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1 The End of History The National Interest 16 (Summer 1989
.), . 3-18.
489

2
. Reply to My Critics,
The National Interest 18 (Winter 19891990); . 21-22.
3 ,

.
1.
4 Emile Fackenheim, Gods Presence in Historiy: Jewish
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140.
6 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition (London, 1911) vol. 27,
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7 Norman Angell, The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of
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8 Paul Fussel, The Great War and Modern Memory (New York:
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10 , 1959, . 19.
11 (Ekstein 1989), . 291.
490

12 - (JeanFran?ois Revel), But We Follow the Worse The National


Interest (Winter 1989-1990): 99-103.
13 . (Gertrude Himmelfarb)
The End of History?, The National Interest
(Winter 1989): 2526. .
(Leszek Kolakowsky) Uncertainties of a Democratic Age,
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14 . Henry Kissinger, The Perlament Challenge of:
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15 , 1984
, ,
, :

.
(Robert Bernes), After Brezhnev The American
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16 - (Jean-Fran?ois Revel), How
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17 Jeanne Kirpatrick, Dictatorshops and Double Standarts,
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18 ,
, . Stephen Sestanovich, Anxiety and Ideology,
University of Chicago Law Rewiew 52, . 2 (Spring 1985): 3
16.
19 Revel (1983), . 17; , -

491

.


-
. ,
, ,
How Democracies Perish.
20 (Jerry Hough), The Soviet Union and Social
Science Theory (Cambridge, Mass.: Havard University Press,
1977), . 8. : , , ,
,
- ...

...
.
21 Hough (1977), . 5. ,
Merle
Fainsod How the Soviet Union is Giverned,

, ,
.

,
1988
, ,
1990 . . How the Soviet Union is
Giverned (Cambridge, Mass.: Havard University Press, 1979), .
363380.

492

22 James McAdams, Crise in the Soviet Empire: Three


Ambiguites in Search of Prediction, Comparative Politics 20, no.
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23 . Peter Hauslohner,
Gorbathevs Social Contrac
t, Soviet Economy 3 (1987), 5489.
24 ., , ,
.
Introduction: Political Legitimacy, Weber and Communist Monoorganizational System, . Rigby and Ferenc
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25 Samuel Huntington, Political Order in Chanbung Societes (New
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Timothy J. Colton, The Dilemma of Reform in Soviet
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90.
2. I
27
,
,
. ,

,
. ., ,
493

Rigby and Feher (1982).


The Theory of Social and Economic
Organization Talcott Parson (New York: Oxford
University
Press,
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.
324423.



.
28 ,
Tyranny and Wisdom Leo Straus, On Tyranny (Ithaca,
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29
1944
, , ,
,
.
30 .
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Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain
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. 15.
31 . Juan
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32
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33.
494

33 . Thomas C. Bruneau, Continuity and Change


in Potuguese Politics: The Years after the Revolution of 25 April
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34 Kenneth Maxwell, Regime Overthrow and Prospects for
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36 Jose Maria Maravall and Julian Srtamaria, Politieal Change in
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1975 , , 42,2% 51,7%

,

. John F.
Coverdale, The Political Transformation of Spain after Franco
(New York: Praeger, 1979), p. 17.
37 , 77,7%
, ,
1976 , 94,2%
. Coverdale (1979), ; 53.

495

38 P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, Regime Change and Prospects for


Democracy in Greece: 1974l983, O'Donnell, Schmitteri and
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39
,
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,
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43 Charles Guy.Gillespie and Luis Eduarcto Gonzaicz, Uruguay:
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44 ,
1950 - 1961 1966 ,
496


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45 John Kane-Berman, South Africa's Silent
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1987 .
46
,
, ,
.
,
,
, ,

. ,

,
.
. ,
,

.
47

, , ,
.., ,
, .
,
497


, .
3. II,

48 .
(, 1989), . 510.
49
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50 Mikhail Heller, Cogsm the Wheel: The Formation of Soviet
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,
,

.

.
53 Ed Hewett, Reforming the Soviet Economy: Equality versus
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54 (Anders Aslund);
Aslund,
Gorbachev's struggle for Economic Reform (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
498

University Press, 1989), p. 15. ,


,
1517%
,
25 30%.
,
,
25% .
55 .
56 .
Aslund (1989), pp. 38, Hewlett (1988), pp. 274-302.

.
(1989), . 621-623.
57 , ,
,
,

. . Marshall I.
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58
,

, Joseph Berliner, Factory and
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,
499

,
, .
59 1985
; 1987 ( )
.
1988
,
. .

,
.
60
,
,
.
,

. .
18 ( 18 ) 1990 , .
6.
61
(Jeremy Azrael), ,

,
, .
62
,
,

.
500


, 7 ( 1989), . 166
184.
63 Vaclav Havel e. a. The Power of Powerless (London:
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. ,

.
, (Jerry Hough), ,


.
, ,



, . .
H. Gordon Skilling and Franklyn
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. . Lucian W. Pye,
Tiananmen and Chinese Political Culture, Asian Survey 30, no.
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65 The
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501

66 lan Wilson and You Ji, Leadership by 'Lines': China's


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67 ,
,
, ,

, ,

.
4.
68 Dokumente zu Hegels Entwicklung Hoff J.
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,
, , Robert Barros, The Left and
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, . Andre Gunder Frank,
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71 James Bryce, Modern Democracies, vol. 1 (New York, Macmillan, 1931), . 53-54.
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72
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. Joseph
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Samuel Huntington,
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,
, ;

- ,
. . Bryce, vol. I (1931),
. 2023.
74 - 1989

, .

.
1990 ,

,
,
.
75 ,



503



.
76 ,
,
.
77 ,
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?,

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. ,
,
,
,
, .
78
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79
, Michael Doyl, Kant, Liberal
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.
.

504

. , , , , , , , , ,
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84 , ,

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86 . Leo Strauss, Thoughts on Machiavelli
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90 Nisbet (1969), p. 104. CM. TaKxe Bury (1932),
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.
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:
...
,
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, "
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104 ,
,
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105 ,
,
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,
,
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,
.
106 .
190195 .
107 ; ,
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109 . Shlomo Avineri, The Social and
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