=
=
=
=
Reverse Carnot Cycle
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 1
A Carnot Refrigerator requires 1.3 kW per tonne of refrigeration to maintain a region at
low temperature of 38 C. Determine:
i) COP of Carnot Refrigerator.
ii) Higher temperature of the cycle.
iii) Heat delivered and COP, if the same device is used Heat Pump.
99 . 2
) sec/ 3600 ( ) 3 . 1 (
/ 000 , 14
3 . 1
1
= = = =
hr kW
hr kJ
kW
tonne
done Work
absorbed Heat
COP
refrig
.ANS
K T
K T
K
T T
T
COP
refrig
6 . 313
235
235
99 . 2
1
2 1 2
1
=
=
.ANS
Heat Delivered as Heat Pump ;
sec / 189 . 5 3 . 1
3600
/ 000 , 14
3 . 1 1 kJ
hr kJ
kW tonne
done Work absorbed Heat
= + = + =
+ =
.ANS
99 . 3
3 . 1
sec / 189 . 5
= = =
kW
kJ
done Work
delivered Heat
COP
HP
.ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 2
A refrigerating system works on reverse Carnot cycle. The higher temperature in the
system is 35 C and the lower temperature is 15 C. The capacity is to be 12 tonnes.
Determine :
i) COP of Carnot Refrigerator.
ii) Heat rejected from the system per hour.
iii) Power required.
18 . 5
258 308
258
1 2
1
=
=
K K
K
T T
T
COP
refrig
.ANS
hr kJ Input Work
Input Work
hr kJ X
Input Work
tonne
Input Work
Effect frig
COP
refrig
/ 32558
/ 000 , 14 12 12
16 . 5
. Re
=
= = =
.ANS kW
hr kJ hr Input Work
Power 04 . 9
3600
/ 32558
3600
/
= = =
Heat Rejected / hr = Refrig. Effect / hr + Work Input / hr
= 12 x 14,000 (kJ/hr) + 32,558 (kJ/hr) = 2,00,558 kJ/hr. .ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 3
Ice is formed at 0 C from water at 20 C. The temperature of the brine is 8 C. Find out
the kg of ice per kWh. Assume that the system operates on reversed Carnot cycle. Take
latent heat of ice as 335 kJ/kg.
46 . 9
265 293
265
1 2
1
=
=
K K
K
T T
T
COP
refrig
Heat to be extracted per kg of water ( to from ice at 0 C)
R
n
= 1 (kg) x C
pw
(kJ/kg.K) x (293 273) (K) + Latent Heat (kJ/kg) of ice
= 1 (kg) x 4.18 (kJ/kg.K) x 20 (K) + 335 (kJ/kg)
= 418.6 kJ/kg.
Also, 1 kWh = 1 (kJ) x 3600 (sec/hr) = 3600 kJ.
kg m
kJ
kg kJ X kg m
kJ done Work
kJ Ef fect f rig
W
R
COP
ice
ice
n
refrig
35 . 81
3600
) / ( 6 . 418 ) (
46 . 9
) (
) ( . Re
= =
= =
.ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
Elements of this system :
1. Compressor.
2. Heat Exchanger.
3. Expander.
4. Refrigerator.
Work gained from Expander is used
to drive Compressor.
Hence, less external work is required.
Heat Exchanger
Cooling
Water
Refrigerator
Compressor Expander
Cold Air
Very Cold Air
Warm Air
Hot Air
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
3
2
1
4
Isobars
Adiabatic
Expansion
Compression
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
P V Diagram
3
2
1
4
Expansion
Compression
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Entropy
Isobars
Adiabatic
T s Diagram
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
3
2
1
4
Expansion
Compression
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Entropy
Isobars
Adiabatic
Heat Absorbed in Refrigerator :
) (
4 1
T T C m Q
P added
=
Heat Rejected in Heat Exchanger :
) (
3 2
T T C m Q
P rejected
=
If process changes from Adiabatic to Polytropic;
( )
1 1 2 2
1
V P V P
n
n
Q
comp
=
( )
4 4 3 3 exp
1
V P V P
n
n
Q
n
=
We know,


.

\

=
1
P
C R
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
Net Work Done :
( )
( )
( )
1 2 3 4
4 3 1 2
4 4 3 3 1 1 2 2
exp
1
1
1
1
T T T T C m
n
n
T T T T R m
n
n
V P V P V P V P
n
n
W W W
P
n comp
+


.

\

=
+
=
+
=
=
\


.

\

=
=
( )
1 2 3 4
4 1
1
1
) (
T T T T
n
n
T T
COP
+


.

\


.

\

Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Air Refrigeration Cycle  Merits / Demerits
Merits :
1. No risk of fire (as in case of NH
3
); as air is non flammable.
2. Cheaper (than other systems); as air is easily available.
3. Weight per tonne of refrigeration is quite low (compared to other systems).
Demerits :
1. Low COP (compared with other systems).
2. Weight of air (as Refrigerant) is more (compared to other systems).
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 4
A Bell Coleman refrigerator operates between pressure limits of 1 bar and 8 bar. Air is
drawn from the cold chamber at 9 C, compressed and then cooled to 29 C before
entering the expansion cylinder. Expansion and compression follow the law PV
1.35
= Const.
Calculate the theoretical COP.
For air, take = 1.4 and C
p
= 1.003 kJ/kg.
Polytropic Compression 12 :
K
bar
bar
K
P
P
T T
n
n
2 . 482
1
8
) 282 (
35 . 1
1 35 . 1 1
1
2
1 2
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
Polytropic Expansion 34 :
K T
bar
bar
T K
P
P
T T
n
n
6 . 176
1
8
) 302 (
4
35 . 1
1 35 . 1
4
1
4
3
4 3
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
3 2
1
4
PV
1.35
=C
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
P
2
=8 bar
P
1
=1 bar
282 K
302 K
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Heat Extracted from Cold Chamber :
kg kJ K K X kg kJ T T C
P
/ 7 . 105 ) 6 . 176 282 ( ) / ( 003 . 1 ) (
4 1
= = =
Example 4.contd
Heat Rejected to Heat Exchanger :
kg kJ K K X kg kJ T T C
P
/ 7 . 180 ) 302 2 . 482 ( ) / ( 003 . 1 ) (
3 2
= = =
Net Work Done :
( )
( )
kg kJ W
K K K K kg kJ W
T T T T C m
n
n
W
net
net
P net
/ 8 . 82
282 2 . 482 302 6 . 176 ) / 003 . 1 (
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1 35 . 1
35 . 1
1
1
1 2 3 4
=
+

.

\

=
+


.

\

27 . 1
/ 8 . 82
/ 7 . 105
= = =
kg kJ
kg kJ
done Work
absorbed Heat
COP
refrig
.ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 5
An air refrigeration open system operating between 1 MPa and 100 kPa is required to
produce a cooling effect of 2000 kJ/min. temperature of the air leaving the cold chamber is
5 C, and at leaving the cooler is 30 C. Neglect losses and clearance in the compressor
and expander. Determine :
i) Mass of air circulated per min. ii) Compressor Work, Expander Work, Cycle Work.
ii) COP and Power in kW required.
3 2
1
4
PV
=C
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
P
2
=1 MPa
P
1
=100 kPa
268 K
303 K
Polytropic Expansion 34 :
K T
MPa
MPa
T K
P
P
T T
9 . 156
1 . 0
1
) 302 (
4
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
4
1
4
3
4 3
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
\

=


.

\

=
.ANS
Compressor Work :
( )
( )
min / 85 . 4486
268 4 . 517 ) / 287 . 0 ( min) / 91 . 17 (
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
1
1 2
kJ W
K K kg kJ kg W
T T R m W
comp
comp
comp
=

.

\



.

\

.ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Expander Work :
( )
( )
min / 42 . 2628
9 . 156 303 ) / 287 . 0 ( min) / 91 . 17 (
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
1
4 3 exp
kJ W
K K kg kJ kg W
T T R m W
comp
comp
=

.

\



.

\

.ANS
Example 5.contd
Cycle Work = W
cycle
= W
comp
W
exp
= 4486.85 kJ/min 2628.42 kJ/min = 1858.43 kJ/minANS
076 . 1
min / 43 . 1858
min / 2000 . Re
= = =
kJ
kJ
required Work
Effect frig
COP
refrig
.ANS
Power required :
kW
kJ
time
W
P
cycle
97 . 30
min sec/ 60
min / 43 . 1858
= = = .ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System
Elements of this system :
1. Compressor.
2. Condenser.
3. Expansion Valve.
4. Evaporator.
Vapour @ Pr. and Temp. (State 1)
Isentropic Compression :
Pr. and Temp. (State 2)
Condenser : Pr. Liquid (State 3)
Throttling : Pr. Temp. (State 4)
Evaporator : Heat Extraction from surrounding;
Pr. vapour (State 1).
1
2
3
4
1
2 3
4
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System
Merits :
1. High COP; as very close to Reverse Carnot Cycle.
2. Running Cost is 1/5
th
of that of Air Refrigeration Cycle.
3. Size of Evaporator is small; for same Refrigeration Effect.
Demerits :
1. Initial cost is high.
2. Inflammability.
4. Evaporator temperature adjustment is simple; by adjusting Throttle Valve.
3. Leakage.
4. Toxicity.
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System : Ts Diagram
Case A. Dry and Saturated Vapour after Compression :
Work done by Compressor
= W = Area 12341
Heat Absorbed
= W = Area 14gf1
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
Compressor Work,
(W)
Net Refrig. Effect,
(R
n
)
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP
=
=
=
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System : Ts Diagram
Case B. Superheated Vapour after Compression :
Work done by Compressor
= W = Area 122341
Heat Absorbed
= W = Area 14gf1
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 ' 2 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP
=
=
=
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
Compressor Work,
(W)
Net Refrig. Effect,
(R
n
)
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
NOTE : h
2
= h
2
+ C
p
(T
sup
T
sat
)
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System : Ts Diagram
Case C. Wet Vapour after Compression :
Work done by Compressor
= W = Area 12341
Heat Absorbed
= W = Area 14gf1
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
Compressor Work,
(W)
Net Refrig. Effect,
(R
n
)
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP
=
=
=
NOTE : h
2
= (h
f
+ x.h
fg
)
2
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System : Ph Diagram
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
r
I
s
o
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
,
T
=
C
o
n
s
t
I
s
e
n
t
h
a
l
p
i
c
,
h
=
C
o
n
s
t
.
Isobaric,
P = Const
Subcooled
Liq. region
2 phase
region
Superheated
region
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System : Ph Diagram
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
r
1
2
3
4
Evaporation
Condensation
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
1 2
4 1
h h W
h h R
n
=
=
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
= =
}
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
A. Effect of Suction Pressure :
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
r
1
2
3
4
1 4
2
P
1
P
2
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
= =
COP of Original Cycle :
COP when Suction Pr. decreased :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 ' 2 ' 1 1 1 2
' 1 1 4 1
' 1 ' 2
' 4 ' 1
h h h h h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+ +
=
= =
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input
COP
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
B. Effect of Delivery Pressure :
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
= =
COP of Original Cycle :
COP when Delivery Pr. increased :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 ' 2 1 2
4 ' 4 4 1
1 ' 2
' 4 1
h h h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+
=
= =
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input
COP
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
r
1
2
3
4
3
4
2
P
1
P
2
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
C. Effect of Superheating :
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
= =
COP of Original Cycle :
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input or
COP or
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
r
1
2
3
4
1
2
P
1
P
2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 ' 1 2 ' 2 1 2
1 ' 1 4 1
' 1 ' 2
4 ' 1
h h h h h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+ +
+
=
= =
COP when Delivery Pr. increased :
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
D. Effect of Subcooling :
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
= =
COP of Original Cycle :
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input : SAME
COP
( ) ( )
( )
1 2
' 4 4 4 1
1 2
' 4 1
h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+
=
= =
COP when Delivery Pr. increased :
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
P
r
1
2
3
4
1
3
P
1
P
2
4
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
E. Effect of Suction & Condenser Temperatures :
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Now, Condenser Temp.
Evaporator Temp.
( )
( )
1 2
4 1
' 1 ' 4 ' 3 ' 2 ' 1
1 ' 4 4 ' 1 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP
>
=
+

=
COP of Modified Cycle :
COP of Original Cycle :
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP
=
=
=
COP
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
f g
1
4
2
3
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System Mathematical Analysis
A. Refrigerating Effect :
( ) ) / (
4 1
kg kJ Heat d Superheate Heat Latent h h Q
evap
+ + =
= Amount of Heat absorbed in Evaporator.
B. Mass of Refrigerant :
= Amount of Heat absorbed / Refrigerating Effect.
( )
) sec / (
3600
000 , 14
4 1
tonne kg
h h
m
=
1 TR = 14,000 kJ/hr
C. Theoretical Piston Displacement :
= Mass of Refrigerant X Sp. Vol. of Refrigerant Gas (v
g
)
1
.
( )
( ) ) sec / (
3600
000 , 14
. .
3
1
4 1
tonne m v
h h
Displ Piston Th
g

=
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Compression System Mathematical Analysis
( )
( ) ) (
) / (
1 2
1 2
kW h h m P
kg kJ h h W
theor
comp
=
=
a) Isentropic Compression :
D. Theoretical Power Required :
( )
( ) ) (
1
) / (
1
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
kW V P V P
n
n
m P
kg kJ V P V P
n
n
W
theor
comp
=
a) Polytropic Compression :
E. Heat removed through Condenser :
( ) ) / (
3 2
kg kJ h h m Q
cond
=
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 7 Example 6
A refrigeration machine is required to produce ice at 0 C from water at 20 C. The
machine has a condenser temperature of 298 K while the evaporator temperature is 268
K. The relative efficiency of the machine is 50 % and 6 kg of Freon12 refrigerant is
circulated through the system per minute. The refrigerant enters the compressor with a
dryness fraction of 0.6. Specific heat of water is 4.187 kJ/kg.K and the latent heat of ice is
335 kJ/kg. Calculate the amount of ice produced on 24 hours. The table of properties if
Freon12 is given below:
Temperature
(K)
Liquid Heat
(kJ/kg)
Latent Heat
(kJ/kg)
Entropy of Liquid
(kJ/kg)
298 59.7 138.0 0.2232
268 31.4 154.0 0.1251
h
f1
= 31.4 kJ/kg
h
fg1
= 154.0 kJ/kg
h
f2
= 59.7 kJ/kg
h
fg2
= 138.0 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 59.7 kJ/kg
m = 6 kg/min
rel
= 50 %
x
2
= 0.6
C
pw
= 4.187 kJ/kg.K
Latent Heat of ice
= 335.7 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 6.contd
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
298 K
268 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
kg kJ h x h h
fg f
/ 8 . 123 0 . 154 ) 6 . 0 ( 4 . 31
1 1
1
= + = + =
kg kJ h x h h
fg f
/ 2 . 133 0 . 138 ) 5325 . 0 ( 7 . 59
2 2
2 2
= + = + =
( )
5325 . 0
268
0 . 154
6 . 0 1251 . 0
298
0 . 138
2232 . 0
2
2
1
1
1 1
2
2
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
=

.

\

+ =

.

\

+


.

\

+ =


.

\

+
 + =  +
=
x
x
T
h
x s
T
h
x s
s x s s x s
s s
fg
f
fg
f
fg f fg f
Isentropic Compression : 12
kg kJ h h
f
/ 7 . 59
3
4
= =
COP of Original Cycle :
( )
( )
82 . 6
/ 8 . 123 2 . 133
/ 7 . 59 8 . 123
1 2
4 1
=
= =
kg kJ
kg kJ
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 6.contd
Actual COP =
rel
X COP
theor
= 0.5 X 6.82 = 3.41
Heat extracted from 1 kg of water at 20 C to form 1 kg of ice at 0 C :
kg kJ
kg kJ
C X K kg kJ X kg
/ 74 . 418
) / ( 335
) ( ) 0 20 ( ) . / ( 187 . 4 ) ( 1
=
+
=
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
298 K
268 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
Now;
.ANS
( )
( )
hrs in tonne
X X
kg
kg kJ
kg kJ X kg
m
h h m
X m
W
R
COP
ice
ice
actual n
actual
24 661 . 0
1000
24 60 459 . 0
min / 459 . 0
41 . 3
/ 74 . 418
) / ( 8 . 123 2 . 133 ) ( 6
74 . 418
41 . 3
1 2
) (
= =
=

= = =
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 7
28 tonnes of ice from and at 0 C is produced per day in an ammonia refrigerator. The
temperature range in the compressor is from 25 C to 15oC. The vapour is dry and
saturated at the end of compression and an expansion valve is used. Assuming a
coefficient of performance of 62% of the theoretical, calculate the power required to
drive the compressor. Take latent heat of ice = 335 kJ/kg.
Temp
(C)
Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Entropy of
Liquid
(kJ/kg.K)
Entropy of Vapour
(kJ/kg.K)
Liquid Vapour
25 100.04 1319.22 0.3473 4.4852
15 54.56 1304.99 2.1338 5.0585
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
h
f1
= 54.56 kJ/kg
h
g1
= 1304.99kJ/kg
h
f2
= 100.04 kJ/kg
h
g2
= 1319.22 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 100.04 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 25 C
T
evap
= 15 C
x
2
= 1.dry saturated vapour
COP
actual
= 0.62 (COP
theor
)
Latent Heat of ice
= 335.7 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
( )
( )
91 . 8
23 . 1196 22 . 1319
04 . 100 23 . 1196
1 2
4 1
=
=
h h
h h
COP
l theoretica
COP of the Cycle :
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
298 K
258 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
Example 7.contd
process c Isenthalpi kg kJ h h ..... / 04 . 100
4 3
= =
 
kg kJ
h x h h
fg f
/ 23 . 1196
) 56 . 54 ( 99 . 1304 ) 92 . 0 ( ) 56 . 54 (
) (
1 1 1 1
=
+ =
+ =
( ) ( )  
92 . 0
1338 . 2 0585 . 5 ) 1338 . 2 ( 4852 . 4
2
1
1 1 1 2
1 2
=
+ =
 + =
=
x
x
s x s s
s s
fg f g
Isentropic Compression : 12
kg kJ h h
g
/ 22 . 1319
2 2
= =
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 7.contd
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Actual COP =
rel
X COP
theor
= 0.62 X 8.91
= 5.52
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
298 K
258 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
Actual R
n
= COP
actual
X Work done
= 5.52 X (h
2
h
1
)
= 5.52 X (1319.22 1196.23)
= 678.9 kJ/kg
Heat extracted from 28 tonnes of water at 0 C to form ice at 0 C :
) ( sec / 56 . 108
) (sec/ 3600 ) ( 24
) / ( 335 ) / ( 1000 ) ( 28
kW kJ
hr X hr
kg kJ X tonne kg X kg
=
=
Mass of refrigerant : kg
kg kJ
kJ
1599 . 0
) / ( 9 . 678
sec) / ( 56 . 108
= =
Total Work done by Compressor :
( )
) ( sec / 67 . 19
/ ) 23 . 1196 22 . 1319 ( ) ( 1599 . 0
1 2
kW kJ
kg kJ X kg h h X m
refrig
=
= =
.ANS
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 8
In a standard vapour compression refrigeration cycle, operating between an evaporator
temperature of 10 C and a condenser temperature of 40 C, the enthalpy of the
refrigerant, Freon12, at the end of compression is 220 kJ/kg. Show the cycle diagram on
Ts plane. Calculate:
1. The C.O.P. of the cycle.
2. The refrigerating capacity and the compressor power assuming a refrigerant flow
rate of 1 kg/min.
You may use the extract of Freon12 property table given below:
Temp (C) Pr (MPa) h
f
(kJ/kg) h
g
(kJ/kg)
10 0.2191 26.85 183.1
40 0.9607 74.53 203.1
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
h
f1
= 26.85 kJ/kg
h
g1
= h
1
= 183.1 kJ/kg
h
f2
= 74.53 kJ/kg
h
g2
= 203.1 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 74.53 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 40 C
T
evap
= 10 C
x
1
= 1.dry saturated vapour
h
2
= 220 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 8.contd
COP of Original Cycle :
( )
( )
94 . 2
/ 1 . 183 0 . 220
/ 53 . 74 1 . 183
1 2
4 1
=
= =
kg kJ
kg kJ
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
.ANS
Refrigerating Capacity :
( ) ( )
min / 57 . 108
/ 53 . 74 1 . 183 ) ( 1
4 1
kJ
kg kJ X kg h h m
=
= =
.ANS
Compressor Power :
( ) ( )
kW
kJ
kg kJ X kg h h m
615 . 0
min / 9 . 36
/ 1 . 183 0 . 220 ) ( 1
1 2
=
=
= =
.ANS
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
40 C
10 C
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 9
A Freon12 refrigerator producing a cooling effect of 20 kJ/sec operates on a simple
cycle with pressure limits of 1.509 bar and 9.607 bar. The vapour leaves the evaporator
dry saturated and there is no undercooling. Determine the power required by the
machine. If the compressor operates at 300 rpm and has a clearance volume of 3% of
stroke volume, determine the piston displacement of the compressor. For compressor
assume that the expansion following the law PV
1.3
= Constant.
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Temp
(
o
C)
P
s
(bar)
v
g
(m
3
/kg)
Enthalpy
h
f
(kJ/kg)
Enthalpy
h
g
(kJ/kg)
Entropy
s
f
(kJ/kg)
Entropy
s
g
(kJ/kg)
Specific
heat
(kJ/kg.K)
20 1.509 0.1088 17.8 178.61 0.073 0.7082 
40 9.607  74.53 203.05 0.2716 0.682 0.747
h
f1
= 17.8 kJ/kg
h
g1
= h
1
= 178.61 kJ/kg
h
f2
= 74.53 kJ/kg
h
g2
= 203.05 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 74.53 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 40 C
T
evap
= 20 C
x
1
= 1.dry saturated vapour
h
2
= 220 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 9.contd
Refrigerating Capacity :
( ) ( )
sec / 192 . 0
/ 53 . 74 61 . 178 20
4 1
kg m
kg kJ X m kW h h m
=
= =

 
( )
K T
T
T
T
C s s
s s
P
2 . 324
313
ln 747 . 0 682 . 0 7082 . 0
ln
2
2
' 2
2
' 2 1
2 1
=

.

\

+ =


.

\

+ =
=
Isentropic Compression : 12
( )
( ) ( )
kg kJ
K K kg kJ kg kJ
T T C h h
P
/ 4 . 211
0 . 313 2 . 324 . / 747 . 0 ) / ( 05 . 203
' 2 2 ' 2 2
=
+ =
+ =
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
313 K
253 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 9
.ANS
Power Required : ( ) ( )
kW
kg kJ X kg h h m
29 . 6
/ 61 . 178 4 . 211 sec) / ( 192 . 0
1 2
=
= =

Vol. Efficiency :
% 6 . 87
509 . 1
607 . 9
03 . 0 03 . 0 1
1
13 . 1 / 1
/ 1
=


.

\

+ =


.

\

+ =
bar
bar
P
P
k k
n
S
d
vol
q
Vol of Refrigerant
at Intake :
sec / 02089 . 0
) / ( 1088 . 0 sec) / ( 192 . 0
3
3
m
kg m X kg
v m
g
=
=
 =

Piston Displ. Vol. :
( )
3
3
00477 . 0
) ( 300 876 . 0
min) (sec/ 60 sec) / ( 02089 . 0
) (
.
m
rpm
m
rpm
Vol Actual
vol
=


=

=
q
.ANS
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
313 K
253 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg.
Example 10
A food storage locker requires a refrigeration capacity of 50 kW. It works between a
condenser temperature of 35 C and an evaporator temperature of 10 C. The refrigerator
is ammonia. It is subcooled by 5 C before entering the expansion valve. By the dry
saturated vapour leaving the evaporator. Assuming a singlecylinder, singleacting
compressor operating at 1000 rpm with stroke equal to 1.2 times the bore, determine :
1. The power required.
2. The cylinder dimensions.
Properties of ammonia are :
Sat.
Temp.
(
o
C)
Pr.
(bar)
Enthalpy
(kJ/kg)
Entropy
(kJ/kg)
Sp. Vol.
(m
3
/kg)
Sp. Heat
(kJ/kg.K)
Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
10 2.9157 154.056 1450.22 0.82965 5.7550  0.417477  2.492
35 13.522 366.072 1488.57 1.56605 5.2086 1.7023 0.095629 4.556 2.903
ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
h
1
= 1450.22 kJ/kg
h
2
= 1488.57 kJ/kg
h
f3
= 366.072 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 35 C
T
evap
= 10 C
x
1
= 1.dry saturated vapour
State 3 = Subcooled by 5 C
}
Given :
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 10.contd
( )
( )
kg kJ
kg kJ kg kJ
T T C h h h
subcool sat liq P f
/ 29 . 343
) / ( 303 308 56 . 405 ) / ( 07 . 366
3 4 ' 3
=
=
= =
( )
K T
T
T
T
C s s s s
P
8 . 371
308
ln 903 . 2 2086 . 5 755 . 5
ln
2
2
' 2
2
' 2 1 2 1
=

.

\

+ =


.

\

+ = =
Isentropic Compression : 12
( )
( ) ( )
kg kJ
K K kg kJ kg kJ
T T C h h
P
/ 8 . 1673
0 . 308 8 . 371 . / 903 . 2 ) / ( 57 . 1488
' 2 2 ' 2 2
=
+ =
+ =
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
308 K
263 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
3
303 K
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 10.contd
( ) ( )
sec / 04517 . 0
/ 29 . 343 22 . 1450
) ( 50
/
) ( 50
4 1
kg
kg kJ
kW
kg kJ h h
kW
m
=
=
=

Mass of Refrigerant :
Compressor Power :
( )
( )
kW
kg kJ X kg
h h m
1 . 10
/ 22 . 1450 8 . 1673 ) ( 04517 . 0
1 2
=
=
=

.ANS
Cylinder Dimensions :
( )
m m L
m D
kg m
rpm
D D
v
N
L D
kg m
g
228 . 0 ) 19 . 0 ( 2 . 1
19 . 0
/ 417477 . 0
60
) ( 1000
) 2 . 1 (
4 60 4
sec) / ( 04517 . 0
3
2 2
=  =
=

.

\

=

.

\

= =

t t
.ANS
.ANS
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
T
308 K
263 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
3
303 K
Introduction to Refrigeration and Air  Conditioning
S. Y. B. Tech. Prod Engg. ME0223 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Vapour Absorption System
1
2
4
3
Solubility of NH
3
in water @ Temp and Pr. is MORE than that @ Temp. and Pr.
NH
3
vapour from Evaporator (State 1) is readily absorbed in Absorber. Heat Rejection