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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................... iii

NOTES ............................................................................................................................. iv

INTRODUCTION: APPLIED LINGUISTIC APPROACHES............................ 1


1.1. The use of linguistic description......................................................................... 1
1.2. Theoretical value and pedagogic utility.............................................................. 2
1.3. The use of linguistic insights ............................................................................... 4
1.4. The approach taken in this study........................................................................ 6
THE SCOPE AND APPLICATION OF GRAMMAR ........................................... 9
2.1. The content of grammar and language teaching .............................................. 9
2.2. Langue and parole ............................................................................................. 10
2.3. The distinction between use and usage ........................................................... 14
2.4. Ontological and heuristic validity ..................................................................... 16
2.5. Levels of idealization .......................................................................................... 20
2.6. Extending the scope of grammar ..................................................................... 25
EXTENDING THE SCOPE: DE-STANDARDIZATION ................................ 27
3.1. The speech community...................................................................................... 27
3.2. Variation within the verbal repertoire.............................................................. 28
3.3. Variation according to use: register analysis ................................................... 30
3.4. Variation in relation to code.............................................................................. 40
3.5. Other work in stylistic analysis.......................................................................... 43
3.6. Variation in relation to context......................................................................... 53
EXTENDING THE SCOPE: CONTEXTUALISATION……………….…...57
4.1. Analysis beyond the sentence............................................................................ 57
4.2. Text analysis......................................................................................................... 62
4.3. Thematic organization in text and discourse .................................................. 73
4.4. Discourse analysis ............................................................................................... 76
EXTENDING THE SCOPE: SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS .................. 85
5.1. The problem of explicitness and generality .................................................... 85
5.2. The confusion of sentence and utterance ....................................................... 91
5.3. The grammatical account of pragmatic potential........................................... 96
5.4. The problem of synonymy .............................................................................. 103
LINGUISTIC SIGNIFICATION AND RHETORICAL VALUE ................... 109
6.1. Meaning in langue and parole ....................................................................... 109
6.2. Signification and value...................................................................................... 110
6.3. Sentence, locution and utterance .................................................................... 117
6.4. Grammaticalness and interpretability ............................................................ 119
6.5. The realization of value.................................................................................... 125
6.6. The value of lexical items: extension, selection, suppletion........................ 133
ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS IN DISCOURSE…………………………….......139
7.1. The rhetorical value of locutions .................................................................... 139
7.2. The illocutionary act of explanation............................................................... 145
7.3. Summary: variation in value ............................................................................ 158
7.4. Specimen analysis.............................................................................................. 159
THE RHETORICAL FUNCTION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL RULES... 173
8.1. Rhetorical and grammatical functions of transformations ......................... 173
8.2. Linear modification: Bolinger.......................................................................... 177
8.3. The rhetorical function of embeddings..........................................................180
8.4. The rhetorical function of co-ordination ...................................................... 193
8.5. The rhetorical function of adverbial transposition ...................................... 200
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ......................................................................... 205
9.1. Basic principles.................................................................................................. 205
9.2. Comparisons and correspondences................................................................ 206
PEDAGOGIC APPLICATION ............................................................................... 219
10.1 The contextual element in language teaching .............................................. 219
BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................ 237