no centrifugal tension: If the centrifugal tension is considered, then the power, P =[(T1 + Tc) (T2 Tc)] v = (T1 T2) v Where T1, T2 Tensions in tight side and slack side Tc - centrifugal tension v Speed of belt. Since the power transmitted in both conditions are equal, it is said that centrifugal tension has no effect on the transmitted power. 24. Briefly explain about initial tension in belts. The motion of belt and pulleys is governed by a firm grip between the belt and pulley. In order to increase this grip for proper power transmission,. The belt is tightened up. At this stage, even the pulleys are not running i.e., at rest, the belt is subjected it some tensions called as initial tension. 25. What is the value of tight side tension with respect to slack side tension? Let T1 = Tight side tension in N T2 = Slack side tension in N = coefficient of friction = Angle of contact of driving pulley in radians Then T1/T2 = e (or) T1 = T2 x e 26. Specify the purpose of crowing of flat pulley. The purpose of crowing of flat pulley is to avoid the belt to slip from the pulley due to centrifugal force during running. 27. State True or False. The material of belt which is acid proof, water proof and not affected by alkalies is rayon. Ans: True 28. What factors should be considered during the selection of a belt drive? (a) Amount of power to be transmitted. (b) Peripheral and angular speeds. (c) Speed ratio. (d) Efficiency. (e) Centre distance between staffs. (f) Space available. (g) Working environment.

29. What are the commercial types of flat belts? The commercial types of flat-belts are (a) HI-SPEED and FORT of various plies such as 3 ply, 4 ply, 5 ply, 6 ply and 8 ply belts. 30. What are the factors on which the co-efficient of friction between the belt and pulley depends? (a) Material of belt (b) Material of pulley (c) Slip of belt (d) Speed of belt (e) Smoothness of contact surfaces. 31. Explain briefly about creep in belts. Since the tensions produced by the belt on the two sides of pulley are not equal, the belt moves with a very negligible velocity, due to the difference of two tensions. This sloe movement of the belt over the pulley is known as creep of belt and it is generally neglected. 32. Shortly narrate the method of developing initial tension in flat belts. In the case of flat-belts, certain amount of length of belt is cut from its correct size and then this shortened belt is joined. In this way, the initial tension is developed in flat belts, when this reduced length of belt is placed over the pulleys. CHAPTER-4 1. How is v-belt designated? V-belt designated by a grade letter followed by its inside length in mm, code number, year of coding. For example, D 3048: IS 2494: 1964. Mostly belts are designated by the grade letter and inside only such as D 3048. Sometimes, the inside length may be denoted in inches as D 120. 2. In what ways, timing belts are superior to ordinary v- belts? Since the timing belts posses toothed shape in their inner side, their engagement with toothed pulley will provide positive drive without any belt-slip where as in the case of ordinary V-belts, chances of slip are more and hence positive drive is not possible at all times. Hence toothed belts (i.e. timing belts) are superior to ordinary V-belts.

3. Fill in the blanks of the following. (a) The uneven extensions and contractions due to varying tensions in the belt is known as (b) The V-belt transmits power by its surfaces. (c) The included angle for V-belt is usually between .. and . Degrees. (d) The tension on the slack side of the belt is . Than the tension on the tight side of the belt. Answers: (a) creep. (b) Inclined (c) 30, 40. (d) less. 4. When do we prefer a V-belt to a flat-belt? (a) For getting higher velocity ratio (up to 10) (b) For smooth and noiseless operation. (c) For small centre distance. (d) For obtaining positive drive (i.e., without belt slip) 5. State true or false. (a) V-belts are made into endless type. (b) The B-grade V-belt is stronger than C-grade V-belt for same inside length. (c) The cross-section of the pulley rim is elliptical. Answers: (a) true (b) false (c) true 6. Fill in the blanks of the following. a) The ratio of driving tensions for flat belt drive is .. b) The ratio of driving tensions for V-belt drive is . Answers: (a) T1/T2 = e (b) T1/T2 = e/sin (/2)

CHAPTER 5 CHAIN DRIVES 1. Write the function of a chain drive. A chain drive is a flexible mechanical drive which may be considering being intermediate between belt drive and gear drive in that it has features common to both. Chains are suitable for long as well as short centre distance drive and give a more compact drive than is possible with belts. Chain drives are similar to belt drives in which the chains operated between toothed wheels called as sprockets. 2. Mention the applications of chain drives. Chain drives employed in transportation machineries like motor-cycle, bi-cycle, automobiles and in technological machineries like agricultural machines, crushes etc. 3. What are the advantages of chain drives? Chain drives 1. Are having more power transmitting capacity. 2. Have higher efficiency and compact size. 3. Exert less load on shafts since no initial tension is applied on the sprocket shafts. 4. Require easy maintenance. 4. Specify some drawbacks of chain drives. 1. The design of chain is more complicated. 2. Their operation is noisy and production cost is high. 3. They require more accurate assembly of shafts than for belts. 5. Indicate the types of chains. a) Driving chains b) Hauling chains c) Loading chains 6. What are the kinds of driving chains? Chains are classified based on (a) Chain structures as (i) Roller chains (ii) Bush chains (iii) Silent (or) inverted toothed chains. (b) Number of chains required to transmit the load as (i) Single row (i.e. simplex) chains (ii) Double row (ie. Duplex) chains (iii) Triple row (i.e triplex) chains

7. In what way silent chain is better than ordinary chain? A silent chain consist of a series of toothed plates pined together in rows across the width of the chain. Even through the structure of silent chain is more complicated, its engagement with sprocket is very smooth and hence we get soundless operation. That is why, silent is preferred where over possible. 8. What are the main components of a chain? A chain drive has four components such as Chains Sprockets Chain housing Slack adjusters 9. Fill in the blanks of the following. (a) The main types of chains used to transmit power are, .. and .. (b) The linear distance between the centers of consecutive rollers of a chain is called as .. (a) Bush, roller and silent chains (b) Pitch of chain 10. What are the possible ways by which a chain drive may fail? The chains drives may fail to the following causes. (a) Wear in the joints which leads to the elongation of chain resulting improve engagement with the sprockets. (b) Wear of the sprocket teeth. (c) Fatigue failure of the plates at the eyes. (d) Poor lubrication and improve maintenance. 11. Distinguish between bush chain and roller chain.

Even though and roller chains seem to be similar roller chains are provided with cylindrical plates over the chain pins are which are not available in bush chains. Hence wear due to engagement can be reduced much in roller chains. Also roller chains are heavier than bush chains. 12. By what materials chain components are made of? Chain plates are made of medium carbon or alloy steels. Chains pins, bushing and roller are made of carburizing steels and are hardened to 50-65RC. Chain sprockets are made of cast-iron or hardened steels.

13. Find the difference between chain sprocket and gear. Usually the gear width is comparatively more with respect to its diameter where as sprockets are made of thin plates is order to enable the chain the engage with sprockets. 14.What is slack adjuster? Slack adjuster is a movable bearing which is employer for regulating chain sag and tension in order to get proper alignment. The movable bearings are in the form of slides in which the sprockets shafts are installed. 15. How is a driving chain designed? According to Indian standard, roller chains are designed by their roller diameter and number of strands. For example 10.0S IS 2403-1964 stands for single strand chain of 10.16mm roller diameter. 16. Define the following. (a) Pitch of the chain. (b) Breaking load. (a) Pitch of the chain is the linear distance between the centres of consecutive rollers. (b) Breaking load is the load or force at which the chain can be broken or fail. 17. What is the reason for using even number of pitches of length in chains. In order to balance correct engagement of chain with the sprockets and also to distribute wear evenly to all chain links, length of chain should corrected to even number of pitches. 18. What factors will affect the working conditions of a chain drive. 1. Type of loading such as constant or variable load. 2. Distance between the driving and driven sprockets.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Position of driving shafts such as horizontal or inclined. Lubrication Service (i.e. period of working) Environmental conditions such as corrosive and dust atmosphere etc.

19. Mention the applications of hauling and hosting chains. Hauling and hosting chains are mostly employed is material handling devices such as cranes, elevators winches and so on. 20. Indicate a company where chains are manufactured? Rolon India limited.

CHAPTER 6 ROPE DRIVES 1. Specify the kinds of ropes. They are two types namely (a) Fibre ropes (b) Wire ropes 2. By what materials, fibre ropes are made of? Fibre ropes are made of fibrous materials such as hemp, manila and cotton. 3. What are the different forms of fiber ropes? Fibre ropes are manufactured into three fornms such as 1. Plain laid rope, 2. Shroud laid rope and 3. Cable laid rope. 4. In what way, the shroud laid rope is differed from plain laid rope? As per construction, the plate laid rope and shroud laid are similar That is, the strands are twisted to have Z lay for both types. But in plain laid rope. The number of strands is three whereas in shroud laid rope, the number of strands is four. 5. How are fibre ropes designed? The fibre ropes are designed by their name, nominal diameter and the number of standard. For example a cotton rope of 25mm diameter shall be designated as Cotton rope, 25,IS3143. 6. What materials are selected for making wire ropes? Wire ropes are made of tempered steel wires. Copper, Bronze, Aluminum alloys are used for specific purpose.

7. In what ways wire ropes are superior to fibre ropes? (a) Wire ropes are stronger, more durable than fibre ropes. (b) Wire ropes can withstand shock loads. (c) Their efficiency in high. (d) They can be operated for very long centre distance even up to 1000m. Hence wire ropes are superior in most of occasions. 8. How are wire-ropes classified? (a) Based on number of stands and wires. i) 67 ii) 619 iii) 637 iv) 819 ropes. (b) Based on the direction of wires with respect to strands in twisting. (c) Cross- lay ropes. (d) Parallel-lay ropes. (e) Composite lay ropes. 9. How is a wire-rope designated? A wire rope is designated by the number of strands and the number of wires in each strand. For example, a wire rope having six strands and each strand containing nineteen wires can be as 619 rope. 10.What are the various stressed induced in wire rope? 1. Direct tensile load due to load self weight of the rope. 2. Bending stress when the rope winds round the drum. 3. Stresses due to changes in speed, starting and stopping etc. 11. Fill in the blanks of the following (a) The material used for making core wire rope is . (b) The factor of safety for wire-rope operation ranging from Answers: (a) Asbestos or soft steel. (b) 6 to 8. 12. Where are the rope-drives employed? Rope drives are employed for very long centre distance applications ranging from 60 m to 500m . For example, hoisting machineries, lifts, winches,elevators,conveyors,suspension bridge etc.