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THE ULTIMATE PHRASAL VERB BOOK

Contents.......................................................................................................................................................................................8 TO THE TEACHER..................................................................................................................................................................9 TO THE STUDENT.................................................................................................................................................................10 1. FOCUS ON: separable and nonseparable phrasal erbs.................................................................................................1! come from.......................................................................................................................................................................12 figure out........................................................................................................................................................................13 give back.........................................................................................................................................................................13 look for...........................................................................................................................................................................13 put on..............................................................................................................................................................................13 run into............................................................................................................................................................................14 show up...........................................................................................................................................................................14 take off............................................................................................................................................................................15 !. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and do" does" and d#d.............................................................................................................19 come off..........................................................................................................................................................................20 doze off...........................................................................................................................................................................21 fall for.............................................................................................................................................................................21 give in.............................................................................................................................................................................21 hear about.......................................................................................................................................................................21 pull through....................................................................................................................................................................21 stay off............................................................................................................................................................................22 throw up..........................................................................................................................................................................22 $. FOCUS ON: three%&ord phrasal erbs..............................................................................................................................!' feel up to.........................................................................................................................................................................25 get over with...................................................................................................................................................................25 go along with..................................................................................................................................................................25 go in for..........................................................................................................................................................................2 look forward to...............................................................................................................................................................2 put up with......................................................................................................................................................................2 screw out of....................................................................................................................................................................2 talk down to....................................................................................................................................................................2 (. FOCUS ON: present and past )ont#n*o*s phrasal erbs.................................................................................................!9 cheat on...........................................................................................................................................................................2! go after............................................................................................................................................................................2! look up............................................................................................................................................................................30 pay for.............................................................................................................................................................................30 plan for............................................................................................................................................................................31 point to............................................................................................................................................................................31 put to...............................................................................................................................................................................31 wrap up...........................................................................................................................................................................32 '. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o+ t&o%&ord phrasal erbs...................................................................................................$' break down.....................................................................................................................................................................35 burn down.......................................................................................................................................................................3" call in..............................................................................................................................................................................3" find out............................................................................................................................................................................3" hand back........................................................................................................................................................................3" look at.............................................................................................................................................................................3# setup................................................................................................................................................................................3# ,. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o+ three%&ord phrasal erbs................................................................................................($ boil down to....................................................................................................................................................................43 come down with.............................................................................................................................................................43 come up with..................................................................................................................................................................44 get around to...................................................................................................................................................................44 get out of.........................................................................................................................................................................44 go back on.......................................................................................................................................................................44 go through with...............................................................................................................................................................45 monkey around with.......................................................................................................................................................45 -. FOCUS ON: separable phrasal erbs &#th lon. ob/e)ts...................................................................................................(8 cut up..............................................................................................................................................................................4#

hold up............................................................................................................................................................................4! let out..............................................................................................................................................................................4! point out..........................................................................................................................................................................50 run over...........................................................................................................................................................................50 see about.........................................................................................................................................................................51 take apart.........................................................................................................................................................................51 take in.............................................................................................................................................................................51 8. FOCUS ON: present per+e)t phrasal erbs.......................................................................................................................'burn out...........................................................................................................................................................................5" fall over...........................................................................................................................................................................5# fight back........................................................................................................................................................................5# hear of.............................................................................................................................................................................5! pick out...........................................................................................................................................................................5! tear down........................................................................................................................................................................5! work in............................................................................................................................................................................ 0 9. FOCUS ON: t&o%&ord phrasal erbs that re0*#re an add#t#onal part#)le &hen *sed &#th an ob/e)t" 1.....................,( break out......................................................................................................................................................................... catch up........................................................................................................................................................................... chicken out...................................................................................................................................................................... get along......................................................................................................................................................................... give up............................................................................................................................................................................ hang up........................................................................................................................................................................... hook up........................................................................................................................................................................... work up........................................................................................................................................................................... 5 5

" "

10. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed as no*ns" 1...................................................................................................................-! fall off............................................................................................................................................................................."2 fill in..............................................................................................................................................................................."3 go ahead.........................................................................................................................................................................."3 grow up..........................................................................................................................................................................."4 hand out.........................................................................................................................................................................."4 kick back........................................................................................................................................................................."5 lay off.............................................................................................................................................................................."5 screw up.........................................................................................................................................................................." 11. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed #n )o1po*nd no*ns.....................................................................................................81 backup.............................................................................................................................................................................#2 cut off..............................................................................................................................................................................#3 drop off...........................................................................................................................................................................#4 follow up.........................................................................................................................................................................#5 take out...........................................................................................................................................................................#5 try out..............................................................................................................................................................................# wake up...........................................................................................................................................................................#" work out..........................................................................................................................................................................#" 1!. FOCUS ON: past per+e)t phrasal erbs...........................................................................................................................9( back off...........................................................................................................................................................................!4 come across....................................................................................................................................................................!5 come up..........................................................................................................................................................................!5 fall through....................................................................................................................................................................! put out.............................................................................................................................................................................! screw on..........................................................................................................................................................................!" sign in.............................................................................................................................................................................!" sign out...........................................................................................................................................................................!" 1$. FOCUS ON: pass# e phrasal erbs" 1.............................................................................................................................10! call off...........................................................................................................................................................................102 dose off.........................................................................................................................................................................102 hand in..........................................................................................................................................................................103 let off............................................................................................................................................................................104 light up..........................................................................................................................................................................104 track down....................................................................................................................................................................105 1(. FOCUS ON: part#)#ple ad/e)t# es +or1ed +ro1 phrasal erbs" 1................................................................................109 butt in............................................................................................................................................................................110 dress up.........................................................................................................................................................................110 dry up............................................................................................................................................................................110 fill out...........................................................................................................................................................................111 put away........................................................................................................................................................................111 stick up..........................................................................................................................................................................111

use up............................................................................................................................................................................112 1'. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and &#ll or be .o#n. to.......................................................................................................118 blow away.....................................................................................................................................................................11! come through................................................................................................................................................................11! dry out...........................................................................................................................................................................120 fi$ up.............................................................................................................................................................................120 go with..........................................................................................................................................................................121 head back......................................................................................................................................................................122 tell on............................................................................................................................................................................123 1,. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th .er*nd ob/e)ts" 1.......................................................................................................1!believe in......................................................................................................................................................................12" carry on.........................................................................................................................................................................12# count on........................................................................................................................................................................12# get through....................................................................................................................................................................12! go for............................................................................................................................................................................130 hold off.........................................................................................................................................................................130 put past..........................................................................................................................................................................130 think about....................................................................................................................................................................131 1-. FOCUS ON: ad erbs and phrasal erbs........................................................................................................................1$, come over.....................................................................................................................................................................13" get back at.....................................................................................................................................................................13" go about........................................................................................................................................................................13# grow out of...................................................................................................................................................................13# rip up.............................................................................................................................................................................13# wear down.....................................................................................................................................................................13! 18. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and )an" )o*ld" &#ll" and &o*ld........................................................................................1(( breakthrough.................................................................................................................................................................145 figure on........................................................................................................................................................................145 get off............................................................................................................................................................................14 go beyond.....................................................................................................................................................................14" lift upon........................................................................................................................................................................14" line up...........................................................................................................................................................................14" stand around..................................................................................................................................................................14# tell apart........................................................................................................................................................................14# 19. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and the ad erb r#.ht..........................................................................................................1'! aim at............................................................................................................................................................................152 bring back.....................................................................................................................................................................153 bring over......................................................................................................................................................................153 cool off..........................................................................................................................................................................153 go back..........................................................................................................................................................................154 hand over......................................................................................................................................................................154 pull over........................................................................................................................................................................154 warm up........................................................................................................................................................................155 !0. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs +ollo&ed b2 the %#n. +or1..................................................................................................1,0 end up...........................................................................................................................................................................1 go around......................................................................................................................................................................1 %o off............................................................................................................................................................................1 hang around..................................................................................................................................................................1 lie around......................................................................................................................................................................1 start out.........................................................................................................................................................................1 stay up...........................................................................................................................................................................1 0 0 2 3 4 4 4

!1. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and sho*ld and o*.ht to....................................................................................................1,9 look around...................................................................................................................................................................1"0 look over.......................................................................................................................................................................1"0 pick on..........................................................................................................................................................................1"0 settle down....................................................................................................................................................................1"1 step on...........................................................................................................................................................................1"1 take out on....................................................................................................................................................................1"1 think ahead....................................................................................................................................................................1"2 zip up............................................................................................................................................................................1"2 !!. FOCUS ON: the part#)le *p and the ad erbs r#.ht and all..........................................................................................1-, burn up..........................................................................................................................................................................1"" clear up ........................................................................................................................................................................1"" count up........................................................................................................................................................................1"#

eat up............................................................................................................................................................................1"# heat up..........................................................................................................................................................................1"# pay up...........................................................................................................................................................................1"# plug up..........................................................................................................................................................................1"! wipe up.........................................................................................................................................................................1"! !$. FOCUS ON: t&o%&ord phrasal erbs that re0*#re an add#t#onal part#)le &hen *sed &#th an ob/e)t" !.................18$ crack down....................................................................................................................................................................1#3 cut down.......................................................................................................................................................................1#3 drop out.........................................................................................................................................................................1#5 get away........................................................................................................................................................................1#5 hold out.........................................................................................................................................................................1# make up........................................................................................................................................................................1# stay out..........................................................................................................................................................................1## watch out......................................................................................................................................................................1## !(. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed as no*ns" !.................................................................................................................19! come down....................................................................................................................................................................1!2 &et up............................................................................................................................................................................1!3 print out ....................................................................1!3 show off........................................................................................................................................................................1!4 slow down.....................................................................................................................................................................1!4 stop over.......................................................................................................................................................................1!5 trade in..........................................................................................................................................................................1!5 !'. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and ha e to" ha e .ot to" and 1*st...................................................................................!00 do with .......................................................................................................................................................................201 have on..........................................................................................................................................................................201 hurry up........................................................................................................................................................................202 knock over....................................................................................................................................................................202 lighten up......................................................................................................................................................................202 plan ahead.....................................................................................................................................................................202 settle for........................................................................................................................................................................203 think up.........................................................................................................................................................................203 !,. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and the ad erb ba)3..........................................................................................................!0, get together...................................................................................................................................................................20 go over..........................................................................................................................................................................20" go up.............................................................................................................................................................................20# let in on.........................................................................................................................................................................20# open up.........................................................................................................................................................................20! put together...................................................................................................................................................................20! shut off..........................................................................................................................................................................20! start up..........................................................................................................................................................................210 !-. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le o++ and the ad erb r#.ht.......................................................................!1( bite off..........................................................................................................................................................................215 break off........................................................................................................................................................................215 dry off...........................................................................................................................................................................215 knock off.......................................................................................................................................................................21 tear off..........................................................................................................................................................................21 wash off........................................................................................................................................................................21 wear off.........................................................................................................................................................................21" wipe off.........................................................................................................................................................................21" !8. FOCUS ON: pass# e phrasal erbs" !.............................................................................................................................!!! beef up..........................................................................................................................................................................222 break up........................................................................................................................................................................222 call back........................................................................................................................................................................223 call up...........................................................................................................................................................................223 carry out........................................................................................................................................................................223 give away......................................................................................................................................................................224 mess up.........................................................................................................................................................................224 stand up.........................................................................................................................................................................225 !9. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and 1#.ht" 1a2" and )an...................................................................................................!!9 ask for...........................................................................................................................................................................22! come apart.....................................................................................................................................................................230 drop in...........................................................................................................................................................................230 flip out..........................................................................................................................................................................230 look out.........................................................................................................................................................................230 luck out.........................................................................................................................................................................230

make out.......................................................................................................................................................................231 run across......................................................................................................................................................................231 $0. FOCUS ON: part#)#ple ad/e)t# es +or1ed +ro1 phrasal erbs" !................................................................................!$' lock in...........................................................................................................................................................................23 &ock out........................................................................................................................................................................23 punch in........................................................................................................................................................................23" put out...........................................................................................................................................................................23" sort out..........................................................................................................................................................................23# space out.......................................................................................................................................................................23! wash up.........................................................................................................................................................................23! $1. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and .er*nd s*b/e)ts...........................................................................................................!(' care for..........................................................................................................................................................................245 cut out...........................................................................................................................................................................24 do away with.................................................................................................................................................................24 do without.....................................................................................................................................................................24" look into........................................................................................................................................................................24" plan on..........................................................................................................................................................................24" put off...........................................................................................................................................................................24" rule out..........................................................................................................................................................................24# $!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le o*t..........................................................................................................!'1 clean out........................................................................................................................................................................252 clear out........................................................................................................................................................................253 come out.......................................................................................................................................................................253 empty out......................................................................................................................................................................255 fall out...........................................................................................................................................................................255 go out............................................................................................................................................................................255 leave out........................................................................................................................................................................25 stick out........................................................................................................................................................................25 $$. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and 1#dsenten)e ad erbs..................................................................................................!,! blow up.........................................................................................................................................................................2 catch on.........................................................................................................................................................................2 come about....................................................................................................................................................................2 fall behind.....................................................................................................................................................................2 goof around...................................................................................................................................................................2 help out.........................................................................................................................................................................2 know about...................................................................................................................................................................2 pull off..........................................................................................................................................................................2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5

$(. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o+ t&o%and three%&ord phrasal erbs" !.........................................................................!,9 do over..........................................................................................................................................................................2 ! float around...................................................................................................................................................................2"0 lead up to......................................................................................................................................................................2"0 put up to........................................................................................................................................................................2"0 stand for........................................................................................................................................................................2"0 stick around..................................................................................................................................................................2"1 stick to..........................................................................................................................................................................2"1 take back.......................................................................................................................................................................2"2 $'. FOCUS ON: .er*nd phrasal erbs.................................................................................................................................!-, fool around....................................................................................................................................................................2"" go by.............................................................................................................................................................................2"" hold against...................................................................................................................................................................2"# leave behind..................................................................................................................................................................2"# live with........................................................................................................................................................................2"# make of.........................................................................................................................................................................2"! narrow down.................................................................................................................................................................2"! trick into........................................................................................................................................................................2"! $,. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le do&n.......................................................................................................!8$ back down.....................................................................................................................................................................2#3 calm down....................................................................................................................................................................2#4 fall down.......................................................................................................................................................................2#4 go down........................................................................................................................................................................2#4 lay down.......................................................................................................................................................................2#5 put down.......................................................................................................................................................................2#5 run down.......................................................................................................................................................................2# sit down........................................................................................................................................................................2#"

$-. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed as no*ns" $.................................................................................................................!9! brush off........................................................................................................................................................................2!2 come on........................................................................................................................................................................2!3 cover up........................................................................................................................................................................2!4 hang out........................................................................................................................................................................2!4 leave over left over.......................................................................................................................................................2!4 &et down.......................................................................................................................................................................2!5 talk to............................................................................................................................................................................2! $8. FOCUS ON: the erb 3eep and ad erbs and ad erb#als sho&#n. de.rees o+ ar#ab#l#t2..........................................$01 keep at...........................................................................................................................................................................302 keep away.....................................................................................................................................................................302 keep down.....................................................................................................................................................................302 keep from......................................................................................................................................................................303 keep off.........................................................................................................................................................................303 keep on..........................................................................................................................................................................303 keep to..........................................................................................................................................................................304 keep up..........................................................................................................................................................................304 $9. FOCUS ON: pass# e phrasal erbs" $.............................................................................................................................$08 chop up.........................................................................................................................................................................30! cross off........................................................................................................................................................................30! fill up............................................................................................................................................................................30! pick up..........................................................................................................................................................................310 sell out..........................................................................................................................................................................311 straighten out................................................................................................................................................................312 take over.......................................................................................................................................................................312 wipe out........................................................................................................................................................................313 (0. FOCUS ON: .er*nd phrasal erbs s. phrasal erbs +ollo&ed b2 the %#n. +or1.......................................................$19 -ing form.............................................................................................................................................................................319 gerund................................................................................................................................................................................319 blow off........................................................................................................................................................................31! burst out........................................................................................................................................................................320 come back.....................................................................................................................................................................320 get off on.......................................................................................................................................................................321 go away.........................................................................................................................................................................321 run around.....................................................................................................................................................................321 stick with......................................................................................................................................................................322 (1. FOCUS ON: t&o%&ord phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le #n that re0*#re #nto &hen *sed &#th an ob/e)t..................$!, break in.........................................................................................................................................................................32" 'heck out......................................................................................................................................................................32# go in..............................................................................................................................................................................32! let in..............................................................................................................................................................................32! plug in...........................................................................................................................................................................32! sneak in.........................................................................................................................................................................330 sneak out.......................................................................................................................................................................330 (!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th .et" 1...........................................................................................................................$$( get back.........................................................................................................................................................................334 get behind.....................................................................................................................................................................335 get down.......................................................................................................................................................................33 get in.............................................................................................................................................................................33 get out...........................................................................................................................................................................33" get over.........................................................................................................................................................................33# get up............................................................................................................................................................................33! ($. FOCUS ON: 1odals and present per+e)t phrasal erbs...............................................................................................$($ blow out........................................................................................................................................................................344 give out.........................................................................................................................................................................345 gross out........................................................................................................................................................................345 run up............................................................................................................................................................................345 shut up..........................................................................................................................................................................34 stop off..........................................................................................................................................................................34 try on.............................................................................................................................................................................34 ((. FOCUS ON: part#)#ple ad/e)t# es and pass# e phrasal erbs &#th the erb .et........................................................$'! beat up..........................................................................................................................................................................353 mi$ up...........................................................................................................................................................................354 piss off..........................................................................................................................................................................355

rip off............................................................................................................................................................................355 ('. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the erb t*rn..............................................................................................................$,0 turn down......................................................................................................................................................................3 turn in............................................................................................................................................................................3 turn into........................................................................................................................................................................3 turn off..........................................................................................................................................................................3 turn on...........................................................................................................................................................................3 turn out..........................................................................................................................................................................3 turn over........................................................................................................................................................................3 turn up...........................................................................................................................................................................3 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5

(,. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o+ phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le #nto............................................................................$-0 build in..........................................................................................................................................................................3"0 bump into......................................................................................................................................................................3"0 con into.........................................................................................................................................................................3"1 con out of......................................................................................................................................................................3"1 freak out........................................................................................................................................................................3"1 make for........................................................................................................................................................................3"1 talk into.........................................................................................................................................................................3"1 talk out of......................................................................................................................................................................3"2 (-. FOCUS ON: part#)les *sed &#tho*t erbs.....................................................................................................................$-, brush up........................................................................................................................................................................3" come in.........................................................................................................................................................................3"" cut back.........................................................................................................................................................................3"" move in.........................................................................................................................................................................3"# move out.......................................................................................................................................................................3"# pull out..........................................................................................................................................................................3"! put in.............................................................................................................................................................................3"! run out...........................................................................................................................................................................3#0 (8. FOCUS ON: 1odals and present per+e)t pass# e phrasal erbs.................................................................................$8( close down....................................................................................................................................................................3#5 knock out......................................................................................................................................................................3#5 look down on................................................................................................................................................................3# look up to......................................................................................................................................................................3# put back........................................................................................................................................................................3# switch off......................................................................................................................................................................3#" throw out.......................................................................................................................................................................3#" (9. FOCUS ON: )o1b#nat#ons o+ .et" r#.ht" ba)3" and to..................................................................................................$9! dog up...........................................................................................................................................................................3!5 get ahead.......................................................................................................................................................................3!5 get back to.....................................................................................................................................................................3!5 get on............................................................................................................................................................................3!5 get to.............................................................................................................................................................................3! hang on.........................................................................................................................................................................3!" start off..........................................................................................................................................................................3!" throw away...................................................................................................................................................................3!" '0. FOCUS ON: 4eep at #t5...................................................................................................................................................(0! ask out...........................................................................................................................................................................402 come down to...............................................................................................................................................................402 deal with.......................................................................................................................................................................402 hold on..........................................................................................................................................................................403 pay back........................................................................................................................................................................403 take up on.....................................................................................................................................................................403 turn around....................................................................................................................................................................403 wear out........................................................................................................................................................................404 Ans&ers...................................................................................................................................................................................(10 6nde7........................................................................................................................................................................................($!

Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
To the Teacher / iv To the St !ent / v 1. Separable and Nonseparable Phrasal Verbs / 1 2. Phrasal Verbs and do, does, and did / 8 3. Three-Word Phrasal Verbs / 14 4. Present and Past Continuous Phrasal Verbs / 18 . Pronun!iation o" T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs / 24 $. Pronun!iation o" Three-Word Phrasal Verbs / 32 %. Separable Phrasal Verbs #ith &on' (b)e!ts / 3% 8. Present Per"e!t Phrasal Verbs / 4$ *. T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs That +e,uire an -dditional Parti!le When .sed #ith an (b)e!t, 1 / 3 1/. Phrasal Verbs .sed as Nouns, 1 / $1 11. Phrasal Verbs .sed in Co0pound Nouns / %/ 12. Past Per"e!t Phrasal Verbs / 83 13. Passi1e Phrasal Verbs, 1 / *1 14. Parti!iple -d)e!ti1es 2or0ed "ro0 Phrasal Verbs, 1 / *8 1 . Phrasal Verbs and #ill or be 'oin' to /1/% 1$. Phrasal Verbs #ith 3erund (b)e!ts, 1 / 11$ 1%. -d1erbs and Phrasal Verbs / 12 18. Phrasal Verbs and !an, !ould, #ill, and #ould / 133 1*. Phrasal Verbs and the -d1erb ri'ht 4 141 2/. Phrasal Verbs 2ollo#ed b5 the -in' 2or0 / 14* 21. Phrasal Verbs and should and ou'ht to 1 8 22. The Parti!le up and the -d1erbs ri'ht and all 4 1$ 23. T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs That +e,uire an -dditional Parti!le When .sed #ith an (b)e!t, 2 / 1%2 24. Phrasal Verbs .sed as Nouns, 2 / 18/ 2 . Phrasal Verbs and ha1e to, ha1e 'ot to, and 0ust / 188 iii 2$. Phrasal Verbs and the -d1erb bade / 1*4 2%. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le o"" and the -d1erb ri'ht 4 2/2 "#$ Passive Phrasa% Ver&s' " / "() 2*. Phrasal Verbs and 0i'ht, 0a5, and !an /21% *)$ Partici+%e A!,ectives For-e! .ro- Phrasa% Ver&s' " / ""* 31. Phrasal Verbs and 3erund Sub)e!ts / 233 32. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le our / 23* 33. Phrasal Verbs and 6idsenten!e -d1erbs / 2 / 34. Pronun!iation o" T#o- and ThreeWord Phrasal Verbs, 2 / 2 % 3 . 3erund Phrasal Verbs / 2$4 3$. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le do#n / 2%1 3%. Phrasal Verbs .sed as Nouns, 3 / 28/ 38. The Verb 7eep and -d1erbs and -d1erbials Sho#in' 8e'rees o" Variabilit5 / 28* 3*. Passi1e Phrasal Verbs, 3 / 2*$ 4/. 3erund Phrasal Verbs 1s. Phrasal Verbs 2ollo#ed b5 the -in/ 2or0 / 3/% 41. T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le in That +e,uire into When .sed #ith an (b)e!t / 314 42. Phrasal Verbs #ith /et, 1 / 322 43. 6odals and Present Per"e!t Phrasal Verbs / 331 44. Parti!iple -d)e!ti1es and Passi1e Phrasal Verbs #ith the Verb /et 4 34/ 4 . Phrasal Verbs #ith the Verb ru0 / 348 4$. Pronun!iation o" Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le into / 3 8 4%. Parti!les .sed Without Verbs / 3$4 48. 6odals and Present Per"e!t Passi1e Phrasal Verbs / 3%2 4*. Co0binations o" /et, ri/ht, &ac0, and t1 / 38/ /. 9eep at 4t: / 3*/ -ns#ers to ;<er!ises / 3*8 4nde< / 41/

TO THE TEACHER
The inspiration "or The .lti0ate Phrasal Verb =oo7 !a0e about #hen a student as7ed 0e "or a te<tboo7 to help her learn the 0eanin's o" !o00on phrasal 1erbs. 4 had nothin' to o""er. The onl5 te<tboo7 "o!usin' on !o00on 1erbs that 4 !ould 'i1e her !ontains not one phrasal 1erb > it tea!hes arise but not 'et up, a#a7e but not #a7e up, see7 but not loo7 "or. Phrasal 1erbs are 1erbs, not idio0ati! !uriosities. There is no lo'i! to !lassi"5in' ta7e o1er #ith ta7e the bull b5 the horns. Phrasal 1erbs are an essential part o" spo7en and #ritten ;n'lish at all le1els, and no student #ho hopes to 0aster the lan'ua'e !an a""ord to o1erloo7 the0. -lthou'h this te<tboo7 is intended pri0aril5 "or hi'h-inter0ediate to ad1an!ed students, a0bitious students at lo#er le1els #ill bene"it "ro0 it as #ell. (nl5 so0e 2(C.S se!tions 0a5 pro1e to be a little be5ond the0? other#ise, there is nothin' to pre1ent an5 student "ro0 stud5in' the de"initions and e<a0ples and atte0ptin' the e<er!ises. - 1o!abular5 te<tboo7 should pro1ide 0e!hani!s as #ell as 0eanin'. Students #ant to 7no# 0ore than #hat a #ord 0eans > the5 #ant to 7no# ho# to use it !orre!tl5. The i0portan!e o" 0e!hani!s is the reason "or the e0phasis on the prepositions re,uired #hen so0e phrasal 1erbs are used transiti1el5 and "or the in!lusion o" re1ie#s o" points o" 'ra00ar not spe!i"i! to phrasal 1erbs. Prepositions are the 'lue that holds ;n'lish to'ether, but 0an5 students "alter #hen usin' ne#l5 learned 1erbs be!ause the5 do not 7no# that a preposition is also re,uired, or i" the5 do, #hi!h one. This aspe!t o" ;n'lish is not 'i1en the attention it deser1es be!ause it is di""i!ult to tea!h > there are no rules that 'o1ern #hen a preposition, or #hi!h preposition, is re,uired, and no tea!her li7es to sa5 @Aou )ust ha1e to re0e0ber.@ The hope o" the latter "eature, the dis!ussion o" points o" 'ra00ar not spe!i"i! to phrasal 1erbs, is that !o0binin' pra!ti!e #ith phrasal 1erbs and pra!ti!e #ith a 1ariet5 o" 'ra00ati!al stru!tures #ill in!rease not onl5 the studentBs !on"iden!e in the 7no#led'e o" phrasal 1erbs but also his or her #illin'ness and abilit5 to use the0 in a #ider ran'e o" situations. There is ine1itabl5 a de'ree o" o1ersi0pli"i!ation. That phrasal 1erb parti!les are so0eti0es prepositions and so0eti0es ad1erbs is 0entioned onl5 on!e. No purpose is ser1ed b5 di""erentiatin' bet#een the0, and the o1erlap bet#een the t#o is !on"usin' to the student. Phrasal 1erbs are not identi"ied as transiti1e or intransiti1e be!ause this is di!tated b5 lo'i!. &ess !o00on 0eanin's o" so0e phrasal 1erbs ha1e not been in!luded. -d1erb pla!e0ent is presented and illustrated in si0pli"ied "or0 #ithout dis!ussion o" the di""erent t5pes o" ad1erbs > doin' so #ould ha1e 'one be5ond the s!ope o" this te<tboo7. i1

TC; .&T46-T; PC+-S-& V;+= =((9

St !ent

-nd no di""erentiation is 0ade bet#een re!o'niDed ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0 past parti!iples and past parti!iples #ith ad)e!ti1al 0eanin'. The ad)e!ti1al use o" past parti!iples Eboth phrasal and nonphrasalF is an e<tre0el5 i0portant aspe!t o" spo7en ;n'lish > so0ethin' e1er5 student o" ;n'lish should be "a0iliar #ith > 5et the di1idin' line bet#een true ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0 past parti!iples and passi1e senten!es e0plo5in' past parti!iples #ith ad)e!ti1al 0eanin's is ill-de"ined and proble0ati!. Nati1e spea7ers o" ;n'lish re'ularl5 use past parti!iples in super"i!iall5 passi1e senten!es #ith purel5 ad)e!ti1al 0eanin'. Whether the past parti!iples are 1erbs or a!tuall5 ad)e!ti1es is o" no !on!ern to the nati1e spea7er and is entirel5 irrele1ant to the student o" ;n'lish. +ather than distra!t the student #ith an unne!essar5 ele0ent o" !on"usion, both are re"erred to as parti!iple ad)e!ti1es throu'hout this te<tboo7. The e<er!ises in this te<tboo7 are intended to rein"or!e 0eanin' and 0e!hani!s. - !loDe e<er!ise al#a5s !o0es "irst, "ollo#ed b5 e<er!ises "o!usin' on senten!e stru!ture and the 2(C.S dis!ussion. &ast are e<er!ises that as7 the student to ans#er ,uestions or #rite ori'inal senten!es. There is a 'ood deal o" re1ie# built into this te<tboo7. ;1er5 se!tion !ontains t#o or 0ore e<er!ises re,uirin' the student to re"er ba!7 to a pre1ious se!tion in order to re1ie# a phrasal 1erb, parti!iple ad)e!ti1e, or noun. When a phrasal 1erb has t#o or 0ore 0eanin's, it is intentional that no help is pro1ided to the student in deter0inin' #hi!h 0eanin' applies? students ha1e to re1ie# the0 all and "i'ure it out "or the0sel1es. 4 ha1e tried in this te<tboo7 to i0itate the "or0 and !ontent o" e1er5da5 ;n'lish. 4" o!!asionall5 the re'ister and sub)e!t 0atter o" so0e e<a0ples and e<er!ises see0 not ,uite ri'ht "or "or0al dis!ourse, that is deliberate. Students need to learn "or0al ;n'lish, o" !ourse, but sin!e 0ost people spea7 in"or0all5 0ost o" the ti0e, students need to 'ain "a0iliarit5 #ith the s5nta<, usa'e, and !ontent o" the in"or0al ;n'lish the5 read and hear e1er5 da5 at #or7, at s!hool, at ho0e, and on tele1ision.

TO THE STU2ENT
Phrasal 1erbs are !o0binations o" ordinar5 1erbs li7e put, ta7e, !o0e, and 'o and parti!les li7e in, out, on, and o"". The5 are a 1er5 i0portant part o" e1er5da5 ;n'lish. ;1er5 student o" ;n'lish needs a basi! understandin' o" the 0ost !o00on phrasal 1erbs and also o" !o00on nouns and ad)e!ti1es 0ade "ro0 phrasal 1erbs. 6ost phrasal 1erbs are nor in"or0al, slan', or i0proper "or edu!ated spee!h or "or0al #ritin'. ;<a!tl5 the opposite is true > 0ost phrasal 1erbs are a!!eptable at all le1els o" spo7en or #ritten ;n'lish. 4n "a!t, "or 0an5 o" the phrasal 1erbs in this te<tboo7, there is no alternati1e to the phrasal 1erb > there is no other #a5 to sa5 it. 1

Co#e1er, a "e# phrasal 1erbs in this te<tboo7 are identi"ied as in"or0al, and it is better not to use the0 in serious, "or0al spee!h or #ritin'. =ut these in"or0al phrasal 1erbs are i0portant be!ause the5 are 1er5 !o00on in e1er5da5 in"or0al spee!h and #ritin'. So0e phrasal 1erbs are 1er5 eas5 to understand. 2or e<a0ple, it is not di""i!ult to understand sit do#n or !o0e in be!ause their 0eanin's are ob1ious. =ut 0an5 phrasal 1erbs are 1er5 idio0ati!. 4dio0ati! 0eans that there is no #a5 to 7no# #hat the 1erb and parti!le 0ean to'ether b5 7no#in' #hat the 1erb and parti!le 0ean separatel5. 2or e<a0ple, e1er5 be'innin'-le1el student learns #hat the #ords !all, run, o"", and out 0ean, but that does not help the student to 7no# that !all o"" 0eans !an!el or that run out 0eans use all o" so0ethin'. ;a!h se!tion o" this te<tboo7 starts #ith a 2(C.S, an e<planation o" so0ethin' i0portant about phrasal 1erbs. Then ei'ht phrasal 1erbs and an e<planation o" ea!h i0portant 0eanin' o" ea!h one are presented alon' #ith one or 0ore e<a0ple senten!es "or ea!h 0eanin'. 2ollo#in' that are se1eral e<er!ises to help 5ou understand and re0e0ber #hat the phrasal 1erbs 0ean and ho# to use the0 in a senten!e. -nd li7e real !on1ersation, ,uestions as7ed #ith 4 or #e are ans#ered #ith 5ou, and ,uestions as7ed #ith 5ou are ans#ered #ith / or #e. -nd be!ause there is a lot to learn in this te<tboo7, there is a lot o" re1ie# to help 5ou learn it. ;1er5 phrasal 1erb is re1ie#ed at least t#i!e later in the boo7. The 0ore idio0ati! phrasal 1erbs are re1ie#ed 0ore o"ten, and the 0ore i0portant 0eanin's o" phrasal 1erbs #ith se1eral 0eanin's are re1ie#ed 0ore o"ten. Ter-s' A&&reviations' an! S3-&o%s Use! in this Te4t&oo0 verb particle Verb refers to the verb part of a phrasal verb. In other words, the phrasal verb minus the particle. In the phrasal verb pull over, pull is the verb and over is the particle. The adverbs and prepositions in phrasal verbs are both called particles in this book. Many particles are adverbs and prepositions, and it can be very difficult and confusing to figure out if a particle in a particular phrasal verb is one or the other. Fortunately, this is almost never important to the student, so it is a lot easier to simply call them both particles. phrasal 1erb n. a noun 0ade "ro0 a

+$v$

phrasal 1erb part.adj. participle adjective a past participle of a phrasal verb used as an adjective put on it. When #ords or senten!es ha1e a line throu'h the0, it 0eans that the5 are in!orre!t. $$$ Three dots bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le 0ean that the ob)e!t o" the phrasal 1erb !an be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le. 1i

($ 2(C.S (NG se+ara&%e an! nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s


Phrasal 1erbs are either separable or nonseparable. .n"ortunatel5, there is no rule that #ill help 5ou to loo7 at a phrasal 1erb and al#a5s 7no# #hether it is separable or nonseparable. Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s Separable phrasal 1erbs !an be separated b5 their ob)e!t. When the ob)e!t is a noun, it is usuall5 entirel5 optional #hether the ob)e!t is pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le or pla!ed a"ter the parti!le. =oth senten!es belo# are !orre!tG I took my shoes off. I took off my shoes. Co#e1er, #hen a pronoun is used instead o" a noun, the pronoun 0ust be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!leG 4 too0 the0 o..$ 4 too0 o.. the0$ =ut in one t5pe o" senten!e, separable phrasal 1erbs 0ust be separated > #hen the phrasal 1erb has t#o ob)e!tsG !he put a blanket on. !he put on a blanket. !he put a blanket on the bed. !he put on a blanket the bed. Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s "onseparable phrasal verbs cannot be separated by their object# $e ran into a tree. $e ran a tree into. Throu'hout this boo7, phrasal 1erbs that !an be separated ha1e three dots E...F bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le.

Infinitive%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% present tense &ing form past tense past participle come from come from & comes from coming from came from come from ($ co-e .ro- p.1. When 5ou co-e .ro- a pla!e, 5ou #ere born there or li1ed there pre1iousl5. When 5ou co-e .ro- a "a0il5 or a so!ial situation, 5our past e<perien!e helps to e<plain 5our present attitudes and beha1ior. Mike comes from 'laska, so he(s used to cold weather. )ane had a difficult childhood. !he came from a broken home.

"$ co-e .ro- p.1. When so0ethin' co-es .ro- a sour!e, that is #here it ori'inated. The word +admiral+ comes from an 'rabic word. The mechanic heard a strange sound coming from the engine. (nfinitive present tense figure out +#.*re o*t 8 +#.*res o*t +#.*r#n. o*t +#.*red o*t +#.*red o*t )ing form past tense past participle

1. figure ... out p.v. ,the object can be a noun or a noun clause- .hen you figure out so0ethin', su!h as the ans#er to a ,uestion, the solution to a proble0, or #h5 a person is a !ertain #a5 or a!ts a !ertain #a5, 5ou thin7 about and su!!eed in understandin' it. )oe(s so hostile all the time. I can(t figure him out. I looked everywhere for my keys, but I couldn(t figure out where I put them. give back give back & gives back giving back gave back given back

($ /ive $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou return so0ethin' to so0eone, 5ou /ive it &ac0$ Can 4 use 5our penH 4Bll /ive it &ac0 a"ter the test. Ti005, /ive that to5 &ac0 to 5our sister ri'ht no#: look for look for & looks for looking for looked for looked for

($ %oo0 .or p.1. When 5ou %oo0 .or thin's or people, 5ou tr5 to "ind the0. / looked for you at the party, but I didn(t see you. /0cuse me, can you help me1 I(m looking for 232 Main !t. put on put on & puts on putting on put on put on

($ + t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou pla!e so0ethin' on or appl5 so0ethin' to 5our bod5, 5ou + t it on$ I + t on 05 ne# dress be"ore 'oin' to the part5. ;ri! "or'ot to + t suntan lotion on' and no# heBs as red as a lobster. "$ + t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou pla!e so0ethin' on or appl5 so0ethin' to another sur"a!e, 5ou + t it on$ I + t the boo7 on the table. Ierr5 + t too 0u!h "ertiliDer on his %a5n, and no# he has to !ut it t#i!e a #ee7. *$ + t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou atta!h or a""i< so0ethin' to another thin', 5ou + t it on$ The .ilson4s put a new roof on their house last year. I told the tailor to put red buttons on the dress he(s making for me. 6$ + t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou + t on #ei'ht, 5ou 'ain #ei'ht.

TC; .&T46-T; PC+-S-& V;+= =((9 5id you see Mike1 $e(s put on so much weight that I didn(t recogni6e him. I need to go on a diet. I(ve been putting on a lot of weight lately. 7$ + t $$$on p.1. When 5ou or'aniDe or per"or0 so0ethin' "or other peopleBs entertain0ent, su!h as a pla5 or a !on!ert, 5ou + t it on$ The club put on a show to raise money for the party. That opera hasn(t been put on in more than 733 years. 8$ + t$$ $on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou + t people on, 5ou 7id or tease the0. 8ou won the lottery1 8ou(re putting me on! 5on(t put me on tell me the truth. + t9on n. So0ethin' done #ith the intention o" "oolin' or !eceivin/ people is a + t9on$ $e didn(t really win the lottery. It was all a big put-on to impress his girlfriend. Infinitive present tense run into run into & runs into &ing form running into past tense ran into past participle run into

($ r n into p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and hit another 1ehi!le or so0ethin' near the road, su!h as a tree or a telephone pole, 5ou r n into it. 'li was driving too fast, and he ran into a telephone pole. I was run into by a drunk driver. "$ r n into p.1. When 5ou 0eet people ne4+ecte!%3 or nintentiona%%3, 5ou r n into the0. B -+ into is the sa0e as r n into$ .e ran into 9aren and her new boyfriend at the supermarket yesterday. I owe Frank :233, so I hope I don(t run into him. *$ r n into p.1. When 5ou une<pe!tedl5 enco nter di""i!ulties or proble0s, 5ou r n into the0. ; thought it would be easy to fi0 my car, but I(ve been running into problems. )anice ran into one problem after another at work today. 6$ r n into p.1. When the total o" so0ethin' 'ro#s to a lar'e a0ount or nu0ber, it r ns into that a0ount or nu0ber. If you fi0ed everything on that old car that needs fi0ing, it would run into thousands of dollars. The number of starving people in the country ran into millions. show up show up < shows up showing up showed up shown up

($ sho5 + p.1. When 5ou appear so0e#here, 5ou sho5 +$ T rn + is si0ilar to sho5 +. ; was supposed to meet my sister for lunch, but she hasn(t shown up yet. =ver a hundred people showed up for the news conference. "$ sho5 + p.1. When so0ethin' appears or be!o0es 1isible, it sho5s +$ It(s hard to photograph polar bears because they don(t show up well against the snow. The spots won(t show up until the last stages of the disease. Infinitive present tense &ing form past tense past participle

take off 3

take off & takes off

taking off

took off

taken off

($ ta0e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' "ro0 5our bod5, 5ou ta0e it o..$ ; was so tired when I got home that I took my clothes off and went straight to bed. Take off your shoes. 8ou(re getting mud on the carpet. "$ ta0e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' "ro0 a sur"a!e, 5ou ta0e it o..$ I took the book off the table. 8ou need to take the old wa0 off the floor before you wa0 it again. *$ ta0e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' "ro0 so0ethin' it is atta!hed or a""i<ed to, 5ou ta0e it o..$ 'lfonso always takes the skin off chicken before he cooks it. 'fter )ane took the flat tire off her bicycle, she put on the new one. 6$ ta0e $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ta0e ti0e o.. "ro0 #or7 or stud5, 5ou do so0ethin' di""erent, in stead o" #or7in' or stud5in'. I can(t work tomorrow. I have to take the day off for some tests at the hospital. =ur company always lets us take the week between >hristmas and "ew 8ear(s 5ay off. 7$ ta0e o.. p.1. When an airplane lea1es the 'round and "lies up into the air, it ta0es o..$ =ur plane took off an hour late because of the snow. ?ut on your seat belt@ we(re taking off now. takeoff n. Takeoff is when an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air. The takeoff was delayed because of the snow. 6. take off p.v. .hen a business or other organi6ed activity becomes very successful, it takes off. The new restaurant(s business is taking off because it got a good review in the newspaper. If this business takes off we could make a lot of money. :$ ta0e o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou lea1e suddenl5 or ,ui!7l5, 5ou ta0e o..$ 4

'fter he found out the FAI was looking for him, he took off in a hurry. This party(s boring let(s take off. #$ ta0e $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou redu!e the pri!e o" so0ethin' that is "or sale b5 a !ertain a0ount, 5ou ta0e that a0ount o.. the pri!e. The sign in the store window said, +/very Monday take *3 percent off all marked prices.+ The car dealer took :7,333 off the list price. ;L;+C4S; 1 a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ E4a-+%e< Ser'eant Iones is 1er5 stri!t #ith his !hildren. Ce C(6;S 2+(6 a 0ilitar5 "a0il5.

1. -"ter the poli!e arri1ed, #e MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,ui!7l5. 2. Sales o" air !onditioners reall5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM #hen the te0perature 'ot o1er 1// de'rees last su00er. 3. 6e'an MMMMMMMM a lot o" #ei'ht MMMMMMMM #hen she #as pre'nant. 4. 4B0 'oin' to install a ne# pro'ra0 toni'ht, and 4 hope 4 donBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM an5 proble0s. . The in1isible in7 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMonl5 under ultra1iolet li'ht. $. 4 #as e<pe!tin' 1// people at the part5, but onl5 around / MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. %. Iane #as lu!75? she MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a 'ood "a0il5. 8. =e sure 5ou MMMMMMMM a !oat o" +ri-er MMMMMMMMbe"ore 5ou paint the .en!er. *. 65 !ousin is so #eird that e1en his 0other !anBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMMMMM. 1/. 4 donBt "eel #ell? 4 thin7 4Bll MMMMMMMM to0orro# MMMMMMMMM and sta5 ho0e. 11. We #ere s!ared to death #hen #e heard 1oi!es MMMMMMMMthe atti!. 12. 65 son al#a5s "or'ets to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM his !oat be"ore he 'oes outside. 13. 4 #as surprised #hen our plane MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM on ti0e. 14. We MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM our do' all ni'ht, but #e !ouldnBt "ind hi0. 1 . Paul "inall5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 05 C8s a"ter 4 as7ed hi0 "or the0 about a 0illion ti0es. 1$. 4B0 not 'oin' to the part5 be!ause 4 donBt #ant to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMIani!e.

1%. The real estate a'ent said that our as7in' pri!e #as too hi'h and that #e should MMMMMMMMMM at least N1/,/// MMMMMMMMMM it i" #e #ant to sell our house. 18. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM those 0udd5 shoes be"ore 5ou !o0e inside. 1*. Sendin' 05 son to Stan"ord and 05 dau'hter to Aale is 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e serious 0one5. 2/. MMMMMMMMM the orna0ents MMMMMMMM the Christ0as tree isnBt as 0u!h "un as puttin' the0 on. 21. Aou !anBt be serious > 5ouBre MMMMMMMM 22. 8onBt "or'et to MMMMMMMM a sta0p 0e MMMMMMMMMMMMMM:

MMMMMMMMMM that letter be"ore 5ou 0ail it.

23. - spe!ial per"or0an!e o" The Nut!ra!7er #as MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM at the !hildrenBs hospital. 24. The 0aid MMMMMMMM the dirt5 sheets MMMMMMMM the bed. 2 . =e !are"ul: Aou al0ost MMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMM that tru!7 ba!7 there. ;L;+C4S; 1 b ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ E4a-+%e< 4 !anBt "i'ure out. Ethe ans#er, itF 4 !anBt "i'ure out the ans#er. 4 !anBt "i'ure the ans#er out. 4 !anBt "i'ure it out. *. I finally figured out. Bthe instructions, themC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. 3i1e ba!7 #hen 5ou are "inished, E05 tools, the0F MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $

2. !he put on. Bher slippers, themC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. 4 too7 o"". E05 shoes, the0F MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

D. The hurricane took off. Bthe roof, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ;L;+C4S; 1! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ E4a-+%e< 4 !anBt understand #here 05 #allet is. What !anBt 4 doH Aou !anBt "i'ure out #here 5our #allet is. 1. - lot o" 'uests didnBt !o0e to the #eddin'. What didnBt a lot o" 'uests doH 2. +aul thou'ht about the 0ath proble0, and he 7no#s the ans#er no#. What did +aul doH 3. The )et is lea1in' the 'round and "l5in' into the air. What is the )et doin'H 4. 4n Ouestion 3, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the airplane didH . (0ar spea7s -rabi! be!ause he #as born in ;'5pt. Wh5 does (0ar spea7 -rabi!H $. We le"t =obBs house ,ui!7l5. What did #e doH %. 4 0et .n!le Iohn at the baseball 'a0e toda5. What did 4 do toda5H 8. The sour!e o" the s0o7e #as a #indo# on the tenth "loor. What did the s0o7e doH *. Aou al0ost hit a tree #hile 5ou #ere dri1in' 5our !ar. What did 5ou al0ost doH %

1/. 6r. Ta5lor atta!hed his na0e to his 0ailbo<. What did 6r. Ta5lor doH 11. 4 ha1e to re0o1e the "lat tire "ro0 05 !ar. What do 4 ha1e to doH 12. We didnBt ha1e an5 proble0s !oo7in' the tur7e5. What did #e doH 13. 4B0 re0o1in' the dirt5 dishes "ro0 the table. What a0 4 doin'H 14. Sales o" the !o0pan5Bs ne# produ!t #ere 1er5 su!!ess"ul. What did sales o" the !o0pan5Bs ne# produ!t doH

1 . &inda is tr5in' to "ind her 'ol" ball. What is &inda doin'H 1$. SusieBs blue e5es arenBt 1isible in this photo. What donBt SusieBs e5es do in this photoH 1%. Ii0 al#a5s "or'ets to pla!e salt and pepper on the table. What does Ii0 al#a5s doH 18. =ill didnBt 'o to #or7 last 2rida5. What didnBt =ill doH 1*. Sall5 returned 2ran7Bs !a0era. What did Sall5 doH

"$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! do, does, an! did
&i7e ordinar5 1erbs, phrasal 1erbs "or0 ne'ati1es and ,uestions #ith do, does, and did. Present tense > estions
4n the present tense, ,uestions are "or0ed #ith do Ee<!ept #hen the sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin'FG .hy do. I always fall for losers1 5o you sometimes do!e off in class1 5o we ever give in to pressure1 $ow do these bottle tops come off" When the sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin', does is used. +e0e0ber that the -s "or0 o" the 1erb is not used in ,uestionsG 5oes this welding torch throw sparks up into the air1 Present tense ne/atives 4n the present tense, ne'ati1es are "or0ed #ith do not or donBt Ee<!ept #hen the sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin'FG 8

; used to do!e off while driving, but I don(t anymore. I think he has the flu because you don(t usually throw up when you have a cold. .e don(t usually fall for cra6y stories like that. If his dogs do not stay off our lawn, I(m going to call the dogcatcher. When the sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin', does not or doesnBt is used. +e0e0ber that the -s "or0 o" the 1erb is not used in ne'ati1esG If Mark doesn(t pull through five children will be without a father. Past tense > estions 4n the past tense, ,uestions are "or0ed #ith did. +e0e0ber to use the in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG I(m so embarrassed. .hy did I fall for his lies1 5id the patient pull through" $ow many times did he throw up" 5id we give in to their demands1 5id they hear about the e0plorer who was eaten by piranhas1 Past tense ne/atives 4n the past tense, ne'ati1es are "or0ed #ith did not or didnBt. +e0e0ber to use the in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG ; was really sick, but I didn(t. throw up. 8ou didn(t fall for that nonsense, I hope. $e pulled and pulled, but the bowling ball did not come off. .e didn(t hear about the half&price sale until it was too late. I(m sorry. .e tried everything, but she didn(t pull through. Infinitive present tense come off come off < comes off &ing form coming off past tense came off past participle come off

($ co-e o.. p.1. When so0ethin' co-es o..' it be!o0es deta!hed "ro0 #hat it #as atta!hed or "astened to. Ae careful with this old book. The cover(s coming off. That paint won(t come off your hands unless you use turpentine. "$ co-e o.. p.1. When an e1ent co-es o..' it is su!!ess"ul. The party came off well. /veryone had a lot of fun. The attack didn(t come off the way the general planned it. *$ co-e o.. p.1. When 5ou sa5 ?Co-e o.. it@ to people, 5ou are sa5in' that 5ou thin7 so0ethin' the5 ha1e said is untrue or "oolish. It(s 7#33 '.M., you come home smelling like beer, and you say you were working late at the office1 =h come off itE

#nfinitive present tense do!e off do!e off & do!es off -ing form do!ing off past tense do!ed off past participle do!ed off

($ !o@e o.. p.1. When 5ou "all into a li'ht sleep, 5ou !o@e o..$ I went to a movie last night, but it was so boring I do!ed off. If I have a drink at lunch, I(m sure to do!e off at my desk. fall for fall for & falls for falling for fell for fallen for

($ .a%% .or p.1. When so0eone su!!ess"ull5 tric0s or !eceives 5ou, 5ou .a%% .or the tri!7 or !ece+tion or 5ou .a%% .or it. I feel like an idiot. The salesman promised me it was a real diamond, not glass, and I fell for it. 8our girlfriend told you that guy she was dancing with at the party was her brother1 $ow could you fall for a story like that1 "$ .a%% .or p.1. When 5ou suddenl5 "eel a stron' attra!tion to so0eone or so0ethin', 5ou .a%% .or that person or thin'. )im met !am(s sister last week, and now he calls her every day. I guess he really fell for her in a big way. .hen I saw this house, I fell for it immediately, and I made an offer the same day. give in give in & gives in giving #n gave in given in

($ /ive in EtoF p.1. When so0eone pressures or "or!es 5ou to do so0ethin' or allo# so0ethin' e1en thou'h 5ou do not #ant to, 5ou /ive in$ My son drove me cra6y asking me to buy him a new bicycle, and I finally gave in. The strike lasted for eight months, but the company never gave in to the workers( demands. hear about hear about & hears about hearing about heard about heard about

($ hear a&o t p.1. When 5ou hear and learn in"or0ation about so0eone or so0ethin', 5ou hear a&o t it. $ave you heard about the new Thai restaurant downtown1 I heard about the earthFuake on >"". pull through pull through & pulls through pulling through pulled through pulled

($ + %% thro /h p.1. When 5ou recover "ro0 a serious illness or in, r3, 5ou + %% thro /h$ The doctor didn(t think his chances were very good, but he pulled through. /rik is very sick, but he(s young and strong, so I(m sure he(ll pull through. 1$

4n"initi1e present tense sta% off sta% off & sta%s off &ing form sta%ing off past tense sta%ed off past participle sta%ed off

($ sta3 o.. p.1. When 5ou sta3 o.. so0ethin', 5ou donBt #al7 or sit on it. 8ou kids can play in the living room, but sta% off the ?ersian rug. .hat can I do to get my cat to sta% off the kitchen counter1 throw up throw up & throws up throwing up threw up thrown up

($ thro5 + p.1. When people thro5 +, the5 vo-it. 'le0 was so sick that he threw up all over my shoes. I feel like I(m going to throw up. ($ thro5$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' !auses s0all parti!les o" dirt, dust, or a li,uid to rise into the air, it thro5s the0 +$ Ae careful with that chain saw It(ll throw sawdust up in your eyes. 5on(t stand too close to the fire@ it(s throwing up sparks. ;L;+C4S; 2a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Ceather !alls To0 e1er5 da5. 4 ha1e a "eelin' sheBsMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMhi0. 2. 4 #ent to the shoe repair 'u5 be!ause the heel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 shoe. 3. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ten 0inutes a"ter the 0o1ie started, and 4 0issed the #hole thin'. 4. The bride dran7 too 0u!h !ha0pa'ne, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM all o1er the best 0an. . 4 needed a !ar to 'o to the part5, so 4 told 05 "ather 4 needed his !ar to 'o to the librar5 to stud5, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. $. .n!le 2redBs reall5 si!7. 4" he MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM, itBll be a 0ira!le. %. 4 )ust sha0pooed the !arpet in the li1in' roo0, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. 8. The !oup MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ithout an5 bloodshed. *. 4 donBt !are i" 5ou be' 0e all ni'ht > 4B0 not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM: 1/. 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 5our brotherBs a!!ident last ni'ht. 4s he all ri'htH 11

11. 8onBt 'et !lose to the "ire. 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ashes and spar7s. 12. 8o 5ou reall5 e<pe!t 0e to belie1e a !raD5 stor5 li7e thatH MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it: ;L;+C4S; 2b ; Chan/e the sentences to > estions sin/ !o' !oes' or !i!$ E4a-+%e< 2ran!is!o usuall5 doDes o"" a"ter dinner. 8oes 2ran!is!o usuall5 doDe o"" a"ter dinnerH 1. The si!7 bo5 thre# up. 2. +osa "alls "or e1er5 bo5 she 0eets. 3. The tops !o0e o"" easil5. 4. The do' sta5s o"" the bed. . ;ri7 heard about the ne# )ob.

;L;+C4S; 2! ; Chan/e the sentences to ne/atives sin/ !o not or !onAt' !oes not or !oesnAt' or !i! not or !i!nAt$ E4a-+%e< 2ran!is!o doDes o"" a"ter dinner. 2ran!is!o doesnBt doDe o"" a"ter dinner. 1. 4 al#a5s 'i1e in to her de0ands. 2. 6r. and 6rs. Ta5lor "ell "or the sales0anBs pro0ises. 3. These 0a!hines thro# up spar7s. 4. The patient pulled throu'h. . The plot !o0e o"" as planned. ;L;+C4S; 2d ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 65 0other told 0e not to #al7 on the 7it!hen "loor. What did 05 0other tell 0eH 2. When 8an sa# that ne# 0otor!5!le, he de!ided he had to bu5 it no 0atter ho# 0u!h it !ost. Co# did 8an "eel about the 0otor!5!leH

12

3. The students are so tired that the5 are startin' to sleep in !lass. What are the students doin'H 4. Ni!ole learns about e1er5thin' that happens in to#n. What does Ni!ole doH . The 0eetin' didnBt happen the #a5 4 planned it. What didnBt the 0eetin' doH $. Aou had an a!!ident a"ter one o" the #heels separated "ro0 5our !ar. Wh5 did 5ou ha1e an a!!identH %. Aou !an as7 a thousand ti0es i" 5ou #ant to, but 4B0 not a'reein' to 5our de0ands. What a0 4 not doin' to 5our de0andsH

8. 65 !ousin 0ade a lot o" pro0ises to 0e, and 4 belie1ed the0. Co# did 4 rea!t to her pro0isesH *. 8r. Wood said TedBs disease is 1er5 serious, and she doesnBt thin7 thereBs 0u!h hope that heBll re!o1er. What doesnBt 8r. Wood thin7H

1/. Ti005 is 1er5 si!7, and he #as 1o0itin' all ni'ht. What #as Ti005 doin' all ni'htH ;L;+C4S; 2e, +e1ie# ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .roSection ($ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 Section ($ !o0e "ro0 "i'ure out 'i1e ba!7 loo7 "or put on run into sho# up ta7e o""

1. &oo7 #hat ti0e it is: We ha1e to be at #or7 in "i"teen 0inutes. WeBd better MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM ri'ht no#. 2. 4 #aited "or Ioe "or three hours, but he ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 3. The 0aid MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the dirt5 sheets and #ashed the0. 4. 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a )ob !loser to ho0e. . Potatoes ori'inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM South -0eri!a. $. ThatBs 0ine: MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM ri'ht no# or 4B0 tellin' 6o0: %. The5 #ere 7illed #hen the5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a tru!7. 8. The 0e!hani! !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hat the proble0 is #ith 05 !ar. 13

3. 2(C.S (NG three95or! +hrasa% ver&s


Phrasal 1erbs are not al#a5s !o0posed o" t#o #ords. Three-#ord phrasal 1erbs are !o0posed o" a 1erb and t#o parti!lesG the "irst parti!le is nor0all5 an ad1erb, and the se!ond a preposition. &i7e t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs, three-#ord phrasal 1erbs are either separable or nonseparableG
I know it(s been a long day, but do you feel up to playing tennis after dinner1 )ake always went in for fishing when he was a kid. It was nice to meet you, and I look forward to seeing you again. I(m sorry I can(t say yes about the motorcycle, but I have to go along with your mother(s decision. I(ve put up with these love handles long enough ne0t week I(m getting liposuction.

Mr. Aaker tried to screw his e0&wife out of her share of the lottery pri6e. 8ou talk down to me like I(m some kind of idiot. 9aren(s nervous about the job interview. !he just wants to get it over with so she can stop worrying about it. Infinitive present tense &ing form past tense feel up to feel up to < feels up to feeling up to felt up to

past participle feel up to

($ .ee% + to p.1. When 5ou .ee% + to doin' so0ethin', 5ou ha1e the con.i!ence or ener'5 to do it. I(m sorry to cancel, but I just don(t feel up to going dancing tonight. The top of the mountain is only *,333 feet away get over with get over with & gets over with getting over with do you feel up to it1 got over with gotten over with

($ /et$$$ over 5ith p.1. Jal#a5s separatedK When 5ou #ant to /et so0ethin' over 5ith' it is be!ause it is so0ethin' unpleasant that 5ou #ant to "inish so that 5ou !an stop #orr5in' about it or !rea!in/ it. Get(s fi0 both cavities today, doctor@ I just want to get it over with. I think it(s better to get the e0am over with first period than to be nervous about it all day long. go along with /o a%on/ 5ith B /oes a%on/ 5ith /oin/ a%on/ 5ith 5ent a%on/ 5ith /one a%on/ 5ith

($ /o a%on/ 5ith p.1. When 5ou a'ree #ith people or a'ree #ith #hat the5 are sa5in', 5ou /o a%on/ 5ith the0. I understand your concern, Ginda, but I have to go along with Maria on this matter. .hat(s my opinion1 I go along with =mar. *H

"$ /o a%on/ 5ith p.1. When 5ou o&e3 a rule or "ollo# a de!ision, 5ou /o a%on/ 5ith it. Mrs. Taylor wasn(t happy about the committee(s decision, but she went along with it anyway. I don(t care what the boss says #nfinitive present tense go in for go in for & goes in for I(m not going along with any changes that will mean longer hours for less money. -ing form going in for past tense went in for past participle gone in for

($ /o in .or p.1. When 5ou /o in .or a !ertain a!ti1it5, 5ou li7e it and do it re'ularl5. Aryan really goes in for any kind of outdoor activity. .hen I was a kid I went in for football, but I don(t watch it much anymore. look forward to look forward to & looks forward to looking forward to looked forward to looked forward to

($ %oo0 .or5ar! to p.1. When 5ou %oo0 .or5ar! to so0ethin' or %oo0 .or5ar! to doin' so0ethin', 5ou are e<!ited about so0ethin' in the "uture be!ause 5ou en)o5 it or be!ause it #ill bene"it 5ou in so0e #a5. It(s been four years since my brother went overseas. I(m looking forward to seeing him again. I look forward to an opportunity to meet with you in person. put up with put up with & puts up with putting up with

put up with

put up with

($ + t + 5ith p.1. When 5ou + t + 5ith so0ethin' 5ou do not li7e or are not happ5 about, 5ou a!!ept it and do not tr5 to !han'e it. $er neighbors have loud parties every night, but she doesn(t complain. !he just puts up with it. My husband said, +I(ve put up with your brother long enoughE+ screw out of screw out of & screws out of screwing out of screwed out of screwed out of

($ scre5$$$ o t o. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 'et 0one5 or so0ethin' 1aluable "ro0 people in a dishonest #a5, 5ou scre5 the0 o t o. it. That con man screwed me out of my life savings. Their slea6y son&in&law screwed them out of thousands of dollars. talk down to talk down to & talks down to talking down to talked down to talked down to

($ ta%0 !o5n to p.1. When 5ou ta%0 !o5n to people, 5ou use a tone o" 1oi!e or an attitude that sho#s 5ou thin7 the5 are less intelli'ent, less edu!ated, or "ro0 a lo#er le1el o" so!iet5 than 5ou. 1

; was furious about the way he talked down to meE Aob hates )ane because of the way she talks down to him. ;L;+C4S; 3a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Than7s "or in1itin' 0e, but 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !ard 'a0es. 2. 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 husbandBs s0o7in' an5 lon'er. 4 told hi0 to !hoose bet#een !i'arettes and 0e. 3. 4B0 sorr5, but 4 thin7 5our plan is a bi' 0ista7e, and 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. 4. ;1en thou'h 6r. Watson is the ri!hest 0an in to#n, he ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM people. . 4tBs been onl5 t#o #ee7s sin!e the tra'ed5. 4B0 sure the5 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' to the part5. $. 4" that !roo7 thin7s heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM // bu!7s, heBs !raD5: %. The #hole "a0il5Bs 'oin' to be here "or Than7s'i1in', and 6o0 is reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit. 8. 4 1olunteered to 'i1e 05 spee!h "irst )ust so 4 !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM

*. ;1en i" 5ou donBt li7e the rules, 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the0. ;L;+C4S; 3b ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Ierr5Bs brother-in-la# tal7s to hi0 li7e heBs an idiot. Co# does Ierr5Bs brother-in-la# tal7 to Ierr5H

2. Ni!ole !anBt #or7 to0orro#, and sheBs ner1ous about tellin' her boss. What should Ni!ole doH 3. The5 paid N ,/// too 0u!h "or their house be!ause the sales0an lied to the0. What did the sales0an do to the0H 1$

4. Sall5Bs 'oin' to "l5 in an airplane "or the "irst ti0e, and sheBs 1er5 e<!ited about it. Co# does Sall5 "eel about "l5in' in an airplaneH . The #inters in 6inneapolis are terrible, but 5ou !anBt 0o1e or !han'e the #eather. What do 5ou ha1e to doH $. ;ri7 )ust 'ot out o" the hospital, and he doesnBt "eel stron' enou'h to 'o ba!7 to #or7. Wh5 !anBt ;ri7 'o ba!7 to #or7H %. 4 thou'ht the ne# poli!5 #as an e<!ellent idea, and 4 a'reed #ith it 1// per!ent. Co# did 4 "eel about the ne# poli!5H ;L;+C4S; 3!, +e1ie# ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .roSection "$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 Section "$ !o0e o"" doDe o"" "all "or 'i1e in hear about pull throu'h sta5 o"" thro# up

1. 6i'uel told 0e he didnBt steal 05 TV, but 4 didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM his lies. 2. Ii0 is reall5 si!7, and he sta5ed ho0e "ro0 s!hool toda5. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM t#i!e last ni'ht. 3. -"ter a "e# #ee7s, the 'old on this !heap )e#elr5 starts to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. Ce 7ept na''in' and na''in', and 4 "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . 4" that !at doesnBt learn to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the table, it #ill ha1e to 'o. $. -"ter =ett5Bs te0perature 'ot up to 1/ de'rees, #e started to thin7 she 0i'ht not

%. The 0eetin' #as so borin' that 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a !ountr5 #here people use bi' stones "or 0one5. 1%

6$ FOCUS ON< +resent an! +ast contin o s +hrasa% ver&s


&i7e one-#ord 1erbs, phrasal 1erbs !an nor0all5 be used in the continuous tense Ealso !alled the progressive tenseF usin' the -ing "or0 o" the 1erb Ealso !alled the present parti!ipleF and a "or0 o" be:
The principal told me you(d been cheating on the test. I(ve been going after my master(s for nearly five years. .hich dictionary is he looking up the words in1 $ow will she be pa%ing for her tuition bill1 The compass needle couldn(t be pointing to the south. .e would be planning for a bigger crowd if the weather weren(t so bad. They should be wrapping the meeting up in a few minutes. Thanks for all your help. I(m sorry for putting you to so much trouble. Infinitive present tense cheat on cheat on < cheats on cheating on cheated on cheated on &ing form past tense past participle

($ cheat on p.1. When 5ou cheat on 5our se<ual partner, 5ou ha1e se< or a ro0anti! relationship #ith another person. !arah filed for divorce after she caught Ieorge cheating on her. >an you believe it1 !he was cheating on me with my best friendE "$ cheat on p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' dishonest so that 5ou !an do better on a test, 5ou cheat on the test. The teacher caught 'li cheating on the e0am. If I didn(t cheat on the tests, I(d never pass any of my classes. go after go after & goes after going after went after gone after

($ /o a.ter p.1. When 5ou !hase and tr5 to ph5si!all5 stop or to atta!7 people, 5ou /o a.ter the0. ' policeman saw him stealing the car and went after him. >aptain Morgan was ordered to go after the enemy soldiers. "$ /o a.ter p.1. When la# en"or!e0ent o""i!ials tr5 to prose!ute people throu'h a le'al pro!edure, the5 /o a.ter the0. Federal prosecutors are now going after the top drug dealers. The senator introduced a bill designed to go after deadbeat dads. *$ /o a.ter p.1. When a business tries to in!rease its pro"its b5 tr5in' to in!rease its 0ar7et share or its nu0ber o" !usto0ers, it /oes a.ter the0. 18

The tobacco company denied going after the teenage market. The >/= said he wanted to go after new customers in >hina. 6$ /o a.ter p.1. When 5ou /o a.ter so0ethin', 5ou tr5 to obtain it e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult to do. !ofia went after a degree in accounting. Todd trained for a year before going after the record in the *33&yard dash. Infinitive present tense look up look up < looks up looking up looked up looked up &ing form past tense past participle

($ %oo0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 'et in"or0ation "ro0 a re"eren!e boo7, su!h as a #ord "ro0 a di!tionar5 or a telephone nu0ber "ro0 a telephone boo7, 5ou %oo0 the #ord or nu0ber +$ The teacher told the students to look the new words up in a dictionary. I looked up his number, but it(s not in the phone book. "$ %oo0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou lo!ate and 1isit people 5ou ha1e not seen "or a lon' ti0e, 5ou %oo0 the0 +$ ; was in 5allas on business, and I looked up 5an )ones, my old college roommate. If you(re ever in 9empton, look me up. *$ %oo0 + p.1. When a situation is %oo0in/ + or startin' to %oo0 +' it is i0pro1in'. Ausiness was pretty bad for a while, but things are starting to look up. I(m much happier than I was last year. Things are looking up. pa% for pa% for & pa%s for pa%ing for paid for paid for

($ +a3$$$ .or p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0eone 0one5 in e<!han'e "or so0ethin', 5ou +a3 .or it or +a3 so0eone .or it. >an # pa% for this stuff with a credit card1 'lfonso paid the waiter for his dinner. paid for part.adj. 'fter you have paid for something, it is paid for. My car is old, but at least it(s paid for. "$ +a3 .or p.1. When 5ou are punished "or so0ethin', 5ou +a3 .or #hat 5ou ha1e done. I caught the guy who(s spreading these false rumors about me, and he paid for ruining my reputation. 8oung people think that drugs are harmless, but they(ll pa% for their foolishness someday.

1*

Infinitive present tense plan for plan for < plans for planning for planned for planned for &ing form past tense past participle

($ +%an .or p.1. When 5ou 0a7e preparations "or so0ethin' in the "uture, 5ou +%an .or it. The festival was a disaster because they didn(t plan for such a huge crowd. It(s never to early too start planning for retirement. point to point to & points to pointing to pointed to pointed to

($ +oint to p.1. When 5ou indi!ate people or thin's #ith 5our hand or a "in'er, 5ou +oint to the0. When an arro# or a si'n indi!ates so0ethin', it +oints to it. The waitress couldn(t hear me, so I pointed to my empty glass and she understood. The prosecutor asked, +>an you point to the man you saw carrying the gun1+ "$ +oint to p.1. When a situation or o!!urren!e !auses 5ou to !onsider so0ethin' else, it +oints to that thin'. These terrible test scores point to a need for some major changes in our educational system. The fact that all the people with food poisoning ate tuna salad sandwiches pointed to contaminated mayonnaise as the source of the illness. put to put to & puts to putting to put to put to

($ + t$$$ to p.1. When 5ou !on"ront people #ith a di""i!ult or thou'ht-pro1o7in' ,uestion, a!!usation, or proposition, 5ou + t it to the0. $e didn(t want to tell me the truth, but I really put it to him, and he finally told me the whole story. .hen ?rof. 9line put his theory to me like that, I reali6ed what he was talking about. "$ + t$$$ to p.1. When 5ou put people to trouble or put the0 to an e<pense, 5ou !ause the0 to do e<tra #or7 or to spend 0one5. Thanks for helping me with my flat tire. I(m sorry to put you to so much trouble. I know my father would pay my dental bill if I asked him, but I hate to put him to such an e0pense. *$ + t $$$to p.1. When 5ou + t part o" 5our bod5 or so0ethin' in 5our hand to so0ethin', 5ou tou!h or press it to so0ethin'. The neighbors were arguing again, so we put our ears to the wall to try to hear what they were saying. .hen he put a gun to my head, I reali6ed he wasn(t joking.

2/

#nfinitive present tense wrap up wrap up & wraps up wrapping up wrapped up wrapped up -ing form past tense past participle

($ 5ra+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou en!lose an ob)e!t in so0e 7ind o" paper, usuall5 'i"t #rappin' paper or pa!7a'in' paper, 5ou 5ra+ it +$ ; have to wrap this gift up before I go to the party. The movers wrapped up the china with newspapers. 5ra++e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou en!lose an ob)e!t in so0e 7ind o" paper, usuall5 'i"t #rappin' paper or pa!7a'in' paper, it is 5ra++e! +$ "$ 5ra+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !on!lude an e1ent that has been happenin' "or so0e ti0e, 5ou #rap it up. =in! + is si0ilar to 5ra+ +$ .e wrapped up the meeting around H#33 and went home. The salesman blabbered for two hours before I finally told him to wrap it up. ;L;+C4S; 4a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ *. It(s *7#23. Get(s%%%%%%%%this meeting%%%%%%%%and goto lunch. 7. There was no way he could deny his guilt after the prosecutor %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%% him. 2. The high crime rate %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a need for more police officers. H. 8ou(ll %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% what you did to me if it(s the last thing I ever doE D. The principal gave a 6ero to each of the students who %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the test. J. I %%%%%%% my ear %%%%%%%% the wall to try to hear what !ally was saying about me. %. Mike is %%%%%%%% the words %%%%%%%% in the dictionary. K. The police officers %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the robbers, but they didn(t catch them. L. Ginda told "ed that she would divorce him if he ever %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% her again. *3. 8es, it was Fuite a surprise we didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% twins.

**. .e saw an arrow%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%the door at the end of the hallway. *7. 'fter she won the silver medal, she %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the gold. *2. Most insurance companies won(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% plastic surgery. *H. I returned to my hometown for the first time in forty years and %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% my first girlfriend. 21

*D. The guy in the seafood store %%%%%%%%% the fish %%%%%%%%% in old newspapers. *J. The FAI is %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% major drug smugglers. *M. These last si0 months have been difficult for !ally, but now things are starting to 18. The !o0pan5 started in Cali"ornia, but no# itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !usto0ers all o1er the !ountr5. 1*. Aou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM a lot o" trouble to help 5ou 0o1e 5our piano, and 5ou didnBt e1en sa5 than7 5ou. ;L;+C4S; 4b ; =rite sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ *. I was looking up in the dictionary, Ba word, itC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% 7. I was in Aoston looking up. Bsome old army buddies, themC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% 2. 5ad(s upstairs wrapping up. BMom(s birthday present, itC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% H. The committee is wrapping up. Btheir discussion, itC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% 22

;L;+C4S; 4! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Ce sho#ed 0e #here the bathroo0 #as #ith his "in'er. What did he doH 2. WeBre preparin' "or 3// #eddin' 'uests. What are #e doin'H 3. The situation is 'ettin' better. What is the situation doin'H H. The little boy ran away, and his father chased him and tried to catch him. .hat did the father do1 . So"ia is 'oin' to tr5 to brea7 the re!ord in the hi'h )u0p. What is So"ia 'oin' to tr5 to doH $. To0 did a lot o" #or7 to 'et his 'uest bedroo0 read5 "or 0e #hen 4 1isited hi0. What did 4 do to To0H %. 4B0 'i1in' 0one5 to the !ashier "or the boo7 4 #ant to bu5. What a0 4 doin'H 8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the boo7 a"ter 4 'i1e the 0one5 to the !ashierH *. The people in the 0eetin' are !on!ludin' the 0eetin'. What are the5 doin'H 1/. When +osa #as in Ne# (rleans, she loo7ed "or and 1isited a !hildhood "riend. What did +osa do to her friend1 11. Ii0 as7ed 5ou a reall5 di""i!ult ,uestion. What did Ii0 do to 5ouH 12. 6e'an is tr5in' to "ind ;ri7Bs telephone nu0ber in a telephone boo7. What is 6e'an doin'H 13. To0 is 0arried, but he slept #ith another #o0an. What did To0 do to his #i"eH ;L;+C4S; 4d, +e1ie# ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !o0e "ro0, 2 "all "or, 2 "i'ure out, 1 'i1e in, 1 hear about, 2 loo7 "or, 1 pull throu'h, 2 sho# up, 1

*. I %%%%%% %%%%%%%% your mother on our first date, and we got married three months later. 7. >armen(s family %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%% Michoacan around twenty years ago. 2. ?aul was supposed to meet us at K#33, but he never %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%. 72 4. These instru!tions donBt 0a7e an5 sense at all. 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. . -"ter -unt 6ar5Bs stro7e, her !han!es didnBt loo7 'ood, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM 1. 65 dau'hter be''ed 0e to let her 'et her ears pier!ed, and 4 "inall5 MMMMMMMM %. 65 "ather #as listenin' to the radio, and he said he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ne# !ar that runs on #ater.

2. 4 spent t#o hours MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM the re0ote !ontrol be"ore 4 "ound it.

7$ FOCUS ON< +ron nciation o. t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s


Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s Intransitive nonseparable phrasal 1erbs E1erbs that do not allo# an ob)e!tF are usuall5 a!!ented on the parti!leG The barn got hit by lightning, and it burned &'(). "ed drank so much that he passed '*T on the bathroom floor. Transitive nonseparable phrasal 1erbs E1erbs that re,uire an ob)e!tF are usuall5 a!!ented on the 1erbG $ank(s been +,-.T#)/ on his wife for years. I told the teacher my dog ate my homework, but she didn(t 0.11 for it. Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s !eparable phrasal verbs Bwhich are always transitiveC are usually accented on the particle# The Aritish soldiers tried to burn &'() the .hite $ouse. The teacher passed them '*T. -s the e<a0ples abo1e sho#, a sin'le phrasal 1erb !an belon' to 0ore than one !ate'or5 dependin' on its 0eanin'.

Infinitive present tense break down break down ! breaks down

&ing form breaking down

past tense broke down

past participle broken down

($ &rea0!o5n p.1. When so0ethin' 0e!hani!al &rea0s !o5n' it !oes not "un!tion. 24

; was late for work because my car broke down. This photocopier is a piece of junk it breaks down every day. &ro0en9!o5n part.ad). When so0ethin' is old, in bad !ondition, or not "un!tionin' properl5, it is &ro0en9!o5n$ My car is a broken-down piece of junk. &rea0!o5n n$ A &rea0!o5n is a situation in #hi!h so0ethin' 0e!hani!al has &ro0en !o5n$ 'fter that last breakdown I decided it was time for a new car. "$ &rea0!o5n p.1. When an arran'e0ent, a'ree0ent, ne'otiation, plan, or 0arria'e &rea0s !o5n' one or 0ore persons in1ol1ed is not !ooperatin' or parti!ipatin' be!ause o" a disa'ree0ent or proble0. 'fter he started drinking heavily, their marriage started to break down. The peace negotiations broke down because neither side was willing to compromise. &rea0!o5n n. - situation in #hi!h an arran'e0ent, a'ree0ent, ne'otiation, plan, or 0arria'e has &ro0en !o5n is a &rea0!o5n$ "either side would give an inch, and there was a breakdown in the negotiations. *$ &rea0!o5n p.1. When 5ou &rea0 !o5n' 3o lose sel"-!ontrol and be!o0e e0otionall5 or 0entall5 !on"used. .hen the judge sentenced )ones to life in prison, he broke down and begged for mercy. Tom breaks down whenever he thinks of the tragedy. &rea0!o5n n. - situation in #hi!h so0eone has &ro0en !o5n and is 1er5 upset or !on"used is a &rea0!o5n$ Marvin had a complete mental breakdown and started to see invisible people. 6$ &rea0 !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' de!o0poses or redu!es to its s0allest parts or is redu!ed b5 so0eone to its s0allest parts, it &rea0s !o5n$ 'fter the poison breaks down it(s Fuite harmless. 'nticoagulant drugs are used to break down blood clots. 7$ &rea0$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou redu!e a pro!ess, situation, proble0, plan, or idea to its basi! parts to 0a7e it easier to understand, 5ou &rea0 it !o5n$ The professor(s plan seemed really complicated, but after he broke it down for us, we understood it a little better. If you break the manufacturing process down into steps, it(s easier to train new workers. 8$ &rea0 $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou use "or!e to 'o throu'h a door that is lo!7ed, 5ou &rea0 it !o5n$ 2

The police broke the door down and arrested the bank robbers. ' door had to be broken down to rescue the people trapped by the fire. Infinitive present tense burn down burn down < burns down burning down burned down burned down &ing form past tense past participle

($ & rn $$$ !o5n p.1. When a buildin' or other stru!ture & rns !o5n or so0eone & rns it !o5n' it is !o0pletel5 destro5ed b5 "ire. Though most of >hicago burned down in *KM*, a few buildings survived. The owner was arrested for deliberately burning his factory down. call in call in & calls in calling in called in called in

($ ca%% in p.1. When 5ou !all 5our pla!e o" e0plo50ent to sa5 5ou !annot #or7 that da5 be!ause 5ou are si!7, 5ou ca%% in or ca%% in si!7. The manager was angry when her secretary called in three days in a row. +alling in sick too often is a good way to get fired. "$ ca%%$$$ in p.1. When 5ou re,uest the help o" people or o" an or'aniDation #ith 0ore e<perien!e, po#er, or 7no#led'e to help #ith a proble0 or di""i!ult pro)e!t, 5ou ca%% the0 in$ .hen the local police couldn(t handle the riot, the "ational Iuard was called in. The local police chief considered calling the FAI in to help solve the crime. find out find out & finds out finding out found out found out

($ .in! $$$ o t p.1. Jnot usuall5 separated > the ob)e!t !an be a noun, a noun !lause, or a !o0plete senten!eK When 5ou .in! o t in"or0ation or a "a!t, 5ou learn or be!o0e a#are o" that in"or0ation or "a!t. If you don(t know when the movie starts, look in the newspaper to find out. I met a nice man at the party, but I never found out his name. I met a nice man at the party, but I never found out what his name was. I was surprised when I found out that he can speak fourteen languages. I was surprised when I found out he can speak fourteen languages. I tried to get the information, but I couldn(t find it out. hand back hand back & hands back handing back handed back handed back

($ han!$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou return thin's to people b5 holdin' the0 in 5our hand and e<tendin' 5our ar0, 5ou han! the0 &ac0 or han! the0 &ac0 to the0. The teacher will hand the tests back in third period. The guard handed my I5 card back to me.

2$

6n+#n#t# e present tense look at loo3 at 8 loo3s at loo3#n. at loo3ed at loo3ed at %#n. +or1 past tense past part#)#ple

($ %oo0 at p.1. When 5ou "o!us 5our e5es on people or thin's, 5ou %oo0 at the0. / looked at her and told her I loved her. 1ook at me when I talk to youE "$ %oo0 at p.1. When 5ou e<a0ine so0ethin' or a situation and de!ide #hat to do about it, 5ou %oo0 at it$ The mechanic looked at my car but couldn(t find anything wrong with it. 8our finger might be broken@ you should have 5r. !mith look at it. *$ %oo0 at p.1. When 5ou thin7 a !ertain #a5 or ha1e an opinion about so0ethin', that is the #a5 5ou %oo0 at it. The way I look at it, >ongress is to blame for this mess, not the ?resident. .hat should be done about this situation depends on how you look at it. 6$ %oo0 at p.1. Jin"or0al > al#a5s !ontinuousK When 5ou sa5 that people are %oo0in/ at an a0ount o" 0one5 or a len'th o" ti0e, 5ou 0ean that this is ho# 0u!h the5 thin7 so0ethin' #ill !ost or ho# lon' so0ethin' #ill ta7e. That was a serious injury. 8ou(re looking at months and months of physical therapy. ?utting a new roof on this house isn(t going to be cheap. 8ou(re looking at at least :*D,333. pile up pile up & piles up piling up piled up piled up

($ +i%e$$$ + p.1. When thin's in!rease in nu0ber and start to "or0 a pile, the5 +i%e +$ When people add thin's to a pile, the5 +i%e the0 +$ The snow piled up so high that I couldn(t open my door. In the fall we pile the dead leaves up in the driveway and burn them. piled up part.adj. .hen things are in a pile, they are piled up. ' lot of dirty laundry is piled up in the basement. "$ +i%e + p.1. When #or7 or so0ethin' else that 0ust be done in!reases "aster than 5ou !an do it, it +i%es +$ I(m really worried about money. My bills are piling up faster than I can pay them. My work really piled up white I was on vacation. setup set up * sets up setting up set up set up

($ set$$$ + p.1. When 5ou arran'e the parts o" so0ethin' so that the5 are in their proper position and !an "un!tion, 5ou set it +$ 2%

The kids got a swing set for >hristmas, and 5ad had to set it up in the snow. .hen you(re camping, be sure to set your tent up before it gets dark. set + part.ad). -"ter the parts o" so0ethin' are in their proper position and "un!tion properl5, the5 are set +$ The party is starting in one hour. 're the tables set up" set + n. - !olle!tion or arran'e0ent o" parts or e,uip0ent ne!essar5 "or a !ertain pro!edure or tas7 is a set +$ The nurse prepared setups for the hospital emergency room. "$ set$$$ + p.1. When 5ou plan and or'aniDe an a!ti1it5 or pro)e!t, 5ou set it +$ # set up a H#33 meeting with )ones and his lawyer. 2etting up a meeting of all fifty governors took a lot of planning. set + part.ad). When an a!ti1it5 or pro)e!t is planned, arran'ed, or or'aniDed, it is set +$ The arrangements for the wedding were very complicated, but everything is set up now. set + n. Co# an a!ti1it5 or pro)e!t is planned or arran'ed is the set +$ WhatBs the set + "or the 2ourth o" Iul5 pi!ni!H *$ set$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou !o00it a !ri0e but 0a7e it appear that another, inno!ent person is 'uilt5 o" the !ri0e, 5ou set the inno!ent person +$ )oe robbed the bank and tried to set me up by leaving some of the stolen money in my apartment and then telling the police about it. The detective didn(t believe me when I told him I was set up. set + n. Jin"or0alK -n atte0pt b5 so0eone to 0a7e it appear that an inno!ent person is 'uilt5 o" a !ri0e is a set +$ ; told the detective it was a setup and that I could prove I had been at the racetrack when the bank was robbed. ;L;+C4S; a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. When he heard that his brother had been 7illed, he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and !ried. 2. WeBre e<pe!tin' !o0pan5. Can 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM the !ard table in the dinin' roo0H 3. Can 5ou help #ash the dishes, pleaseH The5Bre reall5 be'innin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. 4 'a1e the !ashier 05 !redit !ard, and then she MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to 0e.

D. I don(t know the answer, but I(ll try to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%. J. .e were very busy at work today. Two people %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% sick. M. Naul %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% his watch and told me he had to leave. K. My car is a real piece of junk. It %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% at least once a week. L. I(m a little confused about your theory. .ould you mind %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%% for me1 *3. I(ll tell the judge that I(m innocent and that "ed 9elly%%%%%%%%me%%%%%%%%. **. $ey, any way you %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% it, one thing(s for sure jails. *7. This is the FAI open the door or we(ll %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%E we have to get more crooks off the streets and into the

*2. Maybe I can fi0 your computer. I(ll%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%it after dinner. *H. The family doctor has never seen a case of malaria before, so he is %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% a specialist. (*D. !ome chemical compounds start to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% after only a few hours. *J. The arsonist tried to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% several houses in the neighborhood. *M. The secretary is %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a meeting. *K. The civil war started again after the peace talks %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%. *L. )im buys a newspaper every day, but he never puts it in the garbage when he is finished. "ewspapers are slowly %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% in his basement. 73. The mechanic said, +To fi0 a car after an accident that bad, I(d say you(re %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% at least :H,333.+ ;L;+C4S; b ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. this section o. ho5 t5o9 5or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rono nce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise 7a a%o ! an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$ ECERCISE 7c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ *. The firefighters broke down. Bthe door, itC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> .

7. They burned down, Bthe old barn, itC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> . 2. $e called in. B5r. !hapiro,herC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> . H. =ur teacher handed back. Bthe papers, themC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> . D. I set up. Bthe ironing board, itC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> . ECERCISE 7! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Iane arran'ed a bab5 sho#er. What did she doH 2. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the bab5 sho#er a"ter Iane arran'ed itH 3. 4 'et 0a'aDines in the 0ail "aster than 4 !an read the0. What are 05 0a'aDines doin'H 4. 4n Ouestion 3, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 05 0a'aDinesH . Todd returned the pen to 6ar7. What did Todd doH $. .n!le 2redBs !ar had a 0e!hani!al proble0, and it stopped runnin'. What did it doH %. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe .n!le 2redBs !arH 8. 4n Ouestion $, #hat did .n!le 2red ha1eH *. The soldiers destro5ed the buildin' #ith "ire. What did the soldiers doH 1/. The soldiers destro5ed the buildin' #ith "ire. What did the buildin' doH 11. When the dete!ti1e told Ia7e he !ould 'et the death penalt5, he be!a0e 1er5 ner1ous and upset. What did Ia7e doH 12. 4n Ouestion 11, #hat did Ia7e ha1eH 13. The boss #as an'r5 be!ause 5ou didnBt !all to sa5 that 5ou #ere si!7 and !ouldnBt #or7. Wh5 #as the boss an'r5H 14. Iud5 too7 her ne# !o0puter out o" the bo<, !onne!ted alt the !ables, and 'ot it read5 to use. What did she do to her !o0puterH 1 . 4n Ouestion 14, a"ter Iud5 too7 her ne# !o0puter out o" the bo<, !onne!ted all the !ables, and 'ot it read5 to use, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe itH 1$. The door #as lo!7ed, but Can7 "or!ed it open and 'ot inside. What did Can7 doH

1%. 4 learned that -llBs e<!use #as a bi' lie. What did 4 doH

ECERCISE 7e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are In the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !o0e o"", 2 "eel up to, 3 'et o1er #ith, 3 'o alon' #ith, 3 'o in "or, 3 loo7 "or#ard to, 3 put up #ith, 3 sta5 o"",2 tal7 do#n to, 3 thro# up, 2

1. Cer husband is a real )er7. Co# does she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0H 2. 4 #asnBt sure i" Charles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' s!uba di1in' a'ain so soon a"ter the shar7 atta!7. 3. 4B0 tellin' 5ou "or the last ti0e: MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 'rass: 4. Can 5ou help 0e #ith this )arH The top #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . 4B1e ne1er been to 4tal5, and 4B0 reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' there.

31

$. 4B0 sorr5 4 !anBt a'ree #ith 5ou 8ad, but 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6o0. %. When 4 had "ood poisonin' 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all ni'ht lon'. 8. Aou !an be sure Paul #ill ta7e his 1a!ation out #est. Ce reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMM outdoor stu"" li7e !a0pin' and 0ountain !li0bin'. *. Can 5ou belie1e the ner1e o" that 'u5 in the 0eetin' 5esterda5H Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e as i" 4 #as the stupidest 'u5 on ;arth: 1/. 4B0 tired o" ar'uin' about the di1or!e settle0ent. 4 )ust #ant to MMMMMMMM it.

8$ 2(C.S (NG +ron nciation o. three95or! +hrasa% ver&s


The pronunciation of three&word phrasal verbs is generally Fuite simple# the second, or middle, particle is accented regardless of whether the phrasal verb is separable or inseparable# ; think I(ve come *3 with an answer to your problem. The detective didn(t get any information '*T of him.

#nfinitive present tense boil down to boil down to & boils down to -ing form boiling down to past tense boiled down to past participle boiled down to

($ &oi% !o5n to p.1. When 5ou sa5 that so0ethin' &oi%s !o5n to so0ethin' else, 5ou are sa5in' that it is the basi! !ause o" a 0ore !o0pli!ated situation or proble0. Most of the crime in this city boils down to drugs. My decision to stay at this awful job boils down to one thing come down with come down with & comes down with coming down with money. come down will

came down with

($ co-e !o5n 5ith p.1. When 5ou are startin' to 'et si!7, 5ou are co-in/ !o5n 5ith so0ethin' or co-in/ !o5n 5ith an illness. ; don(t feel well. Maybe I(m coming down with something. My grandmother said, +If you don(t wear an undershirt, you(ll come down with pneumonia.+

27

Infinitive present tense come up with come up with < comes up with &ing form coming up with past tense came up with past participle come up with

($ co-e + 5ith p.1. When 5ou thin7 o" an idea, plan, or solution, 5ou co-e + 5ith it. It took me all night, but I came up with the answer. Gydia wants to come up with a great idea for the party. get around to get around to & gets around to getting around to got around to gotten/got around to

($ /et aro n! to p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' a"ter #aitin' "or so0e ti0e be!ause 5ou are laD5, ine..icient, or do not #ant to do it, 5ou /et aro n! to it. I didn(t get around to doing my ta0es until 'pril *H. 5on(t worry about the broken window. I(ll get around to it one of these days. get out of get out of & gets out of getting out of got out of gotten/got out of

($ /et o t o. p.1. When 5ou /et o t o. so0ethin' or /et o t o. doin' so0ethin' 5ou 0ust do but do not #ant to do, 5ou "ind a #a5 to a1oid it. !am got out of gym class by pretending to be sick. The boss wants me to work a double shift, but I(ll get out of it. # got out of going to church with my parents by pretending to be sick. "$ /et$$$ o t o. p.1. 4" an a!ti1it5 'i1es 5ou pleasure, satis"a!tion, or so0e other bene"it, 5ou /et pleasure, satis"a!tion, or so0e other bene"it o t o. it. I sat through that boring class for three months and didn(t learn a thing. I didn(t get anything out of it. The judge didn(t get any pleasure out of imposing such a harsh penalty. *$ /et$$$ o t o. p.1. When 5ou use "or!e, pressure, or de!eit to 'et so0ethin', su!h as in"or0ation or 0one5, "ro0 people, 5ou /et it o t o. the0. They tortured him for days, but they couldn(t get any information out of him. It took me a while, but I got the whole story out of her. go back on go back on & goes back on going back on went back on gone back on

($ /o &ac0 on p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a pro0ise, but 5ou do not do #hat 5ou pro0ised to do, 5ou /o &ac0 on 5our pro0ise. I promised to take my son to a baseball game, and I(m not going back on my word. The ?resident went back on his pledge not to raise ta0es.

33

#nfinitive present tense go through with go through with & goes through with

-ing form going through with

past tense went through with

past participle gone through with

($ /o thro /h 5ith p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e de!ided to do e1en thou'h it 0a5 be dan'erous or unpleasant or others 0a5 ob)e!t, 5ou /o thro /h 5ith it$ The spokeswoman said the company would go through with its plan to move the company to Me0ico. 5espite his family(s opposition, /rik went through with his decision to Fuit his job and start his own business. monke% around with monke% around with & monke%s around monke%ing around with monke%ed around with monke%ed around

($ -on0e3 aro n! 5ith p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou ad)ust or tr5 to repair 0e!hani!al de1i!es e1en thou'h 5ou do not ha1e per0ission or do not ha1e the s7ill to do it properl5, 5ou -on0e3 aro n! 5ith the0. I monke%ed around with my camera, and I think maybe I fi0ed it. Frank was monke%ing around with my printer, and now it doesn(t work. ECERCISE 8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ *. I(m not surprised that 'li stayed home from work today. 8esterday he thought he might be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a !old. 2. &ast 5ear, the !o0pan5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM its plan to 0o1e "ro0 do#nto#n to the suburbs. 3. 4B1e thou'ht and thou'ht, but 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an5 reason #h5 5our idea #onBt #or7. 4. 2i<in' the lea7 in the roo" is 'oin' to be a bi' )ob, but 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it be"ore the ne<t rain. . Ceather didnBt #ant to tell 0e #h5 she #as 0ad, but 4 "inall5 MMMMMMMM the reason MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her. $. 4 donBt MMMMMMMM 0u!h satis"a!tion MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tea!hin' students #ho donBt #ant to be in the !lass. 34

%. The e<planation "or our "ailure to sol1e this proble0 isnBt !o0pli!ated. 4t reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a la!7 o" "undin'. 8. 4 thin7 5ou should ta7e 5our VC+ to a repair shop. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM it, 5ouBll )ust 0a7e it #orse. *. 4B0 supposed to report "or )ur5 dut5 on 6onda5, but 4 donBt #ant to. 4B1e 'ot to thin7 o" a #a5 to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. 1/. Aou lied to 0e: Aou pro0ised 0e 5ou #ould ,uit s0o7in', and no# 5ouB1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our #ord. ECERCISE 8& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. To0 #as 1er5 ner1ous about 'ettin' 0arried, but he did it. What did To0 doH 2. We #ere in Paris "or "i1e da5s, but #e ne1er "ound ti0e to 'o to the ;i""el To#er. What didnBt #e doH

3. 65 "ather said 4 had to !ut the 'rass, but 4 told hi0 4 #ould do it to0orro#. What did 4 doH 4. Iani!e reall5 li7es tea!hin' be!ause it 'i1es her a lot o" satis"a!tion. Wh5 does Iani!e li7e tea!hin'H . 6s. Cu00in's thou'ht o" a #a5 to 0anu"a!ture her !o0pan5Bs produ!ts 0ore !heapl5. What did 6s. Cu00in's doH $. There are 0an5 reasons #h5 one house sells "or a hi'her pri!e than other houses, but the 0ain reason is the houseBs lo!ation. Wh5 does one house sell "or 0ore than anotherH %. Aou "eel a little si!7 no#, and 5ou thin7 5ouBll ha1e a !old to0orro#. WhatBs happenin' to 5ou toda5H 8. 4 donBt reall5 7no# #hat to do, but 4Bll tr5 to "i< the air !onditioner an5#a5. What #ill 4 do to the air !onditionerH *. 65 #i"e didnBt tal7 to 0e all da5, but she said nothin' #as #ron'. 4 as7ed her a'ain and a'ain #hat the proble0 #as and she "inall5 told 0e. What did 4 doH 1/. +a,uel pro0ised -le< she #ould 'o to the dan!e #ith hi0, but she #ent #ith Carlos instead. What did +a,uel doH 3

ECERCISE 8c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ burn do#n, !heat on,4 "ind out, 'o a"ter, 4 hand ba!7, loo7 at, loo7 up, 4 pile up, plan "or, 4 point to, 4 put to, 4 #rap up, 4

1. WeB1e been at this 0eetin' all a"ternoon. 8onBt 5ou thin7 #e should MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and 'o ho0eH 2. 4" #e send out % in1itations to the #eddin', and e1er5one #e in1ited brin's his or her spouse, #e should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 1 / 'uests. 3. &5dia MMMMMMMM her best "riend "ro0 !olle'e MMMMMMMM #hen she #as in &as Ve'as. 4. The students #ho MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the test b5 #ritin' the ans#ers on their hands #ere e<pelled "ro0 s!hool. . This !a0era isnBt #or7in' ri'ht. 4B0 'oin' to ta7e it to Ii0 at the photo shop and as7 hi0 to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit. $. =ill #onBt be happ5 i" he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that 5ou s!rat!hed his !ar. %. 65 sonBs thin7in' about MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his 0asterBs de'ree. 8. ;1iden!e 'athered a"ter the air plane !rash MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM en'ine "ailure as the !ause. *. 4 reall5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM her, and she ad0itted that 4 #as ri'ht. 1/. WeBd better do the laundr5 soon? itBs startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. The poli!e o""i!er MMMMMMMM 05 dri1erBs li!ense MMMMMMMM to 0e alon' #ith a ti!7et. 12. The dete!ti1e thin7s the o#ner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his restaurant "or the insuran!e 0one5. ECERCISE 8! ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. Section 7 o. ho5 t5o9 5or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rono nce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise 8c a%o ! an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$ 3$

:$ FOCUS ON< se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s 5ith %on/ o&,ects


We ha1e seen that the ob)e!t o" separable 1erbs !an be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le or a"ter the parti!leG !learG 4 %oo0e! + the #ord. !learG 4 %oo0e! the #ord +$ When the ob)e!t is short > one #ord or )ust a "e# #ords in len'th > the 0eanin' is !lear either #a5. Co#e1er, #hen the ob)e!t is se1eral #ords lon', it !an be a#7#ard and !on"usin' to pla!e the ob)e!t bet#een the parti!lesG clear# I looked up the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on the fiunal e0am. confusing# ; looked the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on the final e0am up. 4t boils do#n to the "ollo#in'. Short ob)e!ts !an be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le or a"ter the parti!leG !he put on her dress. !he put her dress on. pronouns, su!h as hi0, her, and it 0ust be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!leG !he put it on. and lon' ob)e!ts should be pla!ed a"ter the parti!le to a1oid !on"usionG !he put on the new dress with the red, yellow, and blue flowers that she bought last week for H3 percent off. Infinitive present tense cut up cut up & cuts up cutting up cut up cut up &ing form past tense past participle

($ c t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use a 7ni"e or pair o" s!issors to !ut so0ethin' so that there are 0an5 s0all pie!es, 5ou c t it +$ The boy(s mother is cutting a piece of meat up for him. I was so angry at her that I cut her picture up and flushed it down the toilet. c t + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been c t +' it is c t +$ This steak is for 'unt 9athy, but give the cut-up one to Oncle Fred he doesn(t have any teeth.

2M

4n"initi1e present tense hold up hold up P holds up holdin' up held up held up -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple

($ ho%!$$$ + p.1. When a #all, !olu0n, or other stru!ture supports the #ei'ht o" so0ethin' abo1e it, su!h as a !eilin', it ho%!s it +$ The workers were killed when they removed a column holding the roof up. The house was held up by jacks the foundation was repaired. "$ ho%!$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +revent so0ethin' "ro0 happenin' or !ause it to happen late, 5ou ho%! it +$ When thin's or people dela5 5ou, the5 ho%! 5ou +$ The band hasn(t arrived yet, and they(re holding up the whole wedding. I(m sorry I(m late. I was held up by traffic. ho%! + n. So0ethin' that pre1ents so0ethin' else "ro0 happenin' or !auses it to happen late is a ho%! +$ .hy haven(t you finished this work yet1 .hat(s the holdup" *$ ho%!$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use a 'un or other #eapon to rob a person, ban7, or store, 5ou ho%! it +$ Stic0 + is the sa0e as ho%! +$ The jewelry store owner was held up by three men wearing ski masks. !ome idiot tried to hold the bank up with a s4uirt gun. ho%! + n. When so0eone uses a 'un or other #eapon to rob a person, ban7, or store, it is a ho%! +$ - stic0 + is the sa0e as a ho%! +$ The robber fired his gun in the air and yelled, +This is a holdup.+ There was a holdup at First "ational Aank this morning. 6$ ho%! + p.1. When an ob)e!t re0ains in 'ood !ondition a"ter hea15 use, it ho%!s +$ These cheap shoes won(t hold up more than si0 weeks. !ome Noman aFueducts have held up for 7,333 years. 7$ ho%! + p.1. When a plan, idea, or a'ree0ent is still belie1ed in or respe!ted a"ter a period o" ti0e, it has he%! +$ /instein(s theories have held up despite occasional challenges. The ceasefire is holding up longer than anyone e0pected. let out let out & lets out letting out let out let out

($ %et $$$o t p.1. When 5ou allo# ani0als or people to lea1e a pla!e b5 'i1in' per0ission or openin' a door, 5ou %et the0 o t$ The guard lets the prisoners out of their cells every day at *#33. I opened the door and let the dog out. 38

"$ %et$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou 0a7e an ite0 o" !lothin' bi''er b5 !han'in' the sea-s, 5ou %et it o t$ 'fter I gained twenty pounds, I had to have all my pants let out. The tailor let her old dress out so that she could wear it again. *$ %et$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou revea% se!ret or sensiti1e in"or0ation, 5ou %et it o t$ This information is secret. 5on(t let it out. I was furious when my secretary let out that I had interviewed for a new position. 6$ %et o t p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a sound that sho#s 5our e0otion or "eelin's, 5ou %et o t that sound. $eather knew )im was lying again, and let out a sigh. The lion let out a loud roar before he attacked the hunter. Infinitive present tense point out point out < points out &ing form pointing out past tense pointed out past participle pointed out

($ +oint$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou brin' thin's or people to so0eoneBs attention or indi!ate the lo!ation o" thin's or people #ith 5our hand or inde< "in'er, 5ou +oint the0 o t$ -s #e #al7ed throu'h the 0useu0, the tour 'uide +ointe! se1eral "a0ous paintin's o t$ 3eneral Iohnston sho#ed the satellite photo to the reporter and +ointe! o t the ene05 tan7s. "$ +oint $$$o t p.1. When 5ou are #ritin' or spea7in' and 5ou stress or e0phasiDe so0e i0portant in"or0ation 5ou thin7 the reader or listener needs to 7no#, 5ou +oint o t the in"or0ation. I pointed several flaws out in ?rof. >hildress(s theory. $e said that he thought my plan was basically good but that he wanted to point out several possible problems. run over run over & runs over running over ran over run over

($ r n over EtoF p.1. When 5ou run "ro0 #here 5ou are to #here so0eone else is, 5ou r n over or r n over to that person. I saw a man hitting a child, and I ran over and stopped him. .hen I saw Melanie, I ran over to her and gave her a big hug. "$ r n$$$ over p.1. When 5ou dri1e o1er people or thin's #ith a !ar, tru!7, or other 1ehi!le !ausin' da0a'e, in)ur5, or death, 5ou r n the0 over$ )ohn was run over by a bus and killed. I ran over a glass bottle and got a flat tire. 3*

*$ r n over p.1. When li,uid in a !ontainer "ills the !ontainer and 'oes o1er the top, it r ns over$ 9eep on eye on the bathtub so that it doesn(t run over. There(s too much water in this pot. It(s going to run over the side. 6$ r n over p.1. When 5ou 'o be5ond a li0it, 5ou r n over or r n over the li0it. I hope the **#33 meeting doesn(t run over5 I(m meeting a client for lunch at *7#33. The speaker was given fifteen minutes for her speech, but she ran over. Infinitive present tense see about see about < sees about seeing about saw about seen about &ing form past tense past participle

($ see $$$ a&o t p.1. When 5ou tal7 to so0eone to 'et per0ission "or so0ethin' or to arran'e so0ethin', 5ou see a&o t it or see so0eone a&o t it. Is Guis going to see about changing his flight from the fifth to the si0th1 The carpet in my office is filth%. I need to see the maintenance guy about getting it shampooed. "$ see a&o t p.1. When 5ou are upset about a !han'e or a ne# poli!5, and 5ou #ant to sa5 that 5ou #ill ta7e so0e a!tion or tal7 to so0eone in authorit5 to pre1ent or re1erse the !han'e or ne# poli!5, 5ou sa5 @4Bll see a&o t that@ or @WeBll see a&o t that.@ "ow they(re saying I can(t even smoke in my own office. I(ll see about thatE Those crooks in >ity $all want to double my real estate ta0es. .e(ll just see about that. take apart take apart & takes apart taking apart took apart taken apart

($ ta0e $$$ a+art p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 separate the parts o" so0ethin', 5ou ta0e it a+art$ Ta0e a+art is the opposite o" + t to/ether$ I had to take my bike apart when I moved. The mechanic took the engine apart. take in take in < takes in taking in took in taken in

($ ta0e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou brin' a !ar or other household applian!e to a 0e!hani! or repair person, 5ou ta0e it in$ !ally took her car in to have the oil changed. The V>N is broken again. I need to take it in. "$ ta0e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou ta0e in a pla5, 0o1ie, 0useu0, or other attra!tion, 5ou 'o to it or see it. .e stopped in >harleston and took in the sights. 'fter dinner we took in a movie. 4/

*$ ta0e$$$ in p.1. When 5ou allo# people to li1e #ith 5ou, 5ou ta7e the0 in. )udy(s brother had nowhere to go, so she took him in. The =rtegas offered to take their neighbors in after the fire. 6. take... in p.v. ,usually passive- .hen you are taken in by someone, that person successfully tricks or deceives you. !talin was taken in by $itler(s assurances. They were completely taken in by )ake(s elaborate hoa7. 7$ ta0e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou 0a7e an ite0 o" !lothin' s0aller b5 !han'in' the sea0s, 5ou ta0e it in$ Q.R. STUVWXUSUYUZ[U Let o t$ !he likes some of her maternit% clothes so much that she(s going to take them in after the baby is born. If I lose any more weight, I(ll have to have all my pants taken in. ECERCISE :a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ *. .hen the bullet hit him, he %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a slight gasp and fell dead. 7. My friends were supposed to be here an hour ago. .hat is %%%%%%%% them MMMMMMMMH 2. .ill you please drive more carefullyE 8ou almost %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% that lady back there. H. 'nn %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% that she was going to go to Gas Vegas with her boss, and the whole office was talking about it. D. Take two pounds of beef, %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%, and put it in a frying pan. J. The e0pedition leader spoke to us and %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the importance of taking plenty of water with us in the desert. M. =pen the gate and %%%%%%%% the horses %%%%%%%%. K. I(m embarrassed to admit I was %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% by his lies. L. 'fter Todd(s parents were killed, his 'unt )udy and Oncle $enry %%%%%%%% him *3. The soldier was %%%%%%%%% his rifle %%%%%%%%% and cleaning it. **. In /cuador I rode on a steam locomotive that(s still %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%after K3 years. 41

12. -"ter #e sa# the ;0pire State =uildin', #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a =road#a5 pla5. 13. These alu0inu0 polesMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe tent. 14. Ni!ole is at the !o0puter store MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM'ettin' 0ore 0e0or5 installed in her !o0puter. 1 . 4 had 05 old uni"or0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so that 4 !ould #ear it to the reunion. 1$. - robber MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a li,uor store #ith a shot'un last ni'ht. 1%. When 4 'ot into the tub, the #ater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the side and onto the "loor, 18. The health depart0ent inspe!tor #al7ed around the restaurant and MMMMMMMM se1eral rats MMMMMMMM to the o#ner. 1*. Ii0Bs phone #as rin'in', so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to his des7 and ans#ered it. 2/. The suit #as too bi', but the storeBs tailor said he !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 21. 4 heard a #eird noise !o0in' "ro0 05 !arBs trans0ission. 4 thin7 4Bd better MMMMMMMM 05 !ar MMMMMMMM. 22. 4tBs an unusual arran'e0ent, but it has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or se1eral 5ears. 23. The !on"eren!e is s!heduled to end Tuesda5 at G//, but thereBs a 'ood !han!e that it #ill 24. 4 #as )ust noti"ied that 4B0 'oin' to be trans"erred to 6on'olia. WeBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that: 4B0 'oin' to tal7 to the boss. 2 . The robber #as shot #hile tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an o""-dut5 poli!e o""i!er. ECERCISE :& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ 1. The !oo7 !ut up. Ethe 0eat, itF >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 7. The snowstorm held up. Bair travelers, themC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

42

3. 8onBt let out. Ethe do', itF F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 4. The real estate a'ent pointed out. Ethe s#i00in' pool, itF F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> D. The truck ran over. Bthe man, himC F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> $. 4B0 'oin' to ta7e apart, Ethe bro7en door7nob, itF F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> %. The tailor too7 in. Ethe pants, the0F F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ECERCISE :c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 donBt li7e this hotel roo0. 4B0 'oin' to as7 the des7 !ler7 about !han'in' to a di""erent roo0. What a0 4 'oin' to doH

2. No one belie1es in the s!ientistBs theories an50ore. What ha1enBt the s!ientistBs theories doneH 3. Iani!e is 'oin' to 0a7e her pants s0aller. What is she 'oin' to doH 4. 6r. (rte'a #as tri!7ed b5 the sales0an. What happened to 6r. (rte'aH 43

. - !ar dro1e o1er 5ou. What happened to 5ouH $. The )e#eler sho#ed 0e se1eral "la#s in the dia0ond. What did the )e#eler doH %. The 'a0e started late be!ause it #as rainin'. What did the rain doH 8. Susie is usin' s!issors to 0a7e se1eral s0all pie!es o" paper "ro0 a lar'er pie!e o" pap What is Susie doin'H *. The posts are supportin' the por!h. What are the posts doin'H 1/. The #o0an told the ban7 teller to 'i1e her all the 0one5 in the !ash re'ister or she #ould shoot hi0. What did the #o0an doH 11. 4n Ouestion 1/, #hat happened at the ban7H 12. 4 put 05 bro7en TV in 05 !ar, dro1e to the repair shop, and !arried the TV in. What did to 05 TVH 13. =ill separated all the parts o" his t5pe#riter. What did =ill doH 14. There #as too 0u!h #ater in the bathtub, and it spilled onto the "loor. What did the #ater doH 1 . -"ter 05 parents died, 05 'randparents let 0e li1e #ith the0. What did 05 'randparents doH 1$. 6r. Aoun' told so0e people about the se!ret in"or0ation. What did 6r. Aoun' do #ith the se!ret in"or0ationH 1%. 4 sa# an e0pt5 lu''a'e !art at the airport, and 4 #ent to it ,ui!7l5 and 'rabbed it. What did 4 doH 18. When the thie" started to open the #o0anBs door, a s!rea0 !a0e "ro0 her 0outh. What did the #o0an doH 1*. 4B1e been usin' this la#n 0o#er "or t#ent5-"i1e 5ears, and it still #or7s "ine. What has the la#n 0o#er doneH 2/. The !o#bo5 opened the 'ate so that the !attle !ould lea1e the !orral. What did the !o#bo5 doH 21. 8r. S0ith #ent to a 0useu0 #hile he #as in +o0e. What did 8r. S0ith doH 22. The 0eetin' #as supposed to end at 2G//, but it hasnBt ended 5et. What is the 0eetin' doin'H 23. 4B0 0a7in' 05 pants bi''er. What a0 4 doin'H 44

ECERCISE :!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ boil do#n to, $ !o0e do#n #ith, $ !o0e o"", 2 !o0e up #ith, $ doDe o"", 2 "i'ure out, 1 'et around to, $ 'et out o", $ 'o a"ter, 4 'o ba!7 on, $ 'o throu'h #ith, $ loo7 "or#ard to, 3 0on7e5 around #ith, $ put on, 1

*,* thought about what I was going to say to her, but when the time came, I was so nervous I couldn(t%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%it. 7. The ?resident(s news conference didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% well because it revealed his poor understanding of the situation. 2.* %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% watching 'unt 9athy(s vacation videotape by saying I had to study for a test. H. I don(t usually %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% doing my >hristmas shopping until 5ecember 7H. D. I(ve been %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% this broken refrigerator all day, but I still don(t know what(s wrong with it. J. Me0ico >ity(s problems %%%%%%% %%%%%%% %%%%%% one thing M. $ave you seen my pen1 I can(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% what happened to it. K. If you %%%%%%% a coat of paint %%%%%%%% that old house, it wouldn(t look so bad. L. =ne police officer helped the mugging victim while her partner %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%the mugger. *3. My son promised that he would stop cutting school, and so far he hasn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% that promise. **. The company %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a way to decrease labor costs without lowering wages. *7. I have never been to Thailand, and I(m really %%%%%% %%%%%% %%%%%% going there. *2. !he was so tired she %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% as soon as she sat down. *H. The show was canceled after the star %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% laryngitis. HD too many people.

#$ FOCUS ON< +resent +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s


The present perfect is used to talk about the past and the present at the same time# The5 ha1e torn !o5n the buildin'. EThe buildin' is not there no# be!ause the5 tore it do#n in the past.F or to say that something is completed# !he has picked out some library books. The present perfect is formed with have, or when the subject is he, she, it, or the name of one person or thing, has, and the past participle of the verb# present# The tree falls over. past# The tree fell over. present perfect# The tree has fallen over. +e0e0ber that ha1e !an be !o0bined #ith pronouns as B1eG The5B1e ne1er hear! o" hi0. and has #ith nouns and pronouns asBsG The tree(s fallen over. $e(s never heard of her. Ae careful not to confuse the(s contraction of has and the(s contraction of is# !he(s picked out some library books. B!he has...C !he(s picking out some library books. B!he is...C

Infinitive present tense burn out burn out < burns out burning out burned out burned out &ing form past tense past participle

($ & rn o t p.1. When a "ire, !andle, or other "la0e stops burnin' be!ause it has no 0ore "uel, it & rns o t$ .e need more wood@ the fire has burned out. 5on(t worry@ the sun won(t burn out for another four billion years. & rne!9o t part.ad). -"ter a "ire, !andle, or other "la0e stops burnin' be!ause it has no 0ore "uel, it is & rne!9o t$ The burned-out rocket landed in the ocean. burned-out part.adj. .hen people are e0tremely tired, either physically or psychologically, because of stress or hard work, they are burned-out. Teaching those awful students for so many years has left him burned-out. Taking care of four small children day after day would leave any mother burned-out. HJ

"$ & rn o t p.1. When a li'ht bulb stops produ!in' li'ht be!ause it has rea!hed the end o" its use"ul li"e, it & rns o t$ These new bulbs are guaranteed not to burn out for ten years. I can(t see what I(m doing because this bulb has burned out. & rne!9o t part.ad). - li'ht bulb that no lon'er produ!es li'ht be!ause it has rea!hed the end o" its use"ul li"e is & rne!9o t$ ; climbed the ladder and unscrewed the burned-out bulb. *$ & rn $$$o t p.1. When people are "or!ed to lea1e their ho0e or so0e other shelter or hidin' pla!e be!ause o" "ire or "ire da0a'e, the5 are & rne! o t$ The only way to get the enemy soldiers out of the tunnels was to burn them out. !even families were burned out of their homes by the huge fire. & rne!9o t part.ad). So0ethin' that has been da0a'ed or destro5ed b5 "ire is & rne!9o t$ 'fter the war, nothing was left but burned-out cars and buildings. Infinitive present tense fall over fall over < falls over falling over fell over fallen over &ing form past tense past participle

($ .a%% over p.1. When people or thin's .ai% o1er, the5 "all to the 'round "ro0 an upri'ht position. That tree has been dead for fifty years, but it still hasn(t fallen over. I almost fell over when I heard the terrible news. "$ .a%% over p.1. When 5ou .a%% over 5oursel" or Eusuall5F .a%% all over 5oursel", 5ou tr5 so hard to ser1e so0eone or to 0a7e so0eone li7e 5ou that 5ou appear "oolish. The supervisor fell all over himself trying to satisfy the customer. Mike was falling all over himself trying to impress $eather. fight back fight back & fights back fighting back fought back fought back

($ .i/ht &ac0 p.1. When 5ou "i'ht ba!7, 5ou "i'ht, either ph5si!all5 or #ith #ords, so0eone or so0ethin' that atta!7ed 5ou "irst. The soldiers fought back bravely, but the situation was hopeless. 'fter being accused of corruption, the senator said she would fight back and prove her innocence. "$ .i/ht &ac0 p.1. When 5ou .i/ht &ac0 an e0otional response, su!h as tears or "ear, 5ou tr5 1er5 hard to o1er!o0e the e0otion. The mother fought back tears when she saw the little white coffins. I had to fight back the urge to punch him in the nose.

4%

#nfinitive present tense hear of hear of & hears of hearing of heard of heard of -ing form past tense past participle

($ hear o. p.1. When 5ou learn about so0ethin' "or the "irst ti0e, 5ou hear o. it. 5o I know Fred !mith1 "o, I(ve never heard of him. I told my real estate agent, +If you hear of a good deal on a three&bedroom house, please call me right away.+ "$ hear o. p.1. When 5ou learn in"or0ation about so0ethin' that 0a7es 5ou an'r5 and 5ou sa5 5ou #ill not hear o. it, 5ou 0ean that 5ou #ill not tolerate or allo# it. =ur daughter wants to fly to Me0ico with her boyfriend1 I won(t hear of itE I told him that his scheme was outrageous and that I wouldn(t hear of such a thing. pick out pick out & picks out picking out picked out picked out

($ +ic0$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou !hoose so0ethin' "ro0 a 'roup be!ause 5ou pre"er it to the others in the 'roup, 5ou +ic0 it o t$ $ave you picked out a dress to wear to the party yet1 Mike(s dog had puppies, and he asked me to pick one out. "$ +ic0$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou are able to "ind and re!o'niDe so0ethin' in a 'roup, 5ou +ic0 it o t$ /ven though the class photo was fifty years old, # picked my father out easily. The police detective asked me if I could pick the mugger out from a group of photos. ring up ring up & rings up ringing up rang up rung up

($ rin/ $$$ + p.1. When 5ou #ant to bu5 so0ethin' in a store, a !ashier uses a !ash re'ister to rin/ + #hat 5ou #ant to bu5 in order to deter0ine ho# 0u!h 0one5 5ou 0ust pa5. .ell, I guess I(ll take this one. >an you ring it up please1 I couldn(t believe it when the clerk finished ringing it all up :LHJE

"$ rin/ $$$ + p.1. E0ainl5 =ritishF When 5ou !all people on the telephone, 5ou rin/ the0 +$ $e rang up "ancy and asked her to go to the dance. If you need a ride, ring me up when you arrive at the airport. tear down tear down & tears down tearing down tore down torn down

($ tear$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou tear !o5n a buildin', 5ou deliberatel5 and !o0pletel5 destro5 it. 48

They tore so many old buildings down in my hometown that I barely recogni6e it. ' lot of smaller homes in the suburbs are being torn down and replaced with larger ones. #nfinitive present tense work in work in & works in working in worked in worked in -ing form past tense past participle

($ 5or0$$$ in p.1. When 5ou 0a7e roo0, #ith so0e di""i!ult5, "or so0ethin' in a s!hedule or plan, 5ou 5or0 it in$ .e(re going to be in >hicago for only a couple of days, but I(ll try to work in a >ubs game. I told him my schedule was pretty tight, but that I(d try to work the meeting in. ECERCISE #a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ *. The Geaning Tower of ?isa still hasn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%. 7. /very year I have to replace the >hristmas tree lights that have %%%%%%%% %%%%% 2. The enemy was so strong that there was no way we could have %%%%%%%% H.* don(t have time to talk about it now. I(ll %%%%%%%% you %%%%%%%% after dinner. D. !arah always tries to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a little sightseeing on her business trips. J. My brother is pretty easy to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% in a crowd he(s almost seven feet tall. M. If you haven(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a video yet, you(d better hurry the store(s closing in five minutes. K. The firefighters decided to let the fire in the lumberyard %%%%%%%% itself%%%%%%%%. L. That cashier has been yakking with his friends for ten minutes and still hasn(t %%%%%%%% our stuff %%%%%%%%. *3. ' screen door on a submarine1 That(s the most ridiculous thing I(ve ever %%%%%%%% **. .hen I told the waiter I was the owner of the restaurant, he %%%%%%%% all %%%%%%%% himself trying please me. 4*

12. The ta!o stand 0o1ed a!ross the street a"ter it #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the "ire. 13. When 4 "ound out that one o" 05 e0plo5ees !heated a !usto0er, 4 said 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM su!h a thin' in 05 store. 14. 4 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 "ear as 4 #aited "or 05 turn to )u0p "ro0 the plane, 1 . The5Bll ha1e to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 0ost o" the buildin's that #ere da0a'ed b5 the earth,ua7e. ECERCISE #& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. The sheri"" burned out. Ethe es!aped !on1i!ts, the0F F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 2. =ill has pi!7ed out. Ea ne# !ar, oneF F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 2. The clerk hasn(t rung up yet. Bthese >5s, themC F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 4. The ne# o#ners ha1e torn do#n. Ethe 'ara'e, itF F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> . The 0a5or tried to #or7 in. Ea tour o" the "a!tor5, itF F >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

ECERCISE #c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +resent +er.ect$ 1. 4 as7ed 05 "ather i" 4 !ould s0o7e in the house, and he be!a0e an'r5 and said he #ouldnBt allo# it. What did 05 "ather sa5 about s0o7in' in the houseH 2. The "orest "ire has stopped be!ause there arenBt an5 0ore trees le"t to burn. What has the "ire doneH

3. The !ashier has totaled ho# 0u!h #e 0ust pa5 "or our 'ro!eries. What has the !ashier doneH 4. The5 ha1e !hosen a hotel "or their #eddin' re!eption. What ha1e the5 doneH . Sall5Bs 0other !ouldnBt stop her tears. What !ouldnBt Sall5Bs 0other doH $. (ne o" 05 !arBs headli'hts isnBt #or7in' an50ore. What did the headli'ht doH %. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the headli'htH 8. The sta!7 o" boo7s #as too hi'h, and no# the boo7s are on the "loor. What did the boo7s doH *. The !o""ee shop had to 0o1e to a di""erent lo!ation be!ause o" a "ire. What happened to the !o""ee shopH

1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !o""ee shopBs pre1ious lo!ationH 11. -"ter the5 atta!7ed us, #e didnBt atta!7 the0. What didnBt #e doH 12. 4B1e 0ade roo0 in 05 bus5 da5 "or a 'a0e o" tennis. What ha1e 4 doneH 13. She hasnBt !alled 0e on the telephone. What hasnBt she doneH 14. The5B1e !o0pletel5 destro5ed the old "a!tor5. What ha1e the5 doneH 1 . The ser'eant tried e<tre0el5 hard to sho# the !aptain ho# #ell he #as trainin' the soldiers. What did the ser'eant doH 1$. 4 as7ed Ii0 i" an5one had e1er told hi0 about the ne# sea"ood restaurant in the 0all. What did 4 as7 Ii0H 1

ECERCISE #!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !ut up, % "all "or, 2 'et o1er #ith, 3 'i1e in, 2 'o in "or, 3 hold up, % let out, % loo7 up, 4 point out, % pull throu'h, 2 put up #ith, 3 run o1er, % see about, % sho# up, 1 ta7e apart, % ta7e in, %

1. 65 bi!5!le #as reall5 dirt5, so 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and !leaned it. 2. it #as a 1er5 serious in)ur5, and no one e<pe!ted +aul to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 3. 4B1e been #aitin' "or the TV repair 'u5 all da5, but he still hasnBt MMMMMMMM 4. 4 "eel )ust a#"ul. 4 #as dri1in' to #or7, and 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a do'. . The dete!ti1es #erenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the !roo7Bs e<planation. $. The dete!ti1es didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !roo7Bs e<planation. %. 6rs. Ta5lorBs husband doesnBt ha1e an5 teeth, so she has to MMMMMMMM all his "oodMMMMMMMM. 8. The "rei'ht train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tra""i! "or t#ent5 0inutes, so #e #ere late "or #or7. *. 4n his report 5esterda5, the head o" 0ar7etin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se1eral #a5s to in!rease the !o0pan5Bs sales. 1/. 4. MMMMMMM the #ord 4nternet MMMMMMMM in an old di!tionar5, but 4 !ouldnBt "ind it. 11. SusieBs 0other told her, @4B0 not 'oin' to MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM o" this house until 5ou "inish 5our ho0e#or7.@ 12. The !o0pan5 "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to de0ands that it hire 0ore #o0en and 0inorities. 13. 4B0 ha1in' root !anal sur'er5 ne<t #ee7. 4Bll be 'lad to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 14. 8a1id !alled the tra1el a'en!5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'ettin' his ti!7et !han'ed. 2

*D. 9aren loves to ski. In fact, she%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% most winter sports. *J. Aetty told the doctor she couldn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the pain any longer, and she asked him for morphine.

D$ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s that re> ire an a!!itiona% +artic%e 5hen se! 5ith an o&,ect' (
With so0e t#o-#ord 1erbs 5ou 0ust use a se!ond parti!le #hen the 1erb has an ob)e!tG The criminal broke out. The criminal broke out prison. The criminal broke out of prison. Tom and )erry don(t get along. Tom and )erry don(t get along each other. Tom and )erry don(t get along with each other. So0eti0es, as #ith &rea0 o t and &rea0 o t o", there is no !han'e in 0eanin'. So0eti0es, as #ith han/ + and han/ + on, there is a s0all !han'e in 0eanin'. -nd so0eti0es, as #ith hoo0 + and hoo0 + to, the se!ond parti!le is ne!essar5 not #hen there is one ob)e!t but onl5 #hen there are t#oG I hooked up my new >5 player. I hooked up my new >5 player my stereo. I hooked up my new >5 player to my stereo. There is no 'ood #a5 to al#a5s 7no# #hi!h se!ond parti!le 0ust be used or i" and ho# it #ill !han'e the 0eanin' o" the 1erb. The best thin' to do is to si0pl5 0e0oriDe ea!h !ase. Throu'hout this boo7, t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs that re,uire an additional parti!le #hen used #ith an ob)e!t are sho#n #ith the se!ond parti!le in parenthesesG &rea0 o t Eo"F. 8o not !on"use t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs that re,uire an additional parti!le #hen used #ith an ob)e!t #ith three-#ord phrasal 1erbs. Three-#ord phrasal 1erbs al#a5s ha1e three #ords > there is no t#o-#ord 1ersion, or i" there is a phrasal 1erb #ith the sa0e 1erb and "irst parti!le, it has a di""erent 0eanin' and is !lassi"ied as a di""erent 1erb. 2or e<a0ple, &rea0 o t and &rea0 o t Eo"F are in!luded in one de"inition be!ause the5 ha1e the sa0e 0eanin', but + t + and + t + 5ith ha1e di""erent 0eanin's and are !lassi"ied separatel5.

#nfinitive present tense break out breakout & breaks out breaking out broke out broken out -ing form past tense past participle

($ &rea0 o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou es!ape "ro0 a pla!e #here 5ou are a prisoner, 5ou &rea0 o t or &rea0 o t o" that pla!e. Aubba broke out of prison last month. The police have been looking for him ever since he broke out. &rea0o t n. -n es!ape "ro0 prison is a &rea0o t$ There hasn(t been a successful breakout from the state prison in more than twenty&five years. ($ &rea0o t p.1. When "i'htin' be'ins suddenl5, it &rea0s o t$ Nioting broke out after the general canceled the election. Millions wilt be killed if nuclear war breaks out. catch up catch up & catches up catching up caught up caught up

($ catch + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e "aster and rea!h the sa0e le1el or pla!e as people #ho had been 0o1in' "aster or doin' better than 5ou #ere, 5ou catch + or catch + #ith the0. .e left an hour before Guis, but he drove fast and Fuickly caught up. 'fter missing several weeks of class, NaFuel is so far behind that she(ll never catch up. ?epsi has caught up with >oca&>ola in some markets. The mugger was running so fast that the angry mob couldn(t catch up with him. ca /ht + part.ad). -"ter 5ou ha1e 0o1ed "aster and rea!hed the sa0e le1el or pla!e as people #ho had been 0o1in' "aster or doin' better than 5ou are, 5ou are ca /ht +$ .hen I was sick, I missed a lot of schoolwork, but I worked hard and now I(m caught up. ($ catch + EonF p.1. When 5ou stud5 or learn so0ethin' 5ou are interested in but ha1e not had ti0e "or, 5ou catch + on it. I wonder what the latest gossip is. Get(s call Michael so we can catch up. 'fter I returned from vacation, I read the newspaper to catch up on the local news. ca /ht + part.ad). -"ter 5ou ha1e studied or learned so0ethin' 5ou are interested in but ha1e not had ti0e "or, 5ou are ca /ht +$ "ow that I(ve read the newspapers I missed while I was on vacation, I(m caught up.

#nfinitive present tense chicken out chicken out & chickens out

-ing form chickening out

past tense chickened out

past participle chickened out

($ chic0en o t Eo"F p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou do not do so0ethin' be!ause 5ou are a"raid, 5ou chic0en o t or chic0en o t o" it. ; was going to ask $eather to go to the dance with me, but I chickened out. Miguel(s mad at himself because he chickened out of asking his boss for a raise yesterday. get along get along & gets along getting along got along gotten/got along

($ /et a%on/ E#ithF p.1. When 5ou /et a%on/ #ith people, 5ou ha1e pea!e"ul, har0onious relations #ith the0. Eet on is si0ilar to /et a%on/$ )im and his cousin aren(t good friends, but they get along. I haven(t gotten along with my neighbors for years. "$ /et a%on/ p.1. When 5ou are able to do so0e sort o" #or7 #ithout an5 serious proble0s, 5ou /et a%on/$ $ow are you getting along in your new job1 =h, I(m getting along okay, thank you. give up give up & gives up giving up gave up given up

($ /ive + EonF p.1. When 5ou stop tr5in' to do so0ethin' be!ause 5ou thin7 5ou #ill ne1er su!!eed, 5ou /ive + or /ive + on it. Forget itE This is impossible I give up! I(ve tried for years to have a nice looking lawn, but I(ve just given up on it. 8. give... up p.v. .hen you are running from or fighting with the police or enemy soldiers and you surrender, you give up or give yourself up. .hen the bank robbers reali6ed they were surrounded by police, they gave up. The suspect got tired of hiding from the police, and he gave himself up. 9. give ...up p.v. .hen you stop doing something you do regularly, such as a sport or a job, you give it up. My father didn(t give sky diving up until he was eighty&two. I had to give up my second job because I was so e0hausted all the time. hang up hang up & hangs up hanging up hung up hung up

($ han/ + EonF p.1. When 5ou stop tal7in' on the telephone and put do#n the re!ei1er, 5ou han/ + the telephone. When 5ou are an'r5 and han/ + the telephone #ithout sa5in' 'ood-b5e to so0eone, 5ou han/ + on the person 5ou are tal7in' to.

'fter I finished talking to her, I said good&bye and hung up. .hen he called me a moron, I got so mad I hung up on him. "$ han/ $$$ + p.1. When 5ou han' so0ethin' in a hi'h pla!e so that it !annot tou!h the 'round, 5ou han/ it +$ .hen I get home, the first thing I do is hang my coat up. Timmy never hangs anything up5 he just leaves it on the floor. h n/ + part.ad). -"ter 5ou ha1e hun' so0ethin' in a hi'h pla!e so that it !annot tou!h the 'round, it is h n/ +$ Timmy, why are your clothes on the floor and not hung up" #nfinitive present tense hook up hook up & hooks up hooking up hooked up hooked up -ing form past tense past participle

($ hoo0$$$ + FtoG p.1. When 5ou !onne!t one ele!troni! de1i!e to another, 5ou hoo0 it + or hoo0 it + to so0ethin'. ; bought a new printer, but I haven(t hooked it up yet. I hooked my sound system up to my TV, and now the TV is in stereo. hoo0e! + part.ad). -"ter one ele!troni! de1i!e has been !onne!ted to another, it is hoo0e! +$ There(s a V>N on my TV, but don(t try to use it because it(s not hooked up. hookup n. . hookup is an electrical connection. The cable TV hookup usually costs :73, but it(s free this month. ($ hoo0 + E#ithF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0eet people so0e#here, usuall5 a"ter 5ou ha1e done so0e thin's separatel5, 5ou hoo0 + or hoo0 + #ith the0. 8ou do your shopping, I(ll go to the post office, and we(ll hook up around 7#23, okay1 I(ll hook up with you at *7#33 at the corner of !tate and Madison, and we(ll have lunch. work up work up & works up working up worked up worked up

($ 5or0 + EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'raduall5 i0pro1e at so0ethin' di""i!ult that 5ou do re'ularl5, 5ou 5or0 + to that i0pro1e0ent. 8ou can(t lift 733 pounds on your first day of weight training. 8ou have to work up to it. .hen I started running, I couldn(t go more than a mile, but now I(ve worked up to five miles. "$ 5or0 + p.1. When 5ou 'raduall5 de1elop the ener'5, !on"iden!e, !oura'e, and so on, to do so0ethin' di""i!ult or so0ethin' 5ou do not #ant to do, 5ou 5or0 + the $

ener'5, !on"iden!e, !oura'e, and so on. When 5ou 'raduall5 de1elop a "eelin', 5ou 5or0 + the "eelin'. It took me a long time to work up the nerve to ask my boss for a raise. If I work up some energy, I(ll wash the car. I really worked up a sweat in the gym today. Naking leaves all day sure works up an appetite. 5or0e! + part.ad). Jin"or0alK When 5ou are an<ious, #orried, or upset about so0ethin', 5ou are 5or0e! + or 5or0e! + about it. Mark has been acting nervous all day. .hat(s he all worked up about1 Nela0, we(re only a few minutes late. It(s nothing to get worked up about. ECERCISE Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 65 elbo# has 'otten so bad that 4 thin7 4 0i'ht ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tennis. 2. -"ter se1eral 5ears o" tension bet#een the t#o !ountries, #ar MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1*%2. 3. 6aria, ho# are 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM at 5our ne# )obH 4.1 a0 so laD5 toda5. 4 )ust !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ener'5 to "inish 05 s!hool pro)e!t. . The 0urderer #as tired o" runnin' "ro0 the poli!e, and he MMMMMMMM hi0sel"MMMMMMMM. $. The other runners #ere so "ar ahead that 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. Susie,MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5our !lothes ri'ht no#: 8. 2or a lon' ti0e 4 !ould t5pe onl5 around t#ent5-"i1e #ords per 0inute, but 4B1e slo#l5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to si<t5. *. 4B0 reall5 behind in 05 #or7. 4" 4 donBt ta7e #or7 ho0e #ith 0e, 4Bll ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. &5dia is a ni!e, eas5'oin' person. Aou #onBt ha1e an5 trouble MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her. 11. 4 tried and tried to learn to spea7 Iapanese, but 4 "inall5MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 12. Cello 6ar7H 4B0 reall5 an'r5, and 4B1e 'ot so0e thin's to tell 5ou, and donBt 5ou dare MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMon 0e: %

13. 8an is so sh5. Ce #as supposed to 'i1e a spee!h toda5 at s!hool, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 14. (7a5, hereBs the planG Aou 'o to the boo7store, 4Bll 'et 05 laundr5, and #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around 11G//. 1 . 4 #onder #hatBs been happenin' #hile #e #ere on 1a!ation. 4 thin7 4Bll read the ne#spaper so 4 !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1$. This is a 0a<i0u0 se!urit5 prison. No one has e1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1%. =ob tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 ne# dish#asher, but he didnBt do it ri'ht, and he "looded the 7it!hen. ECERCISE D& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$ 1. 4 !alled 05 'irl"riend to apolo'iDe "or "or'ettin' her birthda5, but she hun' up MMMMMMM 0e. 2. When 4 started li"tin' #ei'hts, 4 !ould li"t onl5 thirt5 7ilo'ra0s, but little b5 little 4 #or7ed up MMMMMMMM"i"t5. 3. CeBs 1er5 si!7, but the do!tors ha1enBt 'i1en up MMMMMMMM hi0 5et. 4. So"ia #as 'oin' to blea!h her hair, but she !hi!7ened outMMMMMMMM it. . 8onBt in1ite Car0en to +osaBs birthda5 part5. The5 donBt 'et alon' MMMMMMMM ea!h other. $. The ban7 robber #as !arr5in' 2,/// ,uarters, so it #as eas5 "or the poli!e !at!h up MMMMMMMM hi0. %. No prisoner has e1er bro7en out MMMMMMMM this prison. 8. 4 need a di""erent !able to hoo7 05 0onitor up MMMMMMMM 05 !o0puter. *. AouB1e been 'one a lon' ti0e, and 5ou ha1e to !at!h up MMMMMMMM a lot o" thin's. ECERCISE Dc ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. Toni'ht 4B0 'oin' to tr5 to hoo7 up. E05 "a< 0a!hine, itF

7. 'fter my accident, I had to give up. Bscuba diving, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2. 8ou can hang up in the closet, Byour coat, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. ECERCISE D! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. When 4 #ent on 1a!ation three #ee7s a'o, 05 sister and her husband #ere tal7in' about 'ettin' a di1or!e. No# that 4B0 ba!7 "ro0 1a!ation, 4 #ant to 7no# #hat happened #hile 4 #as 'one. What do 4 #ant to doH 7. Gydia has to stop driving because her eyesight is so bad. .hat does Gydia have to do1 3. Susie #as #al7in' #ith us, but she stopped to loo7 in a store #indo#, and #e !ontinued #al7in'. What does Susie need to do no#H H. I spilled wine on your white carpet, and you became angry and upset. $ow would you describe yourself1 D. >onnecting a printer to a computer is easy. .hat is easy1 J. In Puestion D, how would you describe the printer after it is connected to a computer1 M. !everal prisoners are going to try to escape from the state prison tonight. .hat are the prisoners going to try to do tonight1 K. In Puestion M, if the prisoners are successful, what would their escape be called1 L. Ginda and "icole don(t like each other, and they argue sometimes. .hat don(t Ginda and "icole do1 DL

1/. We ar'ued #ith our dau'hter "or 0onths, but #e stopped tr5in' to 'et her to stop s0o7in'. What did #e doH

11. 2i'hts start in that bar all the ti0e. What happens in that bar all the ti0eH 12. Paul slo#l5 de1eloped the !oura'e to as7 his boss "or a raise. What did Paul doH 13. 4n Ouestion 12, #hat didnBt Paul doH 14. The poli!e told the robber to surrender. What did the poli!e tell the robberH 1 . 9aren is tr5in' to 'raduall5 be able to li"t 1// pounds. What is 9aren doin'H 1$. =ett5 #as so an'r5 #ith her bo5"riend that she put the telephone re!ei1er do#n #ithout sa5in' 'ood-b5e. What did =ett5 do to her bo5"riendH

ECERCISE De' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ burn out, 8 !heat on,4 "all o1er, 8 "i'ht ba!7, 8 "ind out, hand ba!7, hear o", 8 loo7 at, pi!7 out, 8 pile up, point to, 4 put to, 4 rin' up, 8 run into, 1 tear do#n, 8 #or7 in, 8

1. Who is heH 4B1e ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0 be"ore, and 4 donBt 7no# an5thin' about hi0. 2. 65 0ail MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hile 4 #as on 1a!ation. 3. Than7s "or all 5our help. 4B0 sorr5 to MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM so 0u!h trouble. 4. That dead tree is rotten. 4B0 surprised it hasnBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5et. . 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se1eral !ars last #ee7end, but 4 !anBt de!ide #hi!h one to bu5, $. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMMMMM a tie MMMMMMMM to #ear #ith this shirtH %. What a surprise: 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 "i"th 'rade tea!her at the 0all toda5. 8. Charles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a beauti"ul 6er!edes-=enD a!ross the street and said it #as his. *. (7a5, !lass, 5ouB1e 'ot until the bell rin's. When 5ouBre "inished #ith 5our tests,MMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM to 0e. $/

1/. ;1er5one in to#n 7no#s that Ia7e has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his #i"e "or 5ears. 11. 4B0 not sure i" there #ill be ti0e to 0eet #ith 5ou toda5, but 4Bll tr5 to MMMMMMMM it

12. The in1asion #as so sudden that there #as no #a5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. The !ashierMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMour stu"" and said, @That !o0es to N142. $.@ 14. =obBs not in a 'ood 0ood toda5. Ce )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that he needs sur'er5. 1 . 4t #as "un to 1isit 05 ho0eto#n, but 4 #as sad to see that 05 old house #as bein' 1$. 4 need to bu5 a ne# 1//-#att bulb? this one MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5esterda5.

1/. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s se! as no ns' (


6an5 t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs !an be used as nouns. -ll the 1erbs in this se!tion ha1e a noun "or0. Noti!e that the t#o-#ord noun is so0eti0es #ritten #ith a h5phenG 1erbG /o ahea! nounG /o9ahea! and so0eti0es as one #ordG 1erb< %a3 o.. noun< %a3o.. .n"ortunatel5, there is no rule that #ill help 5ou to al#a5s 7no# #hi!h "or0 to use. -lso, not e1er5one a'rees #hi!h nouns should be h5phenated and #hi!h should be #ritten as one #ord, so 5ou #ill o!!asionall5 see a noun #ritten both #a5s. Infinitive present tense &ing form past tense past participle fall off fall off < falls off falling off fell off fallen off

($ .a%% o.. p.1. When people or thin's drop to a lo#er le1el "ro0 a hi'her pla!e, the5 .a%% o"" the pla!e #here the5 #ere. The dish fell off the table and broke. Ae careful you don(t fall off your bicycle. 8( "$ .a%% o.. p.v. When the ,ualit5, de'ree, or "re,uen!5 o" so0ethin' de!reases, it .a%%s o..$ Sales o" "ountain pens .e%% o"" a"ter the ballpoint pen #as in1ented. The ,ualit5 o" his #or7 has .a%%en o.. as he has 'otten older. .a%%o.. n. - de!rease in the ,ualit5, de'ree, or "re,uen!5 o" so0ethin' is a .a%%o..$ The !hair0an #as as7ed to e<plain the .a%%o.. in the !o0pan5Bs sales. ;'5pt e<perien!ed a bi' .a%%o.. in touris0 a"ter se1eral terrorist in!idents. 4n"initi1e

present tense fill in fill in & fills in

-in' "or0 filling in

past tense filled in

past parti!iple filled in

($ .i%%$$$ in p.v. When 5ou .i%% in a "or0, 5ou put in"or0ation in the !orre!t spa!es. Fi%% o t is the sa0e as .i%% in$ 6aria .i%%e! in the )ob appli!ation and 'a1e it to the se!retar5. The tea!her 'a1e us the ,uiD and told us to .i%% the blan7s in #ith the !orre!t ans#ers. .i%%e! in part.adj. -"ter 5ou #rite all the in"or0ation in the !orre!t spa!es o" a "or0, the "or0 is .i%%e! in$ -re those "or0s blan7 or .i%%e! inH This !he!7 isnBt an5 'ood > the a0ount isnBt .i%%e! in$ 2. .i%%$$$ in p.v. When people #ant or need 0ore in"or0ation about a plan, situation, or o!!urren!e and 5ou suppl5 that in"or0ation, 5ou .i%% the0 in$ So0ethin' interestin' happened #hile 5ou #ere 'one. 4Bll "ill 5ou in later. 4 "ell asleep durin' the 0eetin'. Can 5ou .i%% -e inH *$ .i%% in E"orF p.v. When 5ou te0poraril5 do so0eone elseBs )ob, 5ou .i%% in "or that person. The re'ular bartender is on 1a!ation, so Todd is .i%%in/ in$ SheBs the star o" the sho#. No one !an .i%% in "or her. .i%%9in n. So0eone #ho te0poraril5 does so0eone elseBs )ob is a .i%%9in$ Ierr5 is -nnBs .i%%9in #hile sheBs on 1a!ation. The re'ular dri1er is in the hospital, and the .i%%9in doesnBt 7no# the route. go ahead go ahead & goes ahead going ahead went ahead gone ahead

($ /o ahea! E#ithF p.v. When 5ou ta7e an a!tion 5ou ha1e alread5 !onsidered doin', 5ou /o ahea! #ith the a!tion. 4B1e de!ided to /o ahea! #ith 05 plan to reor'aniDe the !o0pan5. -"ter she learned about Ii0Bs dru' proble0, +a,uel 5ent ahea! #ith the 0arria'e an5#a5. 8"

"$ /o ahea! p.v. When 5ou tell people to /o ahead, 5ou tell the0 to do so0ethin' #ithout an5 "urther dela5 or hesitation. 4" 5ou are in a position o" authorit5 and 5ou tell so0eone to /o ahea! #ith an a!tion, 5ou 'i1e per0ission "or that a!tion. What are 5ou #aitin' "orH Eo ahea!$ Ies' /o ahea! and lea1e #or7 earl5. 4tBs no proble0. /o9ahea! n. When 5ou 'i1e people per0ission to per"or0 an a!tion, 5ou 'i1e the0 the /o9 ahea!$ We appro1ed his plan and 'a1e hi0 the /o9ahea!$ The 2ood and 8ru' -d0inistration 'a1e the phar0a!euti!al !o0pan5 the /o9ahea! to test the dru' on hu0ans. 4n"initi1e present tense grow up grow up & grows up -in' "or0 growing up past tense grew up past parti!iple grown up

($ /ro5 + p.v. When 5ou /ro5 +' 5ou 'raduall5 !han'e "ro0 a !hild to an adult. 4 /re5 + on a s0all "ar0 in North 8a7ota. Ero5in/ + #ithout a "ather #asnBt eas5. /ro5n9 + part.adj. [informal > used primarily by children] When !hildren beha1e in a 0ature #a5, the5 are /ro5n9 +$ So0ethin' that relates to adults, and not !hildren, is /ro5n9 +$ Susie is onl5 ele1en, but she a!ts 1er5 /ro5n9 +$ Ti005 doesnBt li7e /ro5n9 + boo7s be!ause the5 donBt ha1e an5 pi!tures. /ro5n9 + n. [informal > used primarily by children] - /ro5n9 + is an adult. There #ere !hildren an! /ro5n9 +s at the part5. (nl5 /ro5n9 +s are allo#ed to sit in the "ront seat o" the !ar. 2. /ro5 + p.v. When 5ou tell people to /ro5 up, 5ou are sa5in' that their beha1ior is !hildish and i00ature. AouBre a!tin' li7e a bab5. Wh5 donBt 5ou /ro5 +: When he put his "ist throu'h the #all, 4 said, @(h, /ro5 +:@ hand out hand out & hands out handing out handed out handed out

($ han! ... o t p.v. When 5ou distribute so0ethin' to other people, 5ou han! it o t$ Eive o t is si0ilar to han! o t$ The tea!her han!e! the tests out to the !lass. ;0er'en!5 loan appli!ations #ere han!e! o t to the "lood 1i!ti0s. han!o t n. So0ethin' 'i1en "ree to people in need to help the0 is a han!o t$ 8*

,andouts of food and clothing were given to the homeless people. /ven though my father was poor, he was too proud to ask for a handout. han!o t n. Printed 0aterial 'i1en to students or other people to pro1ide the0 #ith i0portant in"or0ation. The teacher prepared a handout for his students. There are several handouts on a table by the library entrance. #nfinitive present tense kick back kick back & kicks back kicking back kicked back kicked back -ing form past tense past participle

($ 0ic0 &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0ic0 &ac0 0one5 or 0ic0 &ac0 0one5 to businesspeople or 'o1ern0ent o""i!ials, 5ou ille'all5 and se!retl5 'i1e the0 a per!enta'e o" the 0one5 that the5 spend #ith 5our !o0pan5 as a re#ard "or 'i1in' 5ou the business. The prosecutor said that D percent of every contract was kicked back to the head of the purchasing department. !he offered to kick back *3 percent if I(d switch to her company. 0ic0&ac0 n. 6one5 5ou ille'all5 and se!retl5 'i1e to businesspeople or 'o1ern0ent o""i!ials as a re#ard "or 'i1in' 5ou business is a 0ic0&ac0$ The FAI agent heard the governor asking for a kickback. The reporter discovered that the loan was really a kickback. "$ 0ic0 &ac0 p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0ic0 &ac0' 5ou rela<. It(s been a tough week. Tonight I(m going to buy a case of beer and kick back. Get(s kick back and watch the football game tonight. la% off la% off & la%s off la%ing off laid off laid off

($ %a3$$$ o.. p.1. When a !o0pan5 no lon'er needs #or7ers be!ause it does not ha1e enou'h business, it te0poraril5 or per0anentl5 %a3s o"" the #or7ers. Ford laid off 73,333 workers during the last recession. My wife had to go back to work after I was laid off from my job. %a3o.. n. Iobs !ut b5 a !o0pan5 be!ause it does not ha1e enou'h business are %a3o..s$ The company said there wouldn(t be any la%offs despite the decline in profits. "$ %a3 o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou %a3 o.. people, 5ou stop !riti!iDin', teasin', or pressurin' the0. 8ou(ve been bugging me all day. If you don(t la% off you(re going to be sorry. 1a% off "ancy she(s having a bad day. $4

*$ %a3 o.. p.1. When 5ou %a3 o.. so0ethin', su!h as a "ood or an a!ti1it5, 5ou stop !onsu0in' the "ood, or doin' the a!ti1it5. Gisten to the way you(re coughing. 8ou(ve got to la% off cigarettes. 'fter "ed had a heart attack, he laid off cheese and butter sandwiches. #nfinitive present tense screw up screw up & screws up -ing form screwing up past tense screwed up past participle screwed up

($ scre5$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou da0a'e so0ethin' or do so0ethin' #ron' or badl5, 5ou scre5 + or 5ou scre5 + #hat 5ou are doin'. ; tried to fi0 my computer, but I couldn(t do it, and I just screwed it up instead. Mark sent his wife a letter that he wrote to his girlfriend. $e sure screwed up. scre5e! + part.ad). When people or thin's are scre5e! up, the5 are da0a'ed or !on"used. My back is so screwed up I can(t even walk. Ieorge was a nice guy, but a little screwed up in the head. scre5 + n. - proble0 or !on"used situation !aused b5 so0eoneBs 0ista7e is a scre5 +$ Two babies were switched because of a screwup in the maternity ward. There was a screwup in the finance department, and the bill was paid twice. "$ scre5$$$ + p.1.Jin"or0alK When people 0a7e a 0ista7e that !auses a proble0 "or 5ou, the5 scre5 5ou +$ The travel agent forgot to reconfirm my flight, and it really screwed me up. 8ou really screwed me up when you lost my car keys. ECERCISE ()a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The tea!her as7ed 0e to MMMMMMMM the e<a0s MMMMMMMM. 2. Wh5 donBt 5ou let a 0e!hani! "i< the !arH 4" 5ou tr5 to do it 5oursel", 5ouBll )ust MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMM. 3. Nobod5 li7es the ne# priest in our !hur!h, and attendan!e has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. 65 "eet #ere 7illin' 0e a !ouple o" #ee7s a'o, so 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM )o''in' "or a #hile, and no# the5Bre "ine. . 4t reall5 MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #hen 5ou told 05 boss #hat 4 said about hi0.

$. The (rte'a\s #onBt ta7e a 1a!ation this 5ear be!ause 6r. (rte'a has been MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and the5 need to sa1e 0one5. %. When 6other #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, there #asnBt an5 TV. People #ent to the 0o1ies or read instead. 8. The head o" pur!hasin' at 05 !o0pan5 #ent to )ail be!ause he 0ade all the suppliers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N2,/// o" e1er5 !ontra!t. *. 65 husband told 0e 05 plan to enter 0edi!al s!hool #as !raD5, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith it an5#a5. 1/. The se!retar5 in the hu0an resour!es depart0ent said/CereBs an appli!ation. Ta7e it and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.@ 11. 4" 5ou #ant to borro# 05 !ar toni'ht, MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4B0 not 'oin' an5#here. 12. The other 0ountain !li0bers are ner1ous about Ii0 be!ause the5 thin7 heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a !li"". 13. AouB1e been !riti!iDin' 0e "or the last three hours: Will 5ou MMMMMM MMMMMMMM: 14. The 0ana'er as7ed his assistant to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM about the proble0s in the #arehouse. 1 . 4tBs 2rida5 ni'ht. &etBs bu5 so0e beer and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1$. 4 !anBt #or7 to0orro#. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or 0eH 1%. AouBre a!tin' li7e a bi' bab5. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM:

ECERCISE ()& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith no ns .ro- this section$ 1. -t the part5, the !hildren ate in the li1in' roo0, and the MMMMMMMMMMM ate in the dinin' roo0. 2. The boss said, @(ne 0ore MMMMMMMMMMM and 5ouBre "ired.@ 3. The reporter dis!o1ered that the 0a5or #as ta7in' MMMMMMMMMMM "ro0 the !onstru!tion !o0pan5. 4. ;1er5 5ear at this ti0e the 7in' 'i1es MMMMMMMMMMM to the poor. . Ned #ill be 05 MMMMMMMMMMM #hile 4B0 on 05 hone50oon. $$

$. The tea!her prepared a MMMMMMMMMMM to 'i1e to the students. %. The C;( said he re'retted the MMMMMMMMMMM but that there #as no other #a5 "or the !o0pan5 to a1oid ban7rupt!5. 8. The tea0 lost e1er5 'a0e o" the season and su""ered a $/ per!ent MMMMMMMMMMMM in attendan!e. *. The president !alled 3eneral Cha0bers and 'a1e hi0 the MMMMMMMMMMM "or the atta!7. ECERCISE ()c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1, Aou ha1enBt "illed in. Eall the spa!es, the0F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM 2. 4s the tea!her handin' outH Ethe tests, the0F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM 3. The !o0pan5 is 'oin' to la5 o"". E05 brother, hi0F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM H. I(m sorry I screwed up. Byour plan, itC MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE ()! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 #asnBt sure i" 05 plan #ould #or7, and 4 thou'ht about it "or a lon' ti0e be"ore 4 "inall5 de!ided to tr5 it. What did 4 do #ith 05 planH 2. The se!retar5 'a1e 0e an appli!ation and told 0e to put the !orre!t in"or0ation in the spa!es, What did the se!retar5 tell 0e to doH 3. 4n Ouestion 2, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the appli!ation a"ter 4 put the !orre!t in"or0ation in the spa!esH 4. The 0e!hani! is tr5in' to "i< 05 !arBs trans0ission, but sheBs 0a7in' a lot o" 0ista7es. What is the 0e!hani! doin' to 05 !arBs trans0issionH

. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the trans0ission a"ter the 0e!hani! "inishes "i<in' itH $. Aou 'i1e N3,/// to the 0a5or e1er5 0onth so that he #ill 'i1e 5our !o0pan5 !it5 business. What do 5ou do e1er5 0onthH

%. 4n Ouestion $, #hat is the N3,/// that 5ou 'i1e to the 0a5or e1er5 0onthH 8. =usiness is bad at Nan!5Bs !o0pan5, and the5 told her that the5 donBt need her an50ore. What happened to Nan!5H *. The hotel !ler7 "or'ot to !all 0e in the 0ornin' to #a7e 0e up, and 4 #as late "or a 1er5 i0portant 0eetin'. What did the hotel !ler7 do to 0eH

1/. 4 #as born in Ca#aii, and 4 li1ed there until 4 #as ei'hteen. What did 4 do in Ca#aiiH 11. Sall5Bs parents told her she !anBt #at!h a TV sho# be!ause itBs "or adults. What did Sall5Bs parents tell her about the TV sho#H 12. Ne# ho0e !onstru!tion #ill de!rease i" there is a re!ession. What #ill ne# ho0e !onstru!tion do i" there is a re!essionH

13. 4n Ouestion 12, i" there is a de!rease in ne# ho0e !onstru!tion, #hat #ould it be !alledH 14. Ti005 #as teasin' Susie all da5 until his 0other told hi0 to stop. What did Ti005Bs 0other tell hi0 to doH $8

1 . -ll is doin' (0arBs )ob #hile (0ar is on 1a!ation. What is -li doin'H 1$. =lan7ets and bo<es o" "ood #ill be 'i1en to the people #hose ho0es #ere destro5ed b5 the tornado. What #ill be done #ith the blan7ets and bo<es o" "oodH 1%. Sarah had to ans#er the phone #hile she #as #at!hin' a 0o1ie. -"ter she returned to the TV roo0, SarahBs "riend Sall5 told Sarah e1er5thin' she had 0issed. What did Sall5 do "or SarahH

ECERCISE ()e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these no ns .ro+revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brea7do#n, brea7out, * holdup, % hoo7up, * put-on, 1 setup, ta7eo"", 1

1. The pilot said that the MMMMMMMMMMM #ould be on ti0e. 2. There #as a MMMMMMMMMMM on the hi'h#a5, and tra""i! #as barel5 0o1in' at all. 3. - !able MMMMMMMMMMM is usuall5 N3*.* , but this 0onth itBs "ree. 4. The 'uards suspe!ted the prisoners #ere plannin' a MMMMMMMMMMM. . Waiter, #eB1e been #aitin' "or our dinner "or an hour. WhatBs the MMMMMMMMMMMH $. 4 told 05 la#5er that it #as a MMMMMMMMMMM and that 4 #as inno!ent. %. When the dete!ti1es !a0e and arrested Can7, #e didnBt thin7 it #as real >)ust a bi'

ECERCISE ().' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !at!h up, * !hi!7en out, * 'et alon', * 'i1e up, * hoo7 up, * pi!7 out, 8 tal7 do#n to, 3 #or7 up, *

1. 8onBt tr5 to run ten 0iles at "irst? 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to it. 2. -"ter sear!hin' "or three da5s #ithout an5 lu!7, the res!ue tea0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on "indin' an5 sur1i1ors. 3. The poli!e sho#ed 0e so0e pi!tures to see i" 4 !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 'u5 #ho 0u''ed 0e.

4. Aou 'o to the ban7, 4Bll 'o to the post o""i!e, and #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ea!h other at the !orner in "ort5-"i1e 0inutes. . 4 #asnBt happ5 about ha1in' Nan!5 "or a partner on the pro)e!t. 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith her. $. Iust be!ause 5ou #ent to !olle'e and 4 didnBt, doesnBt 0a7e it o7a5 "or 5ou to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM0e. %. The tea!her said, @Aour dau'hter has 0issed a lot o" s!hool, and sheBll need to #or7 hard to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the rest o" the !lass.@ 8. 6aria 'ot s!ared andMMMMMMMMMMo" )u0pin' o"" the hi'h di1in' board.

(($ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s se! in co-+o n! no ns


-s #e sa# in Se!tion 1/, 0an5 t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs !an be used as nouns. 6an5. o" these nouns "or0ed "ro0 t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs !an be !o0bined #ith ordinar5 nouns to "or0 !o0pound nounsG noun< &ac0 + !o0pound nounG ba!7up dis7 noun< .o%%o59 + !o0pound nounG "ollo#-up !all &i7e ordinar5 !o0pound nouns, the "irst noun has a "un!tion si0ilar to that o" an ad)e!ti1eG Fuestion# .hat kind of clothes1 answer# 5irty clothes. adjective ,uestionG What 7ind o" !lothesH ans#erG Wor7out !lothes. noun The ad)e!ti1e dirt5 and the noun #or7out ser1e the sa0e "un!tionG 0odi"5in' the noun !lothes. -l#a5s a!!ent the "irst #ord in a !o0pound nounG nounG BACK + !o0pound nounG BACK +!is0 nounG FOLLO=9 + !o0pound nounG FOLLO=9 + !all

%/

#nfinitive present tense backup back up & backs up backing up backed up backed up -ing form past tense past participle

($ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou #al7 ba!7#ard, 5ou ba!7up. When 5ou dri1e a 1ehi!le in re1erse, 5ou &ac0 + or &ac0 the 1ehi!le +$ The fire was so hot that we had to back up. I put the car in reverse and backed it up. "$ &ac0 + p.1. When 5ou are e<plainin' so0ethin', and 5ou repeat so0ethin' that 5ou alread5 said, 5ou &ac0 +$ 8ou(re going too fast. >an you back up a little and e0plain your plan again1 !orry, I forgot part of the story. Get me back up a little. *$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a !lai0 or state0ent and then sho# people e1iden!e or 'i1e the0 in"or0ation pro1in' that the !lai0 or state0ent is true or !orre!t, 5ou &ac0 it +$ "o one believed )im(s accusations because he couldn(t back them up with any evidence. The IN! asked me for some receipts to back up my deductions. 6$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou support people in a !on"li!t or a !on"rontation, 5ou &ac0 the0 +$ When 5ou support people b5 doin' so0e #or7 or a di""i!ult assi'n0ent, 5ou ba!7 the0 +$ Ginda said she would back me up if I complained about our supervisor. The general backed up his threats with H33,333 soldiers. )erry is the bar(s main bartender, and Tanya backs him up when it gets busy. &ac0 + n. So0eone or so0ethin' that supports or is read5 to pro1ide support in a !on"li!t or a !on"rontation b5 doin' so0e #or7 or a di""i!ult assi'n0ent is a &ac0 +$ .hen the rioters grew more violent, the police called for backup. The firefighter entered the burning building without a backup. 7$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou dupli!ate i0portant in"or0ation, su!h as a !o0puter pro'ra0 or data, so that 5ou #ill still ha1e it i" the ori'inal in"or0ation is lost or da0a'ed, 5ou &ac0 it +$ If you(re going to install that new software, be sure you back up your entire hard disk first. I back my work up every day before I go home. &ac0 + n. - dupli!ate o" i0portant in"or0ation, su!h as a !o0puter pro'ra0 or data, is a &ac0 +$ ; keep a backup of my important computer files on floppy disks. The major gave a backup copy of the battle plan to his secretary. %1

&ac0e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou dupli!ate i0portant in"or0ation/su!h as a !o0puter pro'ra0 or data, the ori'inal is &ac0e! +$ ; accidentally erased your book from your computer. I hope your work was backed up. 8$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When a pie!e o" e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 is 1er5 i0portant and another is 7ept a1ailable in !ase the one that is nor0all5 used "ails, the se!ond pie!e o" e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 &ac0s + the "irst. The hospital bought a generator to back up the unreliable city power supply. .e kept the old computer to back the new one up. &ac0 + n. When a pie!e o" e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 is 1er5 i0portant and another is 7ept a1ailable in !ase the one that is nor0all5 used "ails, the se!ond pie!e o" e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 is a &ac0 +$ The skydiver checked his main parachute and his backup before the flight. The school had to dose when the main power and the backup both failed. :$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &ac0s +' it is bein' pre1ented "ro0 0o1in', pro'ressin', or "lo#in' nor0all5. 'n accident backed up traffic for three miles. The assembly line is going to back up if /rik doesn(t get the parts he needs soon. &ac0 + n$ A &ac0 + is a situation in #hi!h so0ethin' is bein' pre1ented "ro0 0o1in', pro'ressin', or "lo#in' nor0all5. ; sat in that backup for three hours without moving an inch. The huge number of >hristmas cards and packages caused a backup at the post office. &ac0e! + part.ad). When so0ethin' is bein' pre1ented "ro0 0o1in', pro'ressin', or "lo#in' nor0all5, it is &ac0e! +$ Get(s take the train downtown. Traffic is always backed up at this time of the morn in a. Infinitive present tense cut off cut off < cuts off cutting off cut off cut off &ing form past tense past participle

($ c t$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e part o" so0ethin' #ith a 7ni"e, sa#, or pair o" s!issors, 5ou c t it o..$ $e cut off a piece of cheese so that I could taste it. =ne of the kings of /ngland had his head cut off. "$ c t$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou stop the suppl5 or "lo# o" so0ethin', su!h as #ater, ele!tri!it5, or 0one5, 5ou c t it o.. or 5ou c t o.. the people re!ei1in' it. ; won(t be surprised if my electricity is cut off I haven(t paid the bill in three months. The bartender told the drunk guy that she was cutting him off. M7

c to.. n. The ti0e #hen so0ethin', su!h as #ater, ele!tri!it5, or 0one5, is c t o.. is the c to..' c to.. point, or c to.. date. ; got a notice saying that if I don(t pay my water bill soon, the cutoff date will be March *3. "inety is the cutoff students with lower scores on the e0am won(t be accepted into the advanced program. *$ c t$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou abruptl5 and rudel5 dri1e a 1ehi!le in "ront o" other peopleBs 1ehi!les, !ausin' the0 to suddenl5 slo# do#n or stop, 5ou c t the0 o..$ ; had to slam on the brakes when some jerk cut me off on the way to work. The lady in the red car tried to cut me off but I wouldn(t let her get in front of me. 6$ c t$$$ o.. p.1. When so0eone is c t o.. #hile spea7in' on the telephone, the !onne!tion is a!!identall5 bro7en. ; was in the middle of an important call when I was cut off. Ietting cut off happens all the time when you(re on the phone to >hina. 7$ c t $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou !reate a ph5si!al or ps5!holo'i!al barrier bet#een 5oursel" and other people, 5ou c t 5oursel" o.. "ro0 the0. When 5ou are separated "ro0 other people be!ause o" a barrier or a 'reat distan!e, 5ou are c t o.. "ro0 the0. 'fter 5an joined a cult, he completely cut himself off from his family and friends. ' flash flood cut us off from the rest of the e0pedition. c to.. part.ad). When 5ou are separated "ro0 other people be!ause o" a barrier or a 'reat distan!e, 5ou are c to..$ The bridge was destroyed by the earthFuake, and now we(re cut off. Infinitive present tense drop off drop off < drops off dropping off dropped off dropped off &ing form past tense past participle

($ !ro+$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ta7e thin's or people to another pla!e and lea1e the0 there, 5ou !ro+ the0 o..$ >an you drop me off at the train station on your way to work1 Guis dropped off his laundry at the cleaners. !ro+9o.. n. So0ethin' that has been !ro++e! o.. is a !ro+9o..$ The pla!e #here so0ethin' or so0eone is !ro++e! o.. is a !ro+9o.. point, !ro+ o.. #indo#, and soon. Guis left his laundry at the drop-off window. The north side of the train station parking lot is for drop-offs. "$ !ro+ o.. p.1. When a businessBs sales, the o!!urren!e o" so0e e1ent, or the interest so0e people ha1e in so0ethin' de!lines, it !ro+s o..$ 'ttendance at baseball games has been dropping off in the last few years. 'fter >5s were introduced, sales of records dropped off sharply. M2

!ro+9o.. n. - de!line in a businessBs sales, in the o!!urren!e o" an e1ent, or in the interest so0e people ha1e in so0ethin', is a !ro+9o..$ There has been a drop-off in traffic deaths thanks to strict drunk driving laws. The drop-off in car sales was e0plained by the recession. *$ !ro+ o.. p.1. When the le1el o" the 'round de!lines steepl5, it !ro+s o..$ Ae careful hiking this trail, it drops off steeply on the other side of the mountain. The island has no beach at all. The land drops off straight into the sea. !ro+9o.. n. - steep de!line in the le1el o" the 'round is a !ro+9o..$ The bus driver didn(t see the drop-off and the bus plunged into the gorge. It was hard to see the drop-off because of the dense jungle. Infinitive present tense follow up follow up < follows up following up followed up followed up &ing form past tense past participle

($ .o%%o5 + EonF p.1. When 5ou .o%%o5 + on so0ethin', 5ou return to so0ethin' that #as i0portant to 5ou pre1iousl5 be!ause 5ou no# ha1e 0ore in"or0ation or 0ore ti0e or be!ause 5ou #ant to 0a7e sure so0e e""ort 5ou 0ade pre1iousl5 is !orre!t or e""e!ti1e. ; saw a beautiful house with a +for sale+ sign and I followed up on it when I got home. The doctor told me I(d need to follow up the treatment with physical therapy. .o%%o59 + n$ A .o%%o59 +' .o%%o59 + !all, .o%%o59 + 1isit, and so on, is a return to so0ethin' that #as i0portant to 5ou pre1iousl5 be!ause 5ou no# ha1e 0ore in"or0ation or 0ore ti0e or be!ause 5ou #ant to 0a7e sure so0e e""ort 5ou 0ade pre1iousl5 is !orre!t or e""e!ti1e. The customer service manager made a follow-up call to make sure I was happy with the repair job. The doctor asked me to see him two months after the operation for a follow-up. take out take out & takes out taking out took out taken out

($ ta0e $$$ o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' o t or ta0e it o t o" a !ontainer, stora'e pla!e, or buildin', 5ou re0o1e it. P t in/into is the opposite o" ta0e o t$ ; want to take some books out of the library tonight. )ake took out a gun and shouted, +This is a holdupE+ "ancy took :D33 out of the bank. ta0eo t n$ Ta0eo t is "ood that is ta7en "ro0 a restaurant to be eaten at another lo!ation. Carr3o t and carr39o t "ood are the sa0e as ta0eo t and ta0e9o t "ood. ; don(t feel like cooking tonight. Get(s get takeout. That take-out chicken is good, but it sure is greasy. %4

"$ ta0e $$$o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' be!ause 5ou do not #ant it or be!ause it is da0a'ed, 5ou ta0e it o t or ta0e it o t o" so0ethin'. P t in/into is the opposite o" ta0e o t$ The teacher said my story would be a lot better ifE took this part out of the third paragraph. The school will be closed while the asbestos insulation is being taken out and replaced. *$ ta0e$$$ o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou ta0e 0one5 o t or ta0e 0one5 out o" a ban7 or a ban7 a!!ount, 5ou #ithdra# the 0one5. P t in is the opposite o. ta0e o t$ ; had to take money out of my savings account to pay for my medical bills. "icole(s at the bank taking : *,333 out. 6$ ta0e$$ $o t p.1. When 5ou ta0e people out/5ou 'o #ith the0 to do so0ethin' en)o5able > dinner in a restaurant, a 0o1ie, and so on > and pa5 "or it 5oursel". .hat do you think about taking Mom out for Mother(s 5ay1 )im took his girlfriend out last Friday. 7$ ta0e$$ $o t p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou ta0e people out, 5ou 7ill the0. The snipers will try to take out the kidnapper when he opens the door. The hit man took Vito out with a shotgun blast to the head. Infinitive present tense tr% out try out < tries out trying out tried out tried out &ing form past tense past participle

($ tr3$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou tr3 so0ethin' o t' 5ou tr5 it to see i" 5ou #ant to bu5 it or to see i" 5ou #ant to start usin' it re'ularl5. I(m not going to spend :7,333 on a bicycle unless I tr% it out first. 8ou can tr% it out for thirty days without any obligation. tr3o t n. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' a tr3o t'3o test it to see i" 5ou #ant to bu5 it or start usin' it re'ularl5. ; gave Aetty(s new diet a tr%out but I actually gained weight. The airline gave the new plane a thorough tr%out before making a decision. "$ tr3$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou tr3 people o t' 5ou 'i1e the0 a !han!e to sho# that the5 !an per"or0 a )ob #ell be"ore hirin' the0 or be"ore 'i1in' the0 0ore di""i!ult #or7 to do. The manager agreed to tr% him out for a week. I told the supervisor that if she tried me out she(d see that I could do the job. tr3o t n. When 5ou 'i1e people a tr3o t' 3o 'i1e the0 a !han!e to sho# that the5 !an per"or0 a )ob #ell be"ore 'i1in' the0 0ore di""i!ult #or7 to do. Tr%outs for the football team will be ne0t !aturday and !unday. If you give Mike a tr%out I(m sure you won(t be disappointed.

*$ tr3 o t E"orF p.1. When 5ou tr3 o t or tr3 o t "or so0ethin', 5ou tr5 to sho# that 5ou !an per"or0 a )ob #ell in order to 'et hired. ' lot of guys will tr% out but only a handful will make the team. 5aniela(s mother told her, :Tr%ing out for the cheerleading sFuad isn(t as important as doing your homework.+ Infinitive present tense wake up wake up < wakes up waking up woke up woken up &ing form past tense past participle

($ 5a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou stop sleepin', 5ou 5a0e +$ When 5ou !ause other people to stop sleepin', 5ou 5a0e the0 +$ '$ is so sleepy in class that the teacher must wake him up every five minutes. I woke up at 7#33 'M and couldn(t get back to sleep. 5a0e9 + part.ad). When 5ou are sta5in' at a hotel and 5ou as7 the des7 !ler7 to !all 5ou at a !ertain ti0e to 5a0e 5ou up, 5ou as7 "or a 5a0e9 + !all. ; asked the desk clerk to give me a wake-up call at M#23. "$ 5a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou learn so0ethin' that !auses 5ou to understand the truth about so0ethin' or so0eone, it 5a0es 5ou + or 5a0es 5ou + to the truth about so0ethin' or so0eone, ; used to smoke, but when my best friend died of lung cancer, it really woke me up. $ey, wake up! "icole is lying to you. >an(t you see that1 work out work out & works out working out worked out worked out

($ 5or0 o t p.1. When a situation 5or0s o t a !ertain #a5, it happens that #a5. When a situation does not 5or0 o t' it is not satis"a!tor5. The switch to the new system worked out a lot better than anyone e0pected. !he said that living with her in&laws wasn(t working out very well. "$ 5or0 o t p.1. When a situation 5or0s out, the end result is su!!ess"ul. 8es, I thought your idea was terrible, but I must admit it worked out. The marriage didn(t work out and they were divorced after si0 months. *$ 5or0 o t p.1. When a !al!ulation or 0easure0ent 5or0s o t to be a !ertain a0ount, this a0ount is the result o" the !al!ulation or 0easure0ent. The cost of the boo6e we need for the reception works out to more than : *,D33. The monthly payment on a J percent loan works out to :JH7. 6$ 5or0$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou 5or0 o t a !al!ulation, 0easure0ent, or other proble0, 5ou do the #or7 ne!essar5 to deter0ine the result o" the !al!ulation or 0easure0ent or thin7 about ho# to sol1e the proble0. %$

Maria worked out bow much paint we will need for the living room twenty&five gallons. I(ve forgotten how to work out math problems without a calculator. 8ou need to go to the airport, I need to go to work, and we have only one car. $ow are we going to work this out" 7$ 5or0 o t p.1. When 5ou 5or0 o t a solution or plan, 5ou de!ide #hat to do a"ter !are"ul !onsideration, either alone or in dis!ussion #ith other people. The opposing lawyers worked out a compromise. I think I(ve worked out a way to buy a new car without borrowing money. 8$ 5or0 o t p.1. When 5ou e<er!ise in order to i0pro1e 5our health or ph5si!al appearan!e, 5ou 5or0 o t$ Aob works out in the gym for two hours every night. I(m a fat slob. I need to start working out again. 5or0o t n. - series o" e<er!ises done in order to i0pro1e 5our health or ph5si!al appearan!e is a 5or0o t$ =or0o t !lothes are !lothes 5ou #ear #hile e<er!isin'. I(m really sore from that workout last night. The trainer designed a workout for each player on the team. 5or0o t n. When 5ou sa5 that 5ou 'a1e a 0e!hani!al de1i!e or s5ste0 a 5or0o t' 5ou 0ean that 5ou !aused it to per"or0 so0e len'th5 or di""i!ult #or7, 5riving to 'laska sure gave this old truck a workout. The snack bar got a real workout when three buses full of hungry tourists stopped at the same time.

ECERCISE (( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1.1 al0ost had an a!!ident on the #a5 to #or7 #hen another dri1er MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 2. With so 0an5 deli1er5 tru!7 dri1ers out si!7 #ith the "lu, deli1eries are startin' to MMMMMMMM. 3. Aou should al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our i0portant !o0puter "iles. 4. The art restorers are tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a #a5 to !lean the paintin' #ithout da0a'in' it. .1 hit a tree #hile 4 #as MMMMMMMM 05 !ar MMMMMMMM. $. The but!her has onl5 nine "in'ers. Ce MMMMMMMM the other one MMMMMMMM. %%

%. Pro"essor Childress has so0e interestin' theories, but !an he MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM #ith an5 e1iden!eH 8. -"ter e1er5 sale, a 'ood salesperson MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith a !at: to 0a7e sure the !usto0er is satis"ied. *. 4B0 'oin' to lea1e earl5 to0orro# so that 4 !an MMMMMMMM so0e "il0 MMMMMMMM at the photo lab. 1/. No one belie1ed 4 #as tellin' the truth until Charles MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 11. 4 usuall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around %G//, but this 0ornin' 4 o1erslept. 12. &5dia had planned to spend the su00er in 4tal5, but it didnBt MMMMMM MMMMMM. 13. The sharpshooter #as ordered to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ene05 leader. 14. The desi'ners put in 0anual !ontrols to MMMMMMMMMMMMthe auto0ati! s5ste0. 1 . 8a1id and 6aria MMMMMMM MMMMMMM ho# 0u!h their #eddin' is 'oin' to !ost. 1$. The !ost o" their #eddin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to N22 per person. 1%. =e !are"ul > the north side o" the 0ountain MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sharpl5. 18. CelloH CelloH The phone is dead? 4 'uess #e #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1*. Ne<t #ee7end #eBre MMMMMMMM 6o0 and 8ad MMMMMMMM "or their "i"tieth #eddin' anni1ersar5. 2/. The pro"essorBs le!ture #as reall5 !on"usin', so 4 as7ed hi0 to please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM and e<plain it a'ain. 21. The ban7 robbers tried to es!ape throu'h the ba!7 door, but the poli!e #ent to the ba!7 o" the ban7 and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMM. 22. PeopleBs "as!ination #ith the ,uintuplets MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ,ui!7l5 a"ter the se<tuplets #ere born. 23. =ob bou'ht so0e ne# s7is, and this #ee7end heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 24. 4 #asnBt 1er5 responsible #hen 4 #as 5oun'er, but ha1in' !hildren reall5 MMMMMMMM 0eMMMMMMMM. 2 . Ned used to e<er!ise e1er5 da5, but he hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 0onths. %8

2$. The baseball 0ana'er de!ided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ne# pit!her to see #hat he !ould do. 2%. 4 li7e 0ost o" this arti!le 5ou #rote about 0e, but thereBs one thin' 4Bd li7e 5ou to MMMMMMMM. 28. Sa0 had a tot o" bi' ideas #hen he #as 5oun', but his li"e sure hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the #a5 he e<pe!ted. 2*. The ele!tri!it5 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter a tree "ell durin' the stor0 and !ut so0e po#er lines. 3/. 4 MMMMMMMM 05 48 !ard MMMMMMMM o" 05 po!7et and sho#ed it to the 'uard. 31. &5dia has ne1er MMMMMMMM a penn5 MMMMMMMM o" her sa1in's a!!ount. ECERCISE (( & ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. 8id 5ou ba!7 upH E5our #or7, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2. The5Bre !uttin' o"". Ethe po#er, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 3. 4 dropped o"" at the airport. E2ran7/hi0F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 4. 6o0 as7ed 0e to ta7e out. Ethe 'arba'e, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM %*

. -le< tried out. Ehis ne# bi!5!le, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM $. 6i7e has #o7en up. E-li, hi0F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM

ECERCISE (( c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ no ns an! co-+o n! no ns .ro- this section$ There -a3 &e -ore than one 5a3 to ans5er a > estion$ 1. The photo'rapher al#a5s 7eeps t#o !a0eras #ith hi0. (ne is his 0ain !a0era. CeBll use the se!ond i" thereBs a proble0 #ith the "irst. What is the se!ond !a0eraH 2. The phone !o0pan5 sa5s 05 telephone ser1i!e #ill stop on Iul5 1 i" 4 donBt pa5 05 bill be"ore that date. What is Iul5 4H 3. 8r. S0ith is a ne# do!tor. 4" heBs not sure ho# to treat a patient, heBll !all 8r. Wood "or help. What is 8r. Wood to 8r. S0ithH 4. Aou used the ne# e<er!ise e,uip0ent to see i" 5ou #anted to bu5 it. What did 5ou do to the e<er!ise e,uip0entH . The poli!e arrested 6rs. Ta5lorBs husband be!ause he #as beatin' her. - so!ial #or7er 1isited 6rs. Ta5lor a "e# da5s later to tal7 to her. What did the so!ial #or7er doH $. The !lothes 4 #ore 5esterda5 #hite 4 #as e<er!isin' 'ot 1er5 dirt5. What 'ot dirt5H

%. We 'ot "ood "ro0 a Chinese restaurant and ate it at ho0e. What 7ind o" "ood did #e eatH 8. =e!ause o" !onstru!tion, tra""i! on the interstate stopped and there #as a lon' line o" !ars. What #as on

the interstateH L. The number of arrests for burglary is a lot lower this year than last year. .hat has happened to the number of arrests for burglary1 1/. Sall5 lost so0ethin' 1er5 i0portant on her !o0puter be!ause she didnBt 0a7e another !op5 in !ase there #as a proble0 #ith the ori'inal. Wh5 did Sall5 ha1e a proble0H 8/

11. -t the ed'e o" the !ontinental shel", the sea "loor "alls se1eral thousand "eet. What is at the ed'e o" the !ontinental shel"H 12. 4 0ade %,/// !opies on this photo!opier. What did 4 do to the photo!opierH

ECERCISE ((! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The ele!tri! !o0pan5 stopped 05 ele!tri!it5 be!ause 4 didnBt pa5 05 bill. What did the5 do to the ele!tri!it5H 2. 4 bou'ht so0e "ried !hi!7en, and 4 too7 it to 05 house. What 7ind o" "ood did 4 bu5H 3. ;<er!isin' is 'ood "or 5our health. What is 'ood "or 5our healthH 4. The lon'-distan!e !o0pan5 o""ered to let 0e use their ser1i!e "ree "or thirt5 da5s, and 4B0 'oin' to tr5 it. What a0 4 'oin' to do to the lon'-distan!e !o0pan5Bs ser1i!eH

. 4n Ouestion 4, #hat is the lon'-distan!e !o0pan5 lettin' 0e doH $. 8urin' the "lood, a lot o" people !ouldnBt lea1e their houses be!ause o" the #ater. What did the #ater do to the0H

%. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe these peopleH 8. AouBre 0a7in' an e<tra !op5 o" 5our #or7 )ust in !ase. What are 5ou doin'H *. 4n Ouestion 8, #hat #ould 5ou !all the e<tra !op5 o" 5our #or7 that 5ouBre 0a7in'H 1/. The ne#spaper reporter is 'ettin' 0ore in"or0ation about so0ethin' interestin' that so0eone told her on the phone. What is the reporter doin'H

C. 65 e<er!ise routine is 1er5 di""i!ult. What is di""i!ultH 12. The prose!utor pro1ed his a!!usation #ith so0e photo'raphs. What did the prose!utor do #ith the photo'raphsH 13. Iane #ants to sho# the bas7etball !oa!h that she #ould be a 'ood 0e0ber o" the bas7etball tea0. What does Iane #ant to doH 14. 4 ha1e a se!ond alar0 !lo!7 in !ase the "irst doesnBt #a7e 0e up. What does 05 se!ond alar0 !lo!7 do to 05 "irstH 81

1 . 4n Ouestion 14, #hat #ould 5ou !all 05 se!ond alar0 !lo!7H 1$. Ni!ole ta7es her "riend to the train station e1er5 0ornin'. What does Ni!ole do to her "riendH 1%. 4 ha1e an appoint0ent #ith 05 do!tor ne<t 0onth so that he !an see i" 05 sur'er5 #as su!!ess"ul. What #ould 5ou !all 05 appoint0ent ne<t 0onthH

18. 6ariaBs plan isnBt happenin' the #a5 she e<pe!ted. What isnBt 6ariaBs plan doin'H 1*. =ill #ent #ith Iud5 to dinner and a 0o1ie and he paid "or e1er5thin'. What did =ill doH 2/. T#o hundred 'uests at N4 ea!h !al!ulates to N*,///. What does 2// 'uests at N4 ea!h doH 21. 4 ha1e ne1er stopped sleepin' at 3G3/ in the 0ornin' be"ore. What ha1e 4 ne1er done be"oreH ECERCISE (( e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !o0e "ro0, 1 "all o"", 1/ "eel up to, 3 "ill in, 1/ 'i1e ba!7, 1 'o ahead, 1/ 'o alon' #ith, 3 'ro# up, 1/ hand out, 1/ hear about, 2 7i!7 ba!7, 1/ la5 o"", 1/ loo7 "or, 1 s!re# out o", 3 s!re# up, 1/ sta5 o"", 2

1. 4" the !o0pan5 doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2/ per!ent o" its e0plo5ees, itBs 'oin' to 'o out o" business. 2. =lan7ets and bo<es o" "ood #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the "lood 1i!ti0s. 3. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 3er0an5 be!ause 05 "ather #as in the -r05 there. 4. 9ath5 didnBt !lose her !ar #indo# last ni'ht, and it rained. She reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.

. Aou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? 4Bll !at!h up #ith 5ou later. $. The per!enta'e o" people #ho s0o7e MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a"ter s0o7in' #as lin7ed #ith lun' !an!er and heart disease. %. What !an 4 do to 'et 05 bla!7 !at to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 #hite !ou!hH 8. 4B1e been MMMMMMM MMMMMMM an apart0ent that allo#s do's, but 4 !anBt "ind one. *. CeBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMNe# Aor7 and #ill be here in t#o hours. 82

*3. I was so stuffed from that huge dinner my mother cooked that I didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% playing tennis afterward. **. Their lawyer tried to %%%%%%%% them %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% : *73,333. *7. I don(t feel like going anywhere tonight. Get(s just %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% and take it easy. *2. I(m sorry I can(t agree with you, )oe, but I have to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% Ginda on this decision. *H. $ere(s my flashlight. Make sure you %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%% when you(re finished using it. *D. I didn(t get *33 on the test because I forgot to %%%%%% %%%%%% one of the blanks. *J. This restaurant is wonderful. I(m surprised I haven(t%%%%%%%%%%%% it before.

12. 2(C.S (NG +ast +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s


The past perfect is used to say that one thing in the past happened before another thing in the past# Mike said the wedding had fallen through.
past past earlier in the past earlier in the past .hen I got to work, Mr. Toy for had already signed in.

The past perfect is formed with had and the past participle of the verb# present# ,e wakes up. past# $e woke up. past perfect# $e had woken up. Infinitive present tense back off back off < backs off backing off backed off backed off &ing form past tense past participle

($ &ac0 o.. p.1. When 5ou 0o1e a#a5 "ro0 dan'er or a person 5ou are ar'uin' or "i'htin' #ith in order to a1oid in)ur5 or a 0ore serious "i'ht or ar'u0ent, 5ou &ac0 o..$ When 5ou tell people to &ac0 o..' 5ou are #arnin' the0 that 5ou are be!o0in' an'r5 and that a "i'ht or ar'u0ent is li7el5. 83

I(m warning youE 8ou(d better back off. Tom backed off when he saw that )ake had a gun. #nfinitive present tense come across come across & comes across -ing form coming across past tense came across past participle come across

($ co-e across p.1. When people !ross "ro0 one side o" a spa!e or distan!e to #here 5ou are, the5 co-e across$ 's soon as "icole saw me, she came across the room and gave me a big hug. Ay *L*3, millions of immigrants had come across the ocean to 'merica. "$ co-e across p.1. When 5ou co-e across people or thin's, 5ou see or "ind the0 #ithout plannin' or e<pe!tin' to. R n across is si0ilar to co-e across$ ; asked the antiFue dealer if she had ever come across a .indsor chair. =n the trail, we came across some hikers from 'ustralia. *$ co-e across p.1. When so0ethin' 5ou sa5 or do co-es across a !ertain #a5, 5our attitude or "eelin's are per!ei1ed in this #a5 b5 other people. ; was just joking, but I don(t think it came across that way. $is 'merican humor didn(t come across well in Aritain. come up come up & comes up coming up came up come up

($ co-e + EtoF p.1. When people 0o1e to#ard 5ou to a hi'her le1el or position, or "ro0 the south to the north, the5 co-e +$ Co-e !o5n is the opposite o" co-e +$ .hy don(t you come up and see me some time1 My cousin from !an 'ntonio came up to 5etroit last week. "$ co-e + p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a hi'her so!ial or pro"essional position, 5ou co-e +$ ; saw 5an driving a Mercedes. $e(s really coming up in the world. The major didn(t go to the military academy. $e came up through the ranks. *$ co-e + p.1. When a ne# topi! is introdu!ed into a !on1ersation, it co-es +$ ; don(t agree with )im about anything, so if politics comes up I just leave the room. .e were discussing possible candidates to manage the new office, and your name came up. 6$ co-e + p.1. When so0ethin' une<pe!ted happens that re,uires "urther attention, it co-es +$ I(m sorry I can(t go to your party@ something important has come up. Ontil this situation came up we were having a nice, rela0ing weekend. 7$ co-e + p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When so0ethin' is co-in/ +' it #ill happen soon. 84

Mother(s 5ay is coming up so I need to buy my mother a gift soon. The TV announcer told the audience what was coming up after the commercial. #nfinitive present tense fall through fall through & falls through -ing form falling through past tense fell through past participle fallen through

($ .a%% thro /h p.1. When people or thin's drop throu'h an openin' "ro0 one side to the other side, the5 .a%% thro /h$ The roofer had fallen through a hole in the roof. My Oncle Fred was ice fishing when he fell through a hole in the ice and was never seen again. "$ .a%% thro /h p.1. When a plan, an arran'e0ent, or a business deal does not happen or is !an!eled be!ause o" a proble0 or be!ause so0eone does not do #hat is e<pe!ted, it .a%%s thro /h$ The family reunion fell through after 5ad got sick. =ur house is back on the market. The deal fell through because the buyers couldn(t get a loan. put out put up & puts up putting up put up put up

($ + t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0o1e so0ethin' to a hi'her le1el, 5ou + t it +$ 3ut these knives up where the baby can(t reach them. $e aimed the gun at me and said, :3ut your hands up or I(ll shoot.+ "$ + t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou atta!h so0ethin', su!h as a pi!ture or a si'n, to a #all, 5ou + t it +$ The teacher had put some posters up in her new classroom. =ur real estate agent is putting up a +for sale+ sign. *$ + t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou build or install so0ethin', su!h as a buildin', shel", "en!e, or #all, 5ou + t it +$ .e need to put up a fence to keep the rabbits out of our garden. I talked to a carpenter about putting up some shelves in the family room. 6$ + t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou ere!t or asse0ble so0ethin' that is !ollapsed, "olded, or in se1eral pie!es, 5ou + t it +$ The circus put up their tent outside of town. The "ative 'mericans stopped by the river and put up their teepees. 7$ + t + p.1. When 5ou !ontribute 0one5 to pa5 "or or help pa5 "or so0ethin', 5ou + t + the 0one5. #7 The 0a5or o""ered to + t + hal" the 0one5 ne!essar5 to build a ne# stadiu0 "or the tea0. 6r. Ta5lor said he #ould put up N3 0illion to#ard the !ost o" a ne# !an!er treat0ent "a!ilit5. $. + t + p.v. When 5ou "i'ht, resist, or ar'ue a'ainst so0ethin', 5ou + t + a "i'ht or + t + resistan!e. The union + t + a "i'ht #hen the !o0pan5 tried to la5 o"" #or7ers.

The Iapanese + t + little resistan!e #hen the 0arines landed. %. + t$$$ + p.v. When 5ou put people up, 5ou let the0 sta5 #ith 5ou, usuall5 te0poraril5, in 5our house or in a hotel. Sa0 didnBt ha1e an5#here else to 'o a"ter the "ire, so 4 said 4 #ould + t hi0 + "or a !ouple o" ni'hts. The hotel des7 !ler7 apolo'iDed "or not bein' able to + t us +. 4n"initi1e present tense screw on scre5 on B scre5s on scre5in/ on scre5e! on scre5e! on -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple

($ scre5$$$ on p.v. When 5ou scre5 on the top o" a !ir!ular !ontainer, 5ou turn it so that it be!o0es ti'ht and 7eeps the !ontents o" the !ontainer inside. 4 hadnBt scre5e! the top o" the 'as !an on ti'ht enou'h, and all the 'as lea7ed out. 4" 5ou donBt scre5 the top o" the bottle on, the soda pop #ill 'o "lat. scre5e! on part.adj. -"ter 5ou turn the top o" a !ir!ular !ontainer so that it be!o0es ti'ht and 7eeps the !ontents o" the !ontainer inside, the top is scre5e! on$ "$ scre5$$$ on p.v. When 5ou atta!h part o" a 0e!hani!al de1i!e #ith spiral 'roo1es to another part #ith spiral 'roo1es, 5ou scre5 it on$ 6a7e sure 5ou scre5 ea!h o" the nuts on ti'htl5. Put the ne# in7 !artrid'e in the botto0 hal" o" the pen and then scre5 on the top. scre5e! on part.adj. -"ter 5ou atta!h part o" a 0e!hani!al de1i!e #ith spiral 'roo1es to another part #ith spiral 'roo1es, the "irst part is scre5e! on$ The top o" that #ater bottle isnBt scre5e! on' and it 0i'ht lea7 all o1er the pla!e. sign in si/n in B si/ns in si/nin/ in si/ne! in si/ne! in

($ si/n $$$ in p.v. When 5ou si/n in' 5ou #rite 5our na0e on a list to sho# that 5ou ha1e arri1ed at 5our #or7pla!e or at so0e other pla!e, su!h as a hotel or a !lub. 4B0 'oin' to be late. Could 5ou si/n 0e inH -ll 1isitors to the !onsulate are as7ed to si/n in. #8 4n"initi1e present tense sign out si/n o t B si/ns o t si/nin/ o t si/ne! o t si/ne! o t ($ si/n ... o t p.v. When 5ou si/n o t' 5ou #rite 5our na0e on a list to sho# that 5ou ha1e le"t 5our #or7pla!e or so0e other pla!e, su!h as a hotel or !lub. Ii0 isnBt here. Ce si/ne! o t at G/$. 8r. Wood usuall5 "or'ets to si/n o t #hen she lea1es the din7. "$ si/n ... o t p.v. When 5ou si/n so0ethin' o t' su!h as a boo7 or so0ethin' 1aluable or i0portant, 5ou #rite 5our na0e on a list to sho# that 5ou ha1e borro#ed -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple

the ite0 and are responsible "or returnin' it. The pro"essor si/ne! the boo7 o t o" the rare boo7 roo0. +e0e0ber to si/n o t 5our lab e,uip0ent be"ore !he0istr5 !lass. ;L;+C4S; 12a > Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The in"or0ation in this "ile is top se!ret. Aou ha1e toMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM be"ore 5ou !an re0o1e it "ro0 this roo0. 2. So0ethin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the last 0inute, and 4 had to !an!el 05 trip. 3. WeBd betterMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tent be"ore it 'ets too dar7. 4. 4 #as in the librar5, and 4MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e interestin' boo7s. . 4 #as sure Iani!e #as still in the buildin' so0e#here be!ause she hadnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5et. $. The #eddin'MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen the 'roo0 #as arrested "or bi'a05. %. 65 son al#a5sMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a bi' "i'ht #hen 4 tr5 to 'et hi0 to 'o to bed. 8. 4 #asnBt in the 0ood "or a "i'ht, so 4 de!ided toMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. *. The sear!h part5 "ound that the sno#0obiler hadMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hole in the i!e and dro#ned. 1/. No one said an5thin' about 5ou last ni'ht. Aour na0e didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1en on!e. 11. The store o#nerMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a @no s0o7in'@ si'n. 12. To atta!h the "ilter to the !a0era lens, 5ou )ustMMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM. 13. The 0ana'er al#a5s !he!7ed to see #ho didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on ti0e. #: 14. The !harit5 #as as7ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N2 0illion to#ard the pur!hase o" ne# 0edi!a: e,uip0ent. 1 . So0eone had MMMMMMMM the lid MMMMMMMM so ti'htl5 that 4 !ouldnBt 'et it o"". 1$. 65 house #as destro5ed b5 a tornado. Can 5ou MMMMMM 0e MMMMM "or a "e# da5sH 1%. 4 #as upstairs #or7in' #hen 05 #i"e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to as7 0e #hat 4 #anted "or lun!h. 18. The appli!antBs !riti!is0 o" his pre1ious e0plo5er didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ell #ith the inter1ie#er. 1*. 4 bou'ht a plasti! Christ0as tree thatBs reall5 eas5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2/. Nan!5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the 3olden 3ate =rid'e e1er5 0ornin' to 'o to #or7. 21. 4 didnBt 'o to a "an!5 415 &ea'ue !olle'e. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hard #a5. 22. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM the #indo# shade MMMMMMMM so that #e !an 'et 0ore li'ht in here, pleaseH 23. SusieBs 0other told her that Christ0as #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so she had better be a 'ood 'irl. ECERCISE ("& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +ast +er.ect$ 1. 6i7e told 0e that Ierr5 had been an'r5 and #as 'oin' to hit =ill, but that Ierr5 had then !han'ed his 0ind and #al7ed a#a5. What had Ierr5 doneH 2. &uis had #ritten his na0e on a pie!e o" paper to sho# that he had !o0e to #or7. What had &uis doneH 3. The !arpenter had dropped suddenl5 "ro0 the se!ond "loor to the "irst "loor throu'h a hole 4N the "loor. What had the !arpenter doneH 4. Ti005 had ar'ued #ith his 0other be!ause he didnBt #ant to 'o to bed. What had Ti005 doneH . ToddBs e<planation 0ade a 'ood i0pression on the )ur5. What had ToddBs e<planation doneH $. The ri!h lad5 had 'i1en the 0one5 to build an ani0al shelter. What had the ri!h lad5 doneH

88

%. The host o" the TV tal7 sho# had said that the dan!in' bear a!t #as 'oin' to ta7e pla!e ri'ht a"ter the !o00er!ial. What had the host o" the TV sho# said about the dan!in' bear a!tH

8. The !oo7 had turned the lid o" the )ar so that it #as ti'ht. What had the !oo7 doneH *. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the lid o" the )ar a"ter the !oo7 turned it so that it #as ti'htH 1/. The ho0eless shelter had allo#ed the0 to sleep there o1erni'ht. What had the ho0eless shelter doneH 11. The president !an!eled his 1a!ation be!ause a serious proble0 had suddenl5 o!!urred. Wh5 did the president !an!el his 1a!ationH 12. WeBd had a deal to bu5 a ne# house, but #e didnBt bu5 it be!ause o" a proble0. What had happened to our dealH

13. 6arshaBs na0e had been 0entioned durin' the 0eetin'. What had 6arshaBs na0e doneH 14. The (rte'as had built a "en!e around their s#i00in' pool. What had the (rte'as doneH 1 . Aou had "ound so0e old ne#spapers #hile !leanin' the atti!. What had 5ou doneH 1$. 6i'uel had tra1eled "ro0 6ia0i to Ne# Aor7. What had 6i'uel doneH 1%. The do!tor had #ritten her na0e on a pie!e o" paper to sho# that she had le"t the hospital. What had the do!tor doneH ECERCISE ("c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to -a0e so-e o. the- > estions' so-e ne/ative' an! so-e +resent or +ast +er.ect$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 8*

ECERCISE ("!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7 up, 11 !ut o"", 11 drop o"", 11 "all o"", 1/ "ollo# up, 11 'o a"ter, 4 pa5 "or, 4 plan "or, 4 point to, 4 put to, 4 ta7e out, 11 thro# up, 2 tr5 out, 11 #a7e up, 11 #or7 out, 11 #rap up, 4

*. I don(t care if it takes me the rest of my life, you(ll %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the terrible thing you didE 2. The sales0an 'ot a 'ood lead "ro0 a "riend, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on it i00ediatel5. 3. We need to ta7e the bab5 to the do!tor ri'ht no#. SheBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM t#i!e in the last hour. 4. Sales ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 13 per!ent in the last 5ear. . That #as a 1er5 interestin' ,uestion 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 6ar7 at the 0eetin'. $. +ela<, e1er5thin'Bs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o7a5. %. Can 5ou "ollo# 0e in 5our !ar so that 4 !an MMMMM 05 !ar MMMMM at the 0e!hani!H 8. ;ri7 MMMMMMMM his son MMMMMMMM and told hi0 it #as ti0e "or s!hool. *. 4 dro1e into the 0ountains to MMMMMMMM 05 tru!7Bs "our-#heel dri1e MMMMMMMM. 1/. Aou should al#a5s MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMan5thin' i0portant be"ore 5ou install a ne# pro'ra0. 11. The poli!e o""i!er as7ed the bo5 #here his "ather #as, and the bo5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bar a!ross the street. 12. 4tBs 'ettin' prett5 late. &etBs MMMMMMMM this 0eetin' MMMMMMMM. 13. The 'u5 behind the !ounter MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a s0all pie!e o" !heese so 4 !ould taste it. 14. 4t #as a bit o" a proble0 #hen Iane brou'ht her !hildren #ith her to 05 dinner part5. 4 hadnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so 0an5 people. 1 . The !ensor told the "il0 dire!tor to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM so0e o" the 1iolent s!enes. 1$. IaneBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that ne# )ob in the =oston o""i!e. */

13. 2(C.S (NG +assive +hrasa% ver&s' (


The passive voice is used #hen #hat happened Ethe 1erbF is 0ore i0portant than #ho did it Ethe sub)e!tFG
The scene of the crime was dosed off b% the police. #hen the sub)e!t is ob1iousG The tests #ere han!e! in$ Eb5 the students > #ho elseHF or #hen the sub)e!t is un7no#nG 65 do' #as r n over$ Eb5 an un7no#n personF The passi1e is "or0ed #ith be and the past parti!iple o" the 1erb. =e !an be in an5 tense and !an be !ontinuousG The game has been called off. My name was left off. The tent Is being set up. The criminals will be tracked down. -s #e sa# in the "irst three e<a0ples, sa5in' #ho per"or0ed the a!tion #ith a b5 phrase is optional, but it is al#a5s possible. This is a 'ood #a5 to test a senten!e to see i" it is in the passi1eG The game has been called off by. the, referee. My name was left off by >harles. The tent is being set up by. the campers. The criminals will be tracked down by the police. Infinitive present tense call off call off < calls off calling off called off called off &ing form past tense past participle

($ ca%%$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ca%% o.. an e1ent, su!h as a part5, 'a0e, or so0ethin' else that had been pre1iousl5 planned, 5ou !an!el it. The football game was called off because of rain. .e can(t call the party off it(s going to start in half an hour. dose off close off < closes off closing off closed off closed off

($ c%ose $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou c%ose o.. an area/5ou prohibit people "ro0 enterin' it or passin' throu'h it b5 lo!7in' the door or blo!7in' the entran!e. The police closed several streets off because of the parade. The house was so e0pensive to heat that the owners closed several rooms off. *1

c%ose! o.. part.ad). -n area that 5ou are prohibited "ro0 enterin' or passin' throu'h be!ause the door has been lo!7ed or the entran!e has been blo!7ed is c%ose! o.. Three rooms in the museum are closed off. #nfinitive present tense hand in hand in & hands in handing in handed in handed in -ing form past tense past participle

($ han! $$$ in EtoF p.1. When 5ou !o0plete a test, report, or pro)e!t and 5ou 'i1e it to the person #ho assi'ned the #or7, 5ou han! it in or han! it in to that person. T rn in is si0ilar to han! in$ The tests must be handed in no later than **#33. $e finished his investigation and handed his report in to the committee. "$ han! $$$ in p.1. When 5ou han! in 5our resi'nation or letter o" resi'nation, 5ou in"or0 5our e0plo5er that 5ou are ,uittin' 5our )ob. ; was so furious that I handed my letter of resignation in the ne0t day. The ?resident asked the cabinet members to hand in their resignations. *$ han! $$$ in EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' to a person o" authorit5 #ho has de0anded it or be!ause 5ou no lon'er need or #ant it, 5ou han! it in or han! it in to a person o" authorit5. T rn in is si0ilar to han! in$ The guard was ordered to hand his gun in after he shot the window washer. The drivers return to the factory at D#33 and hand their keys in to the dispatcher before they leave. hit on hit on & hits on hitting on hit on hit on

($ hit on p.1. When 5ou thin7 o" an interestin' idea or a solution to a proble0, 5ou hit on it. ; think I(ve hit on a way to solve this problem. 'fter two years of tests, they finally hit on the solution. "$ hit on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou hit on a person o" the opposite se<, 5ou approa!h and a''ressi1el5 tr5 to interest that person in 5ou ro0anti!all5 or se<uall5. Gydia had a terrible time at the party. !he was hit on by every guy there. Get(s go somewhere else %eave o.. Mark keeps hitting on me, and I(m tired of it. leaving off left off left off leave off & leaves off

($ %eave$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou do not in!lude people or thin's on a list, either a!!identall5 or deliberatel5, 5ou lea1e the0 o..$ 'fter what happened at the last party, 5an wasn(t surprised that he was left off the guest list. >heck to make sure you don(t leave anyone off the list. L7

"$ %eave o.. p.1. When 5ou interrupt so0ethin' that 5ou intend to "inish later, 5ou %eave o.. at the point #here 5ou stop. =kay class, we left off on page L7 last week, so open your books to page L2. Finish your story. Oncle Fred. 8ou left off where the giant octopus was about to eat you. 4n"initi1e present tense let off let o"" P lets o"" -in' "or0 lettin' o"" past tense let o"" past parti!iple let o""

($ %et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou let so0eone o"" a bus or other "or0 o" transportation, 5ou stop it so that person !an lea1e it. The driver let her off at the corner. That(s my house there. >an you let me off please1 "$ %et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou are %et o.. b5 a person in authorit5, 5ou are not punished or 5ou are 'i1en onl5 a li'ht punish0ent. It was )ake(s first offense, so the judge let him off with a warning. ?eople were shocked that he had been let off so lightly. *$ %et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou "ire a 'un or e<plode bo0bs or "ire#or7s, 5ou %et the0 o..$ Ere'ionalF When 5ou %et o.. stea0, 5ou e<press an'r5 "eelin's or "rustration or do so0ethin' to relie1e those "eelin's. The high school was evacuated after someone let off a smoke bomb. .hen I was a kid I used to love letting off firecrackers on the Fourth of )uly. I(m sorry I was so angry this morning@ I was just letting off steam. light up light up & lights up lighting up lit up lit up

($ %i/ht$$$ + p.1. When 5ou shine li'hts on so0ethin' or atta!h li'hts to so0ethin', 5ou %i/ht it +$ 'irport runways are lit up so that pilots can see them in the dark. The police lit the house up with their spotlights. %it + part.ad). -"ter a li'ht is shined on so0ethin' or 5ou put li'hts inside or atta!h li'hts to the outside o" so0ethin', it is %it +$ The signs aren(t lit up so it(s hard to see them at night. "$ %i/ht$$$ + p.1. When 5ou %i/ht + a !i'arette, !i'ar, or pipe, 5ou use a 0at!h or li'hter to start it burnin'. $ere are the matches thing he ever did. let(s light up. 1ighting a cigarette up ne0t to the gasoline truck was the last

*3

Infinitive present tense track down track down & tracks down

&ing form tracking down

past tense tracked down

past participle tracked down

($ trac0$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou "ind thin's or people a"ter loo7in' 1er5 hard "or the0, 5ou tra!7 the0 !o5n$ The terrorists were tracked down by Interpol. I finally tracked down that book I(ve been looking for. ECERCISE (*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The )ud'e MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM #ith a #arnin'. 2. 4t #asnBt !old enou'h, so #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ho!7e5 'a0e. 3. -s soon as Nan!5Bs bo5"riend #ent to the #ashroo0,the 'u5 at the ne<t table MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her. 4. ;1er5 Christ0as 05 "ather used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our house #ith thousands o" li'hts. . The poli!e "inall5 MMMMMMMM the 7illers MMMMMMMM and arrested the0. $. The prin!ipal !au'ht 0e as 4 #as MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a !i'arette in the #ashroo0. %. The roo0 that #as da0a'ed b5 the "ire #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the publi!. 8. 4 #as reall5 an'r5 that 4 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list. *. ThatBs a 'reat idea: AouB1e reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0ethin'. 1/. Three students 'ot a Dero be!ause their pro)e!ts #erenBt MMMMMM MMMMMM on ti0e. 11. 8ri1er, !an 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM at the ne<t !ornerH 12. 8r. S0ith resu0ed his le!ture #here he had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore the lun!h brea7. 13. -"ter Wilson s!re#ed up the "inan!e depart0ent, he #as as7ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM his letter o" resi'nation. 14. ;1en thou'h the ene05 soldiers #ere hal" a 0ile a#a5, #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a "e# shots. 1 . The !roo7ed poli!e o""i!ers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMM their bad'es MMMMMMMM. *4

ECERCISE (*& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ *. The bride hasn(t called off. Bthe wedding, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 7. 're they closing off1 Bthe gallery, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2. The accountant handed in. Bher report, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM H. $ave you left off1 B>armen, herC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM D. The judge let off. Bthe pickpocket, himC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM J.I told him not to light up. Bthe cigarette, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM

Be

%. The ;P- tra!7ed do#n. Ethe polluters, the0F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ECERCISE (*c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +assive$ 1. Ce dis!o1ered the sour!e o" the ru0or. What happened to the sour!e o" the ru0orH 2. The students "inished their ,uiDDes and 'a1e the0 to the tea!her. What happened to the ,uiDDesH 3. The )ud'e ne1er sends "irst-ti0e o""enders to )ail. What al#a5s happens to "irst-ti0e o""endersH 4. - 'u5 started tal7in' to Ceather at the dan!e. What happened to CeatherH . The list o" !andidates didnBt in!lude 5our na0e. What happened to 5our na0eH $. The re"eree !an!eled the 'a0e. What happened to the 'a0eH %. The5 are puttin' ropes around the plaDa so that no one !an 'o in. What is happenin' to the plaDaH 8. 4n Ouestion %, a"ter the5 "inish puttin' ropes around the plaDa, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe itH *. The battleship shined li'hts on the ene05 sub0arine. What happened to the ene05 sub0arineH 1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the sub0arine a"ter the battleship shined li'hts on itH *$

ECERCISE (*!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- +revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn do#n, !all in, 'i1e ba!7, 1 hand ba!7, let out, % loo7 at, pile up, plan "or, 4 point out, % run into, 1 run o1er, % s!re# out o", 3 set up, ta7e apart, % ta7e o"", 1 tal7 do#n to, 3

1. 6ost o" the !it5 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the in1adin' soldiers. 2. Tea!her, #ill points be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or spellin'H 3. 8an is so rude > 4 ha1e ne1er been MMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMM li7e that be"ore. 4. - !on"eren!e #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bet#een the la#5ers "or ea!h side. . The Ta5lors #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their li"e sa1in's b5 their sto!7bro7er. $. The !hildren #ere happ5 to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" s!hool earl5. %. The entire sta"" #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the o""i!e and 'i1en pin7 slips. 8. Se1eral "la#s in the plan #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. *. +a,uel #as al0ost MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 a !e0ent tru!7 #hile she #as dri1in' to #or7. 1/. There #asnBt enou'h roo0 inside the !abin, so the "ire#ood had to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM outside. C. The 'eneral said the o!!upied territor5 #ould ne1er be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 12. The test #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the students to0orro#. 13. This en'ine has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM three ti0es, but no one !an "i'ure out #hatBs #ron' #ith it. 14. This is a 1er5 i0portant pro)e!t. ;1er5 possible proble0 0ust be MMMMMM MMMMMM. 1 . 65 nei'hbor stopped at the side o" the road to !han'e a "lat tire, and he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and 7illed b5 a drun7 dri1er. 1$. ;a!h proposed desi'n "or the ne# "la' #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and re)e!ted. *%

(6$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives .or-e! .ro- +hrasa% ver&s' (


The past parti!iples o" 0an5 ;n'lish 1erbs !an also be used as ad)e!ti1es. Aou #ill see that senten!es #ith ad)e!ti1es "or0ed "ro0 past parti!iples are 1er5 si0ilar to senten!es #ith 1erbs in the passi1e 1oi!eG in both !ases a "or0 o" be is used #ith the past parti!iple. 2or this reason, it is not al#a5s eas5 to sa5 #hether a senten!e !ontains an ad)e!ti1e "or0ed "ro0 a past parti!iple or a 1erb in the passi1e 1oi!eG
The door #as !losed. E4s this a passi1e senten!e or is dosed an ad)e!ti1eHF So0eti0es, #hether a senten!e !ontains an ad)e!ti1e "or0ed "ro0 a past parti!iple or a 1erb in the passi1e 1oi!e is !lear "ro0 the senten!e stru!tureG The door was closed by the secretary, BpassiveC The door was closed when I came home last night, BadjectiveC or the !onte<tG Fuestion# .hat happens if the health inspector finds rats in a restaurant1 answer# It(s closed. BpassiveC ,uestionG 4s the #indo# openH ans#erG 4tBs !losed. Ead)e!ti1eF =ut in so0e !ases it is not possible to sa5 absolutel5 #hether a senten!e !ontains an ad)e!ti1e "or0ed "ro0 a past parti!iple or a 1erb in the passi1e 1oi!e. 2ortunatel5, it is usuall5 not 1er5 i0portant be!ause the 0eanin' is o"ten essentiall5 the sa0e. 2or that reason, throu'hout this boo7 true ad)e!ti1es "or0ed "ro0 past parti!iples and past parti!iples "un!tionin' as ad)e!ti1es are both !lassi"ied as parti!iple ad)e!ti1es. 6u!h 0ore i0portant than the di""eren!e bet#een ad)e!ti1es "or0ed "ro0 past parti!iples and past parti!iples "un!tionin' as ad)e!ti1es is #hat the #ords 0ean. So0e parti!iple ad)e!ti1es are #ritten #ith a h5phen E0a7e-upF, so0e #ithout a h5phen E"i<ed upF, and so0e as one #ord Erundo#nF. =e!ause not e1er5one a'rees #hi!h parti!iple ad)e!ti1es should be h5phenated/#hi!h should not, and #hi!h should be #ritten as one #ord, 5ou #ill o!!asionall5 see the sa0e parti!iple ad)e!ti1e #ritten #ith or #ithout a h5phen or #ritten as one #ord. -lso, =ritish ;n'lish h5phenates 0an5 parti!iple ad)e!ti1es that are not nor0all5 h5phenated in -0eri!an ;n'lish? 0an5 o" the parti!iple ad)e!ti1es sho#n unh5phenated in this boo7 are h5phenated in =ritish ;n'lish. *8

4n"initi1e present tense butt in butt in P butts in -in' "or0 buttin' in past tense butt in past parti!iple butt in

($ & tt in p.1. When 5ou enter a !on1ersation, situation, or pla!e Eespe!iall5 a lineF a''ressi1el5, rudel5, and #ithout in1itation/5ou & tt in$ ; was trying to talk to Mm at the party, but Aob kept butting in. My father taught me that it(s not polite to butt in line@ you have to go to the back and wait your turn. dress up dress up & dresses up dressing up dressed up dressed up

($ !ress$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !ress +' 5ou #ear 1er5 ni!e !lothes, o"ten "or a spe!ial o!!asion. When 5ou !ress people up, 5ou put 1er5 ni!e !lothes on the0/ o"ten "or a spe!ial o!!asion. 8ou should always dress up for a job interview. The Taylors dressed their children up so they could take some pictures. !resse! + part.ad). When 5ou are !resse! up, 5ou are #earin' 1er5 ni!e !lothes, o"ten "or a spe!ial o!!asion. .here are Tom and "ancy going1 They(re all dressed up. I felt like an idiot at the party everyone was really dressed up e0cept me.

"$ !ress + Eli7e/asF p.1. When people #ear old-"ashioned !lothes or !ostu0es, the5 !ress +' !ress + li7e so0eone, or !ress + as so0eone. 5id you see >harles at the $alloween party1 $e dressed up like a cowboy. 't )ane(s costume party, everyone has to dress up as a clown. dr% up dr% up & dries up dr%ing up dried up dried up

($ !r3$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' !ries + or so0ethin' !ries it +' all the #ater or other li,uid in it 'oes a#a5. The sun came out and dried up all the rain. The Ireat !alt Gake is slowly dr%ing up. !rie! + part.ad). -"ter all #ater or other li,uid in so0ethin' 'oes a#a5, it is !rie! +$ The cowboys reached the river only to find that it was dried up. These leaves will burn okay now that they(re dried up. "$ !r3 + p.1. When the a0ount or suppl5 o" so0ethin' 'ets s0aller and then disappears !o0pletel5, it !ries +$ The factory switched to synthetic rubber after the supply of natural rubber dried up. The small grocery store(s business dried up after a huge supermarket opened across the street.

LL

4n"initi1e present tense fill out .i%% o t B .i%%s o t -in' "or0 .i%%in/ o t past tense .i%%e! o t past parti!iple .i%%e! o t

($ .i%%$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou .i%% o t a "or0, 5ou put in"or0ation in the !orre!t spa!es. Fi%% in is the sa0e as .i%% o t$ The personnel director asked !ofia to fill out an application. 0ill the withdrawal slip out and give it to the teller. .i%%e! o t partad). -"ter all the in"or0ation is in the !orre!t spa!es o" a "or0, the "or0 is .i%%e! o t$ $ere(s my application@ it(s all filled out. 're these forms blank or filled out" "$ .i%%$$$ o t p.1. When slender people 'ain #ei'ht, the5 "ill o t$ )ake was really thin when he got out of prison, but he has really filled out since then. "icole started to fill out after she started working at the candy shop. put awa% put awa% & puts awa% putting awa% put awa% put awa%

($ + t$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou return so0ethin' to the pla!e #here it is usuall5 stored #hile it is not bein' used, 5ou + t it a5a3$ ; told you to put awa% %our toys before you go outside. Todd always dries the dishes, and I put them awa%. + t a5a3 part.ad). 4" so0ethin' is in the pla!e #here it is usuall5 stored #hile it is not bein' used, it is + t a5a3$ .here is my tool kit1 I looked in the closet, and it(s not put awa%. The dishes are put awa%. "ow let(s watch TV. "$ + t$$$ a5a3 p.1. When people are + t a5a3' the5 are sent to prison or a 0ental institution. ; hope they put that maniac awa% and throw away the key. )ake was put awa% for ten years after he was convicted of murder. *$ + t$$ $a5a3 p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou !onsu0e lar'e ,uantities o" "ood or drin7 Eespe!iall5 al!oholi! drin7F, 5ou + t it a5a3$ Ae sure to buy plenty of beer if 5avid is coming to the party. $e can really put it awa%. I don(t feel well. I put awa% four hot dogs and a bag of cookies. stick up stick up & sticks up sticking up stuck up stuck up

($ stic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use a 'un or other #eapon to rob people, ban7s, or stores, 5ou stic0 the0 +$ Ho%! + is the sa0e as stic0 +$ 1//

>all the policeE They(re sticking up the bank. If we need some money, we can always stick up a liFuor store. stic0 + n. When so0eone uses a 'un or other #eapon to rob a person, ban7, or store, there is a stic0 +$ A ho%! + is the sa0e as a stic0 +$ ' man wearing a ski mask yelled, +This is a stickup!: The detective was asking Fuestions about the stickup last night. "$ stic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou put so0ethin', su!h as a pi!ture, si'n, or noti!e, in a pla!e #here people !an see it, 5ou stic0 it +$ !am stuck a notice up about his lost dog. I(m going to stick these +no smoking+ signs up all over the school. *$ stic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou push so0ethin' inside a !ontainer or spa!e that is lon' and narro#, 5ou stic0 it +$ .e had to take !usie to the emergency room after she stuck a paper clip up her nose. Mark stuck his hand up the chimney to try to find the hidden key. 6$ stic0 + p.1. When so0ethin' lon' and narro# is raised abo1e the sur"a!e, it stic0s +$ Ae careful walking around a construction site there might be a nail sticking up. My hair was sticking up in the back after ; woke up from my nap. st c09 + part.ad). Jin"or0al > althou'h the parti!iple ad)e!ti1e st c09 + deri1es "ro0 stic0 +' the 1erb "or0 is ne1er used in this senseK When 5ou thin7 5ou are better than other people be!ause 5ou are 0ore beauti"ul or 0ore intelli'ent or be!ause 5ou !o0e "ro0 a hi'her le1el o" so!iet5, 5ou are st c09 +$ $eather is the most popular girl in the school, but she isn(t stuck-up. They(re so stuck-up Infinitive present tense use up use up & uses up using up used up used up &ing form past tense past participle they(ll never sit at our table.

($ se$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use up so0ethin', 5ou use all o" it. 'fter you use something up be sure to write it on the grocery list. I used up all the glue@ we need to buy more. se! + part.ad). -"ter all o" so0ethin' has been used, it is se! +$ 8o #e ha1e another tube o" toothpaste in the houseH This oneBs se! +$ wind wind up & winds up winding up wound up

wound up

($ 5in! $$$ + p.1. When 5ou turn the handle or 7e5 o" a 0e!hani!al to5, #at!h, or !lo!7 to 0a7e it operate, 5ou 5in! it +$ 1/1

; overslept because I forgot to wind up my alarm dock. This toy doesn(t use batteries@ you have to wind it up. 5o n! + part.ad). -"ter so0eone turns the handle or 7e5 o" a 0e!hani!al to5, #at!h, or !lo!7, it is 5o n! +$ The toy soldier is wound up. )ust push the button to make it walk. .hat is wrong with this watch1 It(s wound up but it still doesn(t work. 5o n! + part.ad). When 5ou are ner1ous or tense, 5ou are 5o n! +$ 5on(t even talk to )oe today. $e(s really wound up. I(m feeling really wound up I need a drink. "$ 5in! + p.1. When 5ou sa5 that so0eone or so0ethin' 5in!s + a !ertain #a5 or 5in!s + doin' so0ethin', 5ou 0ean that this situation #as the result o" a series o" de!isions, a!tions, or unplanned and une<pe!ted o!!urren!es. En! + is si0ilar to 5in! +$ .e got totally lost and wound up *33 miles from the campground. If you don(t start driving more carefully, you(re going to wind up dead. *$ 5in! $$$ + p.1. When 5ou 5in! + an a!ti1it5 or e1ent, 5ou "inish it or 'et read5 to "inish it. =ra+ + is si0ilar to 5in! +$ The detective wound up her investigation and made several arrests. .e(d better wind things up here@ it(s getting late. 6$ 5in! $$$ + p.1. When 5ou #rap so0ethin' lon', su!h as an ele!tri!al !ord, rope, strin', or 0easurin' tape, around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool, 5ou 5in! it +$ That(s enough fishing for today. Get(s wind up our lines and go home. The firefighters wound up their fire hoses and went back to the station. 5o n! + part.ad). When 5ou #rap so0ethin' lon', su!h as an ele!tri!al !ord, rope, or 0easurin' tape, around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool, it is 5o n! +$ This rope is a mess. 8ou should keep it wound up. This electrical cord is realty wound up tight. ECERCISE (6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. We !ouldnBt de!ide #here to 'o, so #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sta5in' ho0e. 2. =e sure 5ou MMMMMMMM this "or0 MMMMMMMM !are"ull5. 3. 65 son lo1es to eat. Ce !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an e<tra lar'e piDDa in less than "i"teen 0inutes. 1/2

-. 4Bll MMMMMMMM this noti!e MMMMMMMM on the #all. . WeBre 'oin' out to a ni!e restaurant toni'ht, so be sure to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. $. =usiness at the s7i shop al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in su00er. %. When 5ouBre "inished #ith 5our 6onopol5 'a0e, MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 8. Con'ress is MMMMMM MMMMMM so0e un"inished business be"ore the su00er re!ess. *. The "ire"i'hter MMMMMM her hand MMMMMM the drain pipe to tr5 to rea!h the 7itten. 1/. The 0eetin'Bs al0ost o1er MMMMMMMM the5Bre MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM no#. 11. Iani!e #ent to the !ostu0e part5MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM li7e 6arie -ntoinette. 12. The desert is so hot that rain#ater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM al0ost i00ediatel5. 13. 4 donBt 7no# #hat ti0e it is. 4 "or'ot to MMMMMMMM 05 !lo!7 MMMMMMMM. 14. =e !are"ul #hen 5ou sail 5our boat in this shallo# #ater. So0eti0es lo's MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 the botto0. 1 . &5dia hasMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMa little sin!e she had the bab5. 1$. -unt 9ath5 "inished 7nittin' the s#eater and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her 7nittin' needles. 1%. 2ran7 and Iesse Ia0esMMMMMM MMMMMMa ban7 in North"ield, 6innesota, in 18%$. 18. 4 hope the5 !at!h those !roo7s and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM "or a lon' ti0e. 1*. 4 MMMMMMMMall 05 ti0e MMMMMMMMon the "irst hal" o" the test and didnBt ha1e an5 ti0e le"t "or the se!ond hal". 2/. 65 brother is so rude: Whene1er 4 tr5 to tal7 to 05 "riend 9aren, he MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and #onBt let 0e tal7. ECERCISE (6& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ 1. 4 hope it rains soon. (ur la#n is reall5MMMMMMMMMMM. 2. Wh5 are 5ou MMMMM MMMMMMH -re 5ou 'oin' to a part5H 3. So0e o" these "or0s are blan7 and others are MMMMM MMMMM. 4. -ll the people #ho li1e in that nei'hborhood thin7 the5Bre better than e1er5one else in to#n. ThereBre so MMMMM MMMMM. . 4 !anBt use 05 printer. The toner !artrid'e is MMMM MMMM, and 4 need to bu5 a ne# one. $. The !lo!7 isnBt #or7in' be!ause it isnBt MMMMM MMMMM. %. Tirnrn5, are 5our to5s all o1er the "loor #here the5 #ere last ni'ht, or are the5 MMMMM MMMMMH ECERCISE (6c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ *. )anice dressed up. Bher son, himC MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. The sun Fuickly dries up. Bthe water, itC

MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. Filling out isn(t necessary, Bthe entire form, itC MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. /d put away in an hour. Bsi0 beers, themC MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. They stuck up. Bnotices, themC MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM.

1/4

$. 4B0 #indin' up. E05 !lo!7, itF MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM. MMMMM MMMMM.

ECERCISE (6! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Ia7e #as ridin' his 0otor!5!le too "ast and not bein' !are"ul. No# he is in the hospital #ith a bro7en le'. What happened to Ia7eH 2. 4t #as hard tal7in' to 05 0other be!ause 05 sister 7ept rudel5 interruptin' our !on1ersation. What did 05 sister 7eep doin'H 3. - lot o" rain "ell and 0ade a s0all la7e in the "ield. No#, a"ter a #ee7, the #ater is not there an50ore. What happened to the #aterH 4. -le< #as pla5in' #ith his to5 trains. No# the5 are in the bo< #here he 7eeps the0 #hen he is not pla5in' #ith the0. What did -le< doH

. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe -le<Bs to5sH $. 4t rained three hours a'o, but no# there is no 0ore #ater in the streets. Co# #ould 5ou des!ribe the streetsH

%. 4 turned the 7e5 in this 'rand"ather !lo!7, and no# it is #or7in'. What did 4 do to the !lo!7H 8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !lo!7H *. 8aniela put on her best !lothes "or the dan!e. What did 8aniela doH 1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 8anielaH 11. &uis #rote all the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on the "or0. What did &uis doH 12. 4n Ouestion 11, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the "or0H

1/

ECERCISE (6e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro+revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7ed up, 11 bro7en-do#n, burned-out, 8 !au'ht up, * !ut o"", 11 !ut up, % "illed in, 1/ 'ro#n-up, 1/ hoo7ed up, * hun' up, * paid "or, 4 piled up, s!re#ed up, 1/ set up, #a7e-up, 11 #or7ed up, *

1. The !lothes are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the !loset. 2. 4 donBt o#e an5 0one5 to the ban7 "or 05 house. 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 3. 65 VC+ is !onne!ted to 05 TV. 65 VC+ is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. We li1e "ar out in the !ountr5 a#a5 "ro0 to#n, our "riends, and our "a0ilies. 4 donBt li7e bein' so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . 65 !arBs MMMMMMMMMMM, so 4 ha1e to ta7e the bus to #or7. $. -ll the plans and arran'e0ents "or our 1a!ation are read5? e1er5thin' is MMMMMMMM MM. %. -ll the spa!es in this "or0 ha1e the ne!essar5 in"or0ation in the0. The "or0 is

8. Nan!5Bs "our-5ear-old son #as pla5in' #ith her !o0puter, and no# itBs all MMMMM MMMMM. *. 4 #as si!7 and 0issed se1eral ho0e#or7 assi'n0ents in s!hool. =ut 4 #or7ed hard and "inished all the ho0e#or7 4 0issed, and no# 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. 4B0 1er5 ner1ous and upset about so0ethin'. 4B0MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. These 1ideotapes arenBt "or !hildren > the5Bre MMMMMMMMMMM 1ideotapes. 12. Ti005Bs 0other used a 7ni"e to !ut his 0eat into 0an5 s0all pie!es. Ti005Bs 0eat is

13. 4B0 tired all the ti0e, 4 hate 05 )ob, and 4 need a 1a!ation. 4B0 MMMMM MMMMMM. 14. 65 !o0puter !rashed last ni'ht, but "ortunatel5 all 05 i0portant "iles are 1 . The hotel "or'ot 05MMMMMMMMMMM !all, and 4 0issed 05 plane. 1$. The 0a'aDines are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in a bi' sta!7.

1/$

1 . 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s an! will or be going to


Aoth will and be going to are used to talk about the future in /nglish, but they are not the same. Pre!ictions< 5i%% or &e /oin/ to .se #ill or be 'oin' to "or predi!tions. When 5ou predi!t the "uture, 5ou sa5 #hat 5ou thin7 #ill happenG The wind will blow awa% these paper plates. The wind is going to blow awa% these paper plates. =i%%in/ness< 5i%% .se onl5 #ill "or #illin'ness. When 5ou o""er to do so0ethin' that 5ou do not ha1e to do, 5ou are #illin' to do itG ; will put up the shelves for you. P%ans< &e /oin/ to .se onl5 be 'oin' to "or plans. When 5ou de!ide to do so0ethin' in the "uture, #hether it is lon' and !o0pli!ated or short and si0ple, 5ou plan to do itG $e is going to head for Me0ico ne0t week. The "uture #ith #ill is "or0ed b5 usin' #ill plus the in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG statements# $e will come through !an Francisco. Fuestion# .ill he come through !an Francisco1 negative# $e will not come through !an Francisco. These contractions are used with will# I will Q I(ll you will Q you(ll he will Q he(ll she will Q she(ll it will Q it(ll they will Q they(ll will not Q won(t When t#o !ontra!tions are possible, it is 0ore !o00on to !ontra!t #ill #ith not rather than #ith a pronounG common# $e won(t come through !an Francisco. uncommon# $e(ll not come through !an Francisco. The "uture #ith be 'oin' to is "or0ed #ith a "or0 o" be plus 'oin' to plus the in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG statement# $e is. going to head for Me0ico ne0t week. Fuestion# Is he going to head for Me0ico ne0t week1 negative# $e is not going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
*3M

These !ontra!tions are used #ith be 'oin' toG 4 a0 5ou are he is she is it is the5 are are not is not ] ] ] ] ] ] 4B0 5ouBre heBs sheBs itBs the5Bre

] arenBt ] isnBt

When t#o !ontra!tions are possible, both are e,uall5 !o00onG !o00onG CeBs not 'oin' to hea! .or 6e<i!o ne<t #ee7. !o00onG Ce isnBt 'oin' to hea! .or 6e<i!o ne<t #ee7. 4n in"or0al spo7en ;n'lish, 'oin' to is o"ten pronoun!ed /onna. 4t is not ne!essar5 to pronoun!e 'oin' to in this #a5, but it is ne!essar5 to understand it. #nfinitive present tense blow awa% blow awa% & blows awa%

-ing form blowing awa%

past tense blew awa%

past participle blown awa%

($ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.1. When the #ind 0o1es so0ethin' a#a5 "ro0 #here it #as, it &%o5s it a5a3$ 5on(t leave the newspaper outside. The wind will blow it awa%. The picnic wasn(t much fun. It was really windy, and everything kept blowing awa%. "$ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.1. Jin"or0alK When a person or !o0pan5 has an abilit5, produ!t, or ser1i!e that is 0u!h better than that o" a !o0petin' person or !o0pan5, it &%o5s a5a3 the !o0petin' person or !o0pan5. 'pple(s new computer is so fast it(s going to blow awa% the competition. I thought I had a chance to win the race, but /rik just blew me awa%. *$ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.1. Jin"or0alK When so0ethin' 5ou ha1e seen or heard 0a7es 5ou 1er5 sho!7ed, a0aDed, or e0otional, it &%o5s 5ou a5a3$ The first time I saw the ?yramids, they just blew me awa%. I was blown awa% when my mother told me that I was adopted. come through come through & comes through coming through came through come through

($ co-e thro /h p.1. When 5ou are in a pla!e and people or thin's co-e thro /h it, the5 pass "ro0 one side to the other side #here 5ou are. Aetty came through the door and sat down at our table. The soldiers were coining through the hole in the wall. *3K

"$ co-e thro /h p.1. When people tra1el to 5our to#n, sta5 "or a #hile, and then lea1e, the5 co-e thro /h or co-e thro /h to#n. 'unt !ally promised she(d come through Milwaukee on her way to Indianapolis. *$ co-e thro /h p.1. When i0portant in"or0ation, authoriDation, or per0ission that 5ou ha1e been #aitin' "or is re!ei1ed, it co-es thro /h$ .e can buy the house the loan finally came through. The e0ecution was stopped when the call from the governor came through. 6$ co-e thro /h E#ithF p.1. When 5ou pro0ise to do so0ethin' or produ!e so0ethin' and 7eep 5our pro0ise, 5ou co-e thro /h or co-e thro /h #ith #hat 5ou pro0ised to do or pro0ised to produ!e. .e were all surprised when Aob came through with front row tickets just like he said he would. The state legislature promised to provide the financing for a new stadium, but they didn(t come through. 7$ co-e thro /h p.1. When 5ou co-e thro /h a di""i!ult or dan'erous e<perien!e, 5ou sur1i1e it. My Oncle Fred saw lots of action during the war, but he came through without a scratch. +oming through the earthFuake alive was a miracle. 8$ co-e thro /h p.1. When so0eoneBs "eelin's, attitudes, or opinions !an be per!ei1ed b5 so0eone else, the5 co-e thro /h$ The author(s hatred of the dictatorship came through in the novel. The professor(s enthusiasm for the subject really comes through in his lectures. #nfinitive present tense dr% out dr% out & dries out dr%ing out dried out dried out ;ing form past tense past participle

($ !r3 $$$o t p.1. When so0ethin' !ries o t or so0ethin' !ries it out, all the #ater or other li,uid in it 'oes a#a5. Aefore you put this tent away, be sure you dr% it out. 'fter the flood, it took weeks for our house to dr% out. !rie! o t part.ad). -"ter all the #ater or other li,uid in so0ethin' 'oes a#a5, it is !rie! o t$ My skin always gets dried out in the winter. .e shampooed our carpet a week ago, and it(s still not dried out. fi7 up fi7 up & fi7es up fi7ing up fi7ed up fi7ed up

($ .i4$$$ + p.1. When 5ou "i< up a pla!e, su!h as a buildin', street, or par7, 5ou repair and de!orate it. 1/*

; am going to fi7 this place up and try to sell it. The city decided to fi7 up the park. .i4e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou repair and de!orate a pla!e, su!h as a buildin', street, or par7, it is .i4e! +$ "ow that his house is fi7ed up it looks pretty nice. .hen you see how fi7ed up )im(s apartment is now, you(ll be surprised. .i4er9 ++er n. Jin"or0alK - .i4er9 ++er is a buildin' in poor !ondition that !an be repaired, reno1ated, or rede!orated in order to in!rease its 1alue. The way to make money in real estate is to buy a fi7er-upper and do as much of the work yourself as you can. "$ .i4$$$ + p.1. When 5ou .i4 5oursel" +' 5ou st5le 5our hair ni!el5 and put on 0a7eup and ni!e !lothes. If you(re going to that fancy restaurant, you(d better fi0 yourself up. $eather is upstairs fi7ing herself up for the prom. .i4e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou st5le 5our hair ni!el5 and put on 0a7e-up and ni!e !lothes, 5ou are .i4e! +$ .here(s Gydia going1 !he(s all fi7ed up. I got all fi7ed up and my boyfriend took me to a demolition derby. *$ .i4$$$ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou .i4 people + #ith so0ethin', 5ou arran'e "or the0 to ha1e or to use so0ethin' that the5 need or #ant. .e told the hotel desk clerk that we wanted their best room, and she fi7ed us up with the honeymoon suite. The travel agent fi7ed me up with a limo to take me to the resort. 6$ .i4$$$ + E#ithF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou .i4 people + or .i4 the0 + #ith so0eone, 5ou arran'e a date "or the0 #ith a 0e0ber o" the opposite se<. Ginda and Tom are perfect for each other. I(m going to fi7 them up. I asked )erry if he(d fi7 me up with his sister. #nfinitive present tense go with go with & goes with going with went with gone with -ing form past tense past participle

($ /o 5ith p.1. When one thin' is usuall5 or al#a5s "ound #ith another, the5 /o 5ith ea!h other. ' lot of responsibility goes with being a doctor. I never wanted to own an old house because of all the maintenance that goes with it. "$ /o 5ith p.1. When t#o thin's are part o" one unit or set or are 0eant to be #ith ea!h other, the5 /o 5ith ea!h other. 11/

=ne of the fringe benefits of that job was the car that went with it. 8ou can(t buy the cup without the saucer that goes with it. *$ /o 5ith p.1. When one ite0 o" !lothin' loo7s ni!e #ith another, the5 'o #ith ea!h other. !he needs to find a blouse that goes with her new skirt. I like white shirts because they go with everything. 6$ /o 5ith p.1. When 5ou /o 5ith people, 5ou a'ree #ith and support their idea or plan. !enator 5olittle has no opinions. $e just goes with the majority. .e(ve decided to go with the committee(s recommendation. 7$ /o 5ith p.1. When 5ou !hoose so0eone or so0ethin' "ro0 a 'roup, 5ou /o 5ith 5our !hoi!e. That gray suit was nice, but I think I(m going to go with the black one. /veryone who applied for the job is highly Fualified. I don(t know who I(m going to go with. Infinitive head back present tense head back < heads back &ing form heading back past tense headed back past participle headed back

($ hea! &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou hea! &ac0 or hea! &ac0 to a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou return to a pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore. When 5ou are hea!e! &ac0 or are hea!in/ &ac0 to a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou are returnin' to a pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore. .e(ll spend a month in >alifornia and then head back to 5es Moines. .e got to the beach around *3#33, and we headed back when it started to get dark. head head for & heads for heading for headed for headed for

($ hea! .or p.1. When 5ou hea! .or a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou 0o1e to#ard it. When 5ou are hea!e! .or or are hea!in/ .or a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou are plannin' to 'o there or 5ou ha1e stopped and #ill resu0e 'oin' there. Hea! to5ar! is the sa0e as hea! .or$ Tomorrow we(re going to leave 5es Moines and head for >alifornia. I told the guy at the gas station I was headed for !anta Fe. "$ hea! .or p.1. When 5ou are hea!e! .or or are hea!in/ .or a !ertain situation, !ondition, or !onse,uen!e, it is be!o0in' 0ore li7el5. If you don(t shut your mouth you(re headed for trouble. This is going to be a great vacation we(re heading for a good timeE

111

Infinitive present tense tell on tell on < tells on telling on told on told on &ing form past tense past participle

1. tell on p.v. ,informal used primarily by children- .hen you tell on people, you inform someone in authority, such as a parent or teacher, that they have made a mistake or broken a rule. ; broke a glass. 8ou(re not going to tell on me, are you1 Timmy didn(t do his homework, and his sister told on him. ECERCISE (7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The "irst ti0e 4 held 05 ne#born son in 05 ar0s it )ust MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 2. 4 as7ed &inda i" she #ould MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #ith her "riend Nan!5. 3. =ob said he !ould 'et us ba!7sta'e a"ter the !on!ert, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM )ust li7e he pro0ised. 4. This house is du0p no#, but a"ter 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, itBll loo7 ni!e. . 4 sa# 5ou eatin' !oo7ies be"ore dinner #hen 6o005 told 5ou not to. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5ou. $. The !o0poserBs lo1e "or his nati1e land reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM throu'h in his 0usi!. %. Can 5ou help 0eH 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMToronto, but 4B0 lost. 8. 4B1e ne1er been to the opera be"ore. 4 thin7 4Bd better MMMMMMMM 05sel"MMMMMMMM. *. The train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to#n three ti0es a #ee7. 1/. 4" 5ou 7eep !har'in' stu"" li7e !raD5 on 5our !redit !ards, 5ouBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ban7rupt!5. 11. 8o 5ou thin7 these bro#n pants MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this blue shirtH 12. -ll the boo7s da0a'ed in the "lood ha1e to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. Co7eBs ne# sales pro0otion is 'oin' to MMMMMMMM Pepsi MMMMMMMM. 14. We sat b5 the phone ner1ousl5 #aitin' "or the )ud'eBs de!ision to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.

112

1 . 65 brother #or7s in a !ar rental pla!e, and he said he !an MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #ith a 6er!edes at no e<tra !ost. 1$. -"ter loo7in' at pi!tures o" se1eral 0odels, the photo'rapher de!ided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ni!ole. 1%. 8r. Wood MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the door and said hello. 18. -ll the !lothes 4 le"t outside to dr5 #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the stor0. 1*. 65 "ather hated bein' a sales0an be!ause o" all the tra1el that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the )ob. 2/. T#o o" 05 brothers #ent to Vietna0, but onl5 one MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it ali1e. 21. 4 as7ed the !ler7 in the !o0puter store i" the 0onitor MMMMM MMMMM the !o0puter. 22. 4tBs 'ettin' late and 4B0 tired. 4 thin7 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMM MMMMMM to 05 house. 23. Cis proposal 0ade a lot o" sense, so #e de!ided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. ECERCISE (7& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Use 5i%% or &e /oin/ to 5ith a%% +hrasa% ver&s$ 1. 4 as7ed the restaurant 0ana'er "or the best table in the house, and he is 'oin' to 'i1e us a table ne<t to the "irepla!e. What is the restaurant 0ana'er 'oin' to doH 2. &indaBs "ather pro0ised to pa5 "or her #eddin', and she is sure that he #ill. What is &inda sure aboutH 3. +a,uelBs husband is 'oin' to be 1er5 surprised #hen she tells hi0 she #on N1/ 0illion in the lotter5. What is the ne#s 'oin' to do to her husbandH 4. CeBll repair so0e thin's in his house and paint it be"ore he puts it on the 0ar7et. What #ill he doH . 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ill the house be a"ter he 0a7es so0e repairs and paints itH $. Ti005 #onBt tell the tea!her that Susie didnBt do her ho0e#or7 i" she 'i1es hi0 a !and5 bar. What #onBt Ti005 doH %. Those 0obile ho0es arenBt 'oin' to be there a"ter the tornado. What is the tornado 'oin' to doH 113

8. 4" thereBs an earth,ua7e, no one in this old buildin' #ill sur1i1e. What #onBt the people do i" thereBs an earth,ua7eH

*. SheBll put on her ni!est out"it and her best )e#elr5 and 'et a per0. What #ill she doH 1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ill she loo7 a"ter she puts on her ni!est out"it and her best )e#elr5 and 'ets a per0H 11. To0orro#, 5ouBre 'oin' to lea1e San 8ie'o and 'o to Tu!son. What are 5ou 'oin' to do to0orro#H 12. - 0onth "ro0 no#, 5ouBre 'oin' to lea1e Tu!son and return to San 8ie'o. What are 5ou 'oin' to do a 0onth "ro0 no#H

13. ;ri7 said he #onBt as7 his sister i" she #ill 'o on a date #ith 6i7e. What #onBt ;ri7 doH 14. &5dia is at the paint store to !hoose a paint !olor "or her house. She hates the !olor blue. What isnBt &5dia 'oin' to doH 1 . 4=6 has a ne# !hip thatBs t#i!e as "ast as the !o0petitionBs "astest !hip. What is 4=6 'oin' to do to the !o0petitionH 1$. .n!le 2red is 'oin' to 1isit our to#n, sta5 "or a short ti0e, and then !ontinue on his trip to 2lorida. What is .n!le 2red 'oin' to doH

1%. This pond is 'oin' to slo#l5 e1aporate and disappear. What is the pond 'oin' to doH 18. 4n Ouestion 1%, a"ter the pond e1aporates, ho# #ill it beH ECERCISE (7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se 5i%% an! &e /oin/ to$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 114

$.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE (7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7 o"", 12 !all o"", 13 !lose o"", 13 !o0e a!ross, 12 !o0e up, 12 "all throu'h, 12 hand in, 13 hit on, 13 lea1e o"", 13 let o"", 13 li'ht up, 13 put up, 12 s!re# on, 12 si'n in, 12 si'n out, 12 tra!7 do#n, 13

1. 8id 05 e<-husband tal7 about 0e at the part5H Aes, 5our na0e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se1eral ti0es. 2. (ur 1a!ation plans MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a"ter To0 bro7e his le'. 3. 4 told 5ou not to MMMMMMMM that !i'arette MMMMMMMM in here. 4. 2l5in' 6o0 here "or the holida5s is 'oin' to !ost N1,///. 65 brother is 'oin' to pa5 N3//, and 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the rest o" the 0one5. . So "ar, the poli!e ha1e been unable to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the stolen paintin's. $. The sear!hli'hts MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ni'ht s75, loo7in' "or ene05 bo0bers. %. Aou !anBt 'o in that part o" the 0useu0? itBs been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. When 5ou tra1el, al#a5s MMMMMMMM the tops o" 5our toiletries MMMMMMMM ti'htl5. *. We de!ided to MMMMMMM our s7i trip MMMMMMM be!ause there #asnBt enou'h sno#. 1/. 4 #as 'ettin' reall5 an'r5, and 4 told hi0 that 4 #as 'oin' to pun!h hi0 in the nose i" he didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. The tea!her told the students to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their ho0e#or7. 12. 4 didnBt a'ree #ith that list o" the 1// best 0o1ies. The5MMMMMMMMso0e o" 05 "a1orites

13. The 0ana'er re0inded 6aria not to "or'et to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen she !o0es to #or7 in the 0ornin'. 11

14. 6rs. Nash isnBt in the o""i!e an50ore. She MMMMMMM MMMMMMM about an hour a'o. 1 . The Iud'e told Ia7e that the ne<t ti0e he 'ot in trouble he #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM #ith a #arnin'. 1$. 4 #as 'oin' throu'h so0e stu"" in the atti!, and 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM so0e interestin' old pi!tures.

(8$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith /er n! o&,ects' (


Gerunds 1erbs in the -ing "or0 that "un!tion as nouns > !an ser1e as ob)e!ts o" 0an5 phrasal 1erbs. 4t is 0ore !o00on to use 'erund ob)e!ts #ith nonseparable t#o- and three-#ord phrasal 1erbsG She's counting on getting that job.
gerund I don(t feel up to playing hockey. gerund but 'erund ob)e!ts are so0eti0es used #ith separable phrasal 1erbsG ; wouldn(t put robbing a bank past him. gerund Mr. Taylor wants to give smoking up. gerund Infinitive present tense believe in believe in < believes in believing in believed in believed in &ing form past tense past participle

($ &e%ieve in p.1. When 5ou &e%ieve in so0ethin' or &e%ieve in doin' so0ethin', 5ou ha1e a stron' opinion about so0ethin' that is i0portant to 5ou. / believe in working hard and saving money. Maria doesn(t believe in se0 before marriage. "$ &e%ieve in p.1. When 5ou &e%ieve in so0ethin', 5ou thin7 it e<ists. 5o you believe in ghosts1 "ed is an atheist@ he doesn(t believe in Iod. 11$

*$ &e%ieve in p.1. When 5ou &e%ieve in people, 5ou ha1e !on"iden!e in the0 and belie1e #hat the5 sa5 be!ause 5ou thin7 the5 are honest, !orre!t, or !o0petent. ; don(t care what anyone else says, I still believe in you. .e want to believe in you, but we need some proof that your invention really works. #nfinitive present tense carr% on carr% on & carries on carr%ing on carried on carried on -ing form past tense past participle

($ carr3 on p.1. When 5ou carr3 on' 5ou !ontinue as be"ore, despite a di""i!ult e<perien!e in 5our li"e. 8ou(ll have to carr% on for the sake of the children. It was difficult for Mrs. "elson to carr% on after her husband died. "$ carr3 on E#ithF p.1. When 5ou carr3 on' carr3 on #ith an a!ti1it5, or carr3 on doin' an a!ti1it5, 5ou !ontinue it or !ontinue doin' it. The men stopped working when Ieneral >hambers entered the room, and he told them to carr% on. !he plans to carr% on with her career after the baby is born. They knew I was trying to sleep, but they carried on talking and singing anyway. *$ carr3 $$$ on p.1. When 5ou carr3 so0ethin' on an airplane, 5ou 7eep it #ith 5ou in the passen'er !o0part0ent instead o" 'i1in' it to an airline a'ent to put in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent. This suitcase is pretty big. I hope they(ll let me carr% it on. 8ou should carr% your laptop computer on. 8ou don(t want to take any chances. carr39on n$ Carr39on' carr39on lu''a'e, carr39on ba''a'e, carr39on ba's, and so on, are not 'i1en to an airline a'ent to put in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent but are 7ept in the passen'er !o0part0ent o" an airplane. I(m staying only one night in "ew 8ork, so all I(ll need is a carr%-on bag. 6$ carr3 on EaboutF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou carr3 on or carr3 on about so0ethin', 5ou are 1er5 persistent and 1o!al about so0ethin' that upsets 5ou. ; forgot our anniversary, and she carried on all day. I said I was sorry@ now will you please stop carr%ing on about it1 count on count on & counts on counting on counted on counted on

($ co nt on p.1. When 5ou need so0ethin' i0portant to happen or a !ertain !ondition to e<ist, 5ou are co ntin/ on it. When 5ou need so0eone to do so0ethin' i0portant, 5ou are co ntin/ on that person. I(m counting on getting a ride to the airport with Aetty. Farmers count on a lot of rain in the spring. 11%

"$ co nt on p.1. When 5ou rel5 on so0eone or so0ethin' "or help or support i" 5ou need it, 5ou are co ntin/ on that thin' or that person. I(m going to sell this car and buy one that always starts. I need a car I can count on. The governor said that she(s counting on our support in the ne0t election. *$ co nt on p.1. When 5ou are !ertain than so0ethin' #ill happen or that a !ertain !ondition #ill e<ist, 5ou are co ntin/ on it. Man;in makes a fool of himself at every party. 8ou can count on it. 8ou can count on crowds and long lines at 5isney .orld if you go in 'ugust. Infinitive present tense get through get through < gets through &ing form getting through past tense got through past participle gotten;got through

($ /et thro /h E#ithF p.1. When 5ou /et thro /h' /et thro /h #ith an a!ti1it5, or /et thro /h doin' an a!ti1it5, 5ou "inish it or "inish doin' it. ; have so much homework that I might not get through with it until midnight. 'fter you get through washing the dishes, you can start ironing. "$ /et thro /h EtoF p.1. When 5ou /et thro /h or /et thro /h to so0eone, usuall5 on a telephone or radio, 5ou are able to spea7 to that person. "ancy tried calling )im last night, but she couldn(t get through. It wasn(t easy, but I finally got through to my brother in Aorneo. *$ /et thro /h EtoF p.1. When 5ou /et thro /h or /et thro /h to so0eone, 5ou 0a7e that person understand 5our opinion or point o" 1ie#. Mr. Toylor has tried to make his daughter understand why it(s important to work hard in school and get good grades, but he just can(t get through. I(ve e0plained it a hundred timesE .hat do I have to do to get through to you1 6$ /et $$$thro /h p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou /et so0ethin' thro /h so0eoneBs head, 5ou 0a7e that person understand 5our opinion or point o" 1ie#. When 5ou /et so0ethin' thro /h 5our o#n head, 5ou understand it. ; finally got it through my son(s head that I was serious about sending him to military school. .hen are you going to get it through your head that our marriage is over1 7$ /et$$$ thro /h p.1. When so0ethin' /ets 5ou thro /h a di""i!ult e<perien!e, it !o0"orts and supports 5ou. )ulia(s faith in Iod was what got her through the loss of her husband. $e was very nervous about giving the speech, so he had a drink to help get him through the ordeal.

118

Infinitive present tense go for go for < goes for going for went for gone for &ing form past tense past participle

($ /o .or p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 'o "or so0ethin', 5ou li7e it a lot. /rik really goes for scuba diving. Get(s go to a different nightclub. I don(t go for ja66. "$ /o .or p.1. When 5ou /o .or so0ethin', 5ou tr5 to a!hie1e it. The gymnast said she was going to go for the gold at the ne0t =lympics. 'fter she finished her master(s, she went for a ?h.5. *$ /o .or p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When 5ou ha1e so0ethin' /oin/ .or 5ou, 5ou ha1e an ad1anta'e that 0a7es it easier "or 5ou to do so0ethin' or 'et so0ethin' that 5ou #ant. !am(s not especially good at basketball, but he has one thing going for him he(s seven feet tall. I have ten years of e0perience going for me, so I think I have a good chance of getting the job. 6$ /o .or p.1. When 5ou sa5 that a state0ent about one person or thin' /oes .or another person or thin', 5ou 0ean that it is also true about the other person or thin'. When 5ou sa5 @That /oes .or 0e,@ 5ou are a'reein' #ith so0eone elseBs opinion. $eather said that Tom was a jerk, and I said that that goes for Tom(s brother Aill, too. Aetty(s really angry about it, and that goes for me, too. hold off hold off & holds off holding off held off held off

($ ho%! o.. p.1. When 5ou ho%! o.. or ho%! o.. doin' so0ethin', 5ou dela5 doin' it. / held offsetting our house until our youngest child moved out. 8ou(d better hold off accusing Mike until you(re *33 percent sure. ($ ho%! $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ho%! o.. an atta!7, 5ou pre1ent the atta!7er "ro0 'ettin' !lose to 5ou or "ro0 #innin' the "i'ht. 4" 5ou ho%! o.. a !o0petitor, 5ou pre1ent the !o0petitor "ro0 #innin'. The enemy was so strong that there was no way to hold them off. The champion held off the challenger and won the game. put past ($ + t$$$ +ast p.1. Jused onl5 in the in"initi1e "or0 and onl5 in ne'ati1e senten!esK When 5ou #ant to sa5 that 5ou thin7 so0eone is !apable o" doin' so0ethin' #ron', 5ou sa5 that 5ou #ouldnBt + t it +ast that person. When 5ou #ant to #arn so0eone that 5ou thin7 another person is !apable o" doin' so0ethin' #ron', 5ou sa5 @8onBt + t it +ast Ethat personF.@ 11*

Is he capable of murder1 .ell, I wouldn(t put killing someone past him. Marvin is evil. There isn(t any crime I wouldn(t put past him. 8ou don(t think $ank would steal money from his grandmother1 I know him better than you do don(t put it past him. #nfinitive present tense think about think about & thinks about -ing form thinking about past tense thought about past participle thought about

($ thin0 a&o t p.1. When 5ou thin0 a&o t so0ethin' or thin0 a&o t doin' so0ethin', 5ou !onsider it be"ore 0a7in' a de!ision. The salesman tried to get me to sign the contract, but I said I(d think about it. I(m thinking about Fuitting my job. ECERCISE (8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. This house is too s0all "or our "a0il5. WeBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0o1in' to a bi''er one. 2. These s7is are prett5 bi'. 8o 5ou thin7 the5Bll let 0e MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMMH 3. This #or7 is 1er5 i0portant, and 4 7no# 5ou !an do it. 4B0 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 5ou. 4. -t the ne<t (l50pi!s, +aulBs 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM a ne# re!ord in the pole 1ault. . 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tal7in' about people behind their ba!7s. $. 4 tried se1eral ti0es to !all Ti0 in Ti0bu7tu, but 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMM MMMMMM. %. The roller !oaster is 1er5 popular. 4" 5ou 'o on the #ee7end, 5ou !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #aitin' in line "or three hours. 8. -s soon as 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM #ashin' the !ar, !o0e inside and eat lun!h. *. 4 #anted to bu5 a di'ital !a0era, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu5in' one until the pri!es "ell. 1/. 6ar1in see0s li7e a ni!e 'u5, but he isnBt. 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM an5thin' MMMMMMMM hi0. 11. 8a1id as7ed 0e to bu5 beer #hen 4 #ent to the store, but 4 "or'ot, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it "or an hour. 12. The de"enders MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the atta!7ers as lon' as the5 !ould. 12/

13. 6i7e reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM auto ra!in' #hen he #as 5oun'. 14. Sall5 has a 'ood edu!ation and a pleasant personalit5. She has a lot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her. 1 . Co# !an 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter this terrible tra'ed5H 1$. 4B1e e<plained the rules a thousand ti0es. Wh5 !anBt 5ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 5our head that 4B0 the boss around here, not 5ouH 1%. ;1er5one else thin7s 8r. Cat!herBs ideas are !raD5, but 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMM hi0. 18. .n!le Iohn #as the onl5 one #ho 7ne# ho# to run this business. No# that heBs dead, #e #onBt be able to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1*. 4 didnBt used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'hosts, but #hat 4 sa# last ni'ht !han'ed 05 0ind. 2/. 4B1e tried to 'et her to understand 05 point o" 1ie#, but 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her. 21. The +epubli!ans are idiots, and thatMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMthe 8e0o!rats, too. 22. &etters "ro0 his "a0il5 helped Ia7e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his prison senten!e. 23. 4 al#a5s 7ne# that 05 brother #as the one person 4 !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" 4 had a proble0. ECERCISE (8& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Iud5 li7es ta7in' pi!tures a lot. Co# does she "eel about ta7in' pi!turesH 2. 6aria didnBt "inish stud5in' until 11G// P.6. What didnBt 6aria do until 11G// P.6.H 3. The (rte'as too7 t#o ba's #ith the0 to 7eep in the passen'er !o0part0ent #hen the5 "le# to Ne# Aor7. What did the5 do to the t#o ba'sH

4. 4n Ouestion 3, #hat 7ind o" ba's did the (rte'as 7eep #ith the0H . Iane is !onsiderin' spendin' the su00er in =oli1ia. What is Iane doin'H $. =ill "eels stron'l5 that huntin' is #ron'. Co# does =ill "eel about huntin'H

121

%. Paul !ouldnBt !ontinue his !areer as a dan!er a"ter his a!!ident. What !ouldnBt he do a"ter his a!!identH

8. We dela5ed ha1in' !hildren until a"ter #e had done so0e tra1elin'. What did #e doH *. Aou thin7 stealin' is so0ethin' Can7 #ould do. What do 5ou thin7 about Can7H 1/. Nan!5 is 'oin' to tr5 to !all her sister in Nepal toni'ht. What is Nan!5 'oin' to tr5 to do toni'htH 11. Can7 isnBt reliable. Aou !anBt be !ertain he #ill do #hat he sa5s he #ill do. What !anBt 5ou do to Can7H 12. 8an #as 1er5 an'r5, and he 5elled and !o0plained "or three hours. What did 8an do "or three hoursH 13. Aou !anBt be 1// per!ent !ertain that the #eather #ill be ni!e in 2lorida in the #inter. What !anBt 5ou do to the #inter #eather in 2loridaH

14. 6an5 !hildren are sure that 0onsters are real. What do 0an5 !hildren thin7 about 0onstersH ECERCISE (8c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se /er n! o&,ects$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 122

ECERCISE (8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro+revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !losed o"", 13 dressed up, 14 dried up, 14 "illed out, 14 "i<ed up, 1 lit up, 13 put a#a5, 14 s!re#ed on, 12 stu!7-up, 14 used up, 14 #ound up, 14 #rapped up, 4

*. >harles is so %%%%% %%%%%. $e thinks he(s better than everyone else because he comes from a rich family. 2. No# that 5our house is MMMMM MMMMM, itBs #orth a lot 0ore. 3. There isnBt an5 0ore paper "or the !opier > itBs MMMMM MMMMM. 4. 4 #ashed and dried the dishes, and no# the5Bre MMMMM MMMMM in the !abinet. . 2ran7Bs reall5 MMMMMM MMMMM about his #eddin' to0orro#. $. The presents ha1e #rappin' paper on the0. The5Bre MMMMM MMMMM. %. This "or0 has all the in"or0ation in the !orre!t spa!es. 4tBs MMMMM MMMMM. 8. The "loor o" the bathroo0 isnBt #et an50ore? itBs MMMMM MMMMM. *. Wh5 is Sarah all MMMMM MMMMMMH 4s she 'oin' out dan!in'H 1/. =e sure the top o" the Co7e bottle is MMMMMMMMMM. 4" it isnBt, the Co7e #ill 'o "lat. 11. Aou !anBt 'o in the east #in' o" the pala!e be!ause itBsMMMMM MMMMM. 12. 4 !an see the road easil5 at ni'ht #hen 4B0 dri1in' be!ause itBs MMMMM MMMMMM. ECERCISE (8e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brea7 do#n, brea7 out, * butt in,14 "eel up to, 3 'et around to, $ 'et out o", $ 'et o1er #ith, 3 'i1e up, * 'o in "or, 3 lea1e o"", 13 loo7 "or#ard to, 3 put up, 12 put up #ith, 3 see about, % ta7e in, % #ind up, 14 #or7 out, 11

1. We !ouldnBt de!ide #here to 'o "or dinner last ni'ht, so #eMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sta5in' ho0e. 123

2. Sall5 lo1es all outdoor sports, and she espe!iall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s#i00in'. 3. 4 hate !i'arettes, and 4 #ill not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s0o7in' in 05 house: 4. 4tBs been se1en 5ears sin!e To0 sa# his sister. CeBs reall5MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM seein' her a'ain. . 65 e5esi'ht 'ot so bad that 4 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM dri1in'. $. 4B0 e<hausted. 4 reall5 donBtMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMdoin' an5 0ore si'htseein'. %. The heat in 05 apart0ent doesnBt #or7. 4 need to MMMMMMMM the 0ana'er MMMMMMMM 'ettin' it "i<ed. 8. 4tBs been three hours sin!e 4 as7ed 5ou. When are 5ou 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ta7in' out the 'arba'eH *. 4 pro0ised Sall5 4 #ould lend her N1,///, but no# 4 donBt #ant to 'i1e it to her. Co# !an 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMM lendin' her the 0one5H 1/. +a7in' the lea1es is a bi' )ob, but 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore it sno#s. 11. The tea!her !ontinued her le!ture #here she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the pre1ious #ee7. 12. 4 ha1enBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all the details, but 4B1e de!ided to ,uit 05 )ob and start 05 o#n business. 13. 4 #as late to #or7 be!ause 05 !ar MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the e<press#a5. 14. 65 TV #as bro7en, so 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and had it "i<ed. 1 . When 5ouBre !a0pin', 5ou should al#a5s MMMMMMMM 5our tent MMMMMMMM be"ore it 'ets dar7. 1$. 2i'htin' bet#een protesters and 'o1ern0ent troops MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the 'eneral !an!eled the ele!tion. 1%. The line to bu5 ti!7ets "or the "ootball 'a0e #as reall5 lon', so a lot o" people tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.

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(:$ 2(C.S (NG a!ver&s an! +hrasa% ver&s


-d1erbs are #ords that 0odi"5 1erbs. 6an5 ad1erbs end #ith -ly, "or e<a0ple, quic ly, slo!ly, suddenly, foolishly" but other ad1erbs, su!h as al!ays, sometimes, and never, do not. The pla!e0ent o" ad1erbs in senten!es #ith phrasal 1erbs depends on #hether the 1erb is intransiti1e or transiti1e, and i" transiti1e, #hether it is separable or nonseparable. 4n 'eneral, ad1erbs are pla!ed li7e ordinar5 one-#ord 1erbs #ith the e<!eption o" nonseparable phrasal 1erbs, #hi!h also allo# "or the pla!e0ent o" ad1erbs bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le. -ll possible pla!e0ents o" ad1erbs in senten!es !ontainin' the 1arious t5pes o" phrasal 1erbs are sho#n #ith LsG Intransitive +hrasa% ver&s L sub)e!t L 1erb parti!le L. #mmediately he came over. $e immediately came over. $e came over immediately. Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
L sub)e!t L 1erb parti!le ob)e!t L. L sub)e!t L 1erb ob)e!t parti!le L. 'ngrily she ripped up the paper. 'ngrily she ripped the paper up. !he angrily ripped up the paper. !he angrily ripped the paper up. !he ripped up the paper angrily. !he ripped the paper up angrily. Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s L sub)e!t L 1erb L parti!le ob)e!t L. Slo#l5 #e hea!e! into to#n. We slo#l5 hea!e! into to#n. We hea!e! slo#l5 into to#n. We hea!e! into to#n slo#l5. Three95or! +hrasa% ver&s L sub)e!t L 1erbH parti!leH ob)e!t L. ;1entuall5 4 /re5 o t o. the s#eater. 4 e1entuall5 /re5 o t o. the s#eater. 4 /re5 o t o. the s#eater e1entuall5. Pla!in' ad1erbs #ithin three-#ord phrasal 1erbs is so0eti0es possible, but it !an be proble0ati!. So0eti0es an ad1erb bet#een the 1erb and "irst parti!le sounds a!!eptable and other ti0es it does not. So0eti0es, an ad1erb pla!ed 12

bet#een the t#o parti!les sounds a!!eptable, and other ti0es it #ill not. This is 0ore a 0atter o" st5le than o" #hat is !orre!t or in!orre!t, so unless 5ou are sure it sounds o7a5, it is better not to pla!e ad1erbs #ithin three-#ord 1erbs. Infinitive present tense come come over < comes over &ing form coming over past tense came over past participle come over

($ co-e over EtoF p.1. When people 0o1e "ro0 one side o" a pla!e to the other, #here 5ou are, the5 co-e over or co-e over to #here 5ou are. Co-e over here and sa5 that a'ain. When he sa# 0e, he i00ediatel5 ca-e over to 05 table and said hello. "$ co-e over EtoF p.1. When people !o0e to 5our house "or a 1isit, the5 co-e over or co-e over to 5our house. Would 5ou li7e to co-e over toni'htH Ii0 co-es over to 05 house e1er5 ni'ht. *$ co-e over p.1. When people !ross a ri1er or !ross the o!ean "ro0 east to #est or #est to east, the5 co-e over$ My grandparents came over from !weden in *L3H. The ferry comes over to this side of the lake every day at D#23 ?.M. fall apart fall apart & falls apart falling apart fell apart fallen apart

($ .a%% a+art p.1. When the parts o" so0ethin' be!o0e !o0pletel5 separated be!ause it is old or in bad !ondition, it .a%%s a+art$ These old shoes are starting to fall apart. There(s no way to fi0 this thing. It has completely fallen apart. "$ .a%% a+art p.1. When a plan, arran'e0ent, s5ste0, or a'ree0ent "ails, it .a%%s a+art$ 'fter five difficult years, their marriage totally fell apart. The peace agreement is slowly falling apart. *$ .a%% a+art p.1. When people suddenl5 lose !ontrol and start lau'hin' or be!o0e 1er5 upset or e0otional, the5 .a%% a+art$ !ally fell apart when she heard the tragic news. Tom was so funny at the party last night that I just fell apart laughing. get back at get back at & gets back at getting back at got back at gotten/got back at

($ /et &ac0 at p.1. When 5ou /et &ac0 at people, 5ou do so0ethin' bad to the0 be!ause the5 ha1e done so0ethin' bad to 5ou. 12$

)ohn won(t forget what you did to him. $e(ll definitely get back at you someday. !he wants to get back at her e0&husband for the way he treated her. #nfinitive present tense go about go about & goes about -ing form going about past tense went about past participle gone about

($ /o a&o t p.1. When 5ou /o a&o t so0ethin' or /o a&o t doin' so0ethin', 5ou be'in or !ontinue to "ollo# all the steps ne!essar5 to do it. ; have no idea how to go about opening a restaurant. /veryday he Fuietly went about his business and never caused any problems. grow out of grow out of & grows out of growing out of grew out of grown out of

($$/ro5 o t o. p.1. When people be!o0e too tall or too bi' to #ear an ite0 o" !lothin', the5 /ro5 o t o. the ite0 o" !lothin'. ; bought !usie(s shoes one si6e too big, but she(s Fuickly growing out of them. 5o you want these clothes for your daughter1 Mine has grown out of them. "$ /ro5 o t o. p.1. When people be!o0e too 0ature "or a to5, "or an interest, or "or a "or0 o" beha1ior, the5 ha1e /ro5n o t o. it. )udy had a big crush on a rock star when she was in high school, but after a while she grew out of it. )im(s son is going through a difficult stage, but he(ll grow out of it in a couple of years. head into head into & heads into heading into headed into headed into

($ hea! into p.1. When 5ou hea! into or are hea!e! into a pla!e or area, 5ou be'in to enter it. ; almost had an accident as I was heading into town. .e scared away the bear, and it headed slowly into the woods. )im was headed into 'shland when his car broke down. rip up rip up & rips up ripping up ripped up ripped up

($ ri+ $$$ + p.1. When 5ou tear paper or !loth into 0an5 pie!es, 5ou ri+ it +$ "ancy was furious when she read Tom(s letter, and she angrily ripped it up. 'lways rip up a check before you put it in the wastebasket. ri++e! + part.ad). -"ter a pie!e o" paper or !loth has been torn into 0an5 s0all pie!e, it is ri++e! +$ 'fter the kids opened their >hristmas presents, the floor was covered with ripped up paper.

12%

4n"initi1e present tense wear down #ear do#n P #ears do#n -in' "or0 #earin' do#n past tense #ore do#n past parti!ip #orn do#n

($ 5ear$$$ !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' 5ears !o5n or #hen so0eone 5ears so0ethin' !o5n' the top or sur"a!e 'raduall5 disappears be!ause o" "ri!tion. The feet of thousands of visitors a year have worn down the marble steps. The mechanic told me that my car(s brake pads have worn down badly and need to be replaced. 5orn !o5n part.ad). -"ter the top or sur"a!e o" so0ethin' has 'raduall5 disappeared be!ause o" "ri!tion, it is 5orn !o5n$ The marble steps are very old and worn down. The tread on these tires is dangerously worn down. "$ 5ear $$$ !o5n p.1. When people 5ear 5ou !o5n' the5 'raduall5 persuade 5ou, throu'h persistent pressure, to !han'e 5our 0ind about a de!ision. $e wouldn(t tell me the answer, but little by little, I wore him down. !he still will not give us permission, but I think we(re wearing her down. ECERCISE (:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 #a1ed to Ii0 #hen 4 sa# hi0 a!ross the street, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and tal7ed to 0e. 2. This !o0pan5 has been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM sin!e that idiot #as 0ade the 0ana'er. 3. 8onBt lea1e the ne#spaper #here the do' !an 'et it. CeBll totall5MMMMMMMM it 4. We need a lot o" thin's "ro0 the super0ar7et. When are 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to#nH . Ia7e told the boss 4 #as drin7in' on the )ob, and 4 'ot "ired, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ia7e > 4 told his #i"e about his 'irl"riend. $. 8urin' the -0eri!an +e1olution, the 2ren!h "leet MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and helped the -0eri!ans "i'ht the =ritish.

128

%. The heels on 05 boots ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM badl5, and 4 need to 'et the0 repla!ed. 8. Can 5ou help 0e 'et hoo7ed up to the 4nternetH 4 ha1e no idea ho# to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. *. 8onBt spend a lot o" 0one5 on bab5 !lothes > sheBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the0 in a "e# #ee7s. 1/. 4 need a ne# !ar. This pie!e o" )un7 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. Sall5 as7s her parents "or a pon5 about a hundred ti0es a da5. SheBs tr5in' to MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 12. When his #i"e said she #anted a di1or!e, he )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. 4" 5ouBre not bus5 toni'ht, #ould 5ou li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and #at!h TVH 14. 65 "our-5ear-old son thin7s itBs reall5 "unn5 to sa5 bad #ords. 4 hope he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit. ECERCISE (:& ; Re5rite these sentences an! +%ace the a!ver& in +arentheses in t5o +ossi&%e +ositions$ 1. E"re,uentl5F 6s. Ta5lor !o0es o1er. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. Eso0eti0esF These !heap to5s "all apart. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. Ener1ousl5F Ce #ent about 0a7in' the bo0b. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 12*

4. Ee1entuall5F Sall5 #ill 'ro# out o" her !hildish beha1ior MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . Erelu!tantl5F Ii0 headed into the s#a0p. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. Esuddenl5F Pat upped up 6i7eBs letter. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. EsoonF 2ran7 #ill 'etba!7 at Todd. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. E'raduall5F Ce #ore do#n 05 resistan!e. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE (:c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The !ontra!t #as torn into 0an5 s0all pie!es. What #as done to the !ontra!tH 2. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !ontra!tH 3. Cer plan is not #or7in' properl5, and thereBs a lot o" !on"usion. What is happenin' to her planH

13/

4. 65 "riends 1isited 0e last ni'ht. What did 05 "riends do last ni'htH . 6i7e doesnBt 7no# an5thin' about appl5in' "or a 0ort'a'e. What doesnBt he 7no#H $. To0orro# #eBre 'oin' to dri1e "ro0 the !ountr5 to the !it5. What are #e 'oin' to do to0orro#H %. When Iud5 #as a teena'er, she #as 1er5 sh5, but sheBs not sh5 an50ore. What did she do to her sh5nessH

8. The old lionBs teeth are not as sharp or as lon' as the5 used to be.What has happened to the0H *. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the lionBs teethH 1/. 4 did so0ethin' bad to 05 brother, and no# he has done so0ethin' bad to 0e. What has 05 brother done to 0eH

11. The Vi7in's !rossed the o!ean be"ore Colu0bus. What did the Vi7in's do be"ore Colu0busH 12. The tea!her #al7ed a!ross the roo0 and loo7ed at 5our paper. What did the tea!her doH 13. Ii0 be!a0e 1er5 sad and lost !ontrol #hen he heard that his brother had died. What did Ii0 doH 14. This s#eater #ill be too s0all "or 05 dau'hter soon.What #ill 05 dau'hter do to the s#eater soonH

1 . The pa'es are !o0in' out o" this old boo7. What is the boo7 doin'H 1$. The poli!e are pressurin' the suspe!t to tell the truth. What are the poli!e tr5in' to do to the suspe!tH

ECERCISE (:!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ boil do#n to, $ !hi!7en out o", * !o0e do#n #ith, $ !o0e up, 12 "all o1er, 8 131 "i'ht ba!7, 8 "ind out, 'et alon', * 'o ahead,1/ 'o throu'h #ith, $ hear o", 8 7i!7 ba!7, 1/ 0on7e5 around #ith, $ set up, #or7 in, 8

1. 4 donBt 7no# #hen the train to =oston lea1es. 4Bll as7 the ti!7et a'ent and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM. 2. 4 donBt li7e our nei'hbors, and the5 donBt li7e 0e. We donBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM. 3. Iulia #as ner1ous about blea!hin' her hair blond, and she de!ided not to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMit. 4. Sarah #as ner1ous about blea!hin' her hair blond, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. . The a0bassador #ill tr5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 0eetin' bet#een the president and the rebel leader. $. We ha1e a reall5 bus5 da5 planned, but 4Bd li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 1isit to the 0useu0. %. 4" so0eone hits 5ou, 5ou ha1e toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 8. 4 0issed a #ee7 o" #or7 #hen 4 MMMMMM MMMMMM MMMMMM 3er0an 0easles. *. Ca1in' a 0e!hani! "i< 05 !ar #ill !ost a lot o" 0one5, so 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it to see i" 4 !an "i< it 05sel". 1/. The o#ner o" the !onstru!tion !o0pan5 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thousands o" dollars to the 0a5or. 11. -re 5ou 7iddin'H ThatBs the 0ost ridi!ulous thin' 4B1e e1er MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 12. The !ountr5Bs e!ono0i! proble0s are 1er5 !o0pli!ated. Can 5ou tell 0e #hat it MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMH 13. 4B0 sorr5 4 ha1e to !an!el our lun!h date, but so0ethin' 1er5 i0portant has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 4 ha1e to return to 05 o""i!e i00ediatel5.

14. -"ter the !ar hit the telephone pole, the pole MMMMM MMMMM and !rushed the !ar. 1 . 4 #as so an'r5 at 05 boss that 4 told hi0 4 #as 'oin' to ,uit, and he said,@MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, 4 donBt !are:@

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(#$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! can, could, will, an! would
%an, could, !ill, and !ould are modal au&iliary verbs, o"ten !alled models. 6odals are 1er5 i0portant in ;n'lish, but the5 !an be !on"usin' be!ause the5 are used to sa5 0an5 di""erent thin's. Cere is a basi! re1ie# o" can, could, !ill, and !ould and their 0ost !o00on uses.
Could is used as the past tense o" !anG 4 !anBt co-e over toni'ht. 4 !ouldnBt co-e over last ni'ht. Would is used as the past tense o" #ill Ethe "uture use o" #ill has alread5 been dis!ussed in Se!tion 1 F to tal7 about so0ethin' that #as "uture in the pastG ; didn(t buy that nice coat for my son because I knew he would Fuickly grow out of it. Would is used in pla!e o" #ill #hen repeatin' so0eone elseBs #ordsG She said she #ould /et ne<t 2rida5 o..$ Would is used as the past tense o" #ill to tal7 about a repeated past a!tionG When 4 #or7ed as a ban7 'uard, 4 #ould stan! aro n! all da5 doin' nothin'. Nor0all5, !an, !ould, #ill, and #ould ha1e di""erent uses, and it is i0portant to use the !orre!t one? ho#e1er, in one spe!ial !ase > 0a7in' re,uests > the5 !an be used #ith 1er5 little di""eren!e in 0eanin'G >an you get off the couch1 >ould you get off the couch 1 .ill you get off the couch1 .ould you get off the couch1 Can and !ould are used, #ith little di""eren!e in 0eanin', to as7 "or per0issionG >an I think about it before I make a decision1 >ould I think about it before I make a decision1 Can, !ould, #ill, and #ould are used in !onditional senten!es. Conditional 0eans that a !ondition, usuall5 stated in an i" !lause, 0ust be satis"ied "or the 0ain !lause to be true. When the !ondition is so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, the 1erb in the i" !lause is nor0all5 in the present tense. 4" the !ondition in the i" !lause is so0ethin' that !ould not a!tuall5 be true, the past tense "or0 o" the 1erb is used. When the !ondition in the i" !lause is so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, !an is used in the 0ain !lause to dis!uss a real abilit5G 4" 4 ha1e a !ar, 4 !an co-e over$ 133

When the !ondition in the i" !lause is so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, #ill is used in the 0ain !lause to dis!uss a real #illin'ness or intentionG 4" 4 ha1e a !ar, 4 #ill co-e over$ When the !ondition in the i" !lause is not so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, !ould is used in the 0ain !lause to dis!uss an unreal or i0a'inar5 abilit5G If I had a car, I could come over. When the !ondition in the i" !lause is not so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, #ould is used in the 0ain !lause to dis!uss an unreal or i0a'inar5 #illin'ness or intentionG 4" 4 had a !ar, 4 #ould co-e over$ ;ither the i" !lause or 0ain !lause !an o!!ur "irst in a senten!e, #ith a sli'ht !han'e in pun!tuationG 4" 4 had a !ar, 4 #ould co-e over$ 4 #ould co-e over i" 4 had a !ar.

#nfinitive present tense breakthrough breakthrough & breaks through -ing form breaking through past tense broke through past participle broken through

($ &rea0thro /h p.1. When 5ou use "or!e to 'o throu'h a #all or other barrier, 5ou &rea0 thro /h it. The thieves broke through the wall of the jewelry store. The attackers couldn(t break through the thick walls of the fort. "$ &rea0thro /h p.1. When 5ou !annot do so0ethin' be!ause o" a proble0 and 5ou "ind a #a5 to sol1e or eli0inate the proble0, 5ou &rea0thro /h$ 'fter the problem of tissue rejection is broken through organ transplants will become more common. It took three days of negotiation, but we finally broke through the deadlock. &rea0thro /h n. -n i0portant dis!o1er5 or de1elop0ent that sol1es or eli0inates a proble0 that is pre1entin' 5ou "ro0 doin' so0ethin' is a &rea0thro /h$ 5r. .ood announced an important breakthrough in the search for a cure for 'I5!. figure on figure on & figures on figuring on figured on figured on

($ .i/ re on p.1. When 5ou .i/ re on so0ethin', 5ou e<pe!t it or plan "or it. ; didn(t figure on such cold weather. I wish I(d brought a coat. 8ou can figure on spending a least hundred bucks if you(re going to that restaurant.

134

Infinitive present tense get off get off < gets off &ing form getting off past tense got off

past participle

gotten;got off

($ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou /et o.. a bus, airplane, or train, 5ou lea1e it. The bus stopped and I got off. 8ou can(t get off the train while it(s moving. "$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou are standin', l5in', or sittin' on so0ethin', su!h as a horse, bi!5!le, 0otor!5!le, sta'e, plat"or0, or pie!e o" "urniture, and 5ou step do#n "ro0 it onto the 'round, 5ou /et o.. it. 8ou(re so la6y. .hy don(t you get off the couch and help me1 /et off your bicycle and come inside. *$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou are standin' #ithin an area o" 'round, or on so0ethin' that !o1ers an area o" 'round, and 5ou 0o1e to the side o" it and step o"" o" it, 5ou /et o.. it. The referee told the player to get off the field. 8ou(re standing on our beach blanket get off itE 6$ /et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou /et so0ethin' o..' 5ou re0o1e it e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult. ; can(t get this paint off my hands. The top of this bottle is on so tight I cannot get it off. 7$ /et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou /et a !ertain period o" ti0e o..' 5ou are allo#ed b5 5our e0plo5er to 0iss #or7 durin' this period. ?regnant women usually get three months off with pay. >ould I get tomorrow morning off to go to the doctor1 8$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou /et o..' or /et o.. #or7, 5ou "inish that da5Bs #or7 and lea1e 5our pla!e o" e0plo50ent. !ally said she wouldn(t get off work until J#33. I haven(t gotten off early all week. :$ /et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' #ron' but are not punished, or 5ou are punished onl5 li'htl5 "or it, 5ou /et o..$ So0eone #ho helps 5ou to a1oid punish0ent /ets 5ou o..$ $e killed four people, but he got off with only three years in jail. If his lawyer hadn(t been so incompetent, he would have gotten him off with a lighter sentence. #$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou stop tal7in' on the telephone, 5ou /et o.. the telephone. /et off the phone I need to use itE It(s late, we(d better get off the phone.

*2D

Infinitive present tense go be%ond go beyond < goes beyond &ing form going beyond past tense went beyond past participle gone beyond

($ /o &e3on! p.1. When people or thin's are better or #orse, or do so0ethin' in a better or #orse #a5 than is nor0al or e<pe!ted, the5 /o &e3on! #hat is nor0al or e<pe!ted. 5id you say )ackson(s new book is good1 I think it goes be%ond good it(s fantasticE !am(s wife discovered that he wasn(t just friends with his secretary@ their relationship went way be%ond friendship. lift upon lift up & lifts up lifting up lifted up lifted up

($ %i.t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou %i.t + so0ethin', 5ou use 5our hands to raise it abo1e the sur"a!e that it #as on. That rock is too heavy I can(t lift it up. 1ift up the cover and look in the bo0. line up line up & lines up lining up lined up lined up

($ %ine$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's "or0 a ro#, the5 %ine +$ When 5ou arran'e people or thin's so that the5 "or0 a ro#, 5ou %ine the0 +$ ?eople lined up to buy !uperbowl tickets. Timmy is lining his toy cars up. %ine! + part.ad). People or thin's that "or0 a ro# are %ine! +$ ?eople have been lined up outside the bo0 office for three days. The children are lined up for attendance. "$ %ine$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' %ines + #ith so0ethin' else, or #hen 5ou %ine + so0ethin' #ith so0ethin' else, it is positioned !orre!tl5 in relation to so0ethin' else. If this bolt doesn(t line up with that hole, the lock won(t work. The holes in part ' have to line up with the holes in part A before you screw them together. *$ %ine$$$ + p.1. When 5ou arran'e "or so0eone or so0ethin' to be a1ailable at a "uture a!ti1it5 or e1ent, 5ou %ine that thin' or person +$ ; couldn(t line a clown up for !usie(s birthday party. .ho have they lined up for the show1 %ine! + part.ad). So0eone or so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e arran'ed to be a1ailable "or a "uture a!ti1it5 or e1ent is %ine! +$ 5on(t worry about the show@ everything is lined up. The singer is lined up but the band isn(t. *2J

%ine + n. The people or thin's planned "or an e1ent are the %ine +$ The network has planned Fuite a lineup of entertainers for the half&time special. There(s always a trape6e act in the circus lineup. Infinitive present tense stand around stand around < stands around &ing form standing around past tense stood around past participle stood around

($ stan! aro n! p.1. When 5ou stan! aro n!' 3o stand in a pla!e #astin' ti0e and not doin' an5thin' use"ul. ; have all this work to do, and you guys just stand around watching me. The manager told them to stop standing around and get to work. tell apart tell apart & tells apart telling apart told apart told apart ($ te%%$$$ a+art p.1. When it is possible to see ho# t#o si0ilar thin's are di""erent, 5ou !an te%% the0 a+art$ The twins are identical@ no one can tell them apart. 'll the puppies look the same, and I have a hard time telling them apart. ECERCISE (#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the phoneH 4 #ant to 0a7e an i0portant !all. 2. Neither side #ould 'i1e an in!h. There #as no #a5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the stale0ate. 3. 4" 5ou put this "a7e +ole< #at!h ne<t to a real one, 5ou !an MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM easil5. 4. Ii0 #anted to 'o to a 0o1ie toni'ht, but 4 told hi0 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #or7 until late. . 4" the holes donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, the s!re#s #onBt 'o in. $. There #erenBt an5 !hairs at the part5, so #e )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tal7in'. %. 4 told 2ran7 that his drin7in' proble0 isnBt )ust hurtin' hi0? it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that > itBs hurtin' his "a0il5, too. 8. The la#5er #as sure he !ould MMMMMM hi0 MMMMMM #ith onl5 t#o 5ears in prison. *. When 4 too7 this )ob a"ter 4 "inished hi'h s!hool, 4 ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM spendin' thirt5-"i1e 5ears here. 13%

1/. 6other #as the last one to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the airplane. 11. =ob MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' in his !abinet so that itBs eas5 to "ind #hat heBs loo7in' "or. 12. &5dia told 0e she #ould tr5 to MMMMMMMM three #ee7s MMMMMMMM so #e !an 'o on 1a!ation. 13. There #ere poli!e barri!ades around the pala!e, but so0e o" the protesters MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM. 14. Children, stop )u0pin' on the bed #ith 5our dirt5 shoes. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht no#: 1 . Can 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the TV #hile 4 put the VC+ under itH 1$. So0e C8s !o0e #rapped in plasti! thatBs al0ost i0possible to MMMMMM MMMMMMM. 1%. 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 0a'i!ian "or the birthda5 part5. 18. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !arpet. 4 )ust sha0pooed it. ECERCISE (#& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Paul said he #ould re0o1e his !at "ro0 the table. What did Paul sa5H 2. 4 !anBt see an5 di""eren!e bet#een the ori'inal and the !op5. What !anBt 4 doH 3. ;ri7 !anBt raise the bo< o" boo7s be!ause itBs too hea15. What !anBt ;ri7 doH 4. =ill said he hadnBt e<pe!ted sno# in 6a5. What did =ill sa5H . Nan!5 arran'ed "or a 'reat band to pla5 at the pro0 ne<t #ee7. What did Nan!5 doH $. 4n Ouestion , ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the bandH %. Ierr5 thou'ht the proble0 #ith his !ar is that it needs a tune-up, but the 0e!hani! said itBs #orse than that. What did the 0e!hani! sa5H 8. The soldiers s0ashed a hole in the #all and entered the !it5. What did the soldiers do to the #allH

*. Carlos stops #or7in' at G// e1er5da5. What does Carlos do at G// e1er5da5H 138

1/. Aou #ere arrested "or drun7en dri1in', but the )ud'e 'a1e 5ou onl5 a #arnin'. What did 5ou doH 11. The tea!her 0o1ed all the des7s in his !lassroo0 so that the5 #ere in strai'ht ro#s. What did the tea!her doH

12. 4n Ouestion 11, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the des7sH 13. She as7ed 0e i" 4 #ould stop tal7in' on the telephone. What did she sa5H 14. 4 stood at the bus stop "or an hour #aitin' "or the bus. What did 4 do "or an hourH 1 . The personnel 0ana'er at 05 ne# )ob said 4 #ouldnBt ha1e to #or7 on Sunda5s. What did the personnel 0ana'er sa5H 1$. When 5ou put a door7nob on a door, the t#o sides ha1e to be dire!tl5 a!ross "ro0 ea!h other. Co# do the t#o sides ha1e to beH

1%. Sa0 stepped "ro0 the train. What did Sa0 doH 18. 6ar7Bs "ather told hi0 to 0o1e "ro0 the 'rass to the side#al7. What did 6ar7Bs "ather tell 6ar7H ECERCISE (#c ; Co-+%ete these sentences' sin/ 3o r o5n 5or!s' 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .rothis section or +revio s sections$ 1. &ast #ee7, he !ouldnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 2. When 4 #as 5oun'er, 4 !ould MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 3. CeBll MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 4. When 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, 4 #ould MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. . Could 5ouMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH $. Would 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH %. Can 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH 8. Could 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH

13*

ECERCISE (#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ belie1e in, 1$ !arr5 on, 1$ !o0e o1er, 1% !o0e throu'h, 1 !ount on, 1$ 'et throu'h,1$ 'o alon' #ith, 3 'o "or, 1$ 'o #ith, 1 'ro# out o", 1% head ba!7, 1 head "or, 1 hold o"", 1$ put past, 1$ tell on, 1 thin7 about, 1$

1. 4 su''ested that #e 'o to Paris, and she reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the idea. 2. -"ter 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it, 4 de!ided not to ta7e the )ob. 3. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu5in' a ne# !o0puter be!ause 4 thou'ht the5 #ould be on sale in Ianuar5. 4. 8o 5ou thin7 this 5ello# tie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this blue shirtH . Cer un!le pro0ised to pa5 "or her #eddin', and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. $. 4tBs 1er5 i0portant that 5ou do this #or7 !orre!tl5. 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5ou. %. Ti005 bro7e a #indo#, and his sister MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0. 8. The dete!ti1e as7ed 0e i" Ia7e had robbed the li,uor store, and 4 said 4 didnBt 7no# but that 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM hi0. *. Todd said he #ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 house a"ter dinner and help 0e #ith 05 ho0e#or7. 1/. The reason Charles is 1i!e-president o" the !o0pan5 is that heMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the boss on e1er5 de!ision. 11. To0orro# 4B0 'oin' to lea1e Winnipe' and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMToronto. 12. 4 probabl5 #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to Winnipe' "or a 0onth or 0ore. 13. 4 didnBt 'et Sall5 #hat she #anted "or her birthda5, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it all da5. 14. Aou ha1e so 0u!h #or7 to do. When do 5ou thin7 5ouBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH

14/

1 . 4 bou'ht these pants "or 05 son a 0onth a'o, and heBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the0 alread5. 1$. Ned didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.2(s until he sa# one.

(D$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! the a!ver& right


The ad1erb right is o"ten used to intensi"5 the 0eanin' o" a phrasal 1erb. Pla!ed be"ore the parti!le, right 0eans directly, immediately, or quic ly. 4t is not i0portant #hether the phrasal 1erb is intransiti1e, separable, or nonseparable. What does 0atter is #hether the a!tion o" the 1erb is so0ethin' that !an lo'i!all5 be done dire!tl5, i00ediatel5, or ,ui!7l5. 2or e<a0ple, it #ould be illo'i!al to use right #ith stand around, or !ear do!n: 'he aimed right at me. EShe ai-e! dire!tl5 at 0e.F #(ll bring it right over. E4Bll &rin/ it over i00ediatel5.F )he room warmed right up. EThe roo0 5ar-e! + ,ui!7l5.F *ight !an be used #hen a separable phrasal 1erb is separated b5 its ob)e!t? ho#e1er, right !annot be used #hen the ob)e!t "ollo#s the parti!leG He brought my radio right back. Ho brought right back my radio.
In.initive +resent tense aim at ai- at B ai-s at ai-in/ at ai-e! at ai-e! at 9in/ .or+ast tense +ast +artici+%e

($ ai- $$$ at p.1. When 5ou point a #eapon at people or thin's, 5ou ai- it at the0. The robber aimed the gun right at my head. $e was aiming the arrow at the apple, but he missed. "$ ai- at p.1. When 5ou ai- at so0ethin' 5ou #ant, 5ou do #hat is ne!essar5 to 'et it. The manager said she was aiming at a *H percent increase in sales ne0t year. The new taw is aimed at reducing crime in the streets. *$ ai- $$$ at p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' desi'ned to a""e!t one !lass or t5pe o" people, 5ou ai- it at those people. >igarette manufacturers were accused of aiming their advertising at young people. The candidate(s speech was aimed at female voters.

141

Infinitive present tense bring back bring back < brings back

&ing form bringing back

past tense brought back

past participle brought back

($ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' to another pla!e and then brin' it "ro0 that pla!e to the pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore, 5ou &rin/ it &ac0$ ; told Tom to bring my pen right back. !ally borrowed my blue sweater and brought it back yesterday. "$ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.1. When so0ethin' that #as popular or !urrent in the past is introdu!ed a'ain, it is &ro /ht &ac0$ Many schools are bringing back uniforms for children. /very few years designers try to bring miniskirts back. *$ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.1. When so0ethin' !auses 5ou to re!all 0e0ories and e0otions "ro0 the past, it &rin/s the 0e0ories and e0otions &ac0$ Gooking at these old pictures brought back wonderful memories. I had tried to forget that awful incident, but this maga6ine article has brought it all back. bring over bring over & brings over bringing over brought over brought over

($ &rin/$$$ over p.1. When people ta7e so0ethin' "ro0 one pla!e to the pla!e #here 5ou are, the5 &rin/ it over$ ; called Frank to ask if I could use his electric drill, and he brought it right over. Ginda is going to bring her wedding pictures over tonight. cool off cool off & cools off cooling off cooled off cooled off

($ coo% o.. p.1. When the te0perature o" a thin' or pla!e be!o0es lo#er, it coo%s o..$ It was really hot yesterday, but it cooled off in the evening. This is too hot I(ll eat it after it cools off. "$ coo%$$$ o.. p.1. When people or thin's !ause a thin' or pla!e to be!o0e !ooler, the5 coo% it o..$ The coffee was really hot, but he put an ice cube in it and it cooled right off. This bath is too hot. ?ut more cold water in it to cool it off. *$ coo% o.. p.1. When 5ou be!o0e less an'r5 or less e<!ited, 5ou coo% o..$ $e(s furious now, but he(ll cool off by morning. Their passion for each other has cooled off.

142

Infinitive present tense go back go back < goes back going back went back gone back &ing form past tense past participle

($ /o &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou return to a pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore, 5ou /o &ac0 or /o &ac0 to that pla!e. That restaurant was terrible. .e(ll never go back. 5orothy left the /merald >ity and went back to 9ansas. "$ /o &ac0 EtoF p.1. When a !ondition, proble0, pra!ti!e, or !usto0 /oes &ac0 to a !ertain ti0e, it be'an at that ti0e. The tradition of saluting in the military goes back to the Middle 'ges. $is drug problem goes back to his college years. *$ /o &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou are dis!ussin' the a'e o" so0ethin', 5ou /o &ac0 or /o &ac0 to #hen it #as !reated or started. This table is very valuable. #t goes back to the *MJ3s. The archeologist found ruins that go back D,333 years. hand over hand over & hands over handing over

handed over

handed over

($ han! $$$over EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' to people be!ause the5 de0and it, be!ause the5 re,uire it, or be!ause 5ou are not its ri'ht"ul o#ner, 5ou han! it over or han! it over to the0. T rn over is si0ilar to han! over$ ; found some money in the street, and I handed it over to the police. That(s my calculator hand it right over! han!over n. When 5ou trans"er o#nership or !ontrol o" so0ethin' to so0eone be!ause that person has de0anded it or be!ause 5ou are not its ri'ht"ul o#ner, a han!over ta7es pla!e. The >hinese celebrated Aritain(s handover of $ong 9ong. The ?resident demanded the immediate handover of the occupied territory. "$ han! $$$over p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0eone responsibilit5 "or an i0portant pro)e!t, dut5, or proble0, 5ou han! that pro)e!t, dut5, or proble0 over or han! it over to so0eone. Mr. .ilson retired and handed control of the company over to his son. The TV news anchor handed the show over to the reporter at the .hite $ouse. pull over pull over & pulls over pulling over pulled over pulled over ($ + %%$$$ over p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and then 0o1e 5our 1ehi!le to the side o" the road, redu!e 5our speed, and then stop, 5ou + %% over or + %% 5our 1ehi!le over$ / pulled over to fi0 a flat tire. .e(re lost. Get(s pull the car over and ask someone for directions. *H2

"$ + %%$$$ over p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and a poli!e o""i!er si'nals 5ou to 0o1e 5our 1ehi!le to the side o" the road, redu!e 5our speed, and stop, the poli!e o""i!er + %%s 5ou over or + %%s the 1ehi!le over$ )im was driving on the wrong side of the road, and he got pulled over by the state police. .hen the police officer saw the driver go through a red light, he pulled the car right over. In"initi1e present tense warm up #ar0 up P #ar0s up #ar0in' up #ar0ed up #ar0ed up -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple

($ 5ar- + p.1. When the te0perature o" a thin' or pla!e be!o0es hi'her, it 5ar-s +$ It(s cold outside. I hope it warms up before the picnic. I set the thermostat at eighty degrees, and the house warmed right up. "$ 5ar-$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's !ause a thin' or pla!e to be!o0e #ar0er, the5 5ar- it +$ The fireplace doesn(t really warm the house up much. That soup is cold. 8ou can warm it up in the microwave. 5ar-e! + part.ad). -"ter a thin' or pla!e has be!o0e #ar0er, it is 5ar-e! +$ 3i1e the bab5 the bottle #ith the "lo#ers on it? itBs 5ar-e! +$ *$ 5ar-$$$ + p.1. When 5ou allo# a 0e!hani!al de1i!e to run "or a short ti0e be"ore bein' used, 5ou 5ar- it +$ When a 0e!hani!al de1i!e runs "or a short ti0e be"ore bein' used, it 5ar-s +$ 8ou should always warm your car up for a few minutes before you go anywhere. In the winter I always let my car warm up while I eat breakfast. 5ar-e! + part.ad). -"ter a 0e!hani!al de1i!e has been allo#ed to 5ar- + and is read5 to be used, it is 5ar-e! +$ .e have to go is the car warmed up yet1 6$ 5ar- + p.1. When 5ou do li'ht e<er!ises be"ore pla5in' a sport or e<er!isin' #ith 'reater e""ort, 5ou 5ar- +$ When per"or0ers pla5 0usi!al instru0ents or sin' )ust be"ore a per"or0an!e in order to be read5, the5 5ar- +$ Aefore a race most runners warm up with stretching e0ercises. The singer warmed up in her dressing room before the concert. 5ar-9 + n. &i'ht e<er!ises done be"ore pla5in' a sport or e<er!isin' #ith 'reater e""ort are !alled a 5ar-9 +$ When a per"or0er pla5s an instru0ent or sin's )ust be"ore a per"or0an!e in order to be read5, this is a 5ar-9 +$ The runners got to the stadium early so they would have time for a warm-up. 144

5ar-9 + n$ =ar-9 + !lothes are #orn durin' a 5ar-9 +$ =ar-9 + e<er!ises are done be"ore pla5in' a sport or e<er!isin'. - 5ar-9 + 'a0e, round, and so on, is pla5ed in order to 5ar- + "or the a!tual 'a0e. The baseball players wore their warm-up jackets when they weren(t on the field. ECERCISE (Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The piDDa #as !old, so 4 put it in the 0i!ro#a1e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 2. 65 !ar #as 0a7in' a stran'e noise, so 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM to loo7 at the en'ine. 3. Can 4 use 5our la#n 0o#erH 4Bll MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to0orro#. 4. Ii0 al#a5s puts 0il7 in his !o""ee to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. . The roots o" the trouble in the 6iddle ;astMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthousands o" 5ears. $. The ne# poli!e !hie" said that he thin7s that abolishin' !apital punish0ent #as a 0ista7e and that it should be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. The )ud'e ordered the thie1es to MMMMM MMMMM the stolen 0er!handise i00ediatel5. 8. Cearin' .n!le IohnBs stories about the old !ountr5 MMMMM MMMMM a lot o" 0e0ories. *. With this ne# antipollution la# #eBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' the a0ount o" pollution b5 / per!ent in ten 5ears. 1/. 4 as7ed Iud5 i" 4 !ould use her 1ideo !a0era, and she said she #ouldMMMMMMMMit ri'ht MMMMMMM. 11. The 0e!hani! re!o00ended lettin' the !ar MMMMMM MMMMMM be"ore dri1in' it. 12. The robber !han'ed his 0ind #hen he sa# the 'uard MMMMMMMM his shot'un ri'ht MMMMMMMM hi0. 13. The lo!al poli!e !hie"MMMMMMMMthe in1esti'ation MMMMMMMMto the 2=4 a'ents. 14. Aour "atherBs an'r5 ri'ht no#. Tal7 to hi0 about 5our 0iserable report !ard a"ter heBs MMMMMMM MMMMMMM. 1 . The !han'es at the "a!tor5 are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' !osts and in!reasin' pro"its. 1$. The 05ster5 o" the P5ra0ids MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM nearl5 ,/// 5ears. 1%. The !oa!h al#a5s 0a7es the pla5ers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore the 'a0e. 18. -"ter lun!h Ierr5 MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMMto #or7. 14

1*. This !o""ee is too hot. 4 !anBt drin7 it until it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2/. 4 #as MMMMMM MMMMMM b5 the sheri"" "or 'oin' ei'ht5 0iles per hour in a s!hool Done. 21. 4tBs !old no#, but itBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 noon. ECERCISE (D& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. Could 5ou brin' ba!7. E05 tool 7it, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. 4Bll brin' o1er. E5our tool 7it, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. The air !onditioner ,ui!7l5 !ooled o"". E05 apart0ent, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. Todd handed o1er. Ehis #allet, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . The sheri"" pulled o1er. Ethe suspe!ts, the0F MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. The dri1ers are #ar0in' up. Etheir tru!7s, the0F MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 14$

ECERCISE (Dc ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ Re+%ace the n!er%ine! a!ver&s 5ith ri/ht$ Re-e-&er that ri/ht can &e se! on%3 5hen the ver& an! the +artic%e are se+arate!$ 1. The5 lit a "ire, and the !abin be!a0e #ar0 ,ui!7l5. What did the !abin doH 2. Aou #ill return to #or7 i00ediatel5. What #ill 5ou doH 3. -"ter the sun set, the ba!75ard be!a0e !ooler ,ui!7l5. What did the ba!75ard doH 4. 4" 4 sa# the "lashin' li'hts o" the poli!e !ar, 4 #ould slo# 05 !ar and stop at the side o" the road i00ediatel5. What #ould 4 doH . Ser'eant Iones pointed his ri"le dire!tl5 at the ene05 soldier. What did Ser'eant Iones doH

$. She told 0e to return her di!tionar5 i00ediatel5. What did she sa5H %. &indaBs "ather told her to 'i1e hi0 his !redit !ard i00ediatel5. What did &indaBs "ather tell her to doH 8. 4 !alled &5dia and told her 4 needed 0edi!ine "or 05 son, and she too7 the 0edi!ine "ro0 her house to 05 house i00ediatel5. What did &5dia do to the 0edi!ineH ECERCISE (D!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7 o"", 12 brea7 throu'h, 18 !o0e a!ross, 12 !o0e up #ith, $ "all throu'h, 12 "i'ure on, 18 'o be5ond, 18 head into, 1% hit on, 13 let o"", 13 li"t up, 18 put up, 12 stand around, 18 tell apart, 18 tra!7 do#n, 13 #ind up, 14

1. The prisoners MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #all o" the prison and es!aped. 2. 4t #as eas5 "or the0 to es!ape be!ause the 'uards had been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s0o7in' !i'arettes. 14%

3. The #arden #asnBt )ust upset #ith the 'uards > the proble0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that. 4. The 'uards used do's to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM one o" the es!aped prisoners the ne<t da5. . The other prisoner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e dense "orest. $. The prisoner tried to steal a 0anBs !ar, but #hen he sa# the 0anBs lar'e do', he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. The poli!e had a 0eetin' to tr5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a #a5 to !apture the prisoner. 8. The5 "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the idea o" usin' a heli!opter. *. The heli!opter plan MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be!ause the #eather #as so bad. 1/. The poli!e thou'ht the prisoner #ould probabl5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at his "a0il5Bs house. 11. The prisoner has a t#in brother, and the poli!e !ouldnBt MMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMM. 12. That #as one proble0 the poli!e didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. (ne poli!e o""i!er #al7ed behind the house and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e 'arba'e !ans. 14. Ce heard a noise "ro0 the 'arba'e !an, so he MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe top and sa# the prisoner. 1 . The prisoner MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a "i'ht, but the poli!e #ere able to !apture hi0. 1$. =oth prisoners #ere !har'ed #ith es!apin' "ro0 prison, but the )ud'e MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM #ith a #arnin'. 148

")$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s .o%%o5e! &3 the -ing .orSo0e phrasal 1erbs !an be "ollo#ed b5 the -in' "or0 o" 1erbsG $e ended up staying home. !he lies around doing, nothing. The -in' "or0 !an be ne'ati1eG $e ended up not going anywhere. !he lies around not doing anything. Nouns and pronouns !an !o0e bet#een the phrasal 1erb and the -in' "or0G The doctor went around the hospital visiting his patients. )im hangs around )anice hoping she(ll fall in love with him. Prepositional phrases !an !o0e bet#een the phrasal 1erb and the -in' "or0G My luggage ended up on the wrong flight going to the wrong city. I started out at the bottom working in the mailroom. (ther ad1erbs and ad1erbial e<pressions !an !o0e bet#een the phrasal 1erb and the -in' "or0G Aill goes around constantly looking for bargains. !he sta%ed up late watching TV. # went around all day not knowing I had spinach in my teeth. $e ended up here asking for money. (nfinitive present tense end up end up * ends up ending up ended up ended up )ing form past tense past participle

($ en! + p.1. When people en! + doin' so0ethin' or en! + a !ertain #a5, it is the result o" a series o" de!isions, a!tions, or unplanned and une<pe!ted o!!urren!es. En! + is si0ilar to 5in! +$ ' hurricane was approaching Florida, so we ended up coming home from our vacation early. )udy has never gone skydiving before, so she(ll probably end up in the hospital with two broken legs. "$ en! + p.1. When people or thin's en! + in a pla!e, this pla!e is #here their )ourne5 ends e1en thou'h the out!o0e 0a5 ha1e been unplanned or une<pe!ted. $ow did Gondon Aridge end up in 'ri6ona1 The ta0i driver didn(t understand me, and we ended up in "ewark instead of "ew 8ork. *HL #nfinitive present tense go around go around & goes around -ing form going around past tense gone around past participle gone around

($ /o aro n! p.1. When people or thin's "ollo# a !ir!ular path and return to the sa0e pla!e, the5 /o aro n!$ The horse has gone around the track three times. It took seven days to go around the island. "$ /o aro n! p.1. When people or thin's "ollo# an indire!t or !ur1ed path in order to a1oid an obsta!le or to !han'e dire!tion, the5 /o aro n! or /o aro n! the obstacle. $eather went around the curve too fast, and she ended up in the ditch. There was some broken glass in the street, but I went around it. *$ /o aro n! p.1. When an ob)e!t spins or turns, it /oes aro n!$ The disk drives in computers go around very fast. The children have to stay on the merry&go&round until it stops going around. 6$ /o aro n! p.1. When 5ou /o aro n! a pla!e, 5ou 1isit 1arious parts o" it. The president went around the state giving the same speech at every stop. The e0terminator is going around the house looking for rats. 7$ /o aro n! p.1. When 5ou /o aro n! in a !ertain !ondition or /o aro n! doin' so0ethin', 5ou 'o to 1arious pla!es and allo# other people see 5ou. ; was so embarrassed I went around all day with my 6ipper open. 're you going to go around all day wearing that stupid hat1 8$ /o aro n! p.1. When 5ou /o aro n! doin' so0ethin', 5ou 'o to 1arious pla!es and deliberatel5 do so0ethin' that 0a5 bother or upset other people. The new manager goes around telling everyone how to do their jobs. 5on(t go around sticking your nose in other people(s business. :$ /o aro n! p.1. When so0ethin' /oes aro n!' it spreads to 1arious parts o" a lar'er pla!e. ' rumor went around that the plant was going to close. $e probably has the flu@ it(s been going around. #$ /o aro n! p.1. When so0ethin' is bein' distributed to a 'roup o" people and there is enou'h "or e1er5one, there is enou'h to /o aro n!$ There wasn(t enough food to go around and some of the famine victims got nothing. 5on(t make the pieces of wedding cake too big, otherwise there won(t be enough to go around.

1 /

#nfinitive /o off present tense go off & goes off -ing form going off past tense went off past participle gone off

($ /o o.. p.1. When a 'un /oes o..' it "ires. When a bo0b /oes o..' it e<plodes. When an alar0 or alar0 !lo!7 /oes o..' it 0a7es a loud noise. The terrorists were killed when the bomb went off accidentally. I was late for work because my alarm clock didn(t go off. "$ /o o.. p.1. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e or s5ste0 /oes o..' it stops operatin'. Co-e on is the opposite o" /o o..$ The electricity went off at K#23 last night. ' thermostat makes the air conditioner go off if it gets below a certain temperature. *$ /o o.. E#ithF p.1. When 5ou /o o.., 5ou lea1e a pla!e or the people 5ou are #ith and 'o to a di""erent pla!e. When 5ou /o o.. #ith so0eone, 5ou lea1e a pla!e or the people 5ou are #ith and 'o to a di""erent pla!e #ith the0. Mark went off not reali6ing he had left his wallet at home. 't the museum !ally went off with her friends to see some things we weren(t interested in. 6$ /o o.. p.1. When an e1ent or plan /oes o.. #ell, s0oothl5, #ithout a proble0, or #ithout a hit!h Ea hit!h is a proble0F, it happens as planned. The drug bust went off without a hitch. The invasion didn(t go off the way the general planned it. 7$ /o o.. p.1. When a road, trail, path, and so on, /oes o..' it lea1es the 0ain road, trail, or path, and 'oes in a di""erent dire!tion. This trail that goes off to the left will take you to the campground. .e didn(t know which way to go go on go on & goes on going on went on gone on one path went off to the left, the other to the right.

($ /o on p.1. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e or s5ste0 /oes on' it be'ins to operate. ' thermostat makes the air conditioner go on if it gets above a certain temperature. The lights goes on automatically if someone walks near the door. "$ /o on p.1. When so0ethin' /oes on' it happens. @WhatBs /oin/ onH? is a !o00on in"or0al 'reetin'. Tell me what went on at the party last night. If you see anything illegal going on call the police immediately. *$ /oon p.1. When people 'o on, the5 !ontinue doin' so0ethin'. So0eti0es, on is repeated "or e0phasis. 1 1

; asked her to be Fuiet, but she went right on singing. )ust go on with what you(re doing. I(ll wait until you(re finished. I told him to stop talking, but he went on and on and on and on. 6$ /o on p.1. When an e1ent or a!ti1it5 /oes on' it !ontinues. The party went on until dawn. I hate long meetings that go on for hours. 7$ /o on p.1. When 5ou /o on in"or0ation, 5ou are able to !ontinue an in1esti'ation or other pro)e!t be!ause 5ou ha1e this in"or0ation. The detective said he needs more to go on and asked the public for information. The auto company won(t recall MD,333 cars because of one accident. That(s just not enough to go on. 8$ /o on p.1. When 5ou /o on a diet, 5ou start a plan to lose #ei'ht. # go on a diet every )anuary. I have to go on a diet@ my high school reunion is in two months. :$ /o on p.1. When 5ou sa5 @3o on@to people, 5ou are en!oura'in' the0 to do so0ethin'. 8es, caviar is fish eggs, but it(s good don(t be afraid. 4n"initi1e present tense hang around han' around P han's around go on try it. =h, go on

-in' "or0 han'in' around

past tense hun' around

past parti!iple hun' around

($ han/ aro n! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou han/ aro n! or han/ aro n! doin' so0ethin', 5ou sta5 in a pla!e #ithout a purpose "or bein' there or be!ause 5ou are #aitin' "or so0eone or so0ethin'. I had to hang around for three hours waiting for the bus. Aob(s been hanging around the house all day. 5oesn(t he have anything to do1 "$ han/ aro n! p.1. Jin"or0alK When people sta5 in a pla!e instead o" lea1in', the5 han/ aro n!$ .hat(s the hurry1 ,ang around for a while, and when I finish my homework we can watch TV. 5o you have to go or can you hang around for a while1 *$ han/ aro n! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou han/ aro n! people, 5ou spend a lot o" ti0e #ith the0. When 5ou han/ aro n! a pla!e, 5ou spend a lot o" ti0e there. /rik(s mother is worried. !he doesn(t like the guys he(s hanging around with. )im and Aill were good friends. They always hung around when they were kids.

1 2

4n"initi1e present tense lie around lie around P lies around l5in' around la5 around lain around -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple

($ %ie aro n! p.1. When 5ou %ie aro n! or %ie aro n! doin' so0ethin', 5ou re!line and rela< and do not do an5thin' i0portant. Today is my day off, so don(t ask me to do any work. I(m just going to lie around. 'll my sister ever does is lie around watching soap operas. "$ %ie aro n! p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When so0ethin' is %3in/ aro n!' it is disor'aniDed and no one is usin' it or pa5in' attention to it. )ake is a slob. There are empty beer cans and old newspapers l%ing around all over his house. .e need to do something about all that junk l%ing around in the backyard. start out start out & starts out starting out started out

started out

($ start o t p.1. When 5ou be'in so0ethin', 5ou start o t$ Start o t is used to dis!uss ho# the end o" so0ethin' #as di""erent "ro0 its be'innin'. The stock market started out in positive territory but closed 733 points lower. "ancy started out as a secretary, thinking she might have a future with this company, but she doesn(t feel that way anymore. sta% up sta% up & sta%s up sta%ing up sta%ed up sta%ed up

($ sta3 + p.1. When so0ethin' sta3s +' it re0ains in a pla!e that is hi'her than 'round le1el. That shelf won(t sta% up if you put all those books on it. The astronauts sta%ed up for 7H* days. "$ sta3 + p.1. When 5ou sta3 up, 5ou 'o to bed later than 5ou nor0all5 do. )udy(s tired because she sta%ed up until dawn studying for a chemistry test. 5on(t sta% up late tomorrow(s a school day.

ECERCISE ")a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. This is a dan'erous nei'hborhood > so sta5 #ith 0e and donBt MMMMM MMMMM b5 5oursel". 2. Aesterda5 at #or7 &eti!ia MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sho#in' e1er5one her en'a'e0ent rin'. 3. Weddin' !ere0onies in so0e !ountries !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or da5s. 4. The bo0b #ill MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at e<a!tl5 $G//. 1 3

. Where are 5ou 'oin'H Wh5 donBt 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until Ii0 !o0es ho0e and then #e !an order a piDDa. $. The dri1er too7 a #ron' turn, and #e MMMMMMM MMMMMMM in the 0iddle o" no#here. %. (n Sunda5s 05 husband usuall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the !ou!h #at!hin' "ootball 'a0es. 8. 65 laD5 son MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the house all da5 not li"tin' a "in'er to help #ith an5thin'. *. SheBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at her ne# )ob #or7in' onl5 part-ti0e, but later sheBll s#it!h to "ull-ti0e. 1/. =u5 lots o" !ha0pa'ne "or the part5? 5ou #ant to be sure thereBs enou'h to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. =ill li7es to 'o to bed earl5 > he !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM past 8G// P.6. 12. +osa #anted to stud5 0edi!ine in !olle'e, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM stud5in' la# instead. 13. The paleontolo'ist #as a0aDed to "ind dinosaur e''s )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the desert. 14. 4 !anBt belie1e 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMto#n #earin' those dirt5 !lothes all da5. 1 . 4B0 sorr5 4 0issed the part5. 8id an5thin' e<!itin' MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH 1$. 4B0 ner1ous about the #eddin'. 4 hope it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #a5 #e planned it. 1%. - ru0or is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the s!hool about t#o o" the tea!hers. 18. 4tBs nor0al "or the po#er to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM durin' a thunderstor0. 1*. 4" that poster doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith tape, #eBll ha1e to use thu0b ta!7s instead. 2/. 4n the 0ornin' 8r. S0ith usuall5MMMMMMMMMMthe hospital 1isitin' his patients. 21. Ii0 is usuall5 a 'ood bo5, but #hen he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith Ia7e he 'ets in trouble. 22. Ce #as tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a slo# tru!7 #hen he had the a!!ident. 1 4

23. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a diet t#o #ee7s a'o, and so "ar 4 ha1enBt lost an oun!e. 24. 4n the past no one belie1ed that the earth MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the sun. 2 . 4" 5ouBre lea1in', #hat are 5ou #aitin' "orH MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, lea1e: 2$. Co# !an 4 0a7e su!h an i0portant de!ision #ith so little in"or0ationH 4 need 0ore to MMMMMMMM. 2%. 4B0 surprised that the heat MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last ni'ht > itBs onl5 Septe0ber. 28. 6i'uelBs ne# ra!e !ar is reall5 "ast. Aesterda5 he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tra!7 in re!ord ti0e. 2*. -"ter 5ou !ross the brid'e, 5ouBll see a 'ra1el road that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a la7e and heads to#ard the 0ountains. 3/. 4 donBt #ant to retire. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #or7in' as lon' as 4 !an. ECERCISE ")& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. AouBre 'oin' to spend the da5 on the so"a #at!hin' TV. What are 5ou 'oin' to do all da5H 2. &5dia #al7ed to 1arious pla!es in her ne# house 0a7in' de!oratin' plans. What did &5dia do in her ne# houseH 3. The letter #as supposed to 'o to -ustria, but it "inall5 arri1ed in -ustralia. What happened to the letterH

4. The ele!tri!it5 stops #or7in' e1er5da5 at 2G//. What does the ele!tri!it5 doH . Ioe !alled and as7ed #hat #as happenin'. What did Ioe as7H $. =ob 'oes to e1er5 o""i!e at #or7 tellin' a#"ul )o7es. What does =ob do at #or7H %. Iani!e didnBt 'o to bed all ni'ht. What did Iani!e doH 8. 8an sta5s in his house all da5. Ce doesnBt 'o an5#here or do an5thin'. What does 8an do all da5H *. Aou #ere late to #or7 be!ause 5our alar0 !lo!7 didnBt rin' this 0ornin'. What didnBt 5our alar0 !lo!7 do this 0ornin'H 1/. Ierr5 #ent to 0an5 pla!es #earin' a Ca#aiian shirt. What did Ierr5 doH 11. When it 'ets dar7 the street li'hts be'in to operate auto0ati!all5. What do the li'hts doH 12. 4 bou'ht onl5 t#ent5-"i1e hot do's "or the part5, but thirt5 people sho#ed up, so so0e people didnBt 'et a hot do'. Wh5 didnBt so0e people 'et a hot do'H 13. There are a lot o" potholes in the street, and 4 ha1e to a1oid the0 #hile 4B0 dri1in'. What do 4 ha1e to do #hile 4B0 dri1in'H 14. 4 !ouldnBt de!ide bet#een the red !ar and the blue !ar, but 4 "inall5 de!ided on the red !ar. What did 4 "inall5 doH 1 . 6r. Watson is the brains o" this !o0pan5. 4" he le"t #e !ouldnBt !ontinue. What !ouldnBt #e do #ithout 6r. WatsonH

1$. Iane be'an the pro)e!t thin7in' it #ould ta7e onl5 a "e# #ee7s. What did Iane doH

ECERCISE ")c ; =rite ori/ina% sentences sin/ these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section

an! +revio s sections .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-$ The .irst n -&er a.ter the ver& is the sectionJ the secon! n -&er is the -eanin/$ It is on%3 that -eanin/ that can &e .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-$ Tr3 to -a0e so-e o. the sentences si-i%ar to those in the FOCUS section$ brea7 do#n, /3 !o0e o1er, 1%/1,2,3 end up, 2//1 'o around, 2//4, ,$ 'o o"", 2//3 'o on, 2//3 han' around, 2//1 lie around, 2//1 sho# up, 1/1 stand around, 18/11 start out, 2//1 sta5 up, 2//2 ta7e o"", 1/% #ind up, 14/2

1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM *. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 1 $

1/. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 11. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 12. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 13. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 14. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ECERCISE ")!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ai0 at, 1* blo# a#a5, 1 brea7 out, * brin' o1er, 1* !all o"", 13 !ool o"", 1* dr5 out, 1 'i1e up, * 'o about, 1% 'o ba!7, 1* hear o", 8 pa5 "or, 4 rip up, 1% s!re# out o", 3 see a bout, % #or7 up, *

1. 65 tea!her 0ade a 0ista7e #hen he !orre!ted 05 test and MMMMMMMM 0eMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ten points. 2. AouBd better #ear a )a!7et > it has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM outside. 3. Cer letter 0ade 0e so 0ad that 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 4. Aou donBt need to ra7e the lea1es? the #ind #ill MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. . We 7ne# #e didnBt ha1e an5 hope o" #innin' the battle, so #e MMMMMMM MMMMMMM. $. Aou !anBt run ten 0iles on the "irst da5 o" 5our e<er!ise pro'ra0. Aou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to it. %. 6i!hael didnBt see the red li'ht and hit a 'asoline tru!7. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his 0ista7e #ith his li"e. 8. Sa0 as7ed 0e i" 4 7ne# so0eone na0ed 2ran!is!o, and 4 said 4 had ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0. *. 65 "a0il5 has been in 6assa!husetts sin!e the se1enteenth !entur5. The5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the 6a5"lo#er. 1/. (ur trip to 6ia0i #asMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM be!ause o" the hurri!ane. 11. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM the dentist MMMMMMMM 'ettin' 05 teeth #hitened. 12. 8o 5ou 7no# ho# to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 'ettin' a passportH 1 %

13. This ru' is #et? letBs ta7e it outside to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the sun. 14. The ne# restri!tions on !i'arette ad1ertisin' are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' the le1el o" teena'e s0o7in'. 1 . The5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" prison b5 tunnelin' under the prison #all. 1$. We donBt ha1e enou'h plates "or the part5, so 4 !alled 6aria and as7ed her to MMMMMMMM so0e MMMMMMMM.

"($ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! should an! ought to


Should and ou'ht to ha1e t#o i0portant 0eanin's in ;n'lish. (ne is "a0iliar to 0ost students, but the other is not. A /oo! i!ea< sho %! an! o /ht to Should and ou'ht to !an be used to sa5 that doin' so0ethin' is a 'ood idea be!ause it #ill bene"it the person 5ou are spea7in' aboutG 8ou should !ip up your coat. 8ou ought to !ip up your coat. or be!ause the person 5ou are spea7in' about is e<pe!ted, thou'h not re,uired, to do so0ethin'G 8ou should bring in the groceries for your mother. 8ou ought to bring in the groceries for your mother. -lthou'h should and ou'ht are 0odal au<iliar5 1erbs, ou'ht 0ust be used #ith to. 4n other #ords, ou'ht does not e,ual should, ou'ht to e,uals should. Ne1er sa5 should to. Ver3 +ro&a&%e< sho %! an! o /ht to =oth should and ou'ht to are used to sa5 that so0ethin' is 1er5 probable, 1er5 li7el5, or */ per!ent sure to happen > that i" e1er5thin' is nor0al, as e<pe!ted, or as planned, a !ondition #ill 1er5 probabl5 e<ist or so0ethin' #ill 1er5 probabl5 happenG The rebel territory should settle down once winter comes. The rebel territory ought to settle down once winter comes. 4n the e<a0ples abo1e, either should or ou'ht to !an be used > the5 ha1e the sa0e 0eanin' > ho#e1er, onl5 should is used in ,uestionsG 1 8

!hould Tom !ip up his jacket1 =ught Tom to !ip up his jacket1 and onl5 should not or shouldnBt is used in ne'ati1e senten!esG Tom should not !ip up his jacket. Tom ought not to !ip up his jacket. Should not Eor shouldnBtF is used to sa5 that so0ethin' is not probable. 4t 0eans that so0ethin' is 1er5 i0probable, 1er5 unli7el5, or */ per!ent sure not to happen > that i" e1er5thin' is nor0al, as e<pe!ted, or as planned, a !ondition #ill 1er5 probabl5 not e<ist or so0ethin' #ill 1er5 probabl5 not happenG I set the thermostat at si0ty&five degrees, and I(m sure it won(t get below seventy tonight, so the heat shouldn(t go on. 4n"initi1e present tense look around loo7 around P loo7s around

-in' "or0 loo7in' around

past tense loo7ed around

past parti!iple loo7ed around

($ %oo0 aro n! p.1. When 5ou turn 5our head to see #hat is behind 5ou or around 5ou, 5ou %oo0 aro n!$ I heard a sound, and I looked around to see who it was. !ally looked around the room and didn(t recogni6e anyone. "$ %oo0 aro n! p.1. When 5ou %oo0 aro n! or %oo0 aro n! a pla!e, 5ou 'o to 1arious parts o" the pla!e in order to see #hat it is li7e or #hat is there. 8ou should look around before you decide whether you want to buy the house. Ginda looked around the bookstore but didn(t find anything interesting. look over look over & looks over looking over looked over

looked over

($ %oo0$$$ over p.1. Jusuall5 separatedK When 5ou %oo0 so0ethin' over' 5ou loo7 at it or read it !are"ull5 and thorou'hl5. $e ought to look the car over before he buys it. $ere(s the first chapter of my new book@ look it over and tell me what you think. pick on pick on & picks on picking on picked on picked on

($ +ic0 on p.1. When 5ou +ic0 on people, 5ou !ontinuall5 tease and !riti!iDe the0. !usie, you shouldn(t pick on your little brother. The teacher never critici6es anyone else she picks only on me.

1 *

Infinitive present tense settle down settle down < settles down

&ing form settling down

past tense settled down

past participle settled down

($ sett%e $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou sett%e !o5n' 5ou be!o0e less a!ti1e, ner1ous, or upset. When 5ou sett%e other people !o5n' 3o do so0ethin' to 0a7e the0 less a!ti1e, ner1ous, or upset. Ca%- !o5n is si0ilar to sett%e !o5n$ .hy are you so nervous about the test1 )ust settle down@ you(ll do just fine. >an(t you settle the children down1 'll that noise is driving me cra6y. "$ sett%e$$$ !o5n p.1. When a !on"used or 1iolent situation be!o0es less !on"used or 1iolent, it sett%es !o5n$ When 5ou sett%e a !on"used or 1iolent situation !o5n' 5ou 0a7e it less !on"used or 1iolent and 0ore !al0. Ca%- !o5n is si0ilar to sett%e !o5n$ Nioting and arson continued for three days before the area settled down. The head of the union spoke to the angry strikers to try to settle them down. *$ sett%e !o5n p.1. When people sett%e do#n, the5 start to li1e a less a!ti1e li"e and perhaps 'et 0arried, bu5 a house, and start a "a0il5. Mike led a pretty wild life when he was in his early twenties, but he got married when he was 7L and settled down. My son is forty&one. I wish he(d settle down and raise a family. step on step on & steps on stepping on stepped on stepped on ($ ste+ on p.1. When 5ou ste+ on so0ethin', 5ou pla!e 5our "oot on it. If the carpenter steps on a nail, she(ll have to go to the hospital for a tetanus shot. !am stepped on a cockroach. "$ ste+ on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou sa5 ?Ste+ on it@ to so0eone #ho is dri1in' a !ar, 5ou are tellin' the dri1er to dri1e "aster. $ank needed to get to the airport in fifteen minutes, so he told the ta0i driver to step on it. 2tep on itE .e have to be at work in ten minutes. take out on take out on & takes out on taking out on took out on

taken out on

($ ta0e$$$ o t on p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' o t on people, 5ou un"airl5 !riti!iDe or punish the0 be!ause 5ou are an'r5 about so0ethin' that has o!!urred or about so0ethin' that so0eone else has done. If you(re mad at your boss, you shouldn(t take it out on your wife. $eyE It(s not my fault you got a speeding ticket. .hy are you taking it out on me1

1$/

Infinitive present tense think ahead think ahead ! thinks ahead &ing form thinking ahead past tense thought ahead past participle thought ahead

($ thin0 ahea! p.1. When 5ou thin0 ahea!' 3o plan "ora "uture situation or a!ti1it5 so that 5ou #ill not ha1e a proble0. .hen we(re out camping, there won(t be any stores around if you forget something, so think ahead. .e thought ahead before we drove through the desert@ we took forty liters of water. !ip up !ip up & !ips up !ipping up !ipped up !ipped up

($ @i+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou @i+ + a !oat or other ite0 o" !lothin', 5ou !lose it #ith a Dipper. It(s free6ing outside < !ip your coat up. I can(t 6ip my dress up. >an you1 @i++e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou @i+ + a !oat or other ite0 o" !lothin', it is @i++e! +$ Gook at Timmy out there in the snow without his coat !ipped up. Aefore you go to the airport, make sure your suitcases are !ipped up. ECERCISE "( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4tBs not 5our brotherBs "ault 5ou "ailed the 0ath test. Aou shouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0. 2. Ti005 le"t so0e o" his to5s on the "loor. =e !are"ul not to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM the0. 3. ThereBs a 'u5 in 05 !lass #hoBs reall5 0ean and 0a7es )o7es about 0e. 4 told the tea!her that heBs al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e. 4. So0eone !alled 05 na0e, and 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to see #ho it #as. . Iane is alread5 thirt5-"our, but sheBs not interested in MMMMMM MMMMM and ha1in' !hildren. $. 4B1e MMMMMM MMMMMM 5our resu0e, and 4 thin7 5ouBre the ri'ht person "or this )ob. %. Ti005 and Susie #ere runnin' around the house li7e !raD5, so 4 pla5ed their "a1orite 1ideotape to tr5 to MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 8. Aou should MMMMMMMM 5our ba!7pa!7 MMMMMMMM? other#ise all 5our boo7s are 'oin' to "all out. 1$1

*. The t#o !ountries ha1e a histor5 o" border !lashes, but thin's ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the last "e# 5ears. 1/. 4B1e ne1er been in 5our house be"ore? 4Bd li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and see ho# 5ouB1e de!orated it. 11. Aou donBt #ant to arri1e in To75o and realiDe 5ou "or'ot so0ethin' i0portant ba!7 in Van!ou1er, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 12. WeBre late >MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it: ECERCISE "( & ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 8an ou'ht to loo7 at the !ar 1er5 !are"ull5 be"ore he de!ides #hether to bu5 it. What should 8an doH 2. Aou #ent to a bi' boo7store and #al7ed around so that 5ou !ould see #hat boo7s the5 ha1e. What did 5ou do in the boo7storeH 3. (ur nei'hbors #ere ar'uin' all e1enin', but the5 stopped ar'uin' and 'ot ,uieter at around 1G//
-.6.

What did our nei'hbors do around 1G// -.6.H

4. 4tBs "reeDin' outside, so 5ou ou'ht to !lose the Dipper on 5our )a!7et. What should 5ou do to 5our )a!7etH

. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the )a!7et a"ter it is !losedH $. -t the 0eetin', the boss as7ed =ett5 so0e di""i!ult ,uestions, and =ett5 #asnBt read5 #ith the ans#ers. What didnBt =ett5 doH

%. 2ran7 un"airl5 !riti!iDes his son. What does 2ran7 do to his sonH 8. 6ar7 had a bad da5 at #or7, and #hen he !a0e ho0e he 5elled at his #i"e. What did 6ar7 do to his #i"eH *. When 6i7e #as dan!in' #ith Ceather, he put his "oot on her "oot. What did 6i7e do to CeatherBs "ootH 1$2

ECERCISE "( c' Revie5 ; Re5rite the n!er%ine! 5or!s in the sentences sin/ these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- +revio s sections an! sho %! or o /ht to$ Re-e-&er that o /ht to is not s a%%3 se! in ne/ative sentences$ brea7 throu'h, 18 burn out, 8 !o0e o1er, 1% !o0e throu'h, 1 !o0e up, 12 !ool o"", 1* "all o"", 1/ 'et o"", 18 'et throu'h, 1$ 'o "or, 1$ hold up, % pull throu'h, 2 #ar0 up, 1* #ind up, 14

E4a-+%e< 4" the5 'o to that restaurant, the5 #ill 1er5 probabl5 e<pe!t to pa5 N2//. 4" the5 'o to that restaurant, the5 should "i'ure on pa5in' N2//. or 4" the5 'o to that restaurant, the5 ou'ht to "i'ure on pa5in' N2//. 1. =usiness in this restaurant #ill 1er5 probabl5 de!rease in Ianuar5. 2. The5 are 1er5 probabl5 "inishin' the in1esti'ation. 3. These !heap shoes #ill 1er5 probabl5 not sta5 in 'ood !ondition 0ore than three 0onths. 4. Ii0 "lies "ro0 2lorida to =oston e1er5 5ear in -pril, and itBs -pril no#. Ii0 #ill 1er5 probabl5 tra1el to =oston soon. . 4t al0ost al#a5s 'ets !ooler in (!tober, and itBs (!tober 1st toda5, so it #ill 1er5 probabl5 'et !ooler soon.

$. PaulBs disease is not serious, so he #ill 1er5 probabl5 be #ell a'ain. %. 2ran!is!o al0ost ne1er #or7s past G//, and itBs 4G / no#. Ce #ill 1er5 probabl5 stop #or7in' in a "e# 0inutes. 8. &5dia li7es s7iin' a lot, so i" 5ou su''est that #e 'o s7iin' ne<t #ee7end, she #ill 1er5 probabl5 li7e the idea.

*. The ene05 soldiers ha1e been tr5in' to s0ash a hole in the #all o" the "ort "or t#o hours, and the5 #ill 1er5 probabl5 s0ash a hole in the #all soon. 1$3

1/. Sall5 said she #ould !o0e to 05 house at G3/ and itBs G4/ no#. She #ill 1er5 probabl5 !o0e to 05 house soon. **. This work normally takes four hours to finish, so if you start at L#33 you will very probably finish around *#33. 12. The train al0ost al#a5s passes throu'h to#n at 3G2 , and itBs 3G2/ no#, so the train #ill 1er5 probabl5 pass throu'h to#n in "i1e 0inutes.

13. 4 put a lot o" #ood on the "ire, so it 1er5 probabl5 #ill not stop burnin' be"ore 0ornin'. 14. The !ar heater is on 0a<i0u0, so it #ill 1er5 probabl5 'et #ar0 soon. ECERCISE "( !' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brin' ba!7, 1* end up, 2/ "all apart, 1% 'et ba!7 at, 1% 'o around, 2/ 'o ba!7, 1* 'o o"", 2/ 'o on, 2/ hand o1er, 1* han' around,2/ lie around, 2/ line up, 18 pull o1er, 1* rin' up, 8 start out, 2/ sta5 up, 2/

1. -"ter 6ar7Bs "ather died, To0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the o""i!e !olle!tin' 0one5 to bu5 so0e "lo#ers "or the "uneral. 2. Who said 5ou !ould use 05 !a0eraH MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM ri'ht no#: 3. The s0o7e alar0 in our 7it!hen MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1er5 ti0e 4 "r5 !hi!7en. 4. WeB1e been dri1in' "or "i1e hours strai'ht. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and rest "or a "e# 0inutes. . (ur tra1el a'ent is tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hot air balloon to ta7e us to the top o" 6t. ;1erest. $. &ast ni'ht 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM late #at!hin' Casablan!a on TV. %. 65 old bi!5!le is in 1er5 bad !ondition. 4 ou'ht to bu5 a ne# one be"ore it !o0pletel5 8. 4B0 0ad at Sarah "or tellin' 05 husband #hat happened at the o""i!e part5. 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her so0eda5. 1$4

*. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thin7in' it #ouldnBt !ost 0ore than N3// to "i< 05 !ar, but 4B1e alread5 spent 0ore than N%//. 1/. Ii005 didnBt used to 'et in trouble until he started to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith Ia7e. 11. 4" 5ou donBt ,uit s0o7in' and lose so0e #ei'ht, 5ouBre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM d5in' be"ore 5ouBre "i"t5. 12. Visitin' 05 old hi'h s!hool last #ee7MMMMMMMMMMMMMMa lot o" 'reat 0e0ories. 13. -re 5ou 'oin' to do an5thin' toda5 or )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #at!hin' TVH 14. 4B0 sorr5 4 interrupted 5our stor5. Please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1 . The !ashier MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 stu"" and said, @That !o0es to N4%.21.@ 1$. -l"onso le"t his !redit !ard at the restaurant, so he had to MMMMMM MMMMMM to 'et it.

""$ FOCUS ON< the +artic%e up an! the a!ver&s right an! all
The parti!le up is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs, and one o" its uses is to sa5 that so0ethin' has been done thorou'hl5 or !o0pletel5G The buildin' & rne!$ EThe buildin' #as da0a'ed but not destro5ed.F The buildin' & rne! UP$ EThe buildin' #as !o0pletel5 destro5ed.F +i'ht, dis!ussed in Se!tion 1*, is o"ten used in phrasal 1erbs #ith up to indi!ate that the a!tion o" the 1erb not onl5 happened thorou'hl5 and !o0pletel5 but also ,ui!7l5G They ate it up. BThey ate all the food.C They ate it right up. BThey ate all the food, and they ate it Fuickly.C +e0e0ber that ri'ht !an be used in this #a5 onl5 a"ter an ob)e!t that is separatin' the 1erb and parti!leG They ate the pi66a right up. They ate right up the pi66a. ;1en thou'h up indi!ates that the a!tion o" the 1erb is thorou'h and !o0plete, all is so0eti0es used "or "urther e0phasis #ith parti!iple ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0 phrasal 1erbs #ith upG My ta0es are all paid up. The drain is all plugged up. 1$

Infinitive present tense burn up burn up < burns up burning up burned up burned up &ing form past tense past participle

($ & rn + p.1. When so0ethin' is !o0pletel5 destro5ed b5 heat or "ire, it & rns +$ The meteor burned up in the atmosphere. The rocket(s fuel will burn up after only forty seconds. "$ & rn$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's destro5 so0ethin' #ith heat or "ire, the5 & rn it +$ There(s no more coal. .e burned it all up. )et engines burn up fuel at a tremendous rate. & rne! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' is !o0pletel5 destro5ed b5 heat or "ire, it is & rne! +$ There isn(t anymore firewood@ it(s all burned up. The house is all burned up. There(s no way it can be saved. *$ & rne! $$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When so0ethin' 0a7es 5ou 1er5 an'r5, it & rns 5ou +$ It really burns me up when other people take credit for my work. I have to say something to !ally about what she did. It(s burning me up. & rne! + part.ad). Jin"or0alK When 5ou are 1er5 an'r5, 5ou are & rne! +$ )im was burned up when his boss critici6ed him during the meeting. Nela0 clear up clear up & clears up clearing up cleared up cleared up it(s nothing to get all burned up about.

($ c%ear + p.1. When a proble0, 0isunderstandin', or disease 'oes a#a5, it c%ears +$ The misunderstanding cleared up right away after we talked about it. My rash is clearing up by itself. I don(t need to go to the doctor. c%eare! + part.ad). -"ter a proble0, 0isunderstandin', or disease 'oes a#a5, it is c%eare! +$ ; feel great. My sinus infection is all cleared up. /verything(s okay. It was a big misunderstanding, but it(s cleared up now. "$ c%ear$$$ + p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' to sol1e a proble0 or 0isunderstandin' or do so0ethin' to !ure a disease, 5ou c%ear it +$ /veryone was confused about the new policy, so a memo was issued that cleared everything up. The medicine 5r. !mith gave me cleared the infection up. 1$$

*$ c%ear + p.1. When !louds in the s75 'o a#a5, the #eather c%ears +$ Onless it clears up we(ll have to cancel the picnic. It was a beautiful day after the sky cleared up. Infinitive present tense count up count up < counts up counting up counted up counted up &ing form past tense past participle

($ co nt$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !ount all o" so0ethin' to see ho# 0an5 o" the0 there are, 5ou co nt the0 +$ +ount the money up and tell me what the total is. +ounting up the yes and no votes is going to take a long time. eat up eat up & eats up eating up ate up eaten up

($ eat$$$ + p.1. When 5ou eat "ood +' 5ou eat all o" it. There(s no more pi66a@ 5avid ate it all up. 5on(t eat up the cake before your father gets a piece. "$ eat$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' eats + so0ethin' else, su!h as 0one5 or ti0e, it uses all o" it. I(m broke. Fi0ing my car last week ate up my entire paycheck. I don(t want to go shopping with you. It(ll eat up the whole day. heat up heat up & heats up heating up heated up heated up

($ heat $$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' or so0eone 0a7es so0ethin' hotter, the5 heat it up. .aiter, this soup is cold. .ould you heat it up for me1 !ometimes the sun heats up the desert to *73 degrees. heate! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' or so0eone 0a7es so0ethin' hotter, it is heate! +$ 5on(t give the baby that cold bottle@ give her this heated up one. The spaghetti has been in the microwave for five minutes, so I(m sure it(s heated up by now. pa% up pa% up & pa%s up pa%ing up paid up paid up

($ +a3 + p.1. When 5ou +a3 up, 5ou pa5 all the 0one5 5ou o#e to a person, ban7, and so on, usuall5 as a result o" pressure to pa5 the 0one5. ' guy from the collection agency called and told me I(d better pa% up. I wasn(t surprised when the insurance company refused to pa% up. 1$%

+ai! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou are +ai! up, 5ou ha1e paid all the 0one5 5ou o#e to a person, ban7, and so on. ; told the bill collector that he had made a mistake. I(m alt paid up. Aetty(s VI!' card is paid up so there won(t be any finance charge ne0t month. plug up plug up & plugs up plugging up plugged up plugged up

($ +% /$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's blo!7 a narro# passa'e, su!h as a pipe, drain, or hole, so that nothin' !an "lo# throu'h it, the5 +% / it +$ 5on(t pour bacon grease in the sink@ it(ll plug up the drain. I need to plug up the hole in the roof where the rain is leaking in. +% //e! + part.ad). When a narro# passa'e, su!h as a pipe, drain, or hole, is !o0pletel5 blo!7ed so that nothin' !an "lo# throu'h it, it is +% //e! +$ >all the plumber@ the sink(s plugged up. My nose is all plugged up and I can(t smell anything. wipe up wipe up & wipes up wiping up wiped up wiped up

($ 5i+e $$$ + p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e a li,uid "ro0 a sur"a!e b5 0o1in' a to#el or spon'e a!ross it #ith a s#eepin' 0otion, 5ou 5i+e the li,uid +$ F=i+e + is si0ilar to 5i+e o..J ho#e1er, 5ou 5i+e + a li,uid, but 5ou 5i+e o"" the sur"a!e the li,uid is on.F !usie spilled her milk, and her mother told her to wipe it all up. 8ou(d better wipe up the water on the bathroom floor before someone falls. ECERCISE ""a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 8onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the potato !hips. &ea1e so0e "or 0e. 2. We ha1e to MMMMMMMM the hole in this boat MMMMMMMM "ast be"ore it sin7s. 3. 4t MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #hen people s0o7e in a nons0o7in' se!tion. 4. There #as a lot o" !on"usion about the ne# plan, so #e as7ed To0 to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM "or us. . The bill !olle!tor threatened to repossess 05 !ar i" 4 didnBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. $. The pain 4 had in 05 shoulder MMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMM a"ter 4 tried the ne# therap5. %. (7a5, letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the points to see #ho #on the 'a0e. 8. 4t #as !loud5 in the 0ornin', but around 11G// it MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM. *. 4t hasnBt rained in 0onths, so this dr5 "orest #ill reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" thereBs a "ire. 1$8

1/. Would 5ou 'et a to#el and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !o""ee 5ou spilledH 11. 4Bll put 5our dinner in the re"ri'erator, and 5ou !an MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM#hen 5ou !o0e ho0e. 12. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all these old papers in the "irepla!e. 13. 4 didnBt ha1e an5 insuran!e, so pa5in' "or those hospital bills reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM all 05 sa1in's. ECERCISE ""& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. The5 burned up. Ethe #ood, itF 2. Ce ou'ht to !lear up. Ethe 0isunderstandin', itF 3. Would 5ou !ount upH Ethe 1otes, the0F 4. Ca1e the5 eaten upH Eall the !and5, itF D. I can(t plug up. Bthe hole, itC

*JL

$. Wipe up ri'ht no#: Ethat #ater, itF

ECERCISE ""c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Aou !o0pletel5 blo!7ed the drain so that #ater !ouldnBt 'o throu'h it. What did 5ou do to the drainH

2. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the drainH 3. 4B0 puttin' 05 !o""ee in the 0i!ro#a1e to 0a7e it hotter. What a0 4 doin' to 05 !o""eeH 4. 4n Ouestion 3, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 05 !o""ee a"ter 4 ta7e it out o" the 0i!ro#a1eH . ;ri7 hasnBt !ounted all the 0one5. What hasnBt ;ri7 doneH $. AouBll pa5 all 5our late 0ort'a'e pa50ents. What #ill 5ou do to 5our 0ort'a'eH %. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ill 5ou be re'ardin' 5our 0ort'a'eH 8. The poli!e used "ire to destro5 all the dru's. What did the poli!e doH *. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the dru's no#H 1/. 65 disease #ent a#a5 i00ediatel5. What did 05 disease doH 11. Sarah is !leanin' up all the oran'e )ui!e that she spilled on the "loor. What is Sarah doin'H 12. Carlos al#a5s eats all his bab5 "ood, and he eats it ,ui!7l5. What does Carlos doH 1%/

ECERCISE ""!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !arr5 on, 1$ !ount on,1$ dress up, 14 dr5 up, 14 'o #ith, 1 hand in, 13 head ba!7, 1 head "or, 1 loo7 around, 21 put a#a5, 14 si'n in, 12 si'n out, 12 step on, 21 ta7e out on, 21 thin7 ahead, 21 Dip up, 21

1. 4Bll be there #hen 5ou need 0e. Aou !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e. 2. 8o 5ou thin7 these shoes MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 dressH 3. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so that 5ou ha1e e1er5thin' 5ou need #hen 5ou 'et there. 4. &inda is here in the o""i!e so0e#here > she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at 8G 2. . &inda al#a5s lea1es at G//, and itBs al0ost $G// no#, so 4B0 sure she has alread5 MMMMMMM . $. That 'u5 is !raD5. Ce ou'ht to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. When 5ou "inish #ith the )ob appli!ation, 5ou !an MMMMMM it MMMMMM to the se!retar5. 8. 4 donBt thin7 #e should 0a7e an5 !han'es no#. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our ori'inal plan. *. The part5 #ill be !asual, so 5ou donBt ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. 6aria told 0e she #ould be in the librar5 bet#een %G// and 8G//, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM and !ouldnBt "ind her. 11. ThereBs so0e bro7en 'lass there > donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. 12. 4 hope it rains soon. The la7e is startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5our !oat > itBs "i"teen de'rees belo# Dero outside. 14. Iani!e hates her )ob, and she MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM MMMMMMM her husband. 1 . 4B0 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM San 8ie'o, and 4 should 'et there b5 late a"ternoon. 1$. 4Bll sta5 in San 8ie'o "or a #ee7 and then MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to &os -n'eles.

1%1

"*$ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s that re> ire an a!!itiona% +artic%e 5hen se! 5ith an o&,ect' "
-s #e sa# in Se!tion *, 0an5 phrasal 1erbs that !an be used both intransitive%3 and transitive%3 re,uire a se!ond parti!le #hen the5 are used transiti1el5, #hi!h 0a7es the0 three#ord phrasal 1erbs. -lthou'h these phrasal 1erbs ha1e a three-#ord 1ersion, the5 re0ain !lassi"ied as t#o#ord 1erbs be!ause the t#o-#ord and three-#ord phrasal 1erbs ha1e the sa0e 0eanin' > the5 are 1ariations o" the sa0e 1erbG He .i%%e! in$ Ce .i%%e! in "or 6i7e. There are, ho#e1er, three-#ord phrasal 1erbs that share the sa0e 1erb and "irst parti!le as another t#o-#ord phrasal 1erb but ha1e an entirel5 di""erent 0eanin'. These are t#o di""erent phrasal 1erbs and are !lassi"ied separatel5G $e put up a poster.

$e put up with her rudeness.

#nfinitive present tense crack down crack down & cracks down -ing form cracking down past tense cracked down past participle cracked down

($ crac0 !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou crac0 !o5n or crac0 !o5n on so0eone or so0ethin', 5ou en"or!e rules and la#s 0ore than 5ou en"or!ed the0 be"ore or 5ou 0a7e ne#, stron'er rules and la#s. The chief of police said he was going to crack down on car theft. The students have been coming to class later and later everyday. It(s time to start cracking down. crac0!o5n n. When 5ou en"or!e rules and la#s 0ore than 5ou en"or!ed the0 be"ore, this is a crac0!o5n$ The FAI is planning a major crackdown on organi6ed crime. 'fter the crackdown the crime rate plunged. cut down cut down & cuts down cutting down cut down cut down

($ c t$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou c t !o5n a tree, 5ou use a sa# or an a<e to !ut it and 0a7e it "all to the 'round. 8ou should cut that dead tree down before it falls on your house. The builder was critici6ed for cutting down so many trees when he built the house. "$ c t$$$ !o5n p.1. Jin"or0al > al#a5s separatedK When 5ou c t people !o5n to siDe, 5ou do or sa5 so0ethin' to 0a7e the0 "eel less i0portant or less po#er"ul.

1%2

I(m tired of that jerk. I(m going to cut him down to si6e. $ank thinks he(s such a tough guy. !omeone ought to cut him down to si6e. *$ c t !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou c t !o5n or c t !o5n on so0ethin' that 5ou !onsu0e, 5ou use it less. When 5ou c t !o5n or c t !o5n on so0ethin' 5ou do, 5ou do it less. C t &ac0 is si0ilar to c t !o5n$ If you can(t Fuit smoking, you should at least cut down. My doctor said cutting down on fat in my diet would lower my cholesterol. Infinitive present tense drop out drop out < drops out &ing form dropping out past tense dropped out past participle dropped out

($ !ro+ o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou !ro+ o t or !ro+ o t o" a s!hool, a trainin' !ourse, or other pro'ra0, 5ou lea1e be"ore !o0pletin' it. The program is very difficult, and about M3 percent of the students drop out. Ginda(s father was very disappointed when she dropped out of college. !ro+o t n$ A !ro+o t is so0eone #ho has le"t s!hool, usuall5 hi'h s!hool or !olle'e, be"ore 'raduatin'. Many successful people are college dropouts. get awa% get awa% & gets awa% getting awa% got awa% gotten/got awa%

($ /et a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou es!ape "ro0 people #ho are !hasin' 5ou be!ause the5 #ant to hurt 5ou or be!ause 5ou ha1e !o00itted a !ri0e, 5ou /et a5a3 or /et a5a3 "ro0 the0. .hen he took the knife out of his pocket, I got awa% from him fast. Ay the time the police arrived, the robbers had already gotten awa%. /eta5a3 n. When 5ou es!ape "ro0 people #ho #ant to !apture or hurt 5ou, 5ou 0a7e a /eta5a3$ The robbers made their getawa% in a blue Ford. The car used for the getawa% was found abandoned in the ne0t town. "$ /et a5a3 E#ithF p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' that is snea75 or #ron' and 5ou are not punished or !riti!iDed "or it be!ause no one 7no#s or !ares about it, 5ou /et a5a3 #ith it. )ake has been cheating on his ta0es for years, and he always gets awa% with it. $e got awa% with kilting his e0&wife even though everyone knew he was guilty. *$ /et a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou /et a5a3 "ro0 people or pla!es, 5ou lea1e the0 e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult. I(m tired of this town. I need to get awa%. Frank was talking and talking, and I couldn(t get awa% from him. 1%3

6$ /et a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /et a#a5, 5ou 'o on 1a!ation. ; have a lot of work to do, but I(ll try to get awa% for a week or two. .e always try to get awa% in )anuary and go skiing. #nfinitive hold out present tense hold out & holds out -ing form holding out past tense held out past participle held out

($ ho%! $$$ o t p.1. When 5ou ho%! o t 5our hand, 5ou e<tend it in "ront o" 5our bod5 so that so0eone !an sha7e hands #ith 5ou or put so0ethin' in 5our hand. Ho%! o t is si0ilar to + t o t$ Maybe Mr. 8oung is mad at me. I held out my hand, but he didn(t shake it. The street was filled with beggars holding their hands out. "$ ho%! o t p.1. When a suppl5 o" so0ethin' is enou'h "or 5our needs, the suppl5 ho%!s o t$ The beer held out until the end of the party, but we didn(t have enough wine. This is all the money I have, so it has to hold out until I get paid again. *$ ho%! o t p.1. When 5ou ho%! out, 5ou resist an atta!7, pressure, or te0ptation or 5ou !ontinue to sur1i1e in a dan'erous situation. More than *,333 enemy soldiers attacked the fort. There were only LK of us inside, but we held out for two weeks. I haven(t had a cigarette in three days, and I don(t know how much longer I can hold out. ho%!o t n. So0eone #ho resists an atta!7, pressure, or te0ptation is a ho%!o t$ The enemy soldiers are in control of the country, but there are some holdouts hiding in the mountains. There are still a few holdouts who don(t have credit cards. 6$ ho%! o t E"orF p.1. When 5ou ho%! o t or ho%! o t "or so0ethin', 5ou re"use to !o0pro0ise in a ne'otiation and a!!ept an5thin' less than 5our ori'inal de0ands. The basketball player is holding out for a million dollars a game. The union spokesman said the union members would hold out until their demands were met. ho%!o t n. When 5ou re"use to !o0pro0ise in a ne'otiation and a!!ept an5thin' less than 5our ori'inal de0ands, 5ou are a ho%!o t$ 'll the players have signed contracts e0cept for two holdouts. make up make up & makes up making up made up made up

($ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou in1ent a stor5 to entertain or "ool people, 5ou -a0e the stor5 +$ When 5ou in1ent a lie to de!ei1e people, 5ou -a0e the lie +$ 1%4

My son asked me to make up a story about monsters. $ank told his boss he was late for work because he had to go to the doctor, but he just made that e0cuse up. made-up part.adj. .hen a story is invented or fictional, it is made-up. There(s no truth to any of this it(s just a made-up story.

8. make up BofC p.v. ,often passive- .hen people or things make up a larger thing, they together form that larger thing. .hen a larger thing is made up of people or things, they together form that larger thing. >hildren under fifteen make up D3 percent of the population. 'n airplane is made up of thousands of parts. *$ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou -a0e + 5our 0ind, -a0e + 5our 0ind about so0ethin', or -a0e + 5our 0ind about doin' so0ethin', 5ou de!ide #hi!h !hoi!e to 0a7e or #hi!h a!tion to ta7e. ; like both the blue dress and the red dress. I can(t make up my mind. My daughter still hasn(t made up her mind about which college to attend. Marsha made her mind up about Fuitting her job and joining the "avy. -a!e + part.ad). -"ter 5ou -a0e + 5our 0ind or -a0e + 5our 0ind to do so0ethin', 5our 0ind is -a!e +$ 5on(t waste your time talking to Tom about it his mind is made up.

6$ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou ha1e an a0ount o" 0one5 that is not enou'h "or a !ertain re,uire0ent and 5ou add 0ore 0one5 so that it #ill be enou'h, 5ou -a0e + the di""eren!e bet#een the a0ount 5ou ha1e and the a0ount 5ou need. The cashier was supposed to have :MDD at the end of her shift, but she had only :M2D, so she had to make the shortage up with her own money. I didn(t have enough saved to pay for college, but my Oncle Fred made up the difference. 7$ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' that 5ou #ere re,uired to do earlier but did not, su!h as attend a !lass, ta7e a test, or !o0plete a ho0e#or7 assi'n0ent, 5ou -a0e it +$ 9aren asked the teacher about making up the test that she missed. The teacher told her she could make it up tomorrow after school. 6. make... up p.v. ,the noun and adjectives derived from this verb are much more commonly used than the verb itself- .hen you make yourself up you put lipstick, eye shadow, and so on, on your face. !he made herself up and went to the party. make-up n. Make&up is cosmetics# lipstick, mascara, and soon. $eather(s father thinks she wears too much make-up. 1%

-a!e9 + part.ad). -"ter people ha1e put on -a0e9 +' the3 are -a!e9 +$ 5id you see Gydia1 !he(s really beautiful when she(s all made-up. :$ -a0e + E#ithF p.1. When t#o people -a0e + or -a0e + #ith ea!h other, the5 end an ar'u0ent and resu0e "riendl5 relations. !ally and )im had a big fight, but they made up the ne0t day. Mr. Aaker said he won(t make up with his wife until she apologi6es. Infinitive sta% out present tense stay out < stays out &ing form staying out past tense stayed out past participle stayed out

($ sta3 o t p.1. When 5ou sta3 o t' 5ou do not return to 5our house. 5o you let your kids sta% out past M#331 I sta%ed out late last night, and I(m really e0hausted. "$ sta3 o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou sta3 o t o" a pla!e, 5ou do not 'o inside it. 8our father(s busy cooking dinner, so sta% out of the kitchen. 8ou can(t come in here. 2ta% out! *$ sta3 o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou sta3 o t o" a situation, su!h as an ar'u0ent, "i'ht, battle, or #ar, 5ou do not 'et in1ol1ed in it. This fight doesn(t involve you, so sta% out. )ake has sta%ed out of trouble since he left prison. watch out watch out & watches out watching out watched out watched out

($ 5atch o t E"orF p.1. When 5ou 5atch o t or 5atch o t "or so0ethin', 5ou re0ain alert "or so0eone or so0ethin' that is dan'erous or i0portant. When 5ou tell people to 5atch o t or 5atch o t "or so0ethin', 5ou are #arnin' the0 o" possible dan'er. =atch o t is the sa0e as %oo0 o t$ (atch out when you(re crossing a busy street. 9aren said she would meet us here at *7#33, so watch out for her. (atch out! There(s a snake in the grass. I dropped a glass in the kitchen, so watch out for broken glass. ECERCISE "*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. -re 5ou tellin' 0e the truth, or did 5ou MMMMMMMMM that MMMMMMMMMH 2. AouBre 'oin' to a dan'erous area. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM "or 0u''ers. 3. 4 ha1e to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM on salt in 05 diet be!ause o" 05 hi'h blood pressure. 4. We had to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM t#o trees to 0a7e roo0 "or the ne# s#i00in' pool. 1%$

. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the #ater > so0eone sa# a shar7. $. The soldiers in the "ort !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a'ainst su!h a hu'e and po#er"ul ar05. %. The .nited States is MMMMMM MMMMMM o" people "ro0 0an5 di""erent ra!es and !ultures. 8. 4t #as too hard to #or7 and 'o to s!hool at the sa0e ti0e, so Todd had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" !olle'e. *. Car0en !an pa5 onl5 hal" o" the 0one5 she o#es 0e, but &uis pro0ised to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the di""eren!e. 1/. - 'roup o" !on!erned !itiDens is de0andin' that the poli!e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on prostitution in their nei'hborhood. 11. The ban7 robbers MMMMMMMMMMMMMM in a #hite sedan #ith 2lorida li!ense plates. 12. When the President #al7s past 5ou, MMMMMMMM 5our hand MMMMMMMM and 0a5be heBll sha7e it. 13. 4 reall5 need a 1a!ation. 4 ha1enBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in three 5ears. 14. 4 told 05 son that i" he !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" trouble, 4B0 'oin' to send hi0 to 0ilitar5 s!hool. 1 . The airline pilots are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a 1 per!ent raise, and the5 #ill not a!!ept an5thin' less. 1$. The storeBs !losin' in "i1e 0inutes, so 5ou need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our 0ind about #hi!h pair o" shoes 5ou #ant. 1%. -"ter "ourteen 5ears he thou'ht he had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith the 0urder, but he #as #ron'. 18. -ll Ioe does is !o0plain and !riti!iDe. 4 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 hi0. 1*. 6i7e didnBt !o0e ho0e until 4G3/ in the 0ornin', and his "ather #as "urious that he MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so late. 2/. Ce thin7s heBs so s0art. 4 hope so0eone MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM to siDe so0eda5. 21. =e !are"ul about ho# 0u!h 5ou spend > this 0one5 has to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM R until payday. 1%%

22. =ob and 6arsha had a bi' ar'u0ent, but the5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ea!h other and no# e1er5thin' is o7a5. 23. The pro"essor #arned the students that i" the5 0issed the "inal e<a0ination, the5 !ould not MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM. ECERCISE "*& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$ 1. The prin!ipal is 'oin' to !ra!7 do#n MMMMMMMM s0o7in' in the bathroo0. 2. 4" 5ou #ant to lose #ei'ht, !ut do#n MMMMMMMM !a7e and !oo7ies. 3. Ce dropped out MMMMMMMM !olle'e be"ore 'raduation. 4. -"ter Ia7e robbed the li,uor store, he #as arrested and sent to )ail. Ce didnBt 'et a#a5 MMMMMMMM robbin' the li,uor store. . The 2ren!h #or7ers are holdin' outMMMMMMM a 1// per!ent raise and a t#o-da5 #or7#ee7. $. There are a lot o" rattlesna7es around here, so #at!h out MMMMMMMM the0. %. Ti005Bs 0other told hi0 to sta5 out MMMMMMMM the !oo7ie )ar. ECERCISE "*c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The union 0e0bers are on stri7e, and so0e #ill not 'o ba!7 to #or7 unless the5 'et the 1/ per!ent raise the5 de0anded in the be'innin'. What are the union 0e0bers doin'H 2. So0e union 0e0bers a!!epted a % per!ent raise and #ent ba!7 to #or7, but not the union 0e0bers in Ouestion 1. What #ould 5ou !all the union 0e0bers in Ouestion 1H 3. Ii0 and his sister had a bi' "i'ht, but the5 apolo'iDed to ea!h other, and no# e1er5thin' is o7a5. What did Ii0 and his sister doH 4. Ia7e stopped 'oin' to hi'h s!hool be"ore he 'raduated. What did Ia7e doH . 4n Ouestion 4, #hat is Ia7eH $. Aou !onsidered bu5in' either a To5ota or a Nissan, and then 5ou 0ade 5our de!ision. What did 5ou doH %. 65 elbo# is 1er5 sore, so 05 do!tor told 0e to pla5 less tennis. What did 05 do!tor tell 0eH 1%8

8. 6ost o" the 8e0o!rats #ill 1ote in "a1or o" the ne# la#, but a "e# are resistin' pressure to 1ote 5es. What are the 8e0o!rats #ho donBt #ant to 1ote 5es doin'H

*. 4n Ouestion 8, #hat are the 8e0o!rats #ho donBt #ant to 1ote 5esH 1/. 6r. and 6rs. (rte'a #ent to a part5 and didnBt !o0e ho0e until 3G// -.6. What did the5 doH 11. The e<plorerBs suppl5 o" "ood and #ater has to last "or three 0onths. What does the e<plorerBs suppl5 o" "ood and #ater ha1e to do "or three 0onthsH

12. ;ri7 in1ented a "unn5 stor5 "or his dau'hter. What did ;ri7 doH 13. 4n Ouestion 12, ;ri7Bs "unn5 stor5 #asnBt true. Co# #ould 5ou des!ribe itH 14. 6r. 2lores !heats on his ta<es, but so "ar he hasnBt been !au'ht. What has 6r. 2lores done so "arH 1 . There are a lo' o" bi' tru!7s on the road, so #hen 5ou dri1e, 5ou ha1e to be !are"ul. What do 5ou ha1e to do #hen 5ou dri1eH 1$. The poli!e are 'oin' to start #or7in' harder to pre1ent !ri0e. What are the poli!e 'oin' to doH

1%. 4n Ouestion 1$, #hat !an 5ou !all the plan to #or7 harder to pre1ent !ri0eH ECERCISE "*!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ai0 at, 1* belie1e in, 1$ brea7 throu'h, 18 burn up, 22 !o0e o1er, 1% !ount up, 22 "all apart, 1% 'et throu'h, 1$ 'o "or, 1$ 'ro# out o", 1% hold o"", 1$ put past, 1$ stand around, 18 tell apart, 18 thin7 about, 1$ #ipe up, 22

1. 8o 5ou #ant these bab5 !lothesH 65 dau'hter has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the0. 2. 4tBs al#a5s a 'ood idea to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM installin' a ne# so"t#are 1ersion until the5 'et all the bu's out. 1%*

3. 3et a paper to#el and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 'rape )ui!e 5ou spilled. 4. 4B0 not sure #hat 4 #ill do. 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. . 4 ha1e a lot o" #or7 to do, so 4 probabl5 #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until 4G//. $. The t#ins loo7 e<a!tl5 li7e ea!h other. Co# do 5ou MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMMH %. The #alls o" this "ort are ten "eet thi!7. No one !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. We "inished our !ard 'a0e, and Sean MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the points. *. The ne# la# is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' air pollution. 1/. 4 need to "i< this table. 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. +a!^tiel su''ested 0o1in' to the suburbs, and her husband MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the idea. 12. That 'u5Bs a lunati!. ThereBs nothin' 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0. 13. WeMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe old #ood in the "irepla!e. 14. 65 nie!e is thirteen 5ears old, but she still MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Santa Claus. 1 . The si'n in the store #indo# said the5 open at 1/G//, but #e had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until 1/G2/ be"ore the5 opened the doors. 1$. Would 5ou li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 house toni'ht and ha1e dinnerH

24. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s se! as no ns' "


-s #e sa# in Se!tion , t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs are so0eti0es a!!ented on the 1erb and so0eti0es on the parti!le. T#o-#ord nouns, ho#e1er, are al#a5s a!!ented on the 1erb e1en i" it is the parti!le o" the t#o-#ord 1erb that is a!!entedG
1erbG SHO= o.. nounG SHO=9o.. 1erbG s%o5 2O=N nounG SLO=!o5n Infinitive present tense come down come down < comes down

&ing form coming down

past tense came down

past participle come down

($ co-e !o5n EtoF p.1. When so0eone 0o1es to#ard 5ou to a lo#er le1el position, or "ro0 north to south, that person co-es !o5n or co-es !o5n to #here 5ou are. Co-e + is the opposite o" co-e !o5n$ 18/

It(s been raining for an hourE It(s really coming down. My friend from >anada comes down to visit us in "ew Me0ico once in a while. "$ co-e !o5n p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a lo#er le1el so!iall5 or "inan!iall5 and re!ei1e less respe!t "ro0 other people be!ause o" this !han'e, 5ou co-e !o5n in li"e. $ank certainly has come down in life he lost his job, house, and family because of his gambling problem.

Mark used to be so successful, but now he has so many problems. $e has really come down in life. co-e!o5n n$ A co-e!o5n is a 0o1e to a lo#er le1el so!iall5 or "inan!iall5 that !auses 5ou to re!ei1e less respe!t "ro0 other people. ' few years ago he was the manager of this restaurant, but now he(s only a waiter comedown. what a

*$ co-e !o5n EtoF p.1. When 5ou lo#er the pri!e 5ou are as7in' "or so0ethin', 5ou co-e !o5n or co-e !o5n to a lo#er pri!e. ; won(t buy her car unless she comes down to : *7,333. The union won(t come down a nickel in its salary demands. Infinitive present tense 1et up let up < lets up letting up let up let up &ing form past tense past participle

1. let up BonC p.v. .hen something becomes less strong, less intense, or less severe, it lets up. The rain finally let up yesterday. Mike(s parents are very strict with him. $e(s only a boy. They should let up on him. letup n. . letup is a reduction in how strong, severe, or intense something is. There was no letup in terrorist bombings after the peace treaty was signed. print out print out & prints out printing out printed out printed out

($ +rint $$$o t p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a !o0puter #rite so0ethin' on paper, 5ou +rint it o t$ 'fter I finished writing my letter, I printed it out and signed it. I can=t print this out my printer is broken.

+rinto t n. When 5ou 0a7e a !o0puter #rite so0ethin' on paper, the paper is a +rinto t$ ; put the printout of the =ctober sales report on the sales manager(s desk.

sha0e +
shake up < shakes up shaking up shook up shaken up

1. shake... up p.v. .hen something upsets, shocks, or frightens you badly, it shakes you up. *K*

!eeing all those dead bodies sure shook me up. I was really shaken up when I learned that my uncle had been killed. sha0en + part.ad). When so0ethin' upsets, sho!7s, or "ri'htens 5ou badl5, 5ou are sha0en +$ &ea1e 2ran7 atone. Ce )ust 'ot so0e bad ne#s, and heBs a bit sha0en + about it. "$ sha0e $$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0i< so0ethin' b5 sha7in' it, 5ou sha0e it +$ 8ou have to shake up Italian dressing before you open the bottle. 5id you shake this can of paint up" *$ sha0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0a7e 0a)or !han'es in an or'aniDation or business, 5ou sha0e it +$ The new >/= shook up management at my company, and a lot of people lost their jobs or were transferred. ?eople are getting a little la6y around here. It(s time to shake things up. sha0e9 + n. - 0a)or !han'e in an or'aniDation or business is a sha0e9 +$ There was a big shake-up at my company, and a lot of people lost their jobs or were transferred. #nfinitive present tense show off show off & shows off showing off showed off shown off -ing form past tense past participle

($ sho5$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou sho5 o..' 5ou let people see so0ethin' 5ou ha1e or so0ethin' 5ou !an do in a 1er5 ob1ious and e<!essi1e #a5. !ally(s boyfriend gave her a huge diamond engagement ring, and she showed it off to all her friends. The boy was showing off by riding his bicycle with no hands when he fell and hurt himself. sho59o.. n. So0eone #ho sho5s o.. is a sho59o..$ 5id you hear 'lfonso speaking French at the party so everyone could hear1 .hat a show-off! slow down slow down & slows down slowing down slowed down slowed down

($ s%o5$$$ !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' !auses people or thin's to do so0ethin' 0ore slo#l5, it s%o5s the0 !o5n$ I was driving pretty fast, but I slowed down after I saw the police car. ?roduction at the factor% slowed down when half the workers got sick. s%o5!o5n n. When people or thin's do so0ethin' 0ore slo#l5, a s%o5!o5n o!!urs. The sno# !aused a bi' s%o5!o5n on the hi'h#a5 this 0ornin'.

182

#nfinitive present tense stop over stop over & stops over stopping over stopped over stopped over -ing form past tense past participle

($ sto+ over p.1. When 5ou interrupt a )ourne5 Eusuall5 an airplane )ourne5F "or a short sta5 so0e#here, 5ou sto+ over$ 5avid stopped over in Gondon on his flight from "ew 8ork to Moscow. 2topping over in 5ubai on the way to Aangkok wasn(t any fun we couldn(t even leave the airport. sto+over n. When 5ou interrupt a )ourne5 "or a short sta5 so0e#here, usuall5 an airplane )ourne5, 5ou 0a7e a sto+over$ / "le# "ro0 4stanbul to Philadelphia #ith a "our-da5 sto+over in -0sterda0. "$ sto+ over p.1. When 5ou 1isit so0eone "or a short ti0e, 5ou sto+ over$ .ould you like to stop over after dinner and see our vacation pictures1 >an you vacuum the living room, please1 The 8oungs are stopping over tonight, and I want the place to look nice. trade in trade in & trades in trading in traded in traded in

($ tra!e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou 'i1e an old !ar or other pie!e o" e<pensi1e e,uip0ent to so0eone 5ou are bu5in' a ne# !ar or pie!e o" e,uip0ent "ro0 in order to 'et a lo#er pri!e, 5ou tra!e the old !ar or pie!e o" e,uip0ent in$ 'fter the twins were born, Naul traded his pickup truck in for a station wagon. .e(ll get a good price on our new photocopier if we trade in our old one. tra!e9in n. -n old !ar or pie!e o" e,uip0ent that 5ou tra!e in "or a ne#er one is a tra!e9 in$ Most of the used cars sold by dealers are trade-ins. ECERCISE "6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. AouBre dri1in' too "ast. Please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that bottle o" salad dressin' be"ore 5ou open it. 3. The real estate a'ent sa5s he thin7s the sellers #ill MMMMMM MMMMMM a little in their as7in' pri!e. 4. 65 ne# !ar !ost N24,///, but 4 MMMMMMMM 05 old !ar MMMMMMMM "or N1 ,///. . Ii0 is upstairs. -s7 hi0 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM here "or a 0inute, o7a5H $. MMMMMM MMMMMM in &ondon "or a "e# da5s on 5our #a5 to 4ndia is a 'ood #a5 to 'et o1er )et la'. 183

%. 4 #as prett5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the ne#s, but no# 4B0 o7a5. 8. &uis MMMMMMMM his ne# !ar MMMMMMMM to his "riends 5esterda5. *. The bo0bin' !ontinued "or "our da5s be"ore it "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. &eti!ia used to be ri!h, but she lost all her 0one5 'a0blin', and no# she !anBt e1en pa5 her bills. SheBs reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in li"e. 11. When 5ou "inish #ritin' that stor5, MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and 'i1e it to 0e. 4 #ant to read it. 12. This !o0pan5 #as losin' 0one5 until the ne# o#ners !a0e in and MMMMMMM thin's MMMMMMMM. 13. 4 ha1e to !lean the house be!ause Pat and 6i7e 0i'ht MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM toni'ht. ECERCISE "6& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith no ns .ro- this section$ 1. 4 #or7ed "or 05 !o0pan5 "or thirt5-one 5ears be"ore 4 'ot "ired in the bi' MMMMMMMM. 2. 4 had a "our-hour MMMMMMMMMMM in &os -n'eles on 05 #a5 to Ca#aii. 3. Ni!ole used to ha1e her o#n !o0pan5, and no# sheBs dri1in' a ta<i. ThatBs ,uite a MMMMMMMM. 4. The #ind ble# all ni'ht #ithout an5 MMMMMMMMMMMM. . Ne# !ar dealers usuall5 ha1e a lot o" MMMMMMMMMMM "or sale at lo# pri!es. $. The sno# !aused a bi' MMMMMMMMMMMM on the interstate this 0ornin'. %. -"ter the !o0puter "inished #ith the data, 4 too7 the MMMMMMMMMMMM upstairs to the sales depart0ent. 8. CeBs lost a lot o" #ei'ht, and no# he #ears reall5 ti'ht pants e1er5da5. What a MMMMMMMMM he is. ECERCISE "6c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ *. The rain slowed down. Btraffic;itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

7. $e printed out. Bhis letter, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. The bad news has shaken up. B)im and "ancy, themC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM H. I got :D,333 for trading in. Bmy old car, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

D. >helsea(s parents showed off. Bher perfect report card, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE "6! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ *. 'fter the computer finished the calculations,E printed the answers on a piece of paper. .hat did I do1

2. 4n Ouestion 1,#hat #ould 5ou !all the paper #ith the ans#ersH 3. ToddBs "riend in 6innesota is 'oin' to 1isit Todd in Ne# (rleans. What is ToddBs "riend 'oin' to doH

H. "ed walks around without a shirt so the girls can see his muscles. .hat does "ed do1 D. In Puestion H, what is "ed1 18

$. When 4 bu5 05 ne# !ar, 4Bll 'i1e the dealer 05 old !ar so that 4 !an 'et a lo#er pri!e on the ne# !ar. What #ill 4 do #ith 05 old !arH %. 4n Ouestion $, #hat #ould 5ou !all 05 old !arH 8. The ne# boss "ired a lot o" e0plo5ees, hired ne# e0plo5ees, and 0ade a lot o" !han'es. What did the ne# boss doH *. 4n Ouestion 8, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the ne# boss didH /. Sandra used to be 0arried to a prin!e, but no# sheBs di1or!ed and bro7e. What has Sandra doneH 1. 4n Ouestion 1/, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat happened to SandraH 12. 4t rained "or t#o #ee7s strai'ht be"ore it stopped. What did the rain doH 13. 4n Ouestion 12, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the rain didH 4. There #as a bi' a!!ident on the hi'h#a5 5esterda5 0ornin', and tra""i! #as a#"ul. What did the a!!ident do to the tra""i!H . 4n Ouestion 14, #hat #ould 5ou !all the tra""i! situationH 1$. Aou "le# "ro0 8en1er to 6ia0i, but 5ou had to spend a "e# hours in -tlanta on the #a5. What did 5ou do in -tlantaH 1%. 4n Ouestion 1$, #hat #ould 5ou !all 05 1isit to -tlantaH 18. 6i7e sa# a terrible a!!ident this 0ornin' #hile he #as dri1in', and it upset hi0 a lot. What did the a!!ident do to 6i7eH 1*. 4n Ouestion 18, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 6i7e a"ter he sa# the a!!identH ECERCISE "6e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these no ns .ro+revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7up, 11 dropout, 23 drop-o"", 11 lineup, 18 "ollo#-up, 11 #or7out, 11 tr5out, 11 !ra!7do#n, 23

1. The do!tor said 4 #as !ured, but he #ants 0e to see hi0 in a 5ear "or a MMMMMMMMMM. 18$

2. 8ru's are 'ettin' to be a bi' proble0 in 05 sonBs s!hool. 4 thin7 itBs ti0e "or a MMMMMMMM. 3. When 4 #as nineteen, 4 #as a MMMMMMMMMMMMM #ith no "uture, but then 4 'ot s0art and "inished s!hool. 4. -"ter the a!!ident, the hu0an !annonball #as dropped "ro0 the !ir!us MMMMMMMMMMMM. . The MMMMMMMMMMMMMM "or the bas7etball tea0 #ill be ne<t Saturda5 at 1/G// -.6. $. Iani!e )ust 'ot ba!7 "ro0 the '50, and sheBs reall5 e<hausted "ro0 her MMMMMMMMMMMM. %. 4 use the pro'ra0 on the hard dis7, but 4 ha1e a MMMMMMMMMMMMMM on a "lopp5. 8. =usiness at the restaurant used to be 'ood, but there #as a bi' MMMMMMMMMMMMMM a"ter that !ase o" "ood poisonin'. ECERCISE "6.' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brin' o1er, 1* !ool o"", 1* !ount up, 22 "i'ure on, 18 'o be5ond, 18 han' up, * hold out, 23 li"t up, 1* loo7 around, 21 settle do#n, 21 sta5 out, 23 step on, 21 tell on, 1 #at!h out, 23 #ipe up, 22

1. Aoun' 0an, i" 5ou donBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM o" trouble at s!hool, 4B0 'oin' to send 5ou to 0ilitar5 s!hool: 2. These suit!ases are so hea15 4 !an barel5 MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 3. - 'ood histor5 boo7 doesnBt si0pl5 tell 5ou #hat happened, it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. that and tells 5ou #h5. 4. Todd 'ot in trouble #ith his 0other a"ter he bro7e a #indo# and his sisterMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0. . 4" 5ouBre 'oin' to that bad nei'hborhood late at ni'ht, please be !are"ul and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or 0u''ers. $. That 0useu0 is hu'e. 4" 5ou #ant to see e1er5thin', 5ou should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM spendin' the entire da5 there. %. This !o""eeBs #a5 too hot. Can 5ou 'et 0e an i!e !ube so 4 !an MMMMMMM it MMMMMMMH 18%

8. That !o0pan5 #ants to hire 0e, but 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or 0ore 0one5. *. 65 brother is 'oin' to 1isit toni'ht, and heBs MMMMMMMM his "ian!ee MMMMMMMM. 1/. 4B1e ne1er been to this store be"ore? 4 #ant to MMMMM MMMMM and see #hat the5 ha1e. 11. 65 husband #as 1er5 an'r5 #hen our thirteen-5ear-old dau'hter !a0e ho0e at 4G// in the 0ornin', so 4 told hi0 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and let 0e tal7 to her. 12. We had onl5 t#ent5 0inutes to 'et to the airport, so #e told the ta<i dri1er to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. 13. -"ter the 1otes #ere MMMMMM MMMMMMM, Senator 8olittle #as de!lared the #inner. 14. Ti005, 'et a paper to#el and MMMMMM MMMMMM this )ui!e 5ou spilled on the "loor. 1 . &eti!ia said 'ood-b5e and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the telephone.

"7$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! have to' have got to, an! must
$ave to, have got to, and must ha1e t#o i0portant uses in ;n'lish. (ne is "a0iliar to 0ost students, the other is not.
=ut be"ore dis!ussin' that, letBs pa5 spe!ial attention to ha1e 'ot to. Ca1e to and ha1e 'ot to 0ean e<a!tl5 the sa0e thin'. =oth are !o00onl5 used, and both are a!!eptable standard ;n'lish. Ca1e to deri1es "ro0 ha1e, and ha1e 'ot to deri1es "ro0 ha1e 'ot. So #h5 the 'ot in ha1e 'ot toH - 'ood ,uestion. 3ot in ha1e 'ot to 0eans nothin' and ser1es no purpose #hate1er. Ca1e 'ot to is a uni,ue, idio0ati! 1ariation o" ha1e to. There is no point in tr5in' to understand the 'ra00ar o" ha1e 'ot to be!ause there isnBt an5. &i7e other idio0s, it 0ust si0pl5 be 0e0oriDed. Thou'h ha1e to and ha1e 'ot to 0ean the sa0e thin', their "or0s are di""erent, espe!iall5 in ,uestions and ne'ati1e senten!es. 4n the e<a0ples belo#, the !ontra!ted "or0s are the 0ost !o00on in e1er5da5 spo7en ;n'lishG state0en Aou ha1e to co-e !o5n$ tG Aou ha1e to co-e !o5n$ ,uestionG 8o 5ou ha1e to co-e !o5nH Aou ha1e 'ot to co-e !o5n. AouB1e 'ot to co-e !o5n. Ca1e 5ou 'ot to co-e !o5nH

ne'ati1eG Aou do not ha1e to !o0e do#n. Aou ha1e not 'ot to co-e !o5n. Aou donBt ha1e to !o0e do#n. Aou ha1enBt 'ot to co-e !o5n. Re> ire-ent Ca1e to, ha1e 'ot to, and 0ust are both used to sa5 that so0ethin' is re,uired, ne!essar5, 0andator5 > there is no !hoi!e in the 0atterG 188

8ou have to make up the test. 8ou(ve got to make up the test. 8ou must make up the test. -lthou'h 0ost students learn this use o" 0ust earl5 in their studies, it is a!tuall5 the least !o00on #a5 to use 0ust. =oth ha1e to and ha1e 'ot to are 0u!h 0ore !o00onl5 used "or this purpose. Near certaint3 The other i0portant use o" ha1e to, ha1e 'ot to, and 0ust is to sa5 that so0ethin' is ** per!ent !ertain > that based on the "a!ts and based on #hat #e see and 7no#, no other !on!lusion is possible about so0ethin'. We are ** per!ent !ertain, and all #e need is !on"ir0ation to be 1// per!ent !ertainG )anice, you have been working for *7 hours without a break. 8ou have to be tired. B' logical assumption, but until )anice confirms that she is tired, the speaker cannot be *33 percent certain.C ; would never take that book out of this room. It(s got to be here somewhere. B' logical assumption, but until the speaker finds the book, he cannot be *33 percent certain that it is in the room.C That man is from )apan. I(ve never spoken with him, but he must speak )apanese. B' logical assumption, but until the speaker hears the man speaking )apanese, he cannot be *33 percent certain.C .hen have to, have got to, and must are used in this way, it is must that is more common than the others. $ave to and have got to, when used for this purpose, have greater emphasis and are used for dramatic effect# Mark has to be the biggest idiot in the entire world. .here is Gydia1 !he(s got to be here somewhere.

Infinitive%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
present tense do with ($ !o 5ith p.1. Jused onl5 in the in"initi1e "or0K When 5ou sa5 that one thin' has so0ethin' to !o 5ith another, 5ou 0ean there is a !onne!tion bet#een the t#o. 5on(t blame me for what happened@ I had nothing to do with it. I(m not sure what this part does, but I think it must have something to do with the transmission. have on have on & has on having on had on had on &ing form past tense past participle

($ have$$$ on p.1. When 5ou #ear so0ethin', su!h as an ite0 o" !lothin', per"u0e, or !os0eti!s, 5ou have it on$ !ally had red pants and a blue shirt on. I didn(t have a raincoat on and I got all wet. *KL

"$ have$$$ on p.1. When 5ou have an ele!tri!al de1i!e on' 5ou are usin' it. Gast summer was so cool that we had the air conditioner on only two or three times. .hat(s that sound1 5an must have the radio on. #nfinitive present tense hurr% up hurr% up & hurries up hurr%ing up hurried up hurried up -ing form past tense past participle

($ h rr3 + p.1. When 5ou h rr3 up, 5ou do so0ethin' ,ui!7l5. "icole has to hurr% up if she(s going to finish her work before D#33. If we don(t hurr% up we(re going to miss the beginning of the movie. "$ h rr3$$$ + p.1. When 5ou h rr3 so0ethin' +' 5ou do it 0ore ,ui!7l5. When 5ou h rr3 people up, 5ou ur'e the0 to do so0ethin' 0ore ,ui!7l5. When 5ou sa5 ?H rr3 up,@ to people, 5ou are tellin' the0 to do so0ethin' 0ore ,ui!7l5. /veryone was really hungry, so I asked our cook to hurr% dinner up. There were only five minutes left to finish the test, so the teacher hurried the students up. ,urr% up! I(m not going to wait for you all day. knock over knock over & knocks over knocking over knocked over knocked over

($ 0noc0$$$ over p.1. When 5ou 0noc0 people or thin's over' 5ou use "or!e to 0a7e the0 "all to a horiDontal position. The force of the e0plosion knocked me over. The children were playing, and they knocked the lamp over. lighten up lighten up & lightens up lightening up lightened up lightened up

($ %i/hten + EonF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou %i/hten + or %i/hten + on people, 5ou be!o0e less harsh or less stri!t in 5our treat0ent o" the0. 8ou(re awfully hard on your daughter. Maybe you ought to lighten up on her. 8ou(ve been critici6ing me all day. .ill you please lighten up" "$ %i/hten $$$ + p.1. When 5ou %i/hten up, 5ou !han'e the sub)e!t o" !on1ersation "ro0 so0ethin' serious to so0ethin' 0ore !heer"ul and pleasant. /nough talk about business. Get(s lighten things up around here. 1ighten it up been talking about death and ta0es all night. plan ahead plan ahead & plans ahead planning ahead planned ahead planned ahead you(ve

($ +%an ahea! p.1. When 5ou +%an ahead, 5ou plan "or a "uture situation or a!ti1it5 so that 5ou #ill not ha1e a proble0 then. P%an ahea! is si0ilar to thin0 ahea!$ )anice is a good manager. !he always plans ahead in case there(s a problem. 1*/

3lan ahead #nfinitive present tense settle for

you don(t want any problems when you(re 733 miles from the nearest town. -ing form settling for past tense settled for past participle settled for

settle for & settles for

($ sett%e .or p.1. When 5ou sett%e .or so0ethin', 5ou a!!ept it e1en thou'h it 0a5 not be e<a!tl5 #hat 5ou #ant or need. The strikers wanted an K percent pay increase, but they settled for D percent. 5r. !mith has very high standards. $e won(t settle for second best. think up think up & thinks up thinking up thought up thought up ($ thin0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou thin7 up so0ethin', su!h as an idea, solution, or plan, 5ou use 5our i0a'ination to !reate it. ; have to think up a way to solve this problem. Maria thought up a great way to make some e0tra money. !top worrying I(ll think something up. ECERCISE "7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. WeBre 'oin' to be late i" 5ou donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2.1 told the store 0ana'er that 4 #anted a "ull re"und and that 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM ? MMMMMMM an5thin' else. 3. 6r. Wol"e MMMMMMMM a #hite suit MMMMMMMM last ni'ht. 4. IoeBs been an'r5 all da5. 4 #ish heBd MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . The tru!7 hit the li'ht pole and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. $. Aou ha1e to tal7 to so0eone in the shippin' depart0ent about 5our 0issin' order. 4 ha1e nothin' toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMshippin'. %. 4" 5ouBre 'oin' on an i0portant business trip, 5ou should MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM so 4 that 5ou donBt "or'et so0ethin' 5ouBll need later. 8. Ia7e is tr5in' to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a #a5 to 0a7e 0one5 #ithout #or7in'. *. 3o upstairs and MMMMMMMM 5our sister MMMMMMMM. 4B0 a"raid sheBs 'oin' to be late "or s!hool. 1/. WeB1e been tal7in' politi!s all ni'ht. &etBs MMMMMMMM thin's MMMMMMMM, o7a5H 11. 4 li7e to MMMMMMMM the radio MMMMMMMM #hen 4 'o to bed. 1*1

ECERCISE "7& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Charles #ore a red shirt 5esterda5. What did Charles doH 2. Sean #ants a 1 per!ent raise, and he #onBt a!!ept less. What #onBt Sean doH 3. 8r. Wood is thin7in' about the i0portant 0eetin' she #ill 'o to ne<t #ee7 so that she #ill be read5. What is 8r. Wood doin'H 4. Ia7e hit Ierr5 so hard that Ierr5 "ell to the "loor. What did Ia7e do to Ierr5H . Ned told Todd to #or7 0ore ,ui!7l5. What did Ned tell Todd to doH $. 4 'ot a letter about 05 in!o0e ta<es. What #as the letter aboutH %. Ser'eant Iones has been 5ellin' at the soldiers all da5. What should Ser'eant Iones doH 8. =ett5 needs a Callo#een !ostu0e, and sheBs usin' her i0a'ination to !reate one. What is =ett5 doin'H ECERCISE "7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ECERCISE "7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro+revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ burned up, 22 !leared up, 22 dried out, 1 heated up, 22 1*2 lined up, 18 0ade-up, 23 paid up, 22 plu''ed up, 22 ripped up, 1% sha7en up, 24 #ar0ed up, 1* #orn do#n, 1% Dipped up, 21

1. 4tBs "reeDin' outside > 0a7e sure 5our !oat is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2. 8onBt start dri1in' 5et? the !arBs not MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 3. We tal7ed about the proble0, and no# e1er5thin' is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4,1 need lotion? 05 s7in is reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . Can7 is su!h a liar. 8onBt belie1e an5 o" his MMMMMMMM e<!uses. $. -"ter 4 'i1e =ill ten bu!7s, 4 #onBt o#e hi0 another penn5. 4Bll be totall5 MMMMMMMM MMM. %. Pat #as prett5 MMMMMMMMMMM a"ter the a!!ident. 8. =ill #as "urious at his e<-#i"e, and no# all his photos o" her are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and in the 'arba'e. *. People are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or three blo!7s to bu5 World Series ti!7ets. 1/. 8onBt drin7 that !o""ee > itBs not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11.1 !anBt s0ell or taste an5thin'? 05 nose is all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 12. 4 #as reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter he too7 05 !al!ulator #ithout as7in' 0e and then lost it. 13. The heels o" 05 old !o#bo5 boots are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4 need to 'et the0 "i<ed. ECERCISE "7e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re to se the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the %esson n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !all in, !lear up, 22 !o0e do#n, 24 'o ba!7, 1* hand out, 1/ hoo7 up, * let up, 24 print out, 24 s!re# on, 12 sho# o"", 24 slo# do#n, 24 sti!7 up, 14 stop o1er, 24 trade in, 24 #ar0 up, 1*

1. The !ar dealer is as7in' N2%,/// "or the !ar 4 #ant, but 4 thin7 he 0i'ht MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to N24,///. 2. While 5ou 'o to the librar5, 4Bll 'o to the 'ro!er5 store, and #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the !orner in one hour. 3. =e sure 5ou MMMMMMMM the top o" that 0ustard )ar MMMMMMMM ti'htl5. 4. ;ri7 !he!7s the ti0e e1er5 "i1e 0inutes so that he !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his ne# +ole< #at!h. 1*3

. 6i7e #asnBt at #or7 toda5. CeMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMsi!7. $. When =ill "lies to &os -n'eles, he al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in =an'7o7. %. The !ar dealer said heBll 'i1e 0e a 'ood deal i" 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 05 old !ar. 8. We MMMMMMMM the noti!es MMMMMMMM all o1er to#n. *. The 0e0o "ro0 the personnel o""i!e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lot o" !on"usion about the ne# 1a!ation poli!5. 1/. This #eather is terrible. 4 #onder i" this stor0 is e1er 'oin' to MMMMMM MMMMMM. 11. Turn the heater on, and the roo0 #ill MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM. 12._BNan!5 #as dri1in' too "ast, so 4 told her to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. The tea!her #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tests until the students are ,uiet. 14. -"ter 5ou "inish #ritin' 5our report,MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM and 'i1e it to 0e. 1 . PaulBs "ro0 Colo0bia, but he hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there "or se1en 5ears.

"8$ 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s an! the a!ver& bac


The ad1erb ba!7 is so0eti0es used #ith phrasal 1erbs to 0ean a'ain. The "ollo#in' senten!es ha1e the sa0e 0eanin'G We /ot to/ether a'ain. We /ot ba!7 to/ether$ =a!7 is al#a5s pla!ed dire!tl5 be"ore the parti!le. When ba!7 is used #ith separable phrasal 1erbs, the ob)e!t 0ust separate the 1erb and parti!le, and ba!7 0ust be pla!ed bet#een the ob)e!t and the parti!leG / put the engine back together. # put back together the engine. 8o not !on"use the ad1erb ba!7, #hi!h 0odi"ies phrasal 1erbs, #ith the parti!le ba!7 that is part o" so0e phrasal 1erbs Eand has the sa0e 0eanin' o" a'ainF.

#nfinitive present tense get together get together & gets together

-ing form getting together

past tense got together

past participle gotten/got together

/et to/ether E#ithF p.1. When t#o people /et to/ether' the5 0eet and spend ti0e to'ether. When 5ou /et to/ether #ith so0eone, 5ou 0eet and spend ti0e #ith 1*4

that person. When a 0an and #o0an resu0e a relationship a"ter separatin', the5 /et ba!7 to/ether$ If you(re not busy tomorrow night, would you like to get together" .e(re going to get together with Aill and "ancy tomorrow. )udy and !am had separated, but now they(ve gotten back together. /et9to/ether n. -n in"or0al 'atherin' is a /et9to/ether$ I(m having a little get-together tonight. .ould you like to come1 "$ /et$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou /et thin's to/ether' 5ou !olle!t the0 so the5 are in the sa0e pla!e. 8ou should get all your tools together so you will have them when you need them. Ginda got all her ta0 records together to show to her accountant. *$ /et$$$ to/ether p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou /et 5oursel" to/ether' or /et it to/ether' 5ou 'ain !ontrol o" 5our e0otions a"ter 5ou ha1e be!o0e upset or e0otional. Aob was very upset before the party, but he got it together before the guests came. $ey, get yourself togetherE /veryone is watching you. Infinitive present tense go over go over < goes over going over went over gone over &ing form past tense past participle

($ /o over EtoF p.1. When people 0o1e "ro0 #here 5ou are to a pla!e, thin', or person that is "arther a#a5 "ro0 5ou, the5 /o over or /o over to that pla!e, thin', or person. I(m busy. /o over there and stop bothering me. I was hot, so Maria went over to the window and opened it. "$ /o over EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'o to so0eoneBs house "or a 1isit, 5ou /o over or /o over to that personBs house. $ave you gone over to "icole(s house to see her new baby yet1 I went over to /rik(s for dinner last night. *$ /o over p.1. When 5ou !are"ull5 read or re1ie# i0portant #ritten 0aterial, 5ou /o over it. $ere(s a maga6ine article I just finished writing. /o over it and tell me what you think. The actor went over his lines before the audition. /oin/9over n. When 5ou e<a0ine or inspe!t so0ethin' !are"ull5, 5ou 'i1e it a /oin/9 over$ I gave his report a good going-over and found a lot of mistakes. 6$ /o over p.1. When 5ou !are"ull5 e<plain so0ethin', usuall5 so0ethin' that is !o0pli!ated but i0portant, 5ou /o over it. 1*

Aefore the trial $ank and his lawyer went over what $ank was going to say. "o one understood the manager(s plan after he e0plained it, so he went back over it. 7$ /o over p.1. When an idea, su''estion, or per"or0an!e is a!!epted and li7ed b5 other people, it /oes over$ !enator 5olittle(s plan to raise ta0es didn(t go over with the voters. The sinaer(s performance went over well with the critics. Infinitive present tense go up go up < goes up going up went up gone up &ing form past tense past participle

($ /o + EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a hi'her le1el or position, or "ro0 south to north, 5ou /o + or /o + to that pla!e. Eo !o5n is the opposite o" /o +$ !u6ie came down from her tree house to eat lunch, but she went back up after she finished. I spend the winters in Me0ico, and go up to my home in =hio in the summer. "$ /o + EtoF p.1. When the !ost, rate, ,ualit5, ,uantit5, or le1el o" so0ethin' in!reases, it /oes +$ Eo !o5n is the opposite o" /o +$ The price of gas hasn(t gone up in two years. In the summer the temperature in !audi 'rabia can go up to *7D degrees. *$ /o + EtoF p.1. When a s!hedule or plan ends at a !ertain ti0e or date, the s!hedule or plan /oes + to that ti0e or date. 5o you have the new schedule1 This one goes up only to the end of 'pril. The teacher gave the students a syllabus that went up to the midterm. 6$ /o + EtoF p.1. When so0ethin' e<tends to a !ertain point that is "arther north or at a hi'her ele1ation, it /oes + to that point. Eo !o5n is the opposite o" /o +$ This trail went up to the base camp at the foot of the mountain. Interstate D goes up to !eattle. 7$ /o + EtoF p.1. When 5ou approa!h a person, 5ou /o + to that person. There(s !arah, /o up and introduce yourself. )anice isn(t shy she went right up to the president of the company and asked for a raise. let in on let in on & lets in on letting #n on let in on let in on

($ %et$$$ in on p.1. When 5ou tell people in"or0ation that is se!ret or not #idel5 7no#n, 5ou %et that person in on the in"or0ation. Ieneral >hambers let me in on the top secret information. I(m going to let you #n on something not many people know about me. 1*$

Infinitive%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
present tense open up open up & opens up opening up opened up opened up ($ o+en $$$ + p.1. When 5ou o+en so0ethin' up, 5ou re1eal #hat is inside so that people !an see it. !ofia opened the bo0 up and looked inside. Mike(s going to open up his computer to try to find the problem. "$ o+en $$$ + p.1. When 5ou o+en a roo0 or buildin' +' 5ou unlo!7 or open the doors so that people !an enter. The office closes at *7#33 for lunch and opens back up at *#33. The manager was late and didn(t open up the store until *3#23. *$ o+en $$$ + p.1. When a ne# business starts, it o+ens + or is o+ene! + b5 so0eone. ; was driving through town, and I noticed that a new book store has opened up on Maple !treet. )immy wants to open up a restaurant near the new office building. put together put together & puts together putting together put together -ing form past tense past participle

put together

($ + t$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou asse0ble the parts o" so0ethin', 5ou + t it to/ether$ P t to/ether is the opposite o" ta0e a+art$ !ally got a bicycle for her birthday, and her father put it together after dinner. It was easy taking my car(s engine apart, but putting it back together was a lot harder. "$ + t$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou or'aniDe so0e ideas, plans, or su''estions in order to sho# the0 to so0eone or dis!uss the0 #ith so0eone, 5ou + t the0 to/ether$ Mr. and Mrs. Flores want to redecorate their house, so they asked an interior designer to put some ideas together. I have an interesting idea for a new business, and I(m putting together a proposal. *$ + t$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou position people or thin's so that the5 are !lose to ea!h other or tou!hin', 5ou + t the0 to/ether$ The teacher told Timmy and Mike to put their desks together so they could work on their project. .hen you plan your dinner party seating arrangement, put $eather and )immy together. shut off shut off & shuts off shutting off shut off shut off

($ sh t$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou sh t o.. an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, 5ou !ut the po#er 'oin' to it so that it stops operatin'. T rn o.. and s5itch o.. are si0ilar to sh t o..$ 1*%

Timmy(s mother told him to shut off the TV and go to bed. I(m free6ing. .ould you mind shutting the air conditioner off" sh t o.. part.ad). -"ter 5ou sh t o.. an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, it is sh t o..$ T rne! o.. and s5itche! o.. are si0ilar to sh t o..$ .ell, no wonder it(s so cold in here the heat(s shut off.

sh to.. n. When 5ou sh t o.. so0ethin', or #hen so0ethin' sh ts o..' this a!tion is a sh to..$ When 5ou sh t o.. so0ethin', 5ou use the sh to.. s#it!h, button, 1al1e, and so on. The electricity shutoff lasted twenty minutes. In case of emergency, turn this shutoff valve here. start up start up & starts up starting up started up started up >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ($ start ...up p.1. When an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e starts + or so0eone starts it +' it be'ins to operate. My car(s engine died at a red light, and it wouldn(t start up again. 8ou push this button here to start the computer up. start9 + n. When 5ou start + so0ethin', or so0ethin' starts +' this a!tion is a start9 +$ When 5ou start + so0ethin', 5ou use the start9 + s#it!h, button, and soon. To start the computer up push this start-up button. If your computer(s hard disk crashes, you can use a floppy as the start-up disk. "$ start$$$ + p.1. When 5ou start + a ne# business or !o0pan5, 5ou ta7e the steps ne!essar5 to be'in a ne# business or !o0pan5. 8ou should have a detailed business plan before starting a business up. )ane borrowed the money she needed to start up her business from her uncle. start9 + n$ A start9 + or start9 + business or !o0pan5 is a ne# business or !o0pan5. >ost start-up businesses aren(t successful. ECERCISE "8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Aour i0portant papers are all o1er the house. Aou should MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMM and 7eep the0 in a sa"e pla!e. 2. 4t #as so !old this 0ornin' that it too7 hal" an hour to MMMMMMMM 05 !ar MMMMMM. 3. This is a#"ull5 !o0pli!ated. Could 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it one 0ore ti0eH 4. The poli!e ordered the people in the house to MMMMMMMM the doorMMMMMMMM. 1*8

. The ser'eant MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hill to loo7 "or the ene05 soldiers. $. The a!!ount e<e!uti1e #as as7ed to MMMMMMMM so0e ideas MMMMMMMM "or a ne# ad1ertisin' !a0pai'n. %. 4B0 tr5in' to sleep. Would 5ou please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the li'htsH 8. &inda sa# her "a1orite 0o1ie star, but she #as too sh5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to hi0 and as7 "or his auto'raph. *. 4Bll MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little se!ret. 1/. 4B0 'oin' toMMMMMMMMMMMto ToddBs house to help hi0 #ith his 0ath ho0e#or7. 11. This !alendar is useless>itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMonl5 to -u'ust. 12. Than7 5ou "or 5our appli!ation. 4 #illMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit !are"ull5 and !all 5ou in a "e# da5s. 13. This )i'sa# puDDle has 1,/// pie!es. 4tBll ta7e "ore1er to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 14. 4" that bi' dis!ount store MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM outside o" to#n, all these little shops #ill 'o out o" business. 1 . The le1el o" #ater in the ri1er al#a5s "alls durin' the su00er but MMMMMMMM ba!7 MMMMMMMM the ne<t sprin'. 1$. Sa0Bs idea o" 'i1in' all the #or7ers a 1/ per!ent pa5 raise didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM#ell #ith 0ana'e0ent. 1%. 4 7no# 5ouBre upset, but 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM 5oursel"MMMMMMMM. 18. (n Saturda5 ni'hts 6i7e usuall5 MMMM MMMMM #ith so0e "riends and pla5s po7er. 1*. -s soon as #e arri1ed at the part5, 8a1id MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the bu""et table and 'rabbed a plate. 2/. Without the !o0bination, thereBs no #a5 to MMMMMMMM this sa"e MMMMMMMM. 21. MMMMMMM all 5our Spanish boo7s MMMMMMMM on the sa0e shel". 22. This road MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the ne<t to#n, but thatBs #here it ends. 23. 4Bll need around N2 ,/// to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 ne# business.

1**

ECERCISE "8& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. 4 #ish the5 #ould open up near 0e. Ea bran!h o""i!e, oneF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 7. Gydia put together, Bthe food processor, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

3. 8o 5ou 7no# ho# to shut o""H Ethe photo!opier, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

H. ?ush this button to start up. Bthe generator, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE "8c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ *. Frank read my report carefully. .hat did Frank do to my report1 7. In Puestion *, what did Frank give my report1 3. Iud5 #al7ed to#ard the 7in', stopped ne<t to hi0, and 'a1e hi0 the petition. What did Iud5 do to the 7in'H

4. 6i7e told 0e a se!ret. What did 6i7e doH D. Aill and some friends are going to meet and spend some time together. .hat are Aill and his friends going to do1 2//

J. In Puestion D, what is this activity called1 M. My computer begins to operate from the hard disk. .hat does my computer do from the hard disk1 8. 4n Ouestion %, #hat #ould 5ou !all the hard dis7H L. The mayor(s plan to fight crime in the streets was very successful with the voters. .hat impression did the mayor(s plan have on the voters1 *3. The heater stops operating automatically when the temperature reaches a certain point. .hat does the heater do automatically1 **. In Puestion *3, what is the temperature that makes the heater stop operating called1

*7. 8ou Fuit your job so that you could begin your own company. .hy did you Fuit your job1 *2. In Puestion *7, what would you call your new company1 *H. 8ou assembled all the parts of your model airplane. .hat did you do to your model airplane1 *D. This airplane schedule gives flight times until 5ecember 2*. .hat does the airplane schedule do1 *J. The supermarket unlocks its doors and lets people in at M#33 '.M. every day. .hat does the supermarket do at M#33
'.M. every day1

ECERCISE "8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-9K +revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ do #ith, 2 end up, 2/ 'o o"", 2/ 'o on, 2/ ha1e on, 2 hurr5 up, 2 7no!7 o1er, 2 li'hten up, 2 loo7 o1er, 21 pi!7 on, 21 plan ahead, 2 put on, 1 settle "or, 2 sho# o"", 24 ta7e out on, 21 thin7 up, 2

*. I(m asking :*3,333 for my car, but I(ll %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% :K,D33. 7. That new manager is really hard on the employees. $e ought to %%%%%% %%%%%%. 2. 't the supermarket, Tom hit the stack of bo0es with his shopping cart and %%%%%%%% them %%%%%%%%. 73*

4. We had planned to 'o to 2ran!e on our 1a!ation, but #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' to Spain instead. . Will 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM: 4" #e donBt lea1e soon #eBre 'oin' to be late. $. 6ar7 hates his )ob, and he !o0es ho0e e1er5 ni'ht and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his "a0il5. %. 65 do!tor 'ot the test results "ro0 the lab, and she MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM 1er5 !are"ull5. 8. MMMMMMMM 5our !oat MMMMMMMM. 4tBs !old outside. *. 8onBt #ait until the last 0inute to 0a7e 5our 1a!ation airline reser1ations. Aou ha1e to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.

1/. The dete!ti1e didnBt belie1e that the 'un had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a!!identall5. 11. 4 hated 05 older brother #hen 4 #as a 7id. Ce al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e. 12. Co# are #e 'oin' to 'et N // in t#o da5sH We need to MMMMMM MMMMM a 'ood plan. 13. 4 didnBt understand e1er5thin' the !o0puter shop 'u5 said, but it had so0ethin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e0or5. 14. Ii0 tries to ans#er e1er5 ,uestion the tea!her as7s. CeBs al#a5sMMMMM MMMMMM. 1 . That 0eetin' #as so borin'. 4t see0ed li7e it #as 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM "ore1er. 1$. The poli!e o""i!er 0ust be o"" dut5? he doesnBt MMMMMMMM his uni"or0 MMMMMMMM.

":$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e off an! the a!ver& right
The parti!le o"" is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs to sa5 that so0ethin' is separated or re0o1edG The !up handle &ro0e$ EThe handle is bro7en, but it is still atta!hed to the !up.F The !up handle &ro0e o..$ EThe handle is no lon'er atta!hed to the !up.F +i'ht, dis!ussed in Se!tion 1*, is o"ten used #ith these phrasal 1erbs to indi!ate that the a!tion o" the 1erb happened ,ui!7l5G 2/2

Ce 5ashe! the dirt o..$ EThe dirt #as re0o1ed.F Ce 5ashe! the dirt ri'ht o..$ EThe dirt #as re0o1ed ,ui!7l5.F +e0e0ber that ri'ht !an be used in this #a5 onl5 a"ter an ob)e!t that separates the 1erb and the parti!leG $e washed the dirt right off. $o washed right off the dirt.

#nfinitive present tense bite off bite off & bites off biting off bit off bitten off -ing form past tense past participle

($ &ite$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou bite o"" so0ethin', 5ou use 5our teeth to re0o1e a pie!e. When 5ou &ite o.. 0ore than 5ou !an !he#, 5ou a'ree to do so0ethin' that 5ou do not ha1e the ti0e or the abilit5 to do. The lion bit off a huge piece of the 6ebra(s flesh. 8ou can(t finish that huge project by tomorrow. I think you(ve bitten off more than you can chew. break off break off & breaks off breaking off broke off broken off

($ &rea0$$$ o.. p.1. When so0ethin' &rea0s o.. or so0eone &rea0s so0ethin' o..' a part or s0aller pie!e is separated "ro0 so0ethin' lar'er b5 "or!e. )im broke off a piece of chocolate and gave it to his girlfriend. =ne of the arms broke off the statue when it fell off the pedestal. &ro0en o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' &rea0s o..' it is &ro0en o..$ The handle of the coffee cup is broken off. ($ &rea0$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou &rea0 o.. relations or !onta!t #ith so0eone, 5ou de!ide to end relations or !onta!t #ith that person. The two countries broke off relations with each other. I was so angry at my in&laws that I broke off alt contact with them. dr% off dr% off & dries off dr%ing off dried off dried off

($ !r3$$$ o.. p.1. When so0ethin' !ries o.. or 5ou !r3 so0ethin' o..' #ater or other li,uids that are on it e1aporate. It rained for only a few minutes, so the streets dried off Fuickly. Geave your wet clothes outside and let the sun dr% them off. !rie! o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has !rie! o..' it is !rie! o..$ They can(t play baseball because the field isn(t dried off.

2/3

#nfinitive knock off present tense knock off & knocks off -ing form knocking off past tense knocked off past participle knocked off

($ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0noc0 so0ethin' o..' 5ou either a!!identall5 or deliberatel5 use "or!e to 0a7e it "all "ro0 a pla!e abo1e the 'round to the 'round belo#. !usie knocked a glass off the table and broke it. The cat knocked the clock off the shelf. "$ 0noc0 o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0noc0 o..' 3o "inish #or7in'. I Fuit working at D#33 last night, but !ean didn(t knock off until K#23. 8ou(ve been working all day. .hy don(t you knock off" *$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou sa3 ?Knoc0 it o..? to people, 5ou #ant the0 to stop doin' so0ethin' that is botherin' 5ou. If you don(t knock it off you(ll be sorry. I(m tired of listening to you critici6e me. ?nock it off! 6$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0noc0 so0ethin' o..' 5ou 0a7e so0ethin' ,ui!7l5 and not 1er5 !are"ull5. The artist knocked off a Fuick sketch and gave it to the waiter. 5an prefers writing novels, but he sometimes knocks off a maga6ine article to make a few bucks. 7$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0noc0 people o..' 5ou 7ill the0. )ake was sent to prison for knocking off his brother&in&law. Mario was the head of a gang of criminals until he was knocked off by a rival. tear off tear off & tears off tearing off tore off torn off

($ tear$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou use "or!e to re0o1e a pie!e o" so0ethin' that is "le<ible > paper, !loth, and so on > 5ou tear it o..$ / tore off a coupon for fro6en pi66a at the supermarket. 'le0 always tears the tags off his shirt collars. torn o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been torn o..' it is torn o..$ There aren(t any more coupons. They(re alt torn off. wash off wash off & washes off washing off washed off washed off

($ 5ash $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 5ash so0ethin' o.. or 5ash the dirt o.. so0ethin', 5ou use #ater and soap to re0o1e dirt or un#anted ite0s "ro0 a sur"a!e. Mike washed off his car. Mike washed the dirt off his car. 73H

5ashe! o.. part.ad). -"ter 5ou 5ash so0ethin' o.. or 5ash the dirt o.. so0ethin', it is 5ashe! o..$ The maid said she had washed the grease off the wall, but the wall didn(t look washed off to me. Infinitive wear off present tense wear off < wears off &ing form wearing off past tense wore off past participle worn off

($ 5ear o.. p.1. When the sur"a!e o" so0ethin' is 'raduall5 re0o1ed b5 "ri!tion or e<posure to the ele0ents so that #hat is beneath the sur"a!e is e<posed, the sur"a!e 5ears o..$ 8ou could see the wood where the paint had worn off. The gold wears off this cheap jewelry right away. 5orn o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has #orn o"", it is 5orn o..$ These ancient temples used to be very colorful, but now all the paint is worn off. "$ 5ear o.. p.1. When the e""e!ts o" dru's or al!ohol 'raduall5 'o a#a5, the5 5ear o..$ The wounded soldier was in great pain after the morphine wore off. $e(s going to have a big headache after the vodka wears off. *$ 5ear o.. p.1. When an e0otional "eelin' 'raduall5 'oes a#a5, it 5ears o..$ 'fter the shock of getting fired wore off I started to get angry. .hen I met )im I fell in love immediately, but that wore off Fuickly as I got to know him better. wipe off wipe off & wipes off wiping off wiped off wiped off

($ 5i+e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e a li,uid "ro0 a sur"a!e b5 0o1in' a to#el or spon'e a!ross it #ith a s#eepin' 0otion, 5ou 5i+e the sur"a!e o"". Aou !an either 5i+e o.. so0ethin' that is #et or 5i+e o.. the li,uid. =i+e + is si0ilar to 5i+e o..J ho#e1er, 5ou 5i+e + a li,uid, but 5ou 5i+e o.. the sur"a!e the li,uid is on. (ipe off your face. (ipe the food off your face. 5i+e! o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been 5i+e! o..' it is 5i+e! o..$ That table doesnBt loo7ed 5i+e! o.. to 0e. =i+e it o.. a'ain. ECERCISE ":a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. +a,uel MMMMMMMM a pie!e o" paper MMMMMMMM and #rote her phone nu0ber on it. 2. -"ter 4 #ashed the #indo#s, 4 MMMMMM the0 MMMMMM #ith so0e old ne#spapers. 2/

3. Ierr5 has to "inish a lot o" #or7 be"ore he 'oes ho0e, so he probabl5 #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until late. 4. 4t rained last ni'ht, so donBt pla5 outside until the 'rass MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . =e !are"ul #hen 5ou "eed horses. The5 !an MMMMMMM 5our "in'er ri'ht MMMMMMM. $. The do!tor said the sedati1e #ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter "our or "i1e hours. %. The shop o#ner #as a"raid to MMMMMMMM the 'an' 'ra""iti MMMMMMMM his #all. 8. -"ter Ia7e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Can7, he #as !har'ed #ith 0urder. *. 8urin' the stor0, a tree bran!h MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and "ell on the roo". 1/. Aoust#o 7ids ha1e been ar'uin' all da5. MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM ri'ht no#: 11. 4 !anBt use this old t5pe#riter an50ore. The painted letters ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 7e5s. 12. The t#o sides !ouldnBt a'ree on a solution, and the ne'otiations MMMMMMMM 13. 4Bll tr5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a "e# 0ore pa'es o" 05 boo7 be"ore 4 'o to bed. 14. 4t #as a lon' ti0e be"ore the sho!7 o" his brotherBs death MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1 . 8onBt put 5our 'lass o" #ine so !lose to the ed'e o" the table. So0eone 0i'ht MMMMMM itMMMMMMMM. ECERCISE ":& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ Use ri/ht 5ith > estions " an! 8$ 1. -le< has bitten o"". Ethe head o" the 'in'erbread 0an, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. The 0o1ers bro7e o"". Ethe !up handle, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

2/$

2. ?lease dry off. Bthe dishes, themC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. 8onBt 7no!7 o"". Ethe ash tra5, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM D. >an I tear off1 Bthese mattress tags, themC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM J. The )anitor washed off. Bthe blood, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM M. !he didn(t wipe off. Bthe milk, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE ":c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se ri/ht 5ith so-e o. the ans5ers$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 used #ater to re0o1e the 0ud "ro0 05 !ar. What did 4 do to 05 !arH 2. Ti005 "or!ibl5 re0o1ed the propellers o" 05 0odel airplane. What did Ti005 do to 05 0odel airplaneBs propellersH

3. 4n Ouestion 2, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 0odel airplaneBs propellersH 2/%

4. Aou put 5our ar0 in the #ater, and the shar7 re0o1ed it #ith its teeth i00ediatel5. What did the shar7 do to 5our ar0H . Aou !ould see that the rin' #asnBt solid 'old be!ause the brass under the 'old #as 1isible. What happened to the 'oldH

$. 4n Ouestion , ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 'oldH %. 4 a!!identall5 hit the la0p #ith 05 ar0, and it "ell to the "loor. What did 4 do to the la0pH 8. Aou used a paper to#el to re0o1e the 'lass !leaner "ro0 the 0irror. What did 5ou do to the 0irrorH *. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 0irror a"ter 5ou re0o1ed the 'lass !leanerH 1/. Aou ha1e to re0o1e the #ater "ro0 the table be"ore 5ou paint it. What do 5ou ha1e to do to the table be"ore 5ou paint itH

11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the table a"ter the #ater is re0o1edH 12. Aou re0o1ed the 'i"t #rappin' paper "ro0 the 'i"t. What did 5ou do to the 'i"t #rappin' paperH 13. 4n Ouestion 12, a"ter usin' "or!e to re0o1e the 'i"t #rappin' paper, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the #rappin' paperH ECERCISE ":!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !lear up, 22 !o0e do#n, 24 eat up, 22 'o o1er, 2$ 'o up, 2$ heat up, 22 let in on, 2$ let up, 24 open up, 2$ pa5 up, 22 plu' up, 22 put to'ether, 2$ shut o"", 2$ start up, 2$ thin7 ahead, 21 trade in, 24

1. 4" 4 donBt !o0e up #ith N23/ b5 2rida5, the5Bre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 ele!tri!it5. 2. The 'u5 "ro0 the !olle!tion a'en!5 de0anded that 6i'uel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i00ediatel5. 2/8

3. 4t rained "or "ort5 da5s and "ort5 ni'hts be"ore it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. 4" 5ou had MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,5ou #ould ha1e e1er5thin' 5ou need no#. . We had a lot o" ,uestions about our s!hool pro)e!t, but the tea!her MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.

$. 6ar7 said his audition didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ell, and he doesnBt thin7 heBll 'et the part. %. Soldiers are trained to ta7e their ri"les apart and MMMMMMMM the0 ba!7 MMMMMMMM. 8. 4 thin7 N1 ,/// is a little hi'h "or that !ar. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little, 4 0i'ht be interested. *. The poli!e !losed the ille'al !asino, but it MMMMMMMM ri'ht ba!7 MMMMMMMM a "e# da5s later. 1/. No one at the part5 ate the !arrot sti!7s, but the5 MMMMMMMM the shri0p ri'ht 11. 4 hate usin' the sto1e on reall5 hot su00er da5s? itMMMMMMMMthe #hole house MMMMMMMM. 12. The 0ini0u0 #a'e hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 0ore than three 5ears. 13. The senator MMMMMMMM her aides MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her plan to run "or the presiden!5. 14. 4 doubt i" 4Bll 'et 0u!h i" 4 MMMMMMMM this old !ar MMMMMMMM. 1 . The en'ine MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM #hen 4 turned the 7e5. 1$. 65 dau'hter put one o" her stu""ed ani0als in the toilet and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM. 2/*

"#$ 2(C.S (NG +assive +hrasa% ver&s' "


When separable phrasal 1erbs are in the passi1e, the5 !annot be separated b5 the ob)e!t o" the 1erb be!ause the ob)e!t o" the a!ti1e 1erb is the sub)e!t o" the passi1e senten!e > there is no ob)e!tG
a!ti1e G Ii0 ca%%e! &ac0 sub)e!t a!ti1e G Ii0 ca%%e! 6i7e sub)e!t Infinitive beef up present tense beef up < beefs up &ing form beefing up past tense beefed up past participle beefed up ob)e!t 6i7e. ob)e!t &ac0. passi1e 6i7e G sub)e!t #as ca%%e! &ac0.

($ &ee.$$$ + p.1. When 5ou &ee. + se!urit5 or so0e other arran'e0ent to pre1ent or deal #ith a proble0, 5ou 0a7e this arran'e0ent stron'er. 'fter the terrorist attack, security was beefed up at the embassy. The hospital decided to beef up its emergency facilities. The coach is planning to beef the defense up. &ee.e!9 + part.ad). -"ter se!urit5 or so0e other arran'e0ent to pre1ent or deal #ith a proble0 has been 0ade stron'er, it is &ee.e!9 +$ The ambassador is confident that the beefed-up security will prevent any further terrorist attacks. break up break up & breaks up breaking up broke up broken up

($ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou &rea0 + a "i'ht, 5ou stop the "i'ht. Two students were fighting, and the teacher broke them up. There was no way I could break up the fight between the two dogs. "$ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When a 'atherin' o" people separates, it &rea0s +$ When the poli!e tell people #ho are 'athered to'ether in a !ro#d to separate and lea1e the area, the poli!e &rea0 the 'atherin' +$ The meeting should break up around 2#33. The police ordered the gang members to break it up. The demonstration was broken up by riot police. *$ &rea0 $$$ + E#ithF p.1. When t#o people end a ro0anti! relationship, the5 &rea0 +$ When 5ou end a ro0anti! relationship #ith another person, 5ou &rea0 + #ith that person. When other people !ause a !ouple to &rea0 +' the5 &rea0 the !ouple +$ I was sad to hear that )im and "ancy had broken up. It was )im(s secretary who broke them up. 7*3

&rea0 + n. When t#o people end a ro0anti! relationships &rea0 + o!!urs. Nan!5 is 1er5 upset about the &rea0 +$ 6$ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' brea7s into s0aller pie!es, it &rea0s +$ When 5ou brea7 so0ethin' into s0aller pie!es, 5ou &rea0 it +$ The meteor broke up when it entered /arth(s atmosphere. !ally broke the cookie up before giving it to her baby. &rea0 + n. When so0ethin' brea7s into s0aller pie!es, a &rea0 + ta7es pla!e. The &rea0 + o" -TPT !reated se1eral s0aller telephone !o0panies. 7$ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &rea0s + the da5 or so0e other period o" ti0e, it interrupts that ti0e and 0a7es it less borin'. The bank guard likes to chat with the tellers once in a while to break up the day. My day was broken up by a going&away party for one of my coworkers. #nfinitive present tense call back call back & calls back calling back called backed called back -ing form past tense past participle

($ ca%% $$$&ac0 p.1. When 5ou ca%% so0eone ba!7, 5ou !all a person on the telephone #ho has !alled 5ou earlier. )anice left a message asking me to call her back. Aob was called back by the salesman. "$ ca%%$$$ &ac0 p.1. When 5ou lea1e a pla!e or #al7 a#a5 "ro0 a person and are then as7ed to return, 5ou are ca%%e! &ac0$ ; remembered something after she walked away, and I called her back. Mike handed his letter of resignation to his boss, but he was called back after he left the office. call up call up & calls up calling up called up called up

($ ca%% $$$ + p.1. When 5ou ca%% people up, 5ou !all the0 on the telephone. "icole called me up and asked me to come to her party. /very evening I(m called up by charities asking for money. carr% out carr% out & carries out carr%ing out carried out carried out

($ carr3$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou !arr5 out a dut5, tas7, assi'n0ent, or order, 5ou do it. !ean will carry your duties out while you(re on vacation. The boss was furious because his orders hadn(t been carried out. "$ carr3$$$ o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou carr3 so0ethin' o t o" a pla!e, 5ou hold it in 5our hands and ta7e it "ro0 that pla!e. 211

It took four guys to carr% the pool table out. 5avid was so drunk that we had to carr% him out of the bar. carr3o t n. 2ood that 5ou ta7e "ro0 a restaurant and eat in another pla!e is carr3o t or carr3o t "ood. Ta0eo t and ta0eo t "ood are the sa0e as carr3o t and carr3o t "ood. .e usually take carr%out food when we go to visit 'unt 9athy. Infinitive present tense give awa% give away < gives away &ing form giving away past tense gave away past participle given away

($ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /ive so0ethin' a5a3' 5ou 'i1e it to so0eone #ithout as7in' "or an5thin' in return be!ause 5ou do not #ant it or be!ause 5ou #ant to help the person 5ou are 'i1in' it to. This old furniture isn(t worth very much, so I think I(ll just give it awa%. $e made nearly a billion dollars, but after he retired he gave most of his money awa%. "$ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /ive a se!ret a5a3' 5ou a!!identall5 re1eal that se!ret. ; haven(t seen that movie yet, so don(t give awa% the ending. 8ou can trust me with the secret. I haven(t given it awa% *$ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /ive 5oursel" a5a3' 5ou a!!identall5 re1eal so0ethin' se!ret about 5oursel". When so0ethin' /ives 5ou a5a3' it a!!identall5 re1eals so0ethin' se!ret about 5ou. Mark tried to keep his affair a secret, but he was given awa% by his credit card bills. Toad claimed he didn(t care about !ally anymore, but he gave himself away when he asked who she had gone to the party with. giveawa% n. . giveawa% is a statement or action that reveals secret information. ; knew I was going to be fired from my job when everyone stopped talking to me that was the giveawa%. mess up mess up & messes up messing up messed up messed up ($ -ess$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou -ess + a pla!e, 5ou 0a7e it dirt5 or disor'aniDed. )im made spaghetti sauce, and he really messed up the kitchen. 8ou kids can play in the living room, but don(t mess it up. -esse! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou -ess + a pla!e, it is -esse! +$ It looks like Timmy was the last one in the bathroom it(s really messed up.

"$ -ess$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou -ess + a situation, 5ou !reate proble0s. When 5ou -ess + a plan or arran'e0ent, 5ou inter"ere #ith it and pre1ent it "ro0 happenin' as planned. Mess + is si0ilar to scre5 +$ 212

/verything was perfect until you messed it up. =ur honeymoon was messed up by the airline strike. -esse! + part.ad). When 5ou inter"ere #ith a plan or arran'e0ent and pre1ent it "ro0 happenin' as planned, it is -esse! +$ Messe! + is si0ilar to scre5e! +$ Aob changed my plan, and now it(s totally messed up. #nfinitive present tense stand up stand up & stands up -ing form standing up past tense stood up past participle stood up

($ stan! + p.1. When 5ou stan! up, 5ou !han'e "ro0 a sittin' position to a standin' position. Eet + is si0ilar to stan! +$ /veryone stands up when the judge enters the courtroom. .hen the students are sleepy, the teacher makes them stand up. "$ stan!$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou stan! people up, 5ou do not arri1e at their house as 5ou ha1e pro0ised or at a so!ial e1ent or 0eetin' #here 5ou are e<pe!ted. $eather had a date with )im last !aturday night, but she was stood up. The senator was scheduled to speak at our meeting, but he stood us up. ECERCISE "#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lon' airplane "li'ht into t#o or three shorter "li'hts, it isnBt as borin'. 2. 65 #or7roo0 #as !lean and neat, but 05 brother did so0e #or7 and he MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 3. 4tBs 'oin' to be a surprise part5, so donBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 4. The nei'hborhood !oun!il as7ed the poli!e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their patrols in hi'h !ri0e nei'hborhoods. . 4 ha1enBt tal7ed to Sa0 in a lon' ti0e. 4 thin7 4Bll MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM toni'ht. $. The 'eneral e<pe!ts his orders to be MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM i00ediatel5. %. 4n so0e !ountries, students al#a5s MMMMMMM MMMMMMM #hen the5 spea7 in !lass. 8. The hu'e i!eber' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen it dri"ted into #ar0er #ater. *. =rea7in' 05 le' sure MMMMMMMM 05 s7i trip MMMMMMMM. 1/. Iani!e didnBt !o0e to 05 house last ni'ht as she pro0ised. She MMMMM 0e MMMMM. 213

11. Ti005 and his "riend #ere "i'htin', and Ti005Bs 0other MMMMMMMM the "i'ht MMMMMMMM. 12. These bo<es are reall5 hea15. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMM the0 MMMMM o" the houseH 13. -"ter the rall5 ended, the !ro#d ,ui!7l5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and #ent ho0e. 14. 4B0 too bus5 to tal7 on the phone no#. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM laterH 1 . =ob !lai0ed to ha1e an e<!ellent edu!ation, but he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 his poor 'ra00ar. 1$. 6ar7 is 1er5 upset. Cis 'irl"riend )ustMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM#ith hi0. 1%. Ii0 told the 3irl S!outs that he didnBt #ant to bu5 an5 !oo7ies, but as the5 #al7ed a#a5 he !han'ed his 0ind and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 18. 4nstead o" !har'in' "or the so"t#are pro'ra0, the !o0pan5 de!ided to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM "ree. ECERCISE "#& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. The White Couse bee"ed up. Ese!urit5, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. The poli!e are brea7in' up. Ethe protest, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. - trained te!hni!ian ou'ht to !arr5 our. Ethe e<peri0ent, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. The "oundation 'a1e a#a5. Ethe 0one5, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 214

D. !usie always messes up. Bthe bathroom, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM J. Todd stood up. B$eather, herC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE "#c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +assive$ 1. 8r. Wood #ill do the test o" the ne# dru'. What #ill happen to the testH 2. The statue #as s0ashed b5 thie1es. What happened to the 'old statueH 3. The !hildren 0ade the house dirt5 and disor'aniDed. What happened to the houseH 4. 4n Ouestion 3, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the houseH . 6i7eBs "riend pro0ised to !o0e to his house, but he didnBt. What happened to 6i7eH J. 9aren called !arah, but !arah was at school. !arah didn(t call 9aren later. .hat didn(t happen to 9aren1 %. - super0ar7et !hain 'a1e the "ood to !harit5 and didnBt re!ei1e an5 0one5 "or it. What happened to the "oodH

8. The pala!e is 0a7in' se!urit5 stron'er. What is happenin' to se!urit5 at the pala!eH *. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the se!urit5 no#H 1/. The personnel 0ana'er #ill !all all the !andidates "or the )ob. What #ill happen to all the !andidates "or the )obH

21

ECERCISE "#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7 up, 11 blo# a#a5, 1 !ut o"", 11 drop o"", 11 "i< up, 1 hand out, 1/ hold up, % la5 o"", 1/ rip up, 1% sti!7 up, 14 ta7e in, % ta7e out, 11 tear do#n, 8 tra!7 do#n, 13 use up, 14 #a7e up, 11

1. The hard dis7 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the !o0puter operator e1er5 da5. 2. The old buildin's are bein' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 0a7e roo0 "or a ne# o""i!e buildin'. 3. The isnBt an5 paper in the !opier. So0eone MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 4. &ast ni'ht 4 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 a loud noise. . 4 !anBt belie1e 4 #as nai1e enou'h to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 hi0. $. The librar5 boo7 4 #anted had alread5 been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. %. So0ethin' a0aDin' happened 5esterda5. Aou are 'oin' to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM #hen 4 tell 5ou about it. 8. -"ter the old house had been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, it loo7ed a lot better. *. 6an5 e0plo5ees are reall5 #orried that the5Bre 'oin' to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. 4 #as tal7in' to 05 brother on the phone #hen 4 #as suddenl5 MMMMMM MMMMMM. 11. 65 shirt #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen 4 "ell o"" 05 bi!5!le. 12. The entire buildin' is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 these "our steel bea0s. 13. The pa0phlets #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in train stations and airports. 14. The li,uor store #asMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa'ain last ni'ht. 1 . The "il0 #asMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMat the photo lab. 1$. The es!aped prisoner #as easil5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the 2=4 a'ents.

21$

"D$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! might' may' an! can
Possi&i%it3< -a3 an! -i/ht =oth 0a5 and 0i'ht are used to e<press a 0ediu0 le1el o" possibilit5. When 0a5 and 0i'ht are used to e<press possibilit5 in the present or "uture, their 0eanin' is the sa0e, but 0a5 has a sli'htl5 0ore "or0al sound. 6i'ht is sli'htl5 0ore !o00on in e1er5da5 -0eri!an ;n'lishG "ancy might drop in tonight. "ancy may drop in tonight. The spea7er belie1es that the possibilit5 that Nan!5 #ill !ro+ in and the possibilit5 that she #ill not !ro+ in are appro<i0atel5 e,ual. Re> ests< -a3 an! -i/ht =oth 0a5 and 0i'ht are used to 0a7e re,uests. 6a5 has a "or0al sound, and is less !o00on than 0i'ht. Can is the 0ost !o00on in -0eri!an ;n'lishG 0ost !o00onG Can 4 !ro+ in toni'htH "or0alG 6a5 4 !ro+ in toni'htH 1er5 rareG 6i'ht 4 !ro+ in toni'htH Per-ission< -a3 an! can 6a5 and !an are also used to 'i1e per0ission. 4n this !ase, 0a5 is 0u!h 0ore "or0al and is 0u!h less !o00on than !an. 6i'ht is not used "or this purposeG 8ou can drop in after dinner. 8ou may drop in after dinner.

Infinitive present tense ask for ask for < asks for asking for asked for asked for &ing form past tense pastStidple

($ as0$$$ .or p.1. When 5ou as0 .or so0ethin', 5ou tell so0eone that 5ou #ant it. .e asked the waiter for some more coffee. My wife might ask for more vacation time instead of a raise. "$ as0 .or p.1. When 5ou sa5 that people are as0in/ .or so0ethin' or as0in/ .or it, 5ou 0ean that the5 are doin' or sa5in' so0ethin' that is li7el5 to result in punish0ent or a ne'ati1e !onse,uen!e. I(m warning you if you keep doing that, you(re asking for trouble. 8ou(re asking for itE 5on(t say that again.

21%

Infinitive present tense come apart come apart < comes apart

&ing form coming apart

past tense came apart

past participle come apart

($ co-e a+art p.1. When so0ethin' co-es apart, the parts separate be!ause it is old or in bad !ondition or be!ause the parts #ere not stron'l5 !onne!ted to ea!h other. This toy airplane is such a piece of junk that it came apart in my hand. Ae careful with this old book. It(s coming apart. drop in drop in & drops in dropping in dropped in dropped #n

%L!ro+ in EonF p.1. When 5ou !ro+ in on people, 5ou 1isit the0 une<pe!tedl5. If you(re ever in my neighborhood drop in. !ally dropped in on Marsha last night. flip out flip out & flips out flipping out flipped out flipped out

($ .%i+ o t p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou .%i+ out, 5ou be!o0e 1er5 upset or 1er5 an'r5. Aob flipped out when the city doubled his property ta0es. 9eep your hands off )im(s computer look out look out & looks out looking out looked out looked out he(ll flip out if you screw it up.

($ %oo0 o t E"orF p.1. When 5ou %oo0 o t or %oo0 o t "or so0ethin', 5ou re0ain alert "or so0eone or so0ethin' that is dan'erous or i0portant. When 5ou tell people to %oo0 o t' 5ou are #arnin' the0 o" possible dan'er. Loo0 o t is the sa0e as 5atch o t$ 1ook out for bears when you camp in the mountains. There(s a lot of ice on the road, so look out. %oc0o t n$ A %oc0o t is so0eone #ho %oo0s o t "or so0eone or so0ethin' that is dan'erous or i0portant. The burglars had lockouts on every corner to warn them if the police came. luck out luck out & lucks out lucking out lucked out lucked out

($ % c0 o t p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou % c0 o t' so0ethin' 'ood happens to 5ou or 5ou a1oid so0ethin' bad happenin' to 5ou. Todd lucked out when he found that lottery ticket on the ground@ it was a : * million winner. I missed my flight, and the plane crashed. I guess I lucked out.

218

#nfinitive make out present tense make out & makes out -ing form making out past tense made out past participle made out

($ -a0e $$$o t p.1. When 5ou !an -a0e so0ethin' out, 5ou !an see it or hear it e1en thou'h it is di""i!ult to do so. The audio system is so bad in the bus station that I can never make out what the speakers are saying. I think that might be a mountain goat up there near the top of the mountain. I can just barely make it out with these binoculars. 8. make... out p.v. ,always used with +to be+- .hen you make people or things out to be a certain way or a certain thing, you describe or consider them to be this way or to be this thing. !top complaining my food isn(t as bad as you make it out to be. The critics made the film out to be a real bore, but I liked it. *$ -a0e$$$ o t EtoF p.1. When 5ou #rite the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on the "ront o" a !he!7, 5ou -a0e the !he!7 o t$ When 5ou #rite the na0e o" a person, !o0pan5, or other or'aniDation on the !he!7, 5ou -a0e the !he!7 o t to that person, !o0pan5, or or'aniDation. $ow should I make this check out" There must be a mistake@ this check is made out to my brother, not to me. "ancy made a check out to the I?! for : *M,333. made out part.adj. 'fter the necessary information has been written on the front of a check, the check is made out. Is the check made out or is it blank1 6$ -a0e o t EonF p.1. When 5ou -a0e o t or -a0e o t on so0ethin', 5ou do so0ethin' su!!ess"ull5 or sur1i1e a situation e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult. 9aren had a job interview yesterday. I wonder how she made out. /ven though )erry has lost his job, we(ll make out somehow. $ow did you make out on the test yesterday1 run across run across & runs across running across ran across run across

($ r n across p.1. When people or thin's r n across a pla!e, roo0, or buildin', the5 0o1e "ro0 one side to the other 1er5 ,ui!7l5. The receiver ran across the field and caught the ball. It(s cra6y to run across the street through the traffic instead of waiting for the light. "$ r n across p.1. When 5ou r n across people or thin's, 5ou see or "ind the0 #ithout plannin' or e<pe!tin' to. Co-e across is si0ilar to r n across$ 21*

; don(t go to that supermarket anymore because I may run across my e0&husband. Aob ran across one of his army buddies at the baseball game. ECERCISE "Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Can 5ou tell 0e #hat this sa5sH 4 !anBt MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM #ithout 05 'lasses. 2. The store #eBre 'oin' to is on the ri'ht side o" the street, so MMMMMM MMMMMM "or it. 3. Aou didnBt "i< this 1er5 #ell? itBs alread5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a'ain. 4. (7a5, 4Bll 'i1e 5ou the 0one5. Who should 4 MMMMMMMM the !he!7 MMMMMMMM toH . 4B0 'oin' to be in 8anBs nei'hborhood to0orro#, so 4 0i'htMMMMMMMMMMMMMM on hi0 "ora ,ui!7 1isit. $. -nnBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen she sees this !i'arette burn on her anti,ue table. %. Sall5 thin7s she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o7a5 on her dri1in' test. 8. 4 #asnBt surprised #hen 4 MMMMMM MMMMMM Sa0 at the bea!h? he 'oes there a lot. *. ThatBs enou'h: 4" 5ou donBt stop botherin' 0e, 5ouBreMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it. 1/. - poli!e o""i!er stopped 0e "or 'oin' "ort5 0iles o1er the li0it, and all he did #as 'i1e 0e a #arnin'. 4 reall5MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.didnBt 4H 11. ;1er5 ni'ht people !all and MMMMMM MMMMMM 0one5 "or one !harit5 or another. 12. &eti!ia #as ri'ht about that restaurant. 4t #as )ust as 'ood as she MMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to be. ECERCISE "D& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Aou 'ot 1er5 upset #hen 4 #re!7ed 5our !ar. What did 5ou doH 2. Ti005 0i'ht tell Santa Claus that he #ants a ne# bi!5!le. What 0i'ht Ti005 doH 3. 4 une<pe!tedl5 0et 05 !olle'e roo00ate at the airport this 0ornin'. What did 4 do at the airport this 0ornin'H

4. To0 #rote all the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on the !he!7. What did To0 doH 22/

. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !he!7 a"ter To0 #rote all the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on itH $. =ett5 isnBt e<pe!tin' 0e, but 4 0i'ht 'o to her house this e1enin' to 1isit her. What 0i'ht 4 do to =ett5H

%. The pie!es o" this !hair are be!o0in' separated. What is the !hair doin'H 8. Aou didnBt ha1e 5our ho0e#or7 read5, but the tea!her didnBt "ind out be!ause she "or'ot to as7 5ou "or it. What did 5ou doH

*. 4 !anBt read #hat that si'n sa5s be!ause itBs so "ar a#a5. What !anBt 4 doH 1/. SusieBs "ather told her to be !are"ul about !ars #hen she rides her bi!5!le in the street. What did SusieBs "ather tell her to doH ECERCISE "Dc ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .rothis section$ 1.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM .MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM !ra!7do#n, 23 !uto"", 11 "i<er-upper, 1 hando1er, 1* holdout, 23 shuto"", 2$ start-up, 2$ sti!7up,14 ta7eout, 11 #ar0-up, 1*

1, The !o0pan5 is a!!eptin' appli!ations "or the position until the MMMMMMMMMMM date, March Jth. 77*

2. - MMMMMMMMMMM be"ore e<er!ise is a 'ood idea. 3. We bou'ht a MMMMMMMMMMM, "i<ed a "e# thin's, added a bathroo0, and sold it a 5ear later "or a ni!e pro"it. 4. 6o0 doesnBt "eel li7e !oo7in' toni'ht, so #eBre 'ettin' MMMMMMMMMMM "ood. . ;<!ept "or a "e# MMMMMMMMMMM hidin' in the hills, all the rebels surrendered a"ter the pea!e treat5. $. The an'r5 !itiDens de0anded a MMMMMMMMMMM on !ri0e in their nei'hborhood. %. 6ost business MMMMMMMMMMM "ail in less than three 5ears. 8. 4" tideBs a proble0 #ith the 0a!hine, the MMMMMMMMMMM s#it!h is ri'ht here. *. The pri0e 0inister de0anded the i00ediate MMMMMMMMMMM o" the hosta'es. 1/. The !on1enien!e store MMMMMMMMMMM #as re!orded on 1ideotape. ECERCISE "De' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brea7 up, 28 !all ba!7, 28 !all up, 28 !arr5 out, 28 do #ith, 2 dr5 o"", 2% 'i1e a#a5, 28 'o o1er, 2$ 'o up, 2$ 7no!7 o"", 2% li'hten up, 2 0ess up, 28 settle "or, 2 stand up, 28 thin7 up, 2 Dip up, 21

1. The tea!her #as too stri!t #ith her students, and the prin!ipal su''ested that she MMMMMMMM.

2. To0 #as e<pe!tin' Nan!5 to !o0e to his house "or dinner, but she MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM.

3. &ettin' Ti0i-n5 use 05 !o0puter #as a 0ista7e. Ce MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, and no# it doesnBt #or7. 4. The5Bre as7in' N34/,/// "or their house, but the5 0i'ht MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N3//,///. . 4 told the s!hool prin!ipal that Can7 0i'ht ha1e so0ethin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the "ish in the s#i00in' pool. 222

$. -ndre# Carne'ie #as a 1er5 ri!h 0an, but he MMMMMMMM 0ost o" his 0one5 MMMMMMMM be"ore he died. %. 4 'a1e ;ri7 05 telephone nu0ber, and he said he 0i'ht MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM toni'ht. 8. ;ri7 !alled #hile 4 #as in the sho#er, so no# 4 need to MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM. *. -"ter the So1iet .nion MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1**1, se1eral ne# nations !a0e into e<isten!e. 1/. The !oa!h is #orried that the rain-soa7ed "ootball "ield 0i'ht not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM in ti0e "or the 'a0e. 11. The !o0pan5 is plannin' toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa 0a)or reor'aniDation. 12. 8onBt put the !andle there? the !at 0i'ht MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM and start a "ire. 13. The students didnBt understand the lesson, so the tea!her MMMMMM MMMMMM it a'ain. 14. 4tBs reall5 !old out there > 5ou 0i'ht #ant to MMMMMMMM 5our !oat MMMMMMMM. 1 . The Wilsons arenBt sure #here the5 #ill spend their 1a!ation. The5 0a5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to -las7a to 1isit their son. 1$. NedBs a drea0er. CeBs al#a5s tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a #a5 to 0a7e 0one5 #ithout #or7in'.

*)$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives .or-e! .ro+hrasa% ver&s' "


-s #e sa# in Se!tion 14, the past parti!iples o" 0an5 phrasal 1erbs !an be used as parti!iple ad)e!ti1es. The ad1erb all is so0eti0es used to e0phasiDe parti!iple ad)e!ti1es #ith the 0eanin' o" 1er5 or !o0pletel5. =ut the senten!e 0ust be lo'i!al > all is used onl5 to e0phasiDe a parti!iple ad)e!ti1e that des!ribes a !ondition that !an be partial, less than !o0plete, and so on. &oo7 at this e<a0ple #ith 1er5 and t#o ordinar5 ad)e!ti1esG 0a7es senseG CeBs 1er5 si!7. does not 0a7e senseG CeBs 1er5 dead. The "irst senten!e abo1e 0a7es sense be!ause it is possible to be 1er5 si!7, but the se!ond does not 0a7e sense be!ause it is not possible to be 1er5 dead. 223

0a7es senseG The 0an is all s+ace!9o t$ does not 0a7e senseG The 0an is all %oc0e! in$ The "irst senten!e 0a7es sense be!ause it is possible to be sli'htl5 s+ace!9o t' but it is not possible to be sli'htl5 %oc0e! in Ea door is either lo!7ed or it isnBtF. When all is used #ith the 0eanin' o" 1er5 or !o0pletel5 in a senten!e #ith a plural sub)e!t, it is identi!al in appearan!e to allBs 0ore !o00on 0eanin' o" all the people, all the thin's, and so on. The men are a;; spaced-out. This senten!e is a0bi'uousG it !ould be understood to 0ean that e1er5 0an is s+ace!9o t or that the 0en are !o0pletel5 s+ace!9o t$

#nfinitivte present tense lock in lock in & locks in -ing form locking in past tense locked in past participle locked in

($ %oc0$$$ in p.1. When 5ou %oc0 people in' 5ou lo!7 a door or 'ate so that the5 !annot lea1e a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e. !even people died because they were locked in the burning building. It(s dangerous to lock children in a car. %oc0e! in part.ad). When people !annot lea1e a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e be!ause the door or 'ate is lo!7ed, the5 are %oc0e! in$ WeBre %oc0e! in > #eBll ha1e to brea7 a #indo#. "$ %oc0$$$ in p.1. When 5ou %oc0 in an interest rate, pri!e, ti0e slot, and so on, 5ou 0a7e it de"inite so that it #ill not !han'e in the "uture. ; met with the loan officer at the bank and locked in a mortgage rate. If you want to use the condo at the beach this weekend, you need to pay a deposit to lock it in. %oc0e! in part.ad). -"ter 5ou 0a7e an interest rate, pri!e, ti0e slot, and so on, de"inite so that it #ill not !han'e in the "uture, it is %oc0e! in$ The farmer isn(t worried about what happens to the price of soybeans because the price of his crop is locked in. 1ock out lock out & locks out locking out locked out locked out

($ %oc0$$$ o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou %oc0 people o t or %oc0 people o t o" a pla!e, 5ou lo!7 a door or 'ate so that the5 !annot enter a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e. The 8oungs got home and found that their son had locked them out of their house. I hide an e0tra key under the bumper of my car so that I won(t get locked out. 224

%oc0e! o t part.ad). When people !annot enter a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e be!ause the door or 'ate is lo!7ed, the5 are %oc0e! o t$ .e(re locked out5 we(ll just have to wait outside until someone comes home. "$ %oc0$$$ o t p.1. When a business %oc0s o t #or7ers, the #or7ers are prohibited "ro0 #or7in' b5 the business 0ana'e0ent. Management locked the workers out after they refused to sign the new contract. .hen the owners heard talk of a strike, they locked the employees out. %oc0e! o t part.ad). -"ter a business %oc0s o t #or7ers in order to prohibit the0 "ro0 #or7in', the #or7ers are %oc0e! o t$ .e(re locked out. $ow can we earn a living1 %oc0o t n. When a business %oc0s o t #or7ers in order to prohibit the0 "ro0 #or7in', it is a %oc0o t$ The lockout lasted for three months. Infinitive present tense punch in punch in < punches in &ing form punching in past tense punched in past participle punched in

($ + nch$$$ in p.1. When 5ou !o0e to 5our #or7pla!e and put 5our ti0e !ard in the ti0e !lo!7 to re!ord the ti0e 5ou ha1e arri1ed, 5ou + nch in$ 5on(t forget to punch in as soon as you get to work. Mark was late, so # punched him in. + nche! in part.ad). When 5ou are + nche! in' 5ou are at 5our #or7pla!e, on dut5, and bein' paid. If you(re punched in you shouldn(t be sitting down smoking a cigarette. punch out punch out & punches out punching out punched out punched out

($ + nch $$$ o t p.1. When 5ou lea1e 5our #or7pla!e and put 5our ti0e !ard in the ti0e !lo!7 to re!ord the ti0e 5ou ha1e le"t, 5ou + nch o t$ !ally(s not at work@ she punched out at D#3K. )im usually forgets, so his boss punches him out. + nche! o t part.ad). When 5ou are + nche! o t' 5ou are not at 5our #or7pla!e, or i" 5ou are there, 5ou are o"" dut5 and not bein' paid. The manager asked why I wasn(t working, and I told him I was punched out. put out put out & puts out putting out put out put out

($ + t$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou e<tin'uish a "ire or so0ethin' that is burnin', 5ou + t it o t$ 22

3ut that cigarette out immediately. It was two hours before the fire was put out. "$ + t $$$o t p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' "ro0 inside a buildin' or stora'e pla!e and lea1e it outside "or so0eone to ta7e, use, or deal #ith, 5ou + t it o t$ The garbage truck comes early tomorrow morning, so put the trash bags out tonight. )udy put some clothes out for her daughter to wear the ne0t day. *$ + t$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou + t o t 5our hand, ar0, "oot, or le', 5ou e<tend it "ront o" 5our bod5. Mike put out his leg and tripped me. I put my hand out but she refused to shake it. 6L t$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou + t 5oursel" o t' 5ou tr5 1er5 hard to help so0eone. !ofia really put herself out to make her new daughter&in&law feel welcome. 5on(t put yourself out. I can make my own dinner. 7$ + t $$$o t p.1. When 5ou + t people out, 5ou in!on1enien!e the0. /rik really put Aill out when he asked him for a ride to the airport at 2#33 in the morning. 8ou(ve done so much to help me. I(m sorry to have put you out. 8$ + t o t p.1. When 5ou are + t o t b5 people, 5ou are anno5ed b5 so0ethin' the5 ha1e said or done. ; was really put out by having to take a ta0i to work because Mike hadn(t returned my car. 5an was put out by !am(s ungrateful attitude. + t o t part.ad). When 5ou are anno5ed b5 so0ethin' that so0eone has said or done, 5ou are + t o t$ Maria(s put out5 the manager thanked everyone who worked on the project e0cept her. :$ + t$$$ o t p.1. When a boo7, 0a'aDine, ne#spaper, or 0usi!al re!ordin' is published or issued, it is + t o t$ The publisher is planning to put a new maga6ine out that will appeal to teenage girls. Frank !inatra put out several classic recordings in the *LD3s. Infinitive sort out present tense sort out < sorts out &ing form sorting out past tense sorted out past participle sorted out

($ sort$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou sort a 'roup o" thin's o t' 5ou separate the0 into s0aller 'roups a!!ordin' to one or 0ore !hara!teristi!s. 22$

'fter you take the laundry out of the dryer, you have to sort it out. The mail arrives at the post office alt mi0ed together, and it has to be sorted out before it can be delivered. sorte! o t part.ad). -"ter 5ou separate thin's into s0aller 'roups a!!ordin' to one or 0ore !hara!teristi!s, the5 are sorte! o t$ The mail is sorted out and ready to be delivered. "$ sort$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' to sol1e a proble0 or to !orre!t a 0isunderstandin', 5ou sort it o t$ )anice was angry with me about what happened last night, but I called her and we sorted everything out. /veryone is confused about the new plan. .e ought to talk to Mrs. Taytor and sort everything out. sorte! o t part.ad). -"ter 5ou do so0ethin' to sol1e a proble0 or to !orre!t a 0isunderstandin', it is sorte! o t$ Mike and Tom had a big fight, but everything is sorted out now. #nfinitive present tense space out space out & spaces out -ing form spacing out past tense spaced out past participle spaced out

($ s+ace$$$ o t p.1. Jin"or0al>used 0ostl5 b5 5oun' peopleK When 5ou spa!e out or #hen so0ethin' s+aces 5ou o t' so0ethin' or so0eone !on"uses 5ou and !auses 5ou to "or'et #hat 5ou #ere sa5in' or doin' at that 0o0ent. This place is really weird it(s spacing me out. !orry, what did you say1 I wasn(t listening I spaced out. s+ace!9o t part.ad). When so0ethin' or so0eone !on"uses 5ou and !auses 5ou to "or'et #hat 5ou #ere sa5in' or doin' at that 0o0ent, 5ou are s+ace!9o t$ $alf of what )erry says doesn(t make any sense@ he(s all spaced-out. wash up wash up & washes up washing up washed up washed up

($ 5ash + p.1. When 5ou 5ash +, 5ou #ash 5our hands thorou'hl5. Io and wash up it(s time for dinner. The surgeon washed up before the operation. "$ 5ash + p.1. When so0ethin' in a la7e, a ri1er, or the sea 5ashes +' it is !arried b5 the #ater to the land and le"t there. The police were called when a dead body washed up on the beach. ?ieces of the sunken boat continued to wash up for weeks.

22%

ECERCISE *)a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 had to brea7 a #indo# #hen 4 MMMMMMMM 05sel"MMMMMMMMo" 05 !ar. 2. Iud5 #as MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM b5 her brotherBs !riti!is0 o" the #a5 sheBs raisin' her !hildren. 3. The 'uard MMMMMMMM the prisoner MMMMMMMM her )ail !ell. 4. The =a7ers or'aniDed a ni!e part5 "or their dau'hterBs birthda5. The5 reall5 MMMMMMMM the0sel1es MMMMMMMM. . 65 bro#n so!7s are 0i<ed #ith 05 bla!7 so!7s. 4 ha1e to MMMMMMM the0 MMMMMM. $. Ioe #as late to #or7, so the 0ana'er MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM. %. The "orest "ire #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the rain. 8. The restaurant 0ana'er told the !oo7 toMMMMMMM MMMMMMM be"ore handlin' "ood. *. The "a!tor5 #or7ers "inished their shi"ts and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. Than7s "or helpin' 0e 0o1e 05 piano. 4B0 sorr5 to MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM. 11. We 'ot a "i<ed-rate 0ort'a'e so #e !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lo# rate, 12. The #or7ers #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 0ana'e0ent durin' a labor dispute. 13. 4 totall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and "or'ot about the !a7e in the o1en, 14. Sall5 and her brothers had a bi' ar'u0ent, but the5 'ot e1er5thin' MMMMM MMMMM. 1 . -s 4 #as "allin', 4 MMMMMMMM 05 ar0 MMMMMMMM to prote!t 05 head. 1$. Wre!7a'e "ro0 the !rashed airplane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the !oast. 1%. Ii0 MMMMMMMM bo#ls o" peanuts MMMMMMMM "or his 'uests. 18. The band hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a C8 in three 5ears. ECERCISE *)& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. Ce lo!7ed in. Ethe !raD5 'u5, hi0F MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

228

7. )im Iocked out. Bhis wife, herC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. 5id you punch in1 BNosa, herC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM H. .ould you punch outM B&inda and /rik,themC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM D. They couldn(t put out. Bthe "ire, itC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

J. The bright lights spaced out. B)anice, herC MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE *)c ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ 1. 6ar7 isnBt #or7in'? heBs ta7in' a brea7. Ce 0ust be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2. Aou !anBt lea1e the buildin' be!ause 5ouBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 3. The !lothes #ere all 0i<ed to'ether, but no# the5Bre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. 4 "or'ot 05 7e5, and 4 !anBt 'et in 05 o""i!e. 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . We had a bi' 0isunderstandin', but itBs all MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM no#. 22*

$. Ioe #ent to the store, but #hen he 'ot there, he !ouldnBt re0e0ber #hat he #anted. Ce #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. Nan!5 in1ited her "ather-in-la# "or dinner, and a"ter dinner he told Nan!5 that his other dau'hter-in-la# #as a better !oo7. Nan!5 #as reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. The 0ana'er as7ed, @4" 5ouBreMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, #h5 arenBt 5ou #or7in'H@ ECERCISE *)! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. There #as a "ire in the #astebas7et, so 4 'ot so0e #ater to e<tin'uish it. What did 4 doH 2. 4 donBt #ant the !hildren in here #hile 4B0 #or7in', so 4B0 'oin' to push the button on the door7nob to lo!7 the door. What a0 4 'oin' to do to the !hildrenH

3. 4n Ouestion 2, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !hildren a"ter 4 lo!7 the doorH 4. 8a1id "or'ot #hat he #as 'oin' to sa5. What did 8a1id doH . 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 8a1id #hen he "or'ot #hat he #as 'oin' to sa5H $. Sall5 told 0e to use soap and #ater to 'et 05 hands !lean be"ore 4 handle "ood. What did Sall5 tell 0e to doH %. The ne#spaper is published onl5 on!e a #ee7. What is done to the ne#spaper onl5 on!e a #ee7H 8. &5dia put Ii0Bs ti0e !ard in the ti0e !lo!7 #hen Ii0 #as late "or #or7. What did &5dia do "or Ii0H

*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe Ii0 a"ter &5dia put his ti0e !ard in the ti0e !lo!7H 1/. Aour boo7s are all 0i<ed to'ether and 5ou ou'ht to separate the0 into di""erent 'roups. What should 5ou do to 5our boo7sH 11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 5our boo7s a"ter 5ou separate the0 into di""erent 'roupsH 12. 4 0ade the thie" sta5 until the poli!e !a0e b5 puttin' hi0 in the !loset and usin' a 7e5 to pre1ent hi0 "ro0 lea1in' the !loset. What did 4 do to the thie"H 23/

13. 4n Ouestion 12, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the thie" a"ter 4 used the 7e5 to pre1ent hi0 "ro0 lea1in' the !losetH 14. 4t reall5 anno5ed ;ri7 #hen Iane told hi0 that he needed to lose #ei'ht. Co# #as ;ri7 a""e!ted b5 IaneBs re0ar7H

1 . 4n Ouestion 14, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe ;ri7 a"ter Iane told hi0 he needed to lose #ei'htH 1$. The e0plo5ees !anBt put their ti0e !ards in the ti0e !lo!7 and 'o ho0e be"ore 4G3/. What !anBt the e0plo5ees doH 1%. 4n Ouestion 1$, a"ter the e0plo5ees put their ti0e !ards in the ti0e !lo!7, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the0H 18. Iane didnBt tr5 1er5 hard to 0a7e her brother and his "a0il5 !o0"ortable #hen the5 sta5ed #ith her. What didnBt Iane doH ECERCISE *)e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- +revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ bee"ed up, 28 bro7en o"", 2% !losed o"", 13 dried o"", 2% lit up, 13 0ade out, 2* 0ade-up, 23 0essed up, 28 shut o"", 2$ torn o"", 2% #ashed o"", 2% #iped o"", 2% #orn o"", 2%

1. The !hildren ba7ed !oo7ies this 0ornin', and the5 le"t the 7it!hen allMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2. The MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se!urit5 "or!e !an handle an5 terrorist atta!7. 3. Charles didnBt pa5 his bill, and no# his ele!tri!it5 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. 4 !anBt read the si'n be!ause the paint is all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . There arenBt an5 ta's on this 0attress. The5Bre all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. $. Those apples arenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt eat the0. %. Aou !anBt dri1e do#n that street? itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. This !he!7 isnBt blan7? itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. *. The Christ0as tree isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM no#, but #hen it is itBll be beauti"ul. 1/. 4 put the !o""ee !up #ith the MMMMMMMM MMM handle do#nstairs. 4B0 'oin' to "i< it later. 231

11. The 7it!hen !ounter isnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt put those papers on it > the5 0i'ht 'et 'rease on the0. 12. That #as ,uite a rain #e )ust had. 4 donBt thin7 4Bll dri1e to #or7 until the roads ha1e MMMMMMMMMMM. 13. 4 didnBt belie1e a #ord he said. 4t #as )ust a lot o" MMMMMMMMMMM nonsense. ECERCISE *).' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ as7 "or, 2* butt in,14 !arr5 out, 28 drop in, 2* drop out, 23 "ill out, 14 ha1e on, 2 head into, 1% hurr5 up, 2 7no!7 o1er, 2 0a7e out, 2* open up, 2$ stand up, 28 trade in, 24 #ash o"", 2% #ipe o"", 2% #or7 out, 11

1. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" s!hool #as the du0best thin' 4 e1er did. 2. The loan appli!ation #as re)e!ted be!ause it hadnBt been MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM properl5. 3. 4B0 'oin' to as7 the !ar dealer ho# 0u!h 4 !an MMMMMMMM 05 !ar MMMMMMMM "or. 4. 65 "eet are 7illin' 0e. 4B1e been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM all da5. . 8id 5ou see #hat Sall5 #as #earin' 5esterda5H She MMMMMMMM a 'reen dress and purple shoes MMMMMMMM. $. 6i7e MMMMMMMM the bartender MMMMMMMM a 'in 0artini, but she 0ade a 1od7a 0artini instead. %. WeBll ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" #eBre 'oin' to 'et to the theater be"ore the 0o1ie starts. 8. 8onBt lea1e that 'lass there > the bab5 0i'ht MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. *. 8adBs hard#are store #ent out o" business a"ter a hu'e dis!ount store MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a!ross the street.

232

1/. Aou #onBt be able to MMMMMMMM that paint MMMMMMMM #ith #ater? 5ouBll ha1e to use turpentine. 11. 4t #as rainin', so 4 had to MMMMMMMM the #ater MMMMMMMM 05 'lasses a"ter 4 !a0e inside. 12. Ser'eant Iones has al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his orders #ithout "ail. 13. 4" 5ouBre e1er in 05 nei'hborhood,MMMMMMMMMMMMMM? 5ouBre al#a5s #el!o0e. 14. Thin's arenBt MMMMMM MMMMMM at 05 ne# )ob, and 4 thin7 4B0 'oin' to ,uit soon. 1 . Iud5 le"t her ho0e in the suburbs and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !it5. 1$. When 4 0et Ii0 4 #as surprised at ho# ni!e he #as. ;1er5one al#a5s MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM to be a real )er7. 1%. 4 #ould ha1e been ne<t, but then so0e )er7 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM line.

31. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s an! /er n! s &,ects


-s #e sa# in Se!tion 1$, 'erunds > 1erbs in the -(ing "or0 that "un!tion as nouns > !an ser1e as the ob)e!ts o" 0an5 phrasal 1erbs. =ut 'erunds !an also ser1e as the sub)e!t o" a senten!eG Eating meat everyday was something we did without.
'erund Voting was immediately done awa% with by the dictatorship. gerund

Infinitive present tense care for care for < cares for caring for cared for cared for &ing form past tense past participle

($ care .or p.1. When 5ou care .or !hildren or people #ho are old or si!7, 5ou pro1ide the0 #ith the "ood or 0edi!ine the5 need or 5ou do thin's to help the0. When 5ou care .or 0a!hines or buildin's, 5ou 7eep the0 in 'ood !ondition. The nurses have to care for several very sick patients. )ohn has been caring for his eighty&three&year&old mother since her stroke. "$ care .or p.1. When 5ou care .or people or thin's, 5ou li7e the0. 233

)ane doesn(t care for coffee@ she prefers tea. I asked !ally to go to the dance, but she said that dancing is not something she cares for. Infinitive cut out present tense cut out < cuts out &ing form cutting out past tense cut out past participle cutout

($ c t$$$ o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou c t so0ethin' o t or c t so0ethin' o t o" a pie!e o" paper, !loth, or other 0aterial, 5ou use s!issors or a 7ni"e to re0o1e part o" it. The bank robber had a pillowIcase over his head with two holes cut out. # cut an interesting story out of the newspaper to show to my father. c to t n. So0ethin' that has been c t o t o" a pie!e o" paper, !loth, or other 0aterial is a c to t$ Timmy made some cardboard cutouts shaped like animals. "$ c t$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou c t o t part o" a "il0, tele1ision pro'ra0, boo7, 0a'aDine, and so on, 5ou re0o1e that part. The movie was too long, so the director cut a couple of scenes out. Aefore the book was published, the parts that were critical of the king had to be cut out of >hapter H. *$ c t$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou c t o t so0ethin' that 5ou !onsu0e, 5ou stop usin' it. When 5ou c t o t doin' so0ethin', 5ou stop doin' it. When 5ou sa5 @Cut it out@ to people, 5ou #ant the0 to stop doin' or sa5in' so0ethin'. !moking is the first thing you(ve got to cut out if you want to improve your health. If you want to lose weight, you(ll have to cut cookies and ice cream out. It bothers me when you do that, so cut it out! 6$ c t o t p.1. When a 0otor suddenl5 stops #or7in', it c ts o t$ I was driving when the motor suddenly cut out. This plane has only one engine, so if it cuts out we(re in big trouble. do awa% with do awa% with & does awa% with doing awa% with did awa% with done awa% with

($ !o a5a3 5ith p.1. When 5ou !o a5a3 5ith so0ethin', 5ou eli0inate it or prohibit it. &oing awa% with smoking is not something that will happen soon. !ome people think the electoral college is obsolete and should be done awa% with. "$ !o a5a3 5ith p.1. When 5ou !o a5a3 5ith people, 5ou 7ill the0. Marvin inherited a fortune after he did awa% with his older brother. The woman was accused of doing awa% with her husband with arsenic.

234

Infinitive present tense do without do without < does without &ing form doing without past tense did without past participle done without

($ !o 5itho t p.1. When 5ou do #ithout so0ethin', 5ou !ontinue li1in' or #or7in' #ithout so0ethin' that 5ou #ant or need be!ause it is not possible or a1ailable. .ashing your hair everyday is something you have to do without when you go camping. &oing without is something you get used to when you(re poor. look into look into & looks into looking into looked into looked into

($ %oo0 into p.1. When 5ou %oo0 into so0ethin' or %oo0 into doin' so0ethin', 5ou in1esti'ate it or 'et 0ore in"or0ation about it. 'fter receiving many complaints about the company, the attorney general decided to look into the matter. Maybe leasing a car is something I should look into. plan on plan on & plans on planning on

planned on

planned on

($ +%an on p.1. When 5ou +%an on so0ethin', 5ou e<pe!t it. They wanted a large family, but having thirteen children sure wasn(t what they planned on. 8ou should plan on at least two years to finish the master(s degree program. "$ +%an on p.1. When 5ou +%an on doin' so0ethin', 5ou intend to do it. .hat are you planning on doing tonight1 I plan on fishing and taking a lot of pictures on my vacation. put off put off & puts off putting off put off put off

($ + t$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou + t o.. so0ethin' or + t o.. doin' so0ethin', 5ou dela5 or postpone it. When 5ou + t people o"", 5ou dela5 doin' so0ethin' the5 #ant 5ou to do. Auying a new house will have to be put off until we can afford it. The students begged the teacher to put the test off until the ne0t week. $e pressured me for a decision, but I kept putting him off. "$ + t$$$ o.. p.1. When people + t 5ou o..' the5 do or sa5 so0ethin' that o""ends 5ou. /veryone was put off b% his racist jokes. Todd went out to dinner with "ancy last night, and the way she treated the waiter really put him off. 23

+ t o.. part.ad). -"ter people do or sa5 so0ethin' that o""ends 5ou, 5ou are + t o..$ WhatBs #ron'H Aou see0 a little put o..$ Infinitive rule out present tense rule out < rules out &ing form ruling out past tense ruled out past participle ruled out

($ r %e$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou r %e o t people or thin's, 5ou eli0inate the0 "ro0 a list. When 5ou r %e o t doin' so0ethin', 5ou de!ide that it is so0ethin' 5ou #ill not do be!ause 5ou do not #ant to, be!ause it is i0possible, and so on. The dete!ti1e inter1ie#ed all the suspe!ts and r %e! e1er5one o t e<!ept the 1i!ti0Bs e<-#i"e. -ter the hurri!ane the5 r %e! o t 0o1in' to 2lorida. With all these 0edi!al bills to pa5, 0a5be #e should !onsider r %in/ o t bu5in' a new car. ECERCISE *( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 su''ested 0o1in' to 6innesota, but 05 #i"e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0o1in' an5#here !old. 2. 65 do!tor sa5s 4 should MMMMMMM MMMMMMM s!uba di1in' until 05 ear 'ets better. 3. The health depart0ent #ants to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s0o7in' #ithin t#ent5 5ears. 4. 4 sa# a "unn5 !artoon in the paper, so 4 MMMMM it MMMMMM and sent it to 05 brother. . So0e !ountries ha1e an e<!ellent health !are s5ste0. No one has to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0edi!al treat0ent. $. 4 #as a little MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 his un"riendliness. %. &etBs 'o to a di""erent restaurant? 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Chinese "ood. 8. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this situation to see #hat the proble0 is. *. -"ter the re1olution, all 0e0bers o" the ro5al "a0il5 #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM. 1/. Se1eral s!enes o" the "il0 had to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore the !ensors #ould appro1e it. 11. Ii0 had to ,uit his )ob to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his si!7 #i"e. 23$

12. 4 had to ta7e a ta<i to #or7 5esterda5. 65 !arBs 0otor MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht in the 0iddle o" an interse!tion. 13. What a surprise: =ein' trans"erred to Ca#aii is so0ethin' 4 ne1er MMMMM MMMMM. 14. 3ettin' that tooth "i<ed is not so0ethin' 5ou should MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM. 1 . What are 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doin' #ith 5our ti0e a"ter 5ou retireH ECERCISE *( & ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Aou !han'ed 5our 1a!ation plans. AouBre not 'oin' ne<t #ee7? 5ouBre 'oin' to 'o later. What did 5ou do to 5our 1a!ationH 2. ;1er5one li7es Ii0 0ore no# that he has stopped a!tin' li7e su!h a bi' shot. What did Ii0 doH 3. The President said that nothin' has been eli0inated "ro0 the list o" thin's that 0i'ht be done about the !risis. What did the President sa5 about #hat 0i'ht be done about the !risisH

4. 6i7eBs parents donBt li7e his ne# "riend. Co# do 6i7eBs parents "eel about his ne# "riendH . - la# #as passed that prohibits !hild labor. What does the la# do to !hild laborH $. There arenBt an5 stores out here in the #oods, so i" 5ou "or'ot so0ethin', 5ouBll )ust ha1e to !ontinue #ithout it. What #ill 5ou ha1e to do i" 5ou "or'ot so0ethin'H %. 4B0 so tired o" this !arBs u'l5 !olor? 4B0 'oin' to in1esti'ate ha1in' it painted. What a0 4 'oin' to doH 8. 4" 5ou 'o to Chi!a'o in Ianuar5, 5ou !an e<pe!t to "reeDe to death. What !an 5ou do i" 5ou 'o to Chi!a'o in Ianuar5H *. =ett5 #as a little o""ended b5 Sa0Bs beha1ior. Co# did =ett5 rea!t to Sa0Bs beha1iorH 1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# did Sa0Bs beha1ior 0a7e =ett5 "eelH 11. The poli!e suspe!ted that 6r. 6a5"ield had been 7illed b5 a !o#or7er. What did the poli!e suspe!t about 6r. 6a5"ieldH 12. 8r. S0ith re0o1ed the entire tu0or #ith a 7ni"e. What did he doH 13. 65 "ather 7ept his !ar in 'ood !ondition, and it lasted "or "ort5 5ears. What did 05 "ather do to his !arH 23%

ECERCISE *( c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se /er n!s as the s &,ects o. so-e o. the sentences$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ECERCISE *( !$ Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ as7 "or, 2* bee" up, 28 !o0e apart, 2* !ra!7 do#n, 23 !ut do#n, 23 drop in, 2* "lip out, 2* 'o about, 1% 'et a#a5, 23 'et ba!7 at, 1% 'et o"", 18 loo7 out, 2* lu!7 out, 2* 0a7e out, 2* 0a7e up, 23 run a!ross, 2*

1. 4B0 thin7in' about in1estin' in the sto!7 0ar7et, but 4B0 not sure ho# to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. 2. The sound on the lan'ua'e lab tapes is so bad that 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hat the5Bre sa5in'. 3. The #orld is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" 0an5 di""erent !ountries. 4. WeBll need to bu5 a ne# suit!ase soon. This old one is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . That #as a terrible thin' he did to 0e > 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0 so0eda5. $. Can7 "ell "ro0 a "i"th-"loor #indo#, but he landed in a s#i00in' pool and #asnBt hurt at all. Ce sure MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, didnBt heH %. The ho!7e5 !oa!h said that the tea0Bs o""ense is 'ood, but the de"ense needs to be

238

8. 65 dentist said 4 should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on s#eets. *. 2ran7 reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen he "ound that bi' sna7e under his bed. 1/. &oo7 at this interestin' old boo7 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a used boo7store. 11. The poli!e depart0ent is 'oin' to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMon !ri0e. 12. Aou 7no# #hat a bad te0per Ioe has. 4" 5ou 7eep teasin' hi0, 5ouBreMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM trouble. 13. The a!!ountant tried to e0beDDle N1//,///, but he didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMM#ith it. 14. 4snBt that #here Iane li1esH &etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMand sa5 hello. 1 . Ia7e #as arrested and !har'ed #ith ban7 robber5, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be!ause none o" the #itnesses !ould identi"5 hi0. 1$. There are a lot o" bi' tru!7s on this road. AouB1e reall5 'ot to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM "or the0 #hen 5ouBre dri1in'.

*"$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e out


The parti!le out is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs and has 0an5 0eanin's. -0on' the 0ost "re,uent 0eanin's o" out are to sa5 that so0ethin' or so0eone literall5 0o1es "ro0 the inside to the outside o" a pla!eG $e fell out of a tree. Melanie came out of the house. .e always go out through the back door. .ould you take the garbage out please1 that so0ethin' is done !o0pletel5 or thorou'hl5G # cleaned out the closet. The people Fuickly cleared out. !he emptied her purse out on the table. ?lease fill this form out. that an a!tion or a!ti1it5 has endedG The fire went out. The light bulb burned out. $ank dropped out of school. )ane chickened out of asking her boss for a raise. 23*

that so0ethin' or so0eone is !hosen, or'aniDed, shared, or distributedG The 0ana'er han!e! o t our pa5!he!7s. To0 +ic0e! a ne# shirt o t$ The 0a54roo0 !ler7 sorte! o t the 0ail. that so0ethin' is produ!ed b5 or released "ro0 a sour!eG Cis last boo7 ca-e o t t#o 5ears a'o. 8onBt %et the do' o t$ That 'roup hasnBt + t o t a ne# C8 in a lon' ti0e. that so0ethin' is re0o1ed, eli0inated, or e<!ludedG ' page was accidentally left out of the book when it was printed. !he cut a cartoon out of the paper. The negative test result ruled out cancer. $is editor took several paragraphs out of the article. that so0ethin' is per!ei1ed, sensed, "ound, or a!,uiredG I .i/ re! o t the ans#er. 8id 5ou .in! o t #hen the 0o1ie startsH That si'n is too "ar a#a5 to -a0e o t$ 6i7e scre5e! -e o t o" a hundred bu!7s. that so0ethin' in!reases in siDe, !apa!it5, len'th, or areaG ?aul started to fill out after he got married. 'fter I gained twenty&five pounds I had to let my pants out. It(s dangerous to stick %our head out a car window. that so0ethin' i0portant or dan'erous should be #at!hed "orG Mike is supposed to meet us here, so watch out for him. 1ook out this is a very busy intersection. or that so0ethin' is done "or a len'th o" ti0eG The criminals held out for three hours before surrendering.

>ollege is hard work, but you(ve got to stick it out.

Infinitive present tense clean out clean out < cleans out &ing form cleaning out past tense cleaned out past participle cleaned out

($ c%ean $$$o t p.1. When 5ou c%ean so0ethin' out, 5ou !lean the inside !o0pletel5 so that no dirt, dust, trash, and so on, re0ains inside. Mark was fired and told to clean his desk out and leave. .e clean out our garage every spring. 24/

c%eane! o t part.ad). -"ter 5ou !lean the inside o" so0ethin' !o0pletel5 so that no dirt, dust, or trash, and so on, re0ains inside, it is c%eane! o t$ "ow that the garage is cleaned out there(s room for my car. "$ c%ean $$$ o t Eo"F p.1. Jin"or0alK When people c%ean 5ou o t or c%ean 5ou o t o" 5our 0one5, the5 de!ei1e 5ou or pressure 5ou into 'i1in' the0 all 5our 0one5 or spendin' all 5our 0one5 "or their bene"it. When an e<pense c%eans 5ou o t' it re,uires 5ou to spend all 5our 0one5. ' con artist cleaned my grandmother out of :D3,333. $aving three kids in college at the same time really cleaned me out. *$ c%ean $$ $o t Eo"F p.1. Jin"or0alK 4" thie1es c%ean a pla!e o t or c%ean a pla!e o t o" so0ethin', the5 ta7e e1er5thin' that is 1aluable. I got home and found that my place had been cleaned out. The thieves cleaned the jewelry store out of all its diamonds and emeralds. Infinitive present tense clear out clear out < clears out &ing form clearing out past tense cleared out past participle cleared out

($ c%ear$$ $o t p.1. When people c%ear o t or c%ear o t o" a pla!e or the5 are c%eare! o t o" a pla!e, the5 lea1e it. 'fter the police threw tear gas, the crowd cleared right out. +lear out! This is private property. "$ c%ear$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou c%ear o t a pla!e, 5ou re0o1e thin's that are un#anted or in the #a5 in order to 0a7e 0ore roo0 or to 0a7e the pla!e !leaner. Gook how much more room we have in the attic now that we(ve cleared all that junk out. The car dealer had a sale so that he could clear out some space for the new cars. come out come out & comes out coming out came out come out

($ co-e o t Eo"F p.1. When people or thin's lea1e a pla!e, roo0, or house that 5ou are not in, the5 co-e o t o" it. !usie(s friend came to the door and asked her to come out and play. The police held their fire when they saw the gunman coming out of the house with his hands in the air. 8. come out BofC p.v. .hen something comes out of a certain place or area, it starts there. This speaker must not be connected@ no sound is coming out. The most wonderful aroma came out of the kitchen. *$ co-e o t EtoF p.1. When people lea1e a !it5 and co-e o t to a pla!e outside the !it5 #here 5ou are, the5 tra1el to that pla!e. 241

.ould you like to come out and visit our farm1 "ed loves it in the city@ he hasn(t come out to the suburbs in a long time. 6$ co-e o t Eo"F p.1. When thin's or people 'o throu'h an e<perien!e or treat0ent, the !ondition the5 are le"t in b5 that e<perien!e or treat0ent or the result o" that e<perien!e or treat0ent is ho# the5 co-e o t$ It was a tough game, but our team came out on top. $ow did the investigation come out" # came out of that awful e0perience a wiser person. 7$ co-e o t E#ithF p.1. When a boo7, 0a'aDine, 0usi!al re!ordin', 0o1ie, or tele1ision sho# is "inished and 0ade a1ailable to the publi!, it co-es o t$ When a boo7, 0a'aDine, 0usi!al re!ordin', 0o1ie, or tele1ision sho# is "inished and 0ade a1ailable to the publi!, the !o0pan5 publishin' it or the person #ho !reated it co-es o t #ith it. The band(s new >5 came out last month, and it(s already number one on the charts. Aarren(s is coming out with a new book on T=/FG soon. 8$ co-e o t p.1. When in"or0ation be!o0es 7no#n to the publi!, it co-es o t$ /veryone was shocked when it came out that the butler had murdered the duke. .hat really happened when ?resident 9ennedy was assassinated may never come out. :$ co-e o t Eo"F p.1. When dirt or a stain is re0o1ed b5 !leanin', it co-es o t or co-es o t o" #hat it is in. 5on(t get grape juice on that white blouse it(ll never come out. That paint might come out of the carpet if you try turpentine. #$ co-e o t p.1. When "lo#ers or lea1es start to 'ro#, the5 co-e o t$ .e had a very warm winter, and the flowers started coming out in February. =ak tree leaves always come out later than the leaves of other trees. D$ co-e o t p.1. When !louds 0o1e and the sun be!o0es 1isible, it co-es o t$ The rain stopped, the sun came out and there was a beautiful rainbow. .ait till the sun comes out@ you(ll get a better picture. ()$ co-e o t E"or4in "a1or o"4a'ainstF p.1. When people #ith authorit5 and in"luen!e co-e o t "or or co-e o t in "a1or o" people or thin's, the5 publi!l5 announ!e support "or the0. When people #ith authorit5 and in"luen!e co-e o t a'ainst people or thin's, the5 publi!l5 announ!e opposition to the0. .e were surprised when the mayor came out for legali6ing gambling. The senator from "orth >arolina came out against the tobacco legislation.

242

Infinitive present tense empt% out empty out < empties out &ing form emptying out past tense emptied out past participle emptied out

($ e-+t3$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e the !ontents o" a spa!e or !ontainer, 5ou e-+t3 it o t$ The police officer told me to empt% out my pockets. 'fter we empt% this room out we can start painting. e-+tie! o t part.ad). -"ter the !ontents o" a !ontainer ha1e been !o0pletel5 re0o1ed, the !ontainer is e-+tie! o t$ "ow that the room is emptied out we can start laying the carpet. ($ e-+t3 o t p.1. When all the people in a pla!e lea1e it, the pla!e e-+ties o t$ 'fter the concert is over, it(ll be twenty minutes before the auditorium empties out. There was trash everywhere after the stadium emptied out. fall out fall out & falls out falling out fell out fallen out

($ .a%% o t Eo"F p.1. When 5ou "all "ro0 or throu'h so0ethin' that is abo1e 'round le1el to the 'round belo#, 5ou .a%% o t or .a%% o t o" it. 5id he fall out or was he pushed1 I found a baby bird that had fallen out of its nest. "$ .a%% o t E#ith4o1erF p.1. When 5ou .a%% o t #ith people, 5ou be!o0e upset or an'r5 #ith the0. When t#o people .a%% o t o1er so0ethin', the5 be!o0e upset or an'r5 #ith ea!h other be!ause o" a disa'ree0ent about that thin'. 'lfonso fell out with his sister when he critici6ed her husband. Melanie and !arah started a company, but they fell out over who would be president and who would be vice&president. .a%%in/9o t n. When people ha1e a .a%%in/9o t' the5 be!o0e upset or an'r5 #ith ea!h other and no lon'er ha1e "riendl5 relations. The 0ana'er o" the baseball tea0 ,uit a"ter he had a .a%%in/9o t #ith the o#ner. go out go out & goes out going out went out gone out

($ /o o t Eo"F p.1. When people or thin's lea1e a pla!e, roo0, or house that 5ou are in, the5 /o o t or /o o t o" it. Co-e in is the opposite o" /o o t$ I(m trying to study go out and play in the backyard. "ancy was so sick that she didn(t go out of the house for a week. "$ /o o t EtoF p.1. When people lea1e a !it5 #here 5ou are and /o o t to a pla!e outside the !it5, the5 tra1el to that pla!e. 243

Gast weekend we went out to )im(s cabin on the lake. This Thanksgiving I(m going to go out to my brother(s house. *$ /o o t p.1. When so0ethin' that is burnin' /oes o t' it stops burnin' be!ause it has no 0ore "uel or be!ause so0ethin', su!h as #ater or la!7 o" o<5'en, has !aused it to stop burnin'. The campfire went out during the night. The forest fire didn(t go out until it started to rain. 6$ /o o t p.1. When an ele!tri!al li'ht /oes o t' it stops produ!in' li'ht be!ause it is no lon'er re!ei1in' po#er. The lights in the barracks go out every night at *3#33. .hen the old tree fell on the power lines, every light in town went out. 7$ /o o t E#ithF p.1. When t#o people #ith a ro0anti! interest in ea!h other /o o t' the5 'o to'ether to a pla!e o" entertain0ent in order to ha1e "un and spend ti0e to'ether. Mike(s nervous he(s going out with $eather tonight. !ally and )im went out for three years before they Fot married. #nfinitive present tense leave out leave out & leaves out -ing form leaving out past tense left out past participle left out

($ %eave$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou %eave people or thin's o t' 5ou a!!identall5 or deliberatel5 do not in!lude the0 in a 'roup. The director left out several parts of the book when she made the film. Tell me the entire story from beginning to end. 5on(t leave anything out. %e.t o t part.ad). When 5ou "eel %e.t out, 5ou "eel i'nored and unappre!iated b5 others in a 'roup. "o one talked to )erry at the party. $e just sat in the corner feeling left out. stick out stick out & sticks out sticking out stuck out stuck out

($ stic0 o t p.1. When so0ethin' stic0s o t' it e<tends "ro0 #hat it is atta!hed to. Ae careful walking in the woods, there are a lot of branches sticking out. I cut myself on a nail that was sticking out of the wall. "$ stic0$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou stic0 so0ethin' o t' 5ou e<tend it out#ard. Timmy stuck his tongue out when his mother gave him spinach. .e all stuck our heads out the window to get a better look. *$ stic0$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou stic0 o t an unpleasant or di""i!ult e<perien!e, 5ou !ontinue #ith it until it is o1er, rather than ,uit. 244

I hate this job, but I need the money, so I(ll just have to stick it out until I find a better one. >ollege isn(t easy, but if you stick it out, you(ll be glad you did. 6$ stic0 o t p.1. When a !hara!teristi! or "eature o" so0ethin' stic0s o t' that "eature is 1er5 noti!eable. 'lan(s nearly seven feet tall and has red hair, so he really sticks out in a crowd. =ne thing that really stuck out about him was the strange way he laughed. ECERCISE *"a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Susie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" her tree house and bro7e her ar0. 2. The sun "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the a"ternoon. 3. 4 heard so0e stran'e 1oi!es MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the ne<t roo0. 4. - sharp pie!e o" #ood #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 4 'ot a splinter "ro0 it. . When the truth "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, 5ouBll all be 1er5 surprised. $. 4t #as a 'ood thin' #e had those !andles #hen the li'hts MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. This te0porar5 )ob #ill last onl5 t#o #ee7s, so e1en thou'h 4B0 bored, 4 'uess 4 !an MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM. 8. That !roo7 MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM o" e1er5thin' 4 o#ned. *. 8a1idBs stor5 didnBt 0a7e an5 sense be!ause he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the part about the 0issionaries and the !annibals. 1/. 6i7e, itBs startin' to rain. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMand !lose the !ar #indo#s, please. 11. Ta7e these #astebas7ets out to the 8u0pster and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 12. 4tBs a sure si'n o" sprin' #hen the tulips start to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. This #ood is 'reen. ;1en i" 5ou !an 'et it to burn, itBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5. 14. The =a7ers said the5 #ould lo1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 1isit us here at our ran!h so0e #ee7end. 1 . The soldiers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMM the protesters MMMMMMMM o" the plaDa. 1$. 6i7e and =ob MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o1er #ho #ould pa5 "or the #indo# the5 bro7e pla5in' baseball. 24

1%. The reporter said that he e<pe!ted the 'o1ernor to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a'ainst the proposed le'islation. 18. Ii0Bs 'oin' to be storin' so0e o" his stu"" in the atti!, so letBs 'o up and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e spa!e "or it. 1*. S!ott MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the trial #ith his reputation badl5 da0a'ed. 2/. -"ter the bo0b threat #as announ!ed, the theater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in about t#o 0inutes. 21. =ett5 has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ;ri7 sin!e hi'h s!hool. 22. 4tBs not 1er5 s0art to MMMMMMM 5our ar0 MMMMMMM the #indo# o" a 0o1in' !ar. 23. 4 li7e it here in the !it5. When 4 MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to 8a1idBs house in the !ountr5 4 'et bored. 24. The tal7 sho# host as7ed the author about his ne# boo7 #hi!h is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM soon. 2 . The bur'lars MMMMMMMMM the !oin shop MMMMMMMMM o" its 0ost 1aluable !oins. 2$. 4tBs been an hour. -re 5ou e1er 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the bathroo0H 2%. 8onBt e1en bother #ashin' this blouse > the in7 #ill ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 28. 6i7e #ants to sell his !ar, so heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and #ash it be"ore an5one loo7s at it. 2*. 4 donBt re0e0ber 0u!h about Ned, but one thin' MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM > he al#a5s #ore bla!7. ECERCISE *"& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$ 1. The !roo7ed la#5er !leaned the0 out MMMMMMMM a s0all "ortune. 2. Ia7e !a0e out MMMMMMMM the ban7 and surrendered. 3. Would 5ou li7e to !o0e out MMMMMMMMM 05 pla!e in the !ountr5H 4. Se1eral publishers are !o0in' outMMMMMMMMM boo7s on the sub)e!t. . The pri0e 0inister li7ed the idea, so #e #erenBt surprised #hen he !a0e outMMMMMMMM the plan. 24$

$. -s e<pe!ted, the leader o" the opposition !a0e out MMMMMMMM the plan. %. 6i7e "ell out MMMMMMMM his brother MMMMMMMM #ho #ould pa5 their "atherBs 0edi!al bills. 8. Ti005Bs "ather told hi0 not to 'o out MMMMMMMMM the house. *. WeBre 'oin' out MMMMMMMMM the suburbs ne<t #ee7end. 1/. CeatherBs 'oin' out MMMMMMMMM To0 toni'ht. 11. Can7 "ell outMMMMMMMMMa hot air balloon. ECERCISE *"c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. 65 son !leaned out. Ethe base0ent, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

2. 4 need to !lear out. Ethe storeroo0, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. Sarah e0ptied out. Ethe bo<es, the0F MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. The "a!tor5 le"t out. Ean i0portant part, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

24%

. 8onBt sti!7 out. E5our ne!7, itF MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

ECERCISE *"! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. So0e i0portant in"or0ation is bein' re1ealed to the publi!. What is happenin' to the in"or0ationH

2. -ll the people in the plaDa le"t. What did the people doH 3. -ll the people in the plaDa le"t. What happened to the plaDaH 4. 4B0 'oin' to ta7e 05 'irl"riend to a ni'ht!lub. What a0 4 'oin' to do #ith herH . The soldier #as 7illed in the battle. What didnBt the soldier doH $. We didnBt as7 6ar7 to )oin our !lub. What did #e do to 6ar7H %. 4n Ouestion $, ho# does 6ar7 "eel be!ause #e didnBt as7 hi0 to )oin our !lubH 8. The 4+S too7 all 5our 0one5. What did the5 do to 5ouH *. The 0usi! !o0pan5 released a ne# C8 last #ee7. What did the 0usi! !o0pan5 doH 1/. ;1er5one noti!es Carr5 be!ause he has 1er5 lon' hair and a lon' beard. What does Carr5 doH 11. The Chi!a'o Tribune announ!ed in an editorial that the5 #ere "or the +epubli!an !andidate. What did the Chi!a'o Tribune doH

12. =illBs an'r5 #ith Ii0, and the5Bre not spea7in' to ea!h other. What did =ill do #ith Ii0H 13. 4n Ouestion 12, #hat did =ill and Ii0 ha1eH 248

ECERCISE *"e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !are "or, 31 !ut out, 31 do a#a5 #ith, 31 do #ithout, 31 hold out, 23 lo!7 in, 3/ loo7 into, 31 pun!h in, 3/ pun!h out, 3/ put o"", 31 put out, 3/ rule out, 31 sort out, 3/ spa!e out, 3/ #ash up, 3/ #at!h out, 23

1. Susie, 4 told 5ou to stop hittin' 5our sister, so MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM: 2. -"ter 4 lost 05 )ob, 4 learned to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lot o" thin's 4 used to thin7 #ere ne!essities. 3. Watson 0ade a real 0ess out o" the pro)e!t, so the boss as7ed 0e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 4. 4 totall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and dro1e t#ent5 0iles past #here 4 #as 'oin'. . Ce5, thatBs reall5 dan'erous, 5ouBd better MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. $. 4B0 'oin' to 'et to #or7 late to0orro#. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMH %. 4B0 reall5 si!7 o" this !it5. 4B0 'oin' to "l5 to San 2ran!is!o and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the )ob situation there. 8. 6ost o" the pla5ers ha1e si'ned their !ontra!ts, but a "e# are MMMMMMM MMMMMMM. *. Water #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an ele!tri!al "ire. 1/. The 0ana'er re0inded 0e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore 'oin' ho0e. 11. 8urin' Prohibition, the 'o1ern0ent tried toMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMM drin7in' al!ohol. 12. The !han!es that his horse #ill #in the ra!e are 1er5 s0all, but 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM !o0pletel5. 13. &oo7 ho# dirt5 5our hands are: 3oMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM be"ore 5ou eat dinner. 14. 4 #ant to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lo# interest rate be"ore rates 'o up a'ain. 1 . Than7s "or in1itin' 0e to the !on!ert, but 4 donBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMrap 0usi!. 1$. 6illions o" people MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doin' their ta<es until the last 0inute. 24*

**$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! -i!sentence a!ver&s


-s #e sa# in Se!tion 1%, ad1erbs are #ords that 0odi"5 1erbs. So0e ad1erbs are !alled 0idsenten!e ad1erbs be!ause the5 are !o00onl5 pla!ed in the 0iddle o" a senten!e. 6idsenten!e ad1erbs are usuall5 pla!ed be"ore 0ain 1erbsG Ce L /oo.s aro n!$ She L he%+e! hi0 o t$ a"ter an5 "or0 o" beG Ce is L /oo.in/ aro n!$ She #asnBt L he%+in/ hi0 o t$ and bet#een an au<iliar5 Ehelpin'F 1erb and the 0ain 1erbG Ce #ill L /oo. aro n!$ !he can(t T help him out. 4n ,uestions, a 0idsenten!e ad1erb is usuall5 pla!ed bet#een the sub)e!t and the 0ain 1erbG 8oes he L /oo. aro n!H 4s he L /oo. in/ aro n!H $as she T helped him out" The "ollo#in' are !o00on 0idsenten!e ad1erbs. A!ver&s o. .re> enc3

ever always constantly almost always usually

typically ordinarily often freFuently generally

normally occasionally sometimes seldom rarely

hardly ever almost never never not ever

Other -i!sentence a!ver&s


already just 2 / merely finally ultimately eventually probably most likely

#nfinitive blow up present tense blow up & blows up -ing form blowing up past tense blew up past participle blown up

($ &%o5$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &%o5s + or #hen so0eone &%o5s so0ethin' +' it e<plodes. !even people were killed when the building blew up. The hijackers ultimately blew the plane up. "$ &%o5$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &%o5s + or #hen so0eone &%o5s so0ethin' +' it be!o0es 0u!h lar'er be!ause air or so0ethin' else is bein' "or!ed into it. It always takes me an hour or more to blow up the balloons for a party. $ank blew up a beach ball and threw it in the pool. *$ &%o5$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a pi!ture or photo'raph lar'er, 5ou &%o5 it +$ # blew the photograph up and framed it. .hen you blow this photo of the car up you can make out the license plate number. &%o5 + n. - &%o5 + is a pi!ture or photo'raph that has been 0ade lar'er.4 0ade a &%o5 + o" the photo and "ra0ed it. 6$ &%o5 + Eat4o1erF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou &%o5 + or &%o5 + at so0eone, 5ou suddenl5 be!o0e 1er5 an'r5. When 5ou &%o5 + o1er so0ethin', 5ou suddenl5 be!o0e 1er5 an'r5 be!ause o" it. $eather blew up when she saw her boyfriend dancing with Ginda. $eather blew up at her boyfriend when she saw him dancing with Ginda. 5ad blew up over the increase in our property ta0es. catch on catch on & catches on catching on caught on caught on

($ catch on p.1. When a "ashion or habit be!o0es popular and is adopted b5 0an5 people, it catches on$ When a produ!t or ser1i!e be!o0es popular and is used or bou'ht b5 0an5 people, it catches on$ Aeta V>Ns never caught on. If his striped business suits catch on the designer will become famous. "$ catch on p.1. When 5ou e1entuall5 be'in to understand so0ethin' or be'in to learn a s7ill a"ter pra!ti!in' and stud5in', 5ou catch on$ .hen !ally studies something, she usually catches on right away. Gearning to dance the cumbia wasn(t easy, but I eventually caught on. *$ catch on EtoF p.1. When 5ou catch on or catch on to people, 5ou realiDe that the5 are tr5in' to tri!7 or !heat 5ou. 2 1

If you keep lying to everyone, they(ll eventually catch on. It took me a while, but I finally caught on to him. #nfinitive present tense come about come about & coming about -ing form come about past tense came about past participle come about

($ co-e a&o t p.1. When so0ethin' co-es a&o t' it happens, usuall5 as a result o" a series o" e1ents and a!tions. $e was the richest man in town, and now he(s bankrupt. $ow did that come about" !everal major medical advances have come about in the last fifty years. fall behind fall behind & falls behind falling behind fell behind fallen behind

($ .a%% &ehin! p.1. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is #al7in', runnin', dri1in', and so on, and the5 0o1e ahead o" 5ou be!ause 5ou are 0o1in' 0ore slo#l5 than the others, 5ou .a%% &ehin!$ Kee+ + is the opposite o" .a%% &ehin!$ 'lfonso and Tom are walking so fast that I(ve fallen behind. I was supposed to be following Ginda to the party, but I fell behind and got lost. ($ .a%% &ehin! EinF p.1. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is stud5in', #or7in', and so on, and the5 learn "aster or 'et 0ore #or7 done be!ause 5ou are learnin' or #or7in' 0ore slo#l5 than the others, 5ou .a%% &ehin! or .a%% &ehin! in 5our #or7, studies, and so on. When 5ou do not !o0plete #or7 as "ast as it #as ori'inall5 planned and e<pe!ted, 5ou .a%% &ehin! s!hedule. Eet &ehin! is si0ilar to .a%% &ehin!$ Kee+ + is the opposite o. .a%% &ehin!$ Timmy was sick last semester, and he fell behind in his studies. The sales manager wanted to know why I had fallen behind the rest of the department. The building project will fall behind schedule if the construction workers go on strike. *$ .a%% &ehin! EinF p.1. When 5ou do not 0a7e the re'ular pa50ents 5ou are re,uired to 0a7e, 5ou .a%% &ehin! or .a%% &ehin! in 5our pa50ents. .hen I lost my job, I fell behind in my mortgage payments. 5on(t fall behind in your payments, or your car will be repossessed. goof around goof around & goofs around goofing around goofed around goofed around

($ /oo. aro n! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou #aste ti0e pla5in' or doin' sill5 or uni0portant thin's, 5ou /oo. aro n!$ Foo% aro n! is the sa0e as /oo. aro n!$ My brother drives his teachers cra6y. $e constantly goofs around and creates problems. !top goofing around and get to work.

2 2

#nfinitive present tense help out help out & helps out -ing form helping out past tense helped out past participle helped out

($ he%+$$$ o t E#ithF p.1. When 5ou he%+ o t or he%+ people o t' 5ou assist the0 in doin' so0e #or7 or 5ou lend or 'i1e the0 0one5 or so0ethin' else that the5 need. >an you help me out" I need a hundred bucks until payday. .e had a lot of work to do, so Maria helped out. know about know about & knows about knowing about

knew about

known about

($ 0no5 a&o t p.1. When 5ou 0no5 a&o t a situation, plan, or other in"or0ation, 5ou are a#are o" it. )im isn(t here. Maybe he doesn(t know about the schedule change. Thanks for telling me, but I already know all about it. "$ 0no5 a&o t p.1. When 5ou ha1e studied so0ethin' and learned it, 5ou 0no5 a&o t it. I don(t know much about history. I was a business major. ?nowing about art and being an artist are two different things. pull off pull off & pulls off pulling off pulled off pulled off

($ + %% $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou + %% so0ethin' o"", 5ou su!!eed in doin' so0ethin' di""i!ult and possibl5 snea75 or ille'al e1en thou'h the !han!es o" su!!ess are not hi'h. Mike tried to juggle three butcher knives and two bowling balls at the same time, but he couldn(t pull it off. .hen )ake said he was going to try to rob a Gas Vegas casino, no one believed he could pull it off. "$ + %% o.. p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and 5ou + %% o"" the road, 5ou dri1e to the side o" the road and stop. If I get sleepy while I(m driving, I always pull off the road and take a nap. .hen I heard that strange noise, # pulled off to the side and checked the engine.

ECERCISE **a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 need to 0o1e so0e "urniture, and itBs too hea15 "or 0e. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM toni'htH 2 3

2. Tele1ision #as in1ented in the 1*2/s, but it didnBt start to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until the 1* /s. 3. 6ath is 1er5 di""i!ult "or 6i7e. 4" he ta7es the ad1an!ed !lass, heBll 0ost li7el5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. 4 didnBt thin7 Todd !ould 0ana'e 'oin' to s!hool and #or7in' at the sa0e ti0e, but he MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM. . When Ii0 sho#s his terrible report !ard to his 0other, sheBll MMMMMMM MMMMMMM. $. Nan!5Bs a hard #or7er. She ne1erMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. %. The terrorists tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the e0bass5. 8. - lot o" !han'es ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the last "e# 5ears. *. The tru!7 dri1er #as lost, so he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the side o" the road and !he!7ed his 0ap. 1/. Sa0 and 8a1e are so 0u!h "aster on their bi7es than 4 a0 that 4 al#a5s MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. 8onBt as7 -nn? she doesnBt MMMMMMMM an5thin' MMMMMMMM it. 12. 4 used to be able to tri!7 05 ri!h un!le into 'i1in' 0e 0one5, but heBs startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 0e. 13. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the balloons no#? the part5Bs 'oin' to start soon. 14. =ob started ta7in' dan!e lessons, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5. 1 . 4" 5ou MMMMM MMMM in 5our !redit !ard pa50ents, 5ouBll da0a'e 5our !redit ratin'. 1$. 4 usuall5 as7 =ill #hat he thin7s be"ore 4 bu5 a sto!7. Ce MMMMMMMM a lot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in1estin'. 1%. 4 as7ed the photo lab to MMMMMMMM the photo MMMMMMMM 3// per!ent. ECERCISE **& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$ 1. Todd #as "ired a"ter he ble# up MMMMMMMM his boss. 2. Todd is usuall5 so eas5'oin'. What did he blo# up MMMMMMMMMH 3. 9aren thin7s sheBs so !le1er, but 4B0 startin' to !at!h on MMMMMMMMM her. 2 4

4. 4" 5ou donBt start #or7in' harder, 5ouBre 'oin' to "all behind MMMMMMMM 0ath. . Than7s "or helpin' 0e out MMMMMMMM 05 al'ebra ho0e#or7. ECERCISE **c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The !o0pan5 started to sell !ho!olate toothpaste, but it ne1er be!a0e popular. What didnBt !ho!olate toothpaste doH 2. Sa0 has a lot o" #or7 to do be"ore G//, so &5dia is doin' so0e o" it "or hi0 so that he #onBt ha1e to #or7 late. What is &5dia doin' "or Sa0H 3. Nobod5 in the !ri0inal 'an' thou'ht the5 !ould steal an airplane, but the5 did. What did the 'an' doH 4. -li doesnBt usuall5 do an5 #or7. Ce usuall5 #at!hes TV and listens to 0usi!. What does -li usuall5 doH . The5 so0eti0es destro5 old buildin's b5 0a7in' the0 e<plode. What do the5 so0eti0es do to old buildin'sH $. The tea!her "re,uentl5 'ets 1er5 an'r5 at his students. What does the tea!her "re,uentl5 doH %. Iani!e is a#are o" the proble0 be!ause so0eone told her about it. What !an 5ou sa5 about Iani!e and the proble0H 8. The !o0pan5 #as supposed to "inish the pro)e!t b5 Septe0ber 1, but the5 didnBt "inish until No1e0ber 14. What happenedH *. The pro"essor as7ed 5ou to e<plain ho# this situation happened. What did the pro"essor as7 5ouH ECERCISE **!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !o0e out, 32 !ut out, 31 do #ithout, 31 e0pt5 out, 32 2 "all out, 32 'i1e a#a5, 28 'o around, 2/ 'o out, 32 loo7 into, 31 plan on, 31 put o"", 31 put out, 3/ rule out, 31 sort out, 3/ spa!e out, 3/ sti!7 out, 32

1. Ia7e #as in )ail #hen the !ri0e #as !o00itted, so the poli!e #ere able to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM as a suspe!t. 2. 65 "ian!eeBs "ather 'ot si!7 suddenl5, so #e had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #eddin' until later. 3. 4 #as a little MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen 6elanie disa'reed #ith 0e. 4. &indaBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'ettin' her teeth blea!hed. . No one #as surprised #hen the ne#s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. $. The "a0il5 business had to be sold a"ter the "a0il5 0e0bers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ea!h other. %. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and "or'ot to put so!7s on this 0ornin'. 8. 4 "elt li7e an idiot > 4 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all da5 #ithout so!7s on. *. Aou !an still eat this apple > )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bad part. 1/. When #e de!ided on the =aha0as "or our hone50oon, #e didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMa hurri!ane. 11.1 #as an'r5 #ith 05 sister, but #e tal7ed and MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM. 12. Ti005 told his 0other that he hadnBt eaten an5 !a7e, but the !ho!olate "rostin' on his "a!e MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM. 13. 4" 5ouBre stud5in' a lan'ua'e, 5ou !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a di!tionar5. 14. Ii0Bs )ob is 1er5 dan'erous, but i" he MMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMM "or another 5ear, he !an retire #ith a pension. 1 . These trash !ans are 'ettin' "ull. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM, pleaseH 1$. Put so0e 0ore #ood on the "ire > itBs startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2 $

*6$ FOCUS ON< +ron nciation o. t5o9an! three9 5or! +hrasa% ver&s' "
-s #e sa# in Se!tions and $, phrasal 1erbs are so0eti0es a!!ented on the 1erb and so0eti0es a!!ented on the parti!le. 4t 0i'ht see0 di""i!ult to 7no# #hether to a!!ent the 1erb or the parti!le sin!e it depends on #hether the phrasal 1erb is separable or nonseparable, transiti1e or intransiti1e, or a t#o- or three-#ord phrasal 1erb? ho#e1er, it boils do#n to thisG al#a5s a!!ent the parti!le a"ter the 1erb unless the phrasal 1erb is a nonseparable, transiti1e, t#o-#ord phrasal 1erb > then a!!ent the 1erb. +e0e0ber that so0e 1erbs !an be both transiti1e and intransiti1eG Nonse+ara&%e' t5o95or!' intransitive
stic0 ROUN2 .%oat ROUN2 Nonse+ara&%e' t5o95or!' transitive STICK to STAN2 .or STICK aro n! FLOAT ro n! Nonse+ara&%e' three95or!' transitive %ea! UP to Se+ara&%e' t5o95or!' transitive ta0e BACK !o OVER Se+ara&%e' three95or!' transitive + t UP to

Initive present tense do over do over < does over doing over did over done over &ing form past tense past participle

($ !o $$$ over p.1. When 5ou !o so0ethin' over' 5ou do it a'ain in order to i0pro1e it or to !orre!t 0ista7es. This is all wrong it(ll have to be done over. I got a bad grade on my paper, but the teacher said I could do it over.

2 %

#nfinitive present tense float around float around & floats around -ing form floating around past tense floated around past participle floated around

($ .%oat aro n! p.1. Jusuall5 !ontinuousK When so0ethin' is .%oatin/ aro n! a pla!e, it is there so0e#here, thou'h 5ou are not sure e<a!tl5 #here. ; don(t know where the stapler is, but it(s floating around here somewhere. The new schedule was floating around the office yesterday. "$ .%oat aro n! p.1. When a ru0or or so0e in"or0ation is .%oatin/ aro n!' it is bein' repeated and dis!ussed a0on' a 'roup o" people or #ithin a pla!e. There(s a rumor floating around that the factory(s going to be closed. !omething about a change of management has been floating around latel%. $ave you heard anything1 lead up to lead up to & leads up to leading up to led up to led up to

($ %ea! + to p.1. When one or 0ore a!tions, e1ents, or situations %ea! + to a "inal a!tion, e1ent, or situation, the5 pre!ede and !ause or partiall5 !ause it. !everal minor battles led up to a full&scale war. The detective said, +)ake didn(t shoot $ank for no reason something led up to it.+ "$ %ea! + to p.1. When 5ou %ea! + to so0ethin' #hen 5ou are spea7in' or #ritin', 5ou 'raduall5 0o1e to#ard an i0portant point b5 sa5in' or #ritin' in"or0ation that #ill support that point. In his speech, the ?resident didn(t immediately announce that he would run for a second term@ he led up to it by recalling the accomplishments of his first term. I(ve been listening to you talk for thirty minutes. .hat(s your point1 .hat are you leading up to" put up to put up to & puts up to putting up to put up to put up to

($ + t$$$ + to p.1. When 5ou persuade or pressure people to do so0ethin' that is ille'al, dan'erous, "oolish, or un#ise, 5ou + t the0 + to it. ; didn(t think it was a good idea to demand a raise, but my wife put me up to it. .hen )ake was arrested for shooting $ank, he said NaFuel had put him up to it by threatening to tell the police about his other crimes. stand for stand for & stands for standing for stood for stood for

($ stan! .or p.1. When abbre1iations, a!ron50s, or s50bols represent lon'er #ords or 'roups o" #ords, the5 stan! .or the0. The +5>+ in .ashington, 5>, stands for +5istrict of >olumbia.+ +!cuba+ stands for +self&contained underwater breathing apparatus.+ 2 8

"$ stan! .or p.1. When people or ob)e!ts support, represent, or are identi"ied #ith ideas, 1alues, or belie"s, the5 stan! .or the0. This flag stands for freedom. $e was a great man who stood for eFual rights and opportunity for all people. *$ stan! .or p.1. When 5ou #ill not stan! .or so0ethin' that 5ou thin7 is ille'al, i0proper, or un)ust, 5ou #ill not tolerate it or allo# it to happen. >ruelty to animals is one thing I will never stand for. I told my son I wouldn(t stand for that kind of language in this house. Infinitive present tense stick around stick around < sticks around &ing form sticking around past tense stuck around past participle stuck around

($ stic0 aro n! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou stic0 aro n!' 3o sta5 #here 5ou are. >an you stick around" .e(re going to have lunch in an hour. 5on(t go yet stick to stick to & sticks to sticking to stuck to stuck to stick around until !arah gets here@ she(d love to see you.

($ stic0 to p.1. When one thin' stic0s to another, it re0ains atta!hed to it. The magnet sticks to the chalkboard because there(s metal underneath. I used the wrong glue, and the tiles didn(t stick to the floor. "$ stic0 to p.1. When 5ou are spea7in' or #ritin' and 5ou stic0 to a !ertain sub)e!t, 5ou tal7 or #rite about that sub)e!t onl5. The teacher said, +5o this paper over and stick to the point important.+ don(t talk about *33 other things that aren(t

In his news conference, the ?resident stuck to the new ta0 legislation, but the reporters kept asking about the latest scandal. *$ stic0 to p.1. When 5ou stic0 to a !ertain belie", !lai0, poli!5, habit, plan, t5pe o" #or7, and so on, 5ou !ontinue as be"ore, #ithout !han'e. Stic0 5ith is si0ilar to stic0 to$ )ake claimed he was innocent of $ank(s murder. $e stuck to his alibi that he had been at the racetrack when the murder occurred. 'fter the audition, the director told me I was a terrible actor and that I should stick to singing. 6$ stic0$$$ to p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou sti!7 it to people, 5ou deliberatel5 tr5 to tease, anno5, or e0barrass the0 #ith an a!!usation, pro1o!ati1e state0ent, or di""i!ult ,uestion. !am thinks the new manager is an idiot, and he likes to stick it to him. =ne woman at the shareholders( meeting really stuck it to the president of the company. !he asked why he deserved a :*L million bonus even though the company had lost money that year and H,333 workers had been laid off.

7DL

#nfinitive present tense take back take back & takes back -ing form taking back past tense took back past participle taken back

($ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 or ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 to a pla!e, 5ou ta7e it to #here it #as be"ore. 4" 5ouBre "inished #or7in' on the !ar, donBt lea1e 5our tools here? ta0e the0 &ac0 to the 'ara'e. 8o 5ou usuall5 ta0e the shoppin' !arts &ac0 a"ter 5ouB1e put 5our 'ro!eries in your car? "$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e bou'ht to the pla!e #here 5ou bou'ht it and as7 to ha1e it repaired, to e<!han'e it "or so0ethin' else, or "or the 0one5 5ou paid "or it, 5ou ta0e it &ac0 or ta0e it &ac0 to the pla!e #here 5ou bou'ht it. ; have to take back these pants that I bought yesterday because the 6ipper(s already broken. That new TV that "ancy bought was a piece of junk@ she took it back to the store and demanded her money back. *$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 or ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 "ro0 so0eone else, 5ou a!!ept it "ro0 the person 5ou 'a1e, sold, or lent it to. The guy at the store said he wouldn(t take my answering machine back because I had bought it on sale. The lady I bought this ?ersian rug from said she would be happy to take it back from me if I changed my mind. 6$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta0e &ac0 so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e borro#ed or ta0e &ac0 so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e borro#ed to the person or pla!e that 5ou borro#ed it "ro0, 5ou return it. Gydia borrowed this book from the library si0 months ago, and she still hasn(t taken it back. I need to take )im(s lawn mower back to him. 7$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta0e people &ac0 or ta0e people &ac0 to a pla!e #here the5 #ere be"ore, 5ou 'o #ith the0 to that pla!e. =ur son was home from college for the summer, and we(re taking him back tomorrow. Mike got sick again, so we took him back to the hospital. 8$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 p.1. When 5ou ta0e &ac0 so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e said, 5ou ad0it that #hat 5ou said #as untrue, un"air, or rude. That(s not trueE 8ou take that back right nowE I(m sorry, that was very rude of me. I take it back. 2$/

:$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When so0ethin' re0inds 5ou o" a pla!e #here 5ou #ere in the past or o" so0ethin' 5ou e<perien!ed in the past, it ta0es 5ou &ac0 or ta0es 5ou &ac0 to a ti0e in the past. Gooking through my high school year book sure takes me back. My grandfather found his old uniform in the attic, and he said it took him back to when he was stationed in /ngland during the war. ECERCISE *6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. -"ter bein' e0barrassed last ni'ht, 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a poli!5 o" 0indin' 05 o#n business. 2. Ca1e 5ou seen the 0anual "or this pro'ra0H 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the o""i!e so0e#here, but 4 !anBt "ind it. 3. 4tBs too bad 5ou !anBt MMMMMM MMMMMM. 4 #as )ust about to barbe!ue so0e !hi!7en. 4. &oo7 at these old pi!tures. The5 sure MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. . 4n 05 histor5 !lass #e studied the e1ents that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM World War 44. $. +osa tried to return her en'a'e0ent rin' to her "ian!e, but he #ouldnBt MMMM it MMM. %. The la#5er told his !lient to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the "a!ts #hen she testi"ies. 8. The es!aped prisoner #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to prison. *. 4tBs not li7e ;ri7 to do su!h a terrible thin'. 4 thin7 so0eone MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. 1/. 4 hate it #hen itBs so hu0id that 5our !lothes MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM5our s7in. 11. @.-;@ MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or .nited -rab ;0irates. 12. 4 "elt terrible about #hat 4 said, and 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM i00ediatel5. 13. (ne o" the 'u5s at #or7 is a real baseball nut "ro0 Chi!a'o, so #e lo1e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM hi0 about ho# bad the Cubs are. 14. 4 donBt ha1e &indaBs ele!tri! drill an50ore? 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 5esterda5. 1 . When people see our !o0pan5Bs lo'o, the5 7no# itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,ualit5 at a "air pri!e.

1$. The tailor didnBt do #hat 4 #anted hi0 to do #ith this dress. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to hi0. 1%. The restaurant 0ana'er told the bartender that she #ould not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM drin7in' on the )ob. 18. 6ar7 did su!h a bad )ob paintin' his house that he had to 'et a pro"essional house painter to MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM. 1*. -s soon as the !o0pan5 president 0entioned the de!rease in sales and the need to redu!e labor !osts, #e 7ne# #hat he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2/. 8onBt lea1e these dirt5 dishes here?MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM to the 7it!hen. 21. 8onBt pa5 an5 attention to that ru0or> itBs been MMMMMMMMMMMM"or three 5ears. ECERCISE *6& ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. this section o. ho5 t5o9 an! three95or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rono nce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise *6a a%o ! an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$ ECERCISE *6c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Iani!e said 4 #as a !heaps7ate, but she later ad0itted that it #asnBt true. What did Iani!e doH 2. - nu0ber o" situations and e1ents helped to !ause the Ci1il War. What did those situations an e1ents doH 3. AouB1e re#ritten this stor5 "our ti0es, and 5ouBre still not happ5 #ith it. What ha1e 5ou done to the stor5 "our ti0esH 4. When 4 opened the bo< o" !ereal, it #as "ull o" bu's, so 4 returned it to the store. What did 4 do to the bo< o" !erealH . =ill has a s5ste0 "or pi!7in' 'ood sto!7s, and he al#a5s uses it. What does =ill do #ith his s5ste0H $. 6r. Tu!7erBs "i"teen-5ear-old dau'hter #ants to 'et a tattoo, but he absolutel5 #ill not allo# it. What #onBt 6r. Tu!7er doH

%. Visitin' his old hi'h s!hool brou'ht ba!7 a lot o" 0e0ories. What did 1isitin' his old hi'h s!hool do to hi0H 2$2

8. Carlos !a0e to 05 house and sta5ed "or a #hile. What did Carlos do a"ter he !a0e to 05 houseH *. People in 05 o""i!e ha1e been readin' the latest issue o" Ti0e 0a'aDine and then 'i1in' it to so0eone else. What has the 0a'aDine been doin'H

1/. She as7ed 0e #hat @Ph.8.@ represents. What did she as7 0eH 11,1 "elt ridi!ulous dressin' as a pin7 dinosaur "or 05 nephe#Bs birthda5 part5, but 05 brother persuaded 0e to do it. What did 05 brother doH ECERCISE *6!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ bite o"", 2% !at!h on, 33 !o0e about, 33 !o0e out, 32 "all behind, 33 'et to'ether, 2$ 'oo" around, 33 let in on, 2$ plan ahead, 2 print out, 24 pull o"", 33 put to'ether, 2$ sha7e up, 24 sta5 out, 23 stop o1er, 24 #ear o"", 2%

1.1 as7ed Sa0 ho# his )ob inter1ie# MMMMMMM MMMMMMM, and he said it #ent 'reat. 2.1 as7ed 05 histor5 tea!her #hat led up to the -0eri!an +e1olution, and he said the #ar MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM as a result o" se1eral "a!tors. 3. -"ter the tran,uiliDer MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, the elephant #ill #a7e up. 4. The ne# o#ners o" the !o0pan5 said the5 planned to MMMMMM thin's MMMMMMM. . When 5ouBre an adult, 5ou !anBt )ust thin7 about toda5? 5ou ha1e to MMMMM MMMMMM. $. Toni'ht 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM #ith so0e "riends and #at!h the 'a0e. %. 6ar7 has a ri!h "ather, so 6ar7 doesnBt #or7? he )ust MMMMMM MMMMMM 0ost o" ti0e. 8. The "inan!e 0inister MMMMMM MMMMMM a plan to re1i1e the nationBs e!ono05. *. ThatBs a prett5 bi' pro)e!t. -re 5ou sure 5ou ha1enBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0ore than 5ou !an !he#H 1/. The ne# s5ste0 at the #arehouse #as a disaster, and #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in "illin' orders. 11. 4 didnBt sleep at all last ni'ht > 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM dan!in' until da#n, and 4B0 reall5 beat. 2$3

12. People ha1e been tal7in' about pi!ture phones "or 5ears, but the5B1e ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. The boss MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ne# strate'5. 14. 4" 5ouBre not bus5, #ould 5ou li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a #hileH We !ould #at!h TV or pla5 !ards. 1 . The !roo7s tried to steal a %4% b5 pretendin' to be pilots, but the5 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 1$. 4 "inished 05 letter, but 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM be!ause 4B0 out o" toner.

*7$ 2(C.S (NG /er n! +hrasa% ver&s


4n Se!tion 1/ #e loo7ed at 'erunds as the ob)e!ts o" phrasal 1erbs. No# #e #ill loo7 at phrasal 1erbs as 'erunds the0sel1es. &i7e ordinar5 1erbs, 'erund phrasal 1erbs !an be the sub)e!t o" a senten!eG Narrowing down the list !ill be difficult.
sub)e!t the ob)e!t o" a senten!eG We dis!ussed narro5in/ !o5n the list. ob)e!t or the ob)e!t o" a prepositionG We tal7ed about narro5in/ !o5n the list. object of preposition Co# and #hen phrasal 1erbs !an be separated is una""e!ted b5 their use as 'erundsG Narro5in/ it !o5n #ill be di""i!ult. We dis!ussed narro5in/ it !o5n$ We tal7ed about narro5in/ it !o5n$

2$4

Infinitive present tense fool around fool around < fools around &ing form fooling around past tense fooled around past participle fooled around

($ .oo% aro n! p.1. When 5ou #aste ti0e pla5in' or doin' sill5 or uni0portant thin's, 5ou .oo% aro n!$ Eoo. aro n! is the sa0e as .oo% aro n!$ My son is la6y. $e spends his time fooling around instead of looking for a job. My boss said, +I(m not paying you to fool around get to workE+ ($ .oo% aro n! E#ithF p.1. When 5ou .oo% aro n! #ith so0ethin', 5ou do so0ethin' that 0a5 be dan'erous or "oolish. 0ooling around with drugs is pretty stupid. 8ou shouldn(t fool around with the insides of your computer unless you know what you(re doing. *$ .oot aro n! E#ithF p.1. Jin"or0alK When t#o people .oo% aro n! or .oo% aro n! #ith ea!h other, the5 ha1e se<ual relations, e1en thou'h one or both o" the0 0a5 be 0arried to so0eone else or e1en thou'h their "a0ilies or so!iet5 0a5 not appro1e. !ally(s father caught her and )im fooling around in the basement. $er husband(s been fooling around with his secretary, and everyone in town knows it. go b% go b% & goes b% going b% went b% gone b%

($ /o &3 p.1. When people /o &3 a pla!e or thin', the5 pass near that pla!e or thin'. When a thin' /oes &3 or /oes &3 5ou, it passes near 5ou. .e watched the parade go b%. # went by )im(s house to see if his car was in the driveway. "$ /o &3 p.1. When 5ou /o &3 a pla!e, 5ou 'o there so that 5ou !an do so0ethin' or 'et so0ethin'. Get(s go b% ?aul(s house to get his tools before we work on your car. 8ou can forget about going b% the dry cleaner to pick up your stuff *$ /o &3 p.1. When a period o" ti0e /oes &3' it passes. ; can(t believe that thirty years have gone b% since I got out of high school. 's time went b% Aetty moved up in the company until she was the head of the finance department. 6$ /o &3 p.1. When 5ou /o &3 a poli!5 or standard, 5ou use it as a re"eren!e or a 'uide in 0a7in' de!isions and deter0inin' 5our beha1ior. When 5ou /o &3 the boo7, 5ou "ollo# rules, poli!ies, or la#s e<a!tl5. /oing b% the book has always been my policy. )im told me to do one thing, and Tom told me to do another, but since Tom is the boss, I(m going to go b% what he says. it(s closed.

7$ /o &3 p.1. When 5ou /o &3 a !lo!7, 5ou use it to tell the ti0e. 5on(t go b% the clock on the wall@ it(s fast. /o b% the clock on the desk. "o wonder I(m always late for work Infinitive present tense hold against hold against < holds against the clock I(ve been going b% is ten minutes slow. &ing form holding against past tense held against past participle held against

($ ho%! $$$a/ainst p.1. When 5ou ho%! thin's a/ainst people, 5ou !ontinue to bla0e the0 "or so0ethin' and !ontinue to be upset about it. Ten years ago I got a promotion that "ed thought he deserved, and he(s held it against me ever since. )ane tost her job because of a mistake Aob made, but she doesn(t hold it against him. leave behind leave behind & leaves behind leaving behind left behind left behind ($ %eave$$$ &ehin! p.1. When 5ou %eave so0eone or so0ethin' &ehin!' 5ou 'o to a different place. The e0plorers left the mountains behind and entered the jungle. The enemy soldiers retreated and left behind a city in ruins. "$ %eave$$$ &ehin! p.1. When 5ou %eave so0ethin' or so0eone &ehin!' 3o do not ta7e the0 #ith 5ou be!ause 5ou "or'ot or be!ause 5ou !annot or do not #ant to ta7e the0. .e packed too much luggage for our trip, so we had to leave some things behind. 1eaving our children behind at a gas station was pretty dumb. *$ %eave $$$ &ehin! p.1. When 5ou 0o1e, learn, or #or7 "aster than others in 5our 'roup, 5ou lea1e the0 &ehin!$ My husband walks so fast that he always leaves me behind. If you don(t start working harder, you(re going to be left behind. Mark was so good at calculus that he soon left the rest of the class behind. live with live with & lives with living with lived with lived with

($ %ive 5ith p.1. When 5ou %ive 5ith so0eone, 5ou li1e at the sa0e address. When 5ou sa5 that one person %ives 5ith a person o" the opposite se<, 5ou 0ean that the5 li1e in the sa0e pla!e but are not 0arried. 1iving with my in&laws is driving me cra6y. Mike(s been living with his girlfriend for five years. 're they ever going to get married1 "$ %ive 5ith p.1. When 5ou %ive 5ith a disease or other proble0, 5ou endure or put up #ith it. 2$$

1iving with this disease is not easy. t can(t change the situation, so I(ll just have to learn to live with it. *$ %ive 5ith p.1. When 5ou %ive 5ith sha0e, 'uilt, or a pain"ul 0e0or5, 5ou !ontinue #ith 5our li"e in spite o" the sha0e, 'uilt, or pain"ul 0e0or5. )ake committed suicide rather than live with the shame of what he had done. $e said he couldn(t go on living with the knowledge that he had caused the death of *H innocent people. #nfinitive present tense make of make of & makes of -ing form making of past tense made of past participle made of

($ -a0e o. p.1. What 5ou -a0e o. so0ethin' is 5our understandin' or opinion o" it. !o what did you make of the prime minister(s speech1 .hat he said was so strange that I didn(t know what to make of it. narrow down narrow down & narrows down narrowing down narrowed down

narrowed down

($ narro5$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou narro5 !o5n thin's or people in a list or 'roup, 5ou re0o1e so0e o" the0 so that the nu0ber o" thin's or people is redu!ed. 'll the candidates for the job have e0cellent Fualifications. )arrowing the list down won(t be easy. The detective narrowed the suspects down to the butler, the cook, and the maid. trick into trick into & tricks into tricking into tricked into tricked into

($ tric0$$$ into p.1. When 5ou tric0 people into doin' so0ethin', 5ou persuade the0 to do so0ethin' b5 "oolin' or de!ei1in' the0. Con into is si0ilar to tric0 into$ The con artist tricked them into giving him their life savings. I was an idiot to let $ank trick me into selling him my car for so little money. ECERCISE *7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The 0an #ho #as 7illed in the a!!ident MMMMMMMM a #i"e and three !hildren MMMMMMMM. 7. The prosecutor %%%%%%%% )ake %%%%%%%% admitting his guilt. 2. I took a job in )apan, and si0 years %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% before I returned to the Onited !tates. H. ?aul(s been %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% his parents since his house burned down. 7JM

. There #ere "i"t5 !ontestants at the be'innin' o" the !ontest, but the )ud'es MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to "i1e "inalists. $. &oo7 at this stran'e letter 4 re!ei1ed. +ead it and tell 0e #hat 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. %. 4 #as 05 parentsB"a1orite, and 05 brother stillMMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM0e. 8. 2ran7Bs #i"e "iled "or di1or!e a"ter she learned that he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith her best "riend. *. The train al#a5s blo#s its #histle #hen it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1/. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM diabetes 0eans !are"ull5 0onitorin' 5our blood su'ar. 11. .MMMMMMMM 5our "riends and "a0il5 MMMMMMMM #hen 5ou e0i'rate to a ne# !ountr5 is 1er5 di""i!ult. 12. Todd "ailed the test be!ause he MMMMMMM MMMMMMM all e1enin' instead o" stud5in'. 13. Ser'eant Iones #as 1er5 stri!t #hen he #as in the -r05. Ce al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the boo7. 14. 8onBt let 5our 7ids MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith !i'arette li'hters? the5 0i'ht start a "ire. 1 . Co# !an 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5oursel" a"ter the terrible thin' 5ou didH 1$. 6elanie has 05 biolo'5 boo7, so on the #a5 to s!hool 4 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her house to 'et it. 1%. 6i7e #asnBt read5 "or the ad1an!ed al'ebra !lass, and he #as ,ui!7l5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the rest o" the !lass. 18. 4 MMMMMM MMMMMM 05 #rist#at!h > not the #all !lo!7 > be!ause itBs 0ore a!!urate. ECERCISE *7& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Cer disease is in!urable, so un"ortunatel5 sheBll )ust ha1e to learn to endure it. What #ill she ha1e to doH 2. Ii0 and 4 #or7ed on a pro)e!t to'ether, but Ii0 told e1er5one that he did all the #or7, and 4B0 still an'r5 about it. Co# do 4 "eel about #hat Ii0 didH 2$8

3. Sall5 and her sisterBs husband 'o to a 0otel so0eti0es durin' their lun!h hour. What are the5 doin'H

4. 65 "ather has a lot o" horrible 0e0ories "ro0 the #ar. What does he ha1e to do #ith the0H . =ill 0ade a list o" !ities that he 0i'ht 0o1e to, and then he eli0inated those that are too !old or ha1e hi'h !ri0e rates. What did =ill do to his list o" !itiesH $. When the boss isnBt in the o""i!e, 5ou )ust pla5 !o0puter 'a0es and 0a7e personal phone !alls. What do 5ou do #hen the boss isnBt in the o""i!eH %. Can7 told his sister that he needed 0one5 "or his #i"eBs do!tor bills, but he reall5 #anted 0one5 to bu5 dru's. What did Can7 do to his sisterH 8. The s!ientist as7ed her !ollea'ue his opinion o" the test results. What did the s!ientist as7 her !ollea'ue about the test resultsH

*. - poli!e !ar passed 0e #hile 4 #as dri1in'. What did the poli!e !ar doH 1/. SusieBs parents are 'oin' to ta7e a 1a!ation #ithout her. What are SusieBs parents 'oin' to do to herH

11. The last 5ear passed ,ui!7l5. What did the last 5ear doH ECERCISE *7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to -a0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s /er n!s an! to se the- as s &,ects' o&,ects' or o&,ects o. +re+ositions$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM .MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM

2$*

ECERCISE *7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ break up, 7K come apart, 7L do over, 2H end up, 73 flip out, 7L float around, 2H hang around, 73 lead up to, 2H lie around, 73 luck out, 7L mess up, 7K run across, 7L stand for, 2H stay up, 73 stick around, 2H take back, 2H

*. The robber was only three feet away when he fired the gun at me, but the gun jammed and didn(t fire. I really%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%. 7. "ancy said being sick wasn(t so bad. !he %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% in bed all day watching TV and eating ice cream. 2. I(ll %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% if you drop my new camera in the swimming pool. H. 5an(s daughter was very sick last night, so 5an %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% all night with her. D. This is outrageousE I will not %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% dishonesty in my company. J. I told Mark that I would never speak to him again if he didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the nasty things he said. M. If you(re looking for $ank, go to the bar on the corner. That(s where he %%%%%%%% MMMMMMMM.

K. ' number of minor events will %%%%%% %%%%%% %%%%%% the main event. L. I had a very busy day planned, but I got a flat tire and that %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% everything. *3. My boss is a jerkE I worked for three days on this, and just because he found one mistake he made me %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%. **. !am has been very depressed since he %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% with his girlfriend. *7. $ave you seen the dictionary1 It(s %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the office somewhere, but I can(t find it. *2. 5on(t stand on that chair it(s %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%. *H. 5o you really have to leave now1 .hy don(t you %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% for a while. 2%/

1 . =ill #as tal7in' about 0o1in' to 2lorida or Ca#aii, but 4B0 not sure #here he "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1$. So0eone told 0e that Sarah is in to#n, but 4 ha1enBt MMMMMM MMMMMMM her 5et.

*8$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e down


The parti!le do#n is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs and has 0an5 0eanin's. 8o#n !an be used to sa5 that so0ethin' literall5 0o1es "ro0 a hi'her position to a lo#er position or "ro0 north to southG Aob went down the ladder. $is friends came down from >anada. 2it down5 dinner is ready. that something decreases in si6e, intensity, Fuantity, or Fuality# $er fever has gone down to *33 degrees. The doctor gave her a sedative to calm her down. .e(ve narrowed the list down to three choices. that so0ethin' or so0eone is "ou'ht, de"eated, or o1erpo#eredG $ank backed down when he saw my shotgun. The police cracked down on street crime. that so0ethin' "alls to the 'roundG The boy was running and fell down. The warehouse burned down. =pen the door or I(ll break it down! or that a process or activity is ending or has ended# My car broke down on the highway.

The FAI tracked down the spy.

The campaign is winding down.

Infinitive back down present tense back down < backs down &ing form backing down past tense backed down past participle backed down

($ &ac0!o5n p.1. When one side in a disa'ree0ent stops 0a7in' threats and lets the other ha1e #hat it #ants or do #hat it #ants, the side that stops 0a7in' threats &ac0s !o5n$

The dictator didn(t back down after the Onited "ations !ecurity >ouncil voted in favor of sending in troops. The police officer tried to force me to pay him a bribe, but when I said I would report him to the chief of police, he backed down. Infinitive present tense calm down calm down < calms down &ing form calming down past tense calmed down past participle calmed down

($ ca%- $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou ca%- !o5n' 5ou be!o0e less a!ti1e, ner1ous, or upset. When 5ou ca%- other people !o5n' 5ou do so0ethin' to 0a7e the0 less a!ti1e, ner1ous, or upset. Sett%e !o5n is si0ilar to ca%- !o5n$ I was very nervous about the test, but I calmed down when I saw how easy it was. Mike tried to calm his sister down after she had a fight with her husband. "$ ca%- $$$ !o5n p.1. When a !on"used or 1iolent situation be!o0es less !on"used or 1iolent, it ca%-s !o5n$ When 5ou ca%- a !on"used or 1iolent situation !o5n' 5ou 0a7e it less !on"used or 1iolent and 0ore !al0. Sett%e !o5n is si0ilar to ca%- !o5n$ The neighborhood where the riot occurred calmed down after the army started patrolling the streets. ' conference between the two sides was organi6ed to try to calm the situation down. fall down fall down & falls down falling down fell down fallen down

($ .a%% !o5n p.1. When people or thin's "all to the 'round "ro0 a hi'her position, the5 .a%% !o5n$ I slipped on some ice on the sidewalk and fell down. 'll the dishes on that shelf will fall down if there(s another earthFuake. go down go down & goes down going down went down gone down

($ /o !o5n EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a lo#er le1el or position or "ro0 north to south, 5ou /o !o5n or /o !o5n to that pla!e. Eo + is the opposite o" /o !o5n$ Toronto is too cold, so we usually go down to Me0ico in the winter. /oing down the mountain was a lot easier than going up. "$ /o !o5n EtoF p.1. When the !ost, rate, ,ualit5, ,uantit5, or le1el o" so0ethin' de!reases, it /oes !o5n$ Eo + is the opposite o" /o !o5n$ The temperature went down to 6ero last night. The crime rate in "ew 8ork >ity has gone down. *$ /o !o5n EtoF p.1. When so0ethin' e<tends to a !ertain point that is "arther south or at a lo#er ele1ation, it /oes !o5n to that point. Eo + is the opposite o" /o !o5n$ $ow far south does this road go down" 5oes this road go down to the south side of town1 'fter dinner we went down to the basement and played ping pong. 7M7

6$ /o !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' /oes !o5n in a !ertain #a5, people rea!t to or per!ei1e it in this #a5. The new no smoking policy didn(t go down very well with the smokers in the office. The judge(s decision went down well with the prosecutor. 7$ /o !o5n p.1. When a !o0puter or !o0puter net#or7 stops #or7in' be!ause o" a proble0 or be!ause it has been dis!onne!ted, it /oes !o5n$ I couldn(t withdraw any money at the bank because its computers had gone down. If your computer terminal goes down %ou can use the one in the ne0t office. 8$ /o !o5n p.1. When the sun 'oes belo# the horiDon, it /oes !o5n$ 'fter the sun goes down it(ll get a little cooler. The sun went down at K#2H last night. Infinitive present tense la% down lay down < lays down laying down laid down laid down &ing form past tense past participle

($ %a3$$$ !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou %a3 so0ethin' !o5n' 5ou put it on a horiDontal sur"a!e. P t !o5n is si0ilar to %a3 !o5n$ Marsha laid the tray down. The police ordered )ake to la% down his gun and surrender. "$ %a3 !o5n p.1. When 5ou %a3 !o5n a ne# la#, poli!5, rule, and so on, 5ou !reate and announ!e it. The IN! laid down several new ta0 regulations. >ongress decided against la%ing down any new campaign financing laws. put down put down & puts down putting down put down put down

($ + t $$$!o5n p.1. When 5ou + t so0ethin' !o5n' 3o put so0ethin' in 5our hand or so0ethin' that 5ou are !arr5in' on a horiDontal sur"a!e. The suitcase was so heavy that I had to put it down and rest for a minute. !usie, put that knife down. It(s dangerousE "$ + t$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou + t people !o5n' 5ou !riti!iDe the0. )im hates his stepfather and puts him down constantly. I(m not inviting !am to any more parties. I hate the way he puts everyone down. + t9!o5n n, - + t9!o5n is an insult or !riti!al re0ar7. 't the party !am asked "ancy if she had made her dress from an old curtain. .hat a put-down! *$ + t$$$ !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou + t 0one5 !o5n or + t 0one5 !o5n on so0ethin', 5ou pa5 a portion o" the !ost o" so0ethin' 5ou #ant to bu5 to be sure that it #ill still be a1ailable to 5ou #hen 5ou are able to pa5 the rest o" the !ost. 2%3

The real estate agent asked me how much money I want to put down on the house. I told her that I could put as much as : *D,333 down. 6$ + t$$$ !o5n Eon/"orF p.1. When 5ou add so0ethin' to a list or other #ritten 0aterial, 5ou + t it !o5n or + t it !o5n on the list. When 5ou add people to a list in order to assi'n so0ethin' to the0, 5ou + t the0 !o5n or + t the0 !o5n "or that assi'n0ent. Melanie(s collecting money for charity, so I told her to put me down for :D3. I(m making a list of volunteers to help reelect !enator 5olittle. >an I put your name down on the list1 7$ + t$$$ !o5n EonF p.1. When an airplane + ts !o5n or a pilot + ts an airplane !o5n' the airplane lands. 'fter the engine Fuit, the pilot looked for a place to put down. Fortunately, the pilot was able to put the plane down on a fro6en lake. Infinitive present tense run down run down < runs down running down ran down run down &ing form past tense past participle

($ r n !o5n EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e ,ui!7l5 to a lo#er le1el or pla!e, 5ou r n !o5n or r n !o5n to that pla!e. Mike was running down the stairs when he fell and broke his leg. I saw someone trying to steal my car, and I ran down to the street to try to stop him. "$ r n $$$ !o5n p.1. When 1ehi!les or people dri1in' 1ehi!les hit and in)ure or 7ill so0eone, the5 r n that person !o5n$ The man was run down and killed by a speeding ta0i. 'li was arrested after he ran three people down. *$ r n !o5n p.1. When 5ou dis!uss or re1ie# ite0s on a list "ro0 the "irst to the last, 5ou r n !o5n the list. Get(s run down the >hristmas list and decide what to give everyone. The teacher ran down the list of students and marked the ones who are failing. rundown n. . rundown is a discussion or review of items on a list. The consultant gave the manager a rundown of the problems she had found. 6$ r n !o5n p.1. When batteries or 0a!hines r n !o5n or are r n !o5n &3 someone, they gradually lose power or energy. 5on(t leave the car lights on for too long when the car isn(t running or the battery will run down. .hat time is it1 My watch ran down last night. r n!o5n part.ad). - person or thin' that is r n!o5n is e<hausted, #ithout po#er or ener'5. 2%4

Maybe I need to go to the doctor@ I feel so rundown all the time. r n!o5n part.ad). - r n!o5n buildin' or nei'hborhood is in poor !ondition be!ause it has not been 0aintained. I went back to my old neighborhood, and I was shocked to see how rundown it had become. Infinitive present tense sit down sit down < sits down &ing form sitting down past tense sat down past participle sat down

($ sit !o5n p.1. When 5ou sit !o5n' 3o !han'e "ro0 a standin' position to a sittin' position. The teacher told his students to sit down and open their books. I(m e0hausted@ I haven(t sat down all day. "$ sit$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou sit people !o5n' 5ou order the0 to sit, usuall5 so that 5ou !an ha1e a serious dis!ussion. .hen I found marijuana in my daughter(s purse, I sat her down and had a serious talk with her. The detective sat $ank down and began to interrogate him. ECERCISE *8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Ceather thin7s sheBs so hi'h-!lass. SheMMMMMMMMMMMMother people all the ti0e. 2. The situation MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the !ease-"ire #as de!lared. 3. The sun !o0es up around $G//, and it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around 8G//. 4. CereBs the list o" !andidates "or the pro0otion. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list and de!ide. . The old #ater to#er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM durin' the stor0. $. Aou 0ust be e<hausted. Wh5 donBt 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM and ta7e it eas5H %. 4 sa# a to# tru!7 loo7in' "or ille'all5 par7ed !ars, so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 !ar and 0o1ed it. 8. 65 o""i!e is on the ninetieth "loor, so so0eti0es it ta7es 0e "i"teen 0inutes to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the lobb5. *. 4tBs hard to #rite s50path5 notes. 4 ne1er 7no# #hat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2%

1/. The !o0pan5 tried to redu!e bene"its, but the5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen the union threatened to 'o on stri7e. 11. The -ppala!hian Trail starts in 6aine and MMMMM all the #a5 MMMMM to 3eor'ia. 12. 8onBt MMMMMMMM the bab5 MMMMMMMM there > she 0i'ht "all. 13. 4 #as "urious about #hat 8an said, and 4 MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM and told hi0 e<a!tl5 #hat 4 thou'ht about it. 14. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM N 1//,/// MMMMMMMM on that house, 5ou #onBt need a 1er5 lar'e 0ort'a'e. 1 . What are 5ou so #orried aboutH IustMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > e1er5thin'Bs 'oin' to be all ri'ht. 1$. The unionBs proposal to redu!e the #or7#ee7 to "our da5s didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ell #ith the !o0pan5. 1%. The 2ood and 8ru' -d0inistration is e<pe!ted to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ne# set o" re'ulations re'ardin' sea"ood inspe!tion. 18. The pri!e o" !o0puters has MMMMMMM MMMMMMM dra0ati!all5 in the last "e# 5ears. 1*. Those bo<es are too hea15 "or 5ou. MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM and let 0e !arr5 the0 "or 5ou. 2/. - pedestrian #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 a tru!7 on &in!oln -1enue. 21. The sto!7 e<!han'e had to stop tradin' #hen its !o0puters MMMMMMM MMMMMM. 22. MMMMMMMM a )et MMMMMMMM on an air!ra"t !arrier at ni'ht is 1er5 di""i!ult. 23. So0eone le"t this "lashli'ht on all ni'ht, and the batteries ha1e MMMMMM MMMMMM. ECERCISE *8& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. The )o!7e5 !al0ed do#n. Ethe horse, itF

2%$

2. The 0e!hani! laid do#n. Eher tools, the0F

3. 4 put do#n. E05 boo7s, the0F

4. The ta<i ran do#n. Ethe tra""i! !op, hi0F

ECERCISE *8c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The !ar dealer re1ie#ed the list o" the !arBs options #ith 0e. What did the !ar dealer doH 2. 4n Ouestion 1,#hat did the !ar dealer 'i1e 0eH 3. The 7in' 1isited the area #here the t#o tribes #ere "i'htin', and the "i'htin' stopped. What did the 7in' do to the areaH 4. The houses in this part o" to#n are in 1er5 bad !ondition. Co# !an 5ou des!ribe this part o" to#nH . 6ana'e0entBs plan 'ot a 'ood rea!tion "ro0 the #or7ers. What i0pression did the plan 0a7e on the #or7ersH

$. 2ran7 told Nan!5 that she #as lo#-!lass. What did 2ran7 do to Nan!5H %. 4n Ouestion $, #hat #as 2ran7Bs !o00entH 8. Sa0 sat in a !hair. What did Sa0 doH 2%%

*. The !o0pan5Bs 0ana'e0ent stopped threatenin' to "ire the #or7ers and a'reed to raise their #a'es. What did the !o0pan5 doH

1/. The dentistBs se!retar5 #rote 05 na0e in her appoint0ent boo7. What did the se!retar5 doH 11. The soldiers stopped "i'htin' and put their ri"les on the 'round. What did the soldiers do #ith their ri"lesH

12. Aou slipped and landed on the 'round. What did 5ou doH ECERCISE *8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- +revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ burned up, 22 !leaned out, 32 e0ptied out, 32 le"t out, 32 lo!7ed in, 3/ lo!7ed out, 3/ paid up, 22 plu''ed up, 22 pun!hed in,3/ pun!hed out, 3/ put out, 3/ sha7en up, 24 spa!ed-out, 3/ sorted out, 3/ torn o"", 2%

1. 8a1idBs totall5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM toda5. Ce has e1en "or'otten his 'irl"riendBs na0e. 2. 4 li7e this !oat, but 4 donBt 7no# #hat siDe it is be!ause the ta'BsMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM, 3. 4 donBt 7no# #h5 that 'u5 "ro0 the !olle!tion a'en!5 !alled 0e > all 05 bills are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. Ni!ole hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5et. ;ither sheBs late "or #or7 or she "or'ot. . 6ar7 borro#ed =obBs !ar and had an a!!ident, and 6ar7Bs reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it. $. The 0ana'er #ondered #h5 4 #asnBt #or7in', but a"ter 4 told her 4 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, she said it #as o7a5. %. Ta7e this 0edi!ine. 4tBs 'reat "or MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM noses. 8. 8o 5ou ha1e a 7e5H 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and !anBt 'et out. *. 8o 5ou ha1e a 7e5H 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and !anBt 'et in. 1/. IaneBs reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. She )ust "ound out that her brother #as 0urdered. 11. Ii0Bs so!7s are 0i<ed #ith his brotherBs so!7s. The5Bre not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 2%8

12. No one #ants to sit #ith 0e in the s!hool lun!hroo0, and it 0a7es 0e "eel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. 65 0other #as reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen -unt 9ath5 said our house #asnBt 1er5 !lean. 14. Wh5 isnBt the base0ent MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5etH 4 told 5ou 4B0 tired o" loo7in' at this )un7: 1 . ThereBs nothin' in the roo0. 4tBs all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. ECERCISE *8e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ blo# up, 33 !are "or, 31 !at!h on, 33 !lean out, 32 !o0e about, 33 do #ithout, 31 'o out, 32 lo!7 out, 3/ 0a7e o", 3 0a7e out, 2* narro# do#n, 3 plan on, 31 pull o"", 33 put o"", 31 sti!7 to, 34 #ash up, 3/

1. Se1eral bodies "ro0 the !rashed plane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the da5 a"ter the !rash. 2. -"ter 0other had a stro7e, #e had to hire nurses to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her. 3. 65 "ather #as se1ent5-t#o 5ears old #hen he 'ot his "irst !o0puter, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5, and no# he uses it all the ti0e. 4. The President had a lot o" bi' plans #hen he too7 o""i!e, but "e# o" the0 e1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . 6ar7 #asnBt su!!ess"ul as a sin'er. Ce should ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM son'#ritin' > thatBs #hat he does best. $. Co# did 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on 5our "inal e<a0H %. 4 had to !ra#l in throu'h the #indo# a"ter 05 dau'hter !losed the door and MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM o" the house. 8. This situation is 1er5 stran'e. 4 donBt 7no# #hat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. *.1 ha1e to "inish 05 pro)e!t toni'ht, and 4 ha1enBt e1en started it. 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM until the last 0inute. 1/. No one thou'ht 2ran7 !ould run a 0ile in less than "our 0inutes, but he MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
2%*

11. 4 reall5 depend on 05 laptop !o0puter #hen 4 tra1el on business. 4 donBt 7no# ho# 4 e1er MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMit. 12. 3eor'e and &inda MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or three 5ears be"ore the5 'ot 0arried. 13. Se1eral people #ere 7illed #hen the bo0b MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 14. =ob and 6arsha arenBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMspendin' 0ore than N2 /,/// "or their ne# house. 1 . 65 di1or!e settle0ent !ost 0e a lot o" 0one5. 4t al0ost MMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMM. 1$. The 2=4 started #ith a list o" si< suspe!ts, but the5 MMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to t#o.

*:$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s se! as no ns' *


When phrasal 1erbs are used as nouns, the 1erb is usuall5 in the in"initi1e "or0? ho#e1er, a s0all nu0ber use a di""erent "or0 o" the 1erb. 2or e<a0ple, %e.t over and /ro5 + use the past parti!ipleG .e ate leftovers the day after Thanksgiving. The grown-ups sat at one table, and the children sat at another. ta%0 to and /o over use the -in/ "or0G Mr. 8oung gave his son a good talking-to. Aefore I buy this car, I(m going to give it a good going-over. and /ro5n9 + uses the past parti!ipleG (nl5 /ro5n9 +s are allo#ed to dri1e.

Infinitive present tense brush off brush off < brushes off &ing form brushing off past tense brushed off past participle brushed off

($ &r sh $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou &r sh people o"", 5ou i'nore the0 or re"use to listen to the0 be!ause 5ou are not interested in or do not li7e #hat the5 are sa5in'. My boss just brushes me off when I try to tell her how to increase our profits. The reporters tried to ask him some Fuestions, but he brushed them off. &r sh9o.. n. When 5ou 'i1e people the &r sh9o..' 3o i'nore the0 or re"use to listen to the0 be!ause 5ou are not interested in or do not li7e #hat the5 are sa5in'. The boss )ust 'a1e 0e the &r sh9o.. #hen 4 tried to 'i1e hi0 so0e ad1i!e. "$ &r sh $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou &r sh o.. a !riti!al re0ar7 or proble0, 5ou i'nore it

and !ontinue as be"ore #ithout lettin' it a""e!t 5ou. I told 5r. !mith that he had made a mistake, but he brushed it off. My father(s cholesterol is very high, but he just brushes it off. Infinitive present tense come on come on < comes on &ing form coming on past tense came on past participle come on

($ co-e on p.1. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e or 0a!hine co-es on' it be'ins to operate, usuall5 auto0ati!all5. Eo o.. is the opposite o" co-e on$ It was so cold that the heat came on last night. .hen you open the refrigerator door, the light comes on automatically. "$ co-e on p.1. When a tele1ision or radio pro'ra0 co-es on' it be'ins. 5o you know when the news will come on" The late movie comes on at *#33 '.M. *$ co-e on p.1. When 5ou #ant to en!oura'e people to do so0ethin' or #hen 5ou #ant the0 to do so0ethin' ,ui!7l5, 5ou sa3 ?Co-e onN? Aelieve me, you(re going to love this garlic ice cream. +ome on try itE +ome on! I can(t wait all day. 6$ co-e on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou thin7 that people ha1e done or said so0ethin' i0proper or unreasonable, 5ou sa3 ?Co-e on$? Tom didn(t study for one minute, and you(re telling me he got *33 on the test1 =h, come on. $ey, come on! I told you not to do that again. 7$ co-e on p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When 5ou be'in to "eel a heada!he or an illness de1elopin', 5ou "eel the heada!he or illness co-in/ on$ I might be sick tomorrow@ I feel something coming on. I feel a headache coming on. 5o you have any aspirin1 8$ co-e on p.1. When 5ou co-e on a !ertain #a5, 5ou spea7 or deal #ith people in that #a5. ?aul needs to learn to be more of a gentleman. $e comes on too strong, and women don(t like that. Aob comes on kind of arrogant, but he(s actually a nice guy. :$ co-e on EtoF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou co-e on to people, 5ou approa!h the0 and tr5 to interest the0 in ro0an!e or se<. Toad came on to )udy at the party, and she told him to get lost. I can(t stand that guy "ed. $e(s always coming on to me. co-e9on n. Jin"or0alK - pro1o!ati1e !o00ent or a!tion intended to interest a person in ro0an!e or se< is a co-e9on$
281

Todd uses the same come-on with all the girls, and it never works. co-e9on n. - dis!ount or spe!ial o""er desi'ned to 'et people to bu5 so0ethin' is a co-e9on$ The bank is offering a free V>N as a come-on if you open an account with them. Infinitive cover up present tense cover up < covers up &ing form covering up past tense covered up past partic covered u

($ cover$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !o1er so0ethin' !o0pletel5, 5ou cover it +$ I covered the cake up so no bugs would land on it. +over this stuff up I don(t want anyone to see it. covere! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been !o0pletel5 !o1ered, it is covere! +$ 4s the 0eat covere! +H 4 donBt #ant "lies to land on it. "$ cover$$$ + p.1. When 5ou cover + a !ri0e, 5ou do so0ethin' to tr5 to pre1ent other people "ro0 learnin' o" it. There(s no point in trying to cover up the crime. Too many people already know about it. The mayor was accused of covering up his ties to organi6ed crime. cover9 + n. So0ethin' 5ou do in order to pre1ent a !ri0e "ro0 be!o0in' 7no#n is a cover9 +$ The mayor denied being part of a cover-up and claimed he was innocent. hang out hang out & hangs out hanging out hung out hung out

($ han/ o t p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou han/ o t at a pla!e, 5ou spend ti0e there #ithout an5 i0portant purpose. Han/ aro n! is si0ilar to han/ o t$ 5oesn(t "ancy have a job1 It seems as if she hangs out at the beach every day. I don(t have anyplace to go. 5o you mind if I hang out here for a while1 han/o t n. Jin"or0alK - han/o t is a pla!e #here 5ou spend ti0e #ithout an5 i0portant purpose. The police closed the bar, saying it was a hangout for crooks and gang members. leave over left over ($ %eave over p.1. Jal#a5s passi1eK When so0ethin' is %e.t over' it re0ains a"ter people ha1e used or ta7en as 0u!h o" it as the5 need or #ant. I guess I made too much food@ look how much is left over. I paid all my bills and had only : *M left over. 282

%e.tover part.ad). So0ethin' that is %e.t over re0ains a"ter people ha1e used or ta7en as 0u!h o" it as the5 need or #ant. 8ou can have this leftover pasta for lunch tomorrow. %e.tovers n. Jal#a5s pluralK 2ood ite0s that re0ain uneaten a"ter people ha1e "inished eatin' are %e.tovers$ 1eftovers again1 .hen are we going to have something different for dinner1 #nfinitive 1et down present tense let down & lets down -ing form letting down past tense let down past participle let down

($ %et $$$!o5n p.1. When 5ou pro0ise people 5ou #ill do so0ethin' and then "ail to do it, 5ou %et the0 !o5n$ My son promised to stop using drugs, but he let me down. I really need you to help me move tomorrow. ?lease don(t let me down. %et !o5n part.ad). When people pro0ise 5ou the5 #ill do so0ethin' and then "ail to do it, 5ou "eel %et !o5n$ When 5ou are disappointed be!ause 5ou !annot ha1e so0ethin' 5ou #ant to ha1e, be!ause 5ou !annot do so0ethin' 5ou #ant to do, or be!ause so0ethin' is less e<!itin' than 5ou e<pe!ted it to be, 5ou "eel %et !o5n$ 8ou broke your promise to me that you would Fuit smoking. I feel very let down. %et!o5n n. When 5ou sa5 that so0ethin' is a %et!o5n' 3o are disappointed be!ause 5ou !annot ha1e or !annot do so0ethin' 5ou #ant to or be!ause so0ethin' is less e<!itin' than 5ou e<pe!ted it to be. I had tickets for the fifth game of the .orld !eries, but my team lost in four games. .hat a letdown.

+a3o.. pa% off & pa%s off

'fter the way everyone talked about how great the movie was, I thought it was something of a letdown. pa%ing off paid off paid off

($ +a3$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou +a3 o.. 0one5 that 5ou o#e or +a3 o.. the person 5ou o#e the 0one5 to, 5ou pa5 all the 0one5 that 5ou o#e. I wasn(t happy with the people we hired to paint our house. # paid them off and told them not to return. It took ten years, but I finally paid off my school loan. +ai! o.. part.ad). -"ter 5ou pa5 all the 0one5 that 5ou o#e to so0eone or to a lendin' institution, the debt or loan is +ai! o..$ I made my last payment yesterday, and now my car loan is paid off. "$ +a3$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou pa5 people 0one5 so that the5 #ill do so0ethin' ille'al or allo# 5ou to do so0ethin' ille'al, 5ou +a3 the0 o..$ 283

The politician tried to cover up the crime b% pa%ing off the witnesses. 5on(t e0pect the police in this city to do anything about gambling they(re being paid off. +a3o.. n$ A +a3o.. is 0one5 paid to so0eone to do so0ethin' ille'al or to allo# 5ou to do so0ethin' ille'al. The chief of police was videotaped accepting a pa%off. *$ +a3 o.. p.1. When so0ethin' 5ou do +a3s o..' it is su!!ess"ul and is #orth the e""ort 5ou 0ade. Medical school is a lot of hard work, but it(ll pa% off someday. The restaurant changed its menu, and it really paid off. Ausiness increased by 23 percent. +a3o.. n. - bene"it 5ou 'ain be!ause o" an e""ort 5ou 0a7e is a +a3o..$ Ginda doesn(t get paid for the volunteer work she does. The pa%off is knowing that she has helped other people. Infinitive talk to present tense talk to < talks to &ing form talking to past tense talked to past participle talked to

($ ta%0 to p.1. When 5ou ta%0 to people, 5ou ha1e a !on1ersation #ith the0. 're you talking to me1 I don(t like Aob. $e talks to me like I(m some kind of idiot. ta%0in/9to n$ A ta%0in/9to is a serious dis!ussion in #hi!h 5ou s!old or le!ture so0eone. 5an(s behavior is outrageous. !omeone should give him a good talking-to. ECERCISE *:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 "or'ot to MMMMMMM the !hi!7en MMMMMMM a"ter #e "inished dinner, and the !at ate it. 2. - patient died a"ter 8r. S0ith 'a1e her the #ron' 0edi!ine, and the hospital tried to MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM. 3. 4 donBt !are #hat Nan!5 thin7s o" 0e. 4" she !riti!iDes 0e, 4Bll )ust MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM. 4. 4 #or7ed "or nine 5ears to 'et 05 Ph.8., and no# 4 !anBt "ind a )ob in 05 "ield. -ll that #or7 sure didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 284

.1 set the ther0ostat so that the air !onditioner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" it 'ets o1er ei'ht5 de'rees. $, Aou !an trust ;ri7 to 7eep his pro0ises. Ce #onBt MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM. %. 4 didnBt li7e that !ar sales0an #e tal7ed to last ni'ht. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM too stron'. 8. 4 !alled Ceather last ni'ht, but 4 didnBt MMMMM MMMMM her? she #as in the sho#er. *. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in bars isnBt 05 idea o" "un. 1/. 4 tried to apolo'iDe to Iane, but she )ust MMMMM 0e MMMMM and !ontinued #al7in'. 11. 4 #ant to MMMMMMMM 05 0ort'a'e MMMMMMMM earl5, so 4B0 0a7in' t#o pa50ents e1er5 0onth. 12. &oo7 at TV 3uide to see #hen the sho# MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. 9aren sure isnBt sh5. 8id 5ou see ho# she #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 brother at the part5H 14. -"ter Than7s'i1in' so 0u!h tur7e5 #ill beMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthat #eBll be eatin' it "or t#o #ee7s. 1 . 4 hope 4B0 not 'ettin' si!7. 4 "eel a !old MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1$. The !ontra!tor #as a!!used o" MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !it5 o""i!ials in e<!han'e "or !ontra!ts. ECERCISE *:& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith no ns .ro- this section$ 1, Aou need to "inish s!hool. The MMMMMMMMMMM #onBt !o0e "or 5ears, but itBs #orth it. 2,1 didnBt ha1e ti0e to 0a7e an5thin' "or dinner, so #eBre ha1in' MMMMMMMM toni'ht. 3. This pla!e isnBt as beauti"ul as it loo7ed in the pi!tures. What a MMMMMMMMMMM. 4. Iud5 isnBt interested in an5thin' 4 sa5? she al#a5s 'i1es 0e the MMMMMMMMMMM. . The senator #as !on1i!ted o" ta7in' a MMMMMMMMMMM. $. The lo# interest rate the !redit !ard !o0pan5 o""ers i" 5ou s#it!h to their !ard is )ust a MMMMMMMMMM. -"ter si< 0onths the5 in!rease it to 18 per!ent. %. The politi!ian #as a!!used o" bein' part o" a MMMMMMMMMMM. . 28

8. Aou !an usuall5 "ind Ioe at the ni'ht!lub a!ross the street. ThatBs his "a1orite MMMMM. *. Ti005Bs not !ausin' an5 proble0s toda5. 6a5be so0eone 'a1e hi0 a MMMMMMMMM. ECERCISE *:c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Ned spends a lot o" ti0e at IoeBs 8iner rela<in' and tal7in' to his "riends. What does Ned do at IoeBs 8inerH

2. 4n Ouestion 1, #hat is IoeBs 8iner to NedH 3. 6ar7 said so0ethin' that 4 thou'ht #as ridi!ulous, and 4 told hi0 to be serious and reasonable, What did 4 sa5 to 6ar7H

4. Aou had N4//, but a"ter 5ou #ent shoppin', 5ou had N1// re0ainin'. What did 5ou ha1eH . 65 "a1orite TV sho# be'ins at *G//. What does 05 "a1orite sho# do at *G//H $. 8an pro0ised his dau'hter that he #ould ta7e her to the !ir!us, but he !ouldnBt 'et o"" #or7 that da5. What did 8an do to his dau'hterH

%. 6aria is 'oin' to pa5 her last !ar loan pa50ent. What is she 'oin' to do to her !ar loanH 8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 6ariaBs !ar loan a"ter she 0a7es the last pa50entH *. Ni!ole spo7e #ith her brother about his drin7in' proble0. What did she do to her brotherH 1/. 4n Ouestion *, #hat did Ni!ole 'i1e to her brotherH 11. The heat in our house starts to operate #hen the te0perature 'ets belo# si<t5 de'rees. What does the heat in our house doH 12. 2or lun!h 5ou ate the spa'hetti that 5our "a0il5 didnBt eat the ni'ht be"ore. What did 5ou eat "or lun!hH 13. The restaurant o#ner 'a1e the health inspe!tor N2// to i'nore the rats in the 7it!hen. What did the restaurant o#ner do to the health inspe!torH

14. 4n Ouestion 13, #hat #as the N2// that the restaurant o#ner 'a1e the health inspe!torH 28$

1 . The head o" the health depart0ent tried to 7eep the pa5o""s in his depart0ent a se!ret. What did the head o" the health depart0ent do to the pa5o""sH 1$. 4n Ouestion 1 , #hat #ould 5ou !all the head o" the health depart0entBs atte0pt to 7eep the pa5o""s in his depart0ent a se!retH 1%. &inda !o0plained to the !it5 about the 'arba'e in the streets, but the #o0an she tal7ed to #asnBt interested and told her to #rite to the 0a5or. What did the #o0an &inda tal7ed to doH

18. 4n Ouestion 1%, #hat did the #o0an that &inda tal7ed to 'i1e herH 1*. Ti005Bs "riend #anted hi0 to #al7 "aster, and he told Ti005 to hurr5. What did Ti005Bs "riend sa5 to Ti005H 2/. Ioe told 0e a'ain and a'ain ho# 'ood his "a1orite restaurant is, but #hen 4 #ent there, 4 didnBt thin7 it #as that 'ood. What #as 05 1isit to the restaurantH

21. 4n Ouestion 2/, ho# did 4 "eel a"ter 05 1isit to IoeBs "a1orite restaurantH ECERCISE *:!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these no ns .ro- +revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$

blo#up, 33 brea7up, 28 !utout, 31

'et-to'ether, 2$ 'i1ea#a5, 28 'oin'-o1er, 2$

'ro#n-up, 1/ lo!7out, 3/ lo!7out, 2*

put-do#n, 3$ rundo#n, 3$

1. The 0o1ie !riti! told the dire!tor that #at!hin' his ne# 0o1ie #as #orse than 'oin' to the dentist. That #as ,uite a MMMMMMMMMMM. 2. The MMMMMMMMMMM o" the hu'e !o0pan5 !reated se1eral s0aller !o0panies. 3. WeBre ha1in' a little MMMMMMMMMMM toni'ht. Would 5ou li7e to !o0eH 4. (nl5 MMMMMMMMMMM are allo#ed to drin7 al!ohol. . The MMMMMMMMMMM ended a"ter the #or7ers a'reed to a 1/ per!ent pa5 in!rease. $. 4 heard a bi' MMMMMMMMMMM in Nan!5Bs o""i!e. 4 #onder #hat the proble0 #as. %. The dru' dealers had a MMMMMMMMMMM on e1er5 !orner. 28%

8. Ti005 told his 0other that he hadnBt eaten an5 !oo7ies, but he had !ho!olate all o1er his "a!e, so she 7ne# he #as l5in'. The !ho!olate on his "a!e #as the MMMMMMMMMMM. *. =e"ore 5ou spend N13,/// on a used !ar, 4 su''est that 5ou 'i1e it a thorou'h MMMMMM. 1/. Carlos 0ade paper MMMMMMMMMMM shaped li7e dinosaurs. 11. The poli!e !hie" 'a1e the 0a5or a MMMMMMM o" the pre1ious 0onthBs !ri0e statisti!s. ECERCISE *:e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ !al0 do#n, 3$ !at!h on, 33 do a#a5 #ith, 31 e0pt5 out, 32 "all do#n, 3$ "ool around, 3 'o b5, 3 'o do#n, 3$ hold a'ainst, 3 lea1e behind, 3 li1e #ith, 3 0a7e o", 3 narro# do#n, 3 pull o"", 33 put do#n, 3$ sit do#n, 3$

1. 65 best "riend, Ceather, reall5 li7es 6i7e, but 6i7e as7ed 0e to 'o to the dan!e #ith hi0. 4 hope Ceather doesnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 0e. 2. The real estate a'ent has sho#n us se1eral houses, but #eB1e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM to three that #e reall5 li7e. 3. 6i7e too7 the #astebas7ets outside and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM. 4. =e"ore #e 'o to the bea!h, letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMTo0Bs house and see i" he #ants to !o0e #ith us. . 6ariaBs a "ast learner. She had ne1er pla5ed !hess be"ore, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5. $. No one thou'ht 4 !ould 'et 1// on the test, but 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. %. Nothin' li7e that e1er happened be"ore. 4 didnBt 7no# #hat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM it, 8. Aou !an reall5 s!re# up 5our !o0puter #ith that pro'ra0, so donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith it unless 5ou 7no# #hat 5ouBre doin'. *. Pets arenBt allo#ed #here #eBre 0o1in', so #eBre 'oin' to ha1e to MMMMMMMM our do' MMMMMMMM. 1/. Polio has been al0ost !o0pletel5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 288

11. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that )er7 "or "i"teen 5ears #as horrible. 12. Ioe #as so upset a"ter the a!!ident that it #as t#ent5 0inutes be"ore he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM enou'h to tell the poli!e o""i!er #hat happened. 13. =e !are"ul on that i!5 side#al7 > 5ou donBt #ant to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and brea7 5our ne!7. 14. 4n the su00er the sun doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until *G// in the e1enin'. 1 . 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM N4,/// MMMMMMMM on 05 ne# !ar and "inan!e the rest. 1$. 4B1e been standin' all da5. 4 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.

*#$ FOCUS ON< the ver& keep an! a!ver&s an! a!ver&ia%s sho5in/ !e/rees o. varia&i%it3
Phrasa% ver&s 5ith keep
Se1eral phrasal 1erbs are based on the 1erb 7eep, and it is i0portant to understand that the essential 0eanin' o" 7eep in these phrasal 1erbs is no !han'e. -s 5ou stud5 these 1erbs, re0e0ber than in ea!h 0eanin' o" ea!h 1erb so0ethin' is not !han'in', so0ethin' is !ontinuin' in the sa0e dire!tion or in the sa0e 0anner, or so0ethin' is sta5in' in the sa0e pla!e or in the sa0e !ondition. A!ver&s an! a!ver&ia%s sho5in/ !e/rees o. varia&i%it3 - 1ariet5 o" ad1erbs and ad1erbial 'roups o" #ords that to'ether "un!tion as ad1erbs are used to 0odi"5 phrasal 1erbs that relate to so0ethin' 1ariable, su!h as distan!e, ti0e, !ost, speed, te0perature, a0ount, or ,uantit5. -d1erbs and ad1erbials allo# the spea7er to be 0ore pre!ise about #hat is bein' 0easured > to sa5 #hether it #as a little or a /o" or to be pre!ise about e<a!tl5 ho# 0u!h. =ut the 1erb 0ust be so0ethin' that is 1ariable. 4n !annot be so0ethin' either/or, su!h as shut o"", "or e<a0ple Ea TV is either on or o"" > it !annot be in bet#eenF. -d1erbs and ad1erbials are used to stren'then the 0eanin' o" the 1erbG $e fell asleep on the train and went well be%ond his stop. !he fell way behind in her work when she was sick. ?eep far awa% from the fire. to #ea7en the 0eanin' o" the 1erbG I went a bit over my budget. ?eep slightly to the right on that road. ,e fell a little behind. The meeting may run somewhat over. 7KL

or to be e<a!tG .e planned two weeks ahead. /o three floors up. !ometimes, in informal /nglish, way is repeated for e0tra emphasis# .hat )im said went way, way, way be%ond impolite Infinitive present tense keep at keep at < keeps at &ing form keeping at past tense kept at past participle kept at it was outrageous.

($ 0ee+ at p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ at it, 5ou !ontinue #ith an a!ti1it5 e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult. When 5ou sa3 ?Kee+ at it@ to people, 5ou en!oura'e the0 to "inish #ith an a!ti1it5 that is di""i!ult. I know this work is difficult, but you have to keep at it. ?eep at it@ you(re almost finished. keep awa% keep awa% & keeps awa% keeping awa% kept awa% kept awa%

($ 0ee+ a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 "ro0 people, 5ou do not !o0e !lose to the0 or asso!iate #ith the0. When 5ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 "ro0 thin's, 5ou do not tou!h the0, !o0e !lose to the0, or use the0. When 5ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 "ro0 pla!es, 5ou do not !o0e !lose to the0 or 'o to the0. Mark was very sick yesterday, so everyone kept awa% from him. .e(re going to eat dinner in a few minutes, so keep awa% from those cookies. That(s a bad neighborhood, so keep awa% from it, "$ 0ee+$$$ a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ people or thin's a5a3 or 0ee+ the0 a5a3 "ro0 so0ethin' or so0eone else, 5ou do not allo# the0 to !o0e !lose to or asso!iate #ith so0eone or !o0e !lose to or tou!h so0ethin'. That dog is dangerous, so keep it awa%. ?aul has an alcohol problem, so keep him awa% from the bar at the party tomorrow. keep down keep down & keeps down keeping down kept down kept down

($ 0ee+ $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ the !ost, ,uantit5, or a0ount o" so0ethin' !o5n' 5ou 7eep it a lo# le1el. The company tried to keep its prices down. They wanted a smalt wedding, but they have such large families that it was hard to keep the number of guests down. "$ 0ee+$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ the 1olu0e o" noise, 0usi!, or !on1ersation !o5n' 3o 7eep it at a lo# le1el. When people are bein' nois5 and 5ou #ant the0 to be ,uieter, 5ou tell the0 to 0ee+ it !o5n$ 2*/

.ill you please keep it down5 I(m trying to study. 8ou kids can watch TV, but keep the volume down #nfinitive present tense keep from keep from & keeps from keeping from kept from kept from -ing form past tense past participle your mother is taking a nap.

($ 0ee+ .ro- p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ .ro- doin' so0ethin', 5ou do not do it e1en thou'h it is hard not to. I was so angry that I don(t know how I kept from punching that guy in the nose. The movie was so sad that I couldn(t keep from crying. "$ 0ee+$$$ .ro- p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ people .ro- doin' so0ethin', 5ou stop the0 "ro0 doin' it. )im(s girlfriend(s parents don(t like him, and they try to keep him from seeing her. .hen I was young, my poor health kept me from doing a lot of things the other kids did. keep off keep off & keeps off keeping off kept off kept off

($ 0ee+$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ o.. so0ethin', 5ou do not #al7 or stand on it. When 5ou 0ee+ other people or thin's o.. so0ethin', 5ou do not allo# the0 to #al7 or stand on it. The sign says :?eep off the grass.+ 8ou should keep your kids off the streets and in school. "$ 0ee+$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ o.. dru's, !i'arettes, or other addi!ti1e substan!es, 5ou do not use the0. When 5ou 0ee+ people o.. dru's, !i'arettes, or other addi!ti1e substan!es, 5ou pre1ent the0 "ro0 usin' the0. !ince getting out of jail, $ank has been able to keep off drugs. "ed is a nice guy as long as you can keep him off boo6e. keep on keep on & keeps on keeping on kept on kept on

($ 0ee+ on p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ on doin' so0ethin', 5ou !ontinue doin' it. I told her to be Fuiet, but she just kept right on talking. 5on(t stop keep on going.

"$ 0ee+$$$ on p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ people on at their pla!e o" e0plo50ent, 5ou !ontinue to e0plo5 the0. The company decided against laying all the workers off and will instead keep a few on to maintain eFuipment until business improves. /veryone on the hotel staff was fired after the hotel went out of business, e0cept for two guys who were kept on to clean and paint the building.

2*1

#nfinitive present tense keep to keep to & keeps to -ing form keeping to past tense kept to past participle kept to

($ 0ee+$$$ to p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ in"or0ation to 5oursel", 5ou do not tell an5one. This is a secret, so keep it to yourself. I wish she would keep her racist comments to herself@ I don(t want to hear them. "$ 0ee+$$$ to p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ so0ethin' to a !ertain !ost, ,uantit5, or a0ount, 5ou do not let the !ost, ,uantit5, or a0ount 'o hi'her than that le1el. $ere(s my credit card, but keep your spending to a minimum don(t go cra6y with it. The room doesn(t hold a great many people, so we have to keep the number of guests to 733. *$ 0ee+ to p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ to the ri'ht or le"t, 5ou !ontinue 0o1in' to the ri'ht or le"t. .hen you pass a big red barn on the highway, keep to the right@ the e0it is right after the barn. Faster cars are supposed to keep to the left. keep up keep up & keeps up keeping up kept up kept up

($ 0ee+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ an a!ti1it5 +' 5ou !ontinue doin' it. Geopards can run e0tremely fast, but they can(t keep it up longer than a minute or two. I told you to stop doing that. If you keep it up I(m going to get angry. "$ 0ee+ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is stud5in', #or7in', and so on, and 5ou are able to learn or #or7 at the sa0e rate as the others, 5ou 0ee+ + or 0ee+ + #ith the 'roup. Fa%% &ehin! is the opposite o" 0ee+ +$ Gydia missed several days of school last month, and now she(s having a hard time keeping up with the rest of the class. The assembly line was going so fast that no one could keep up. *$ 0ee+ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ + or 0ee+ + #ith people or thin's that are 0o1in', 5ou are able to 0o1e at the sa0e rate. Fa%% &ehin! is the opposite o" 0ee+ +$ Aob walks so fast that it(s hard to keep up with him. The wounded soldiers couldn(t keep up with the rest of the army. 6$ 0ee+ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou !an understand and respond to a situation that is !han'in', 5ou are able to 0ee+ + #ith the situation. >omputer technology is changing so fast. $ow can anyone keep up with it1 )ane always has some new idea. I can(t keep up with her. 2*2

7$ 0ee+$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's 0ee+ 5ou +' the5 pre1ent 5ou "ro0 'oin' to bed, or i" 5ou are in bed, the5 pre1ent 5ou "ro0 "allin' asleep. "ed just would not leave last night@ he kept me up until 7#33 in the morning. That noisy party across the alley kept me up all night.

ECERCISE *#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The studentBs e<!use "or not doin' his ho0e#or7 #as so ridi!ulous that his tea!her !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM lau'hin'. 2. What 4B0 'oin' to tell 5ou is hi'hl5 !on"idential, so MMMMMM it MMMMMM 5oursel". 3. The bab5Bs !r5in' MMMMMMMM Iud5 MMMMMMMM hal" the ni'ht. 4. 8onBt ,uit no# > 5ouBre al0ost "inished. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. . The !o0pan5 in!reased its pro"its b5 MMMMMMMM !osts MMMMMMMM. $. 4B1e tried to ,uit s0o7in' a hundred ti0es, but 4 )ust !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !i'arettes lon'er than a da5. %. Slo#er tra""i! should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ri'ht. 8. No# that 4 li1e in Ne# Aor7, 4 !anBt MMMMM MMMM #ith lo!al ne#s in 05 ho0eto#n. *. Sall5 is reall5 an'r5 at 5our brother, so it #ould be a 'ood idea to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM "ro0 her. 1/. 65 al'ebra !lass is too di""i!ult "or 0e. 4 !anBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM. 11. AouBre 'oin' to ha1e to #al7 "aster than that i" 5ou #ant to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith us. 12. PleaseMMMMMMMM5our do'MMMMMMMMour la#n. 13. 4" 5ou donBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5our e<er!ise pro'ra0, 5ouBre 'oin' to 'ain all the #ei'ht ba!7. 14. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM the 0usi! MMMMMMMMH Aour 0otherBs tr5in' to sleep. 1 . Parents tr5 to MMMMMMMM their !hildren MMMMMMMM 0a7in' 0ista7es, but so0eti0es it isnBt eas5. 1$. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMeatin' so 0u!h butter and so 0an5 e''s, 5ouBre 'oin' to ha1e a heart atta!7. 2*3

1%. The ne# o#ner said the !o0pan5 #as losin' too 0u!h 0one5 to MMMMMMMM all the #or7ers MMMMMMMM and that so0e #ould ha1e to be laid o"". 18. &oo7 at the pri!es on this 0enu: &etBs tr5 to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM a hundred bu!7s, o7a5H 1*. 4 donBt #ant to tal7 to 5ou e1er a'ain, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 0e: ECERCISE *#& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 65 "ather as7ed 0e to spea7 0ore ,uietl5. What did 05 "ather as7 0e to doH 2. 4 told the tra1el a'ent that #e ha1e onl5 N4,/// to spend on our 1a!ation, so she has to 0a7e sure the !ost doesnBt 'o o1er that. What did 4 as7 the tra1el a'ent to doH 3. 65 'eo0etr5 !lass is so borin' that 4 !anBt stop 05sel" "ro0 "allin' asleep. What !anBt 4 do in 05 'eo0etr5 !lassH 4. 65 tea!her told 0e that !al!ulus is di""i!ult but that 4 ha1e to !ontinue tr5in' to understand it. What did 05 tea!her tell 0eH . The politi!al situation in Washin'ton !han'es e1er5 da5, and itBs hard to understand #hat is happenin'. What is it hard to doH $. Sarah and 4 #ere runnin'. 4 ,uit a"ter three 0iles, but she !ontinued runnin'. What did Sarah doH %. AouB1e 'ot to re0ain at a 'reat distan!e "ro0 this area be!ause it is radioa!ti1e. What ha1e 5ou 'ot to do about the radioa!ti1e areaH

8. Ceather thin7s 6i7e isnBt tellin' her e1er5thin'. What does Ceather thin7 about 6i7eH *. Iani!e 'ot e<!ellent 'rades in her "irst 5ear o" !olle'e. 4 hope she !an !ontinue to do #ell. What do 4 hope Iani!e !an doH

1/. 4 as7ed 05 husband not to let the !hildren near 05 !o0puter. What did 4 as7 05 husbandH 11. The e!ono0ist said itBs i0portant not to let in"lation 'o hi'her. What did the e!ono0ist sa5H 12. =ill hasnBt used dru's "or "i1e 5ears. What has =ill doneH 2*4

13. 65 son is ei'hteen, so 4 !anBt stop hi0 i" he #ants to )oin the -r05. What !anBt 4 do to 05 sonH *H. !arah(s having a little trouble in school. It(s hard for her to stay at the same level as the other students. .hat is hard for !arah1 ECERCISE *#c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM .MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ECERCISE *#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7 do#n, 3$ brush o"", 3% !al0 do#n, 3$ !o0e about, 33 !o0e on, 3% "all behind, 33 "all do#n, 3$ 'o do#n, 3$ 'oo" around, 33 han' out, 3% 7no# about, 33 la5 do#n, 3$ lea1e o1er, 3% run do#n, 3$ sit do#n, 3$ tal7 to, 3%

*. Naul is constantly critici6ing me, but I usually just %%%%%%%% him %%%%%%%%. 7. I can barely hear this radio. The batteries must be %%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%. 2. .hen the electricians went on strike, the entire construction project %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% schedule. H. )ake(s claim that he accidentally shot Tony si0 times didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% well with the jury. D. The dictator %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% after three aircraft carriers started sailing toward his country. 2*

$. 4 need to !he!7 the "urna!e. The te0perature 'ot belo# si<t5 de'rees last ni'ht, but the heat didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. - bi', old tree MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last ni'ht and s0ashed a hole in our roo". 8. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > thereBs nothin' to 'et upset about. *. Se1eral 0a)or !han'es in so!iet5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM as a result o" the industrial re1olution. 1/. -re 5ou 'oin' to do an5 #or7 at all toda5 or #ill 5ou )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH 11. 8onBt #aste 5our ti0e as7in' ;ri7? he doesnBt MMMMMMMM an5thin' MMMMMMMM it. 12. Ti005Bs 0other MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM and tal7ed to hi0 about his bad 'rades. 13. Co# 0u!h 0one5 #as MMMMMM MMMMMM a"ter 5ou "inished pa5in' "or e1er5thin'H 14. Aou !an MMMMMMMM those papers MMMMMMMM o1er there. 1 . 4 donBt ha1e an5thin' to do toda5. 4B0 )ust 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM here and rela<. 1$. 4B0 so 0ad at her. 4Bll ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her a'ain:

*D$ FOCUS ON< +assive +hrasa% ver&s' *


-s #e sa# in Se!tion 13, the passi1e is "or0ed #ith be and the past parti!iple o" the 1erb. nu0ber o" 0odal au<iliar5 1erbs and si0ilar !onstru!tions are !o00onl5 used #ith beG The meat will be chopped up by the cook. Mark would never be picked up at the airport by a limo. This mess can be straightened out only by me. !uch a huge country couldn(t be taken over easily. $er name should be crossed off the list. The gas tank ought to be filled up before you return the car. The concert might be sold out. 8our paychecks may not be picked up until after D#33. The enemy must be wiped out. I have to be picked up on time. The fruit has to be chopped up with a clean knife. This screwup had better be straightened out soon or you will be firedE This stuff was supposed to be taken over to "ancy(s house yesterday. 2*$

+e!all "ro0 Se!tion 28 that phrasal 1erbs in the passi1e !annot be separated b5 an ob)e!t be!ause in a passi1e senten!e there is no ob)e!t.

Infinitive chop up present tense chop up < chops up &ing form chopping up past tense chopped up past participle chopped up

($ cho+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou cho+ so0ethin' +' 5ou !ut it into s0all pie!es #ith a 7ni"e or other sharp instru0ent. 5oes this meat have to be chopped up" +hop it up into pieces about half an inch in si6e. cho++e! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been !ut into s0all pie!es #ith a 7ni"e or other sharp instru0ent, it is cho++e! +$ Mi0 the chopped-up onions and celery with the mayonnaise. cross off cross off & crosses off crossing off crossed off crossed off

($ cross$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou cross so0ethin' o.. a list, 5ou dra# a line throu'h it to re0o1e it "ro0 the list. .hy was my name crossed off the invitation list1 +rossing it off was a mistake. crosse! o.. part.ad). -"ter a line has been dra#n throu'h so0ethin' on a list to re0o1e it "ro0 the list, it is crosse! o..$ $ere(s the grocery list, but don(t get this crossed-off stuff fill up fill up & fills up filling up filled up filled up I already got it.

($ .i%% $$$ + p.1. When 5ou .i%% so0ethin' up, 5ou "ill it !o0pletel5. My radiator must be leaking@ it has to be filled up with water every day. .e always fill the tank up when we(re in Indiana because gas is cheaper there. .i%%e! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been !o0pletel5 .i%%e! +' it is .i%%e! +$ These water containers don(t weigh very much. 're you sure they(re completely filled up1 "$ .i%%$$$ + EonF p.1. When 5ou .i%% + or .i%% + on so0ethin', 5ou eat so 0u!h that 5ou are no lon'er hun'r5 and !annot eat an5 0ore. 5on(t fill up on salad you won(t have any room for dinner. I filled up on candy and was really sick about an hour later. *$ .i%% + p.1. When a roo0 or other area .i%%s +' people enter it until it is "ull. 2*%

The dance floor filled up Fuickly when the band began to play. The hotels in Nio de )aneiro always fill up at carnival time. Infinitive pick up present tense pick up < picks up &ing form picking up past tense picked up past participle picked up

($ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou pi!7 so0ethin' up, 5ou li"t it #ith 5our hand. 'll this trash has to be picked up. !am picked up his briefcase and left his office. "$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 'o to a pla!e to 'et so0ethin' that #as !reated, prepared, or le"t "or 5ou and is no# read5, 5ou +ic0 it +$ The garbage is supposed to be picked up before L#33 'M. The travel agent said I could pick the tickets up tomorrow. +ic0 + n. So0ethin' that is to be +ic0e! + or the pro!ess o" +ic0in/ it + is a +ic0 +$ The restaurant uses the back door for pickups and deliveries. *$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 people +' 5ou stop 5our 1ehi!le and 'i1e the0 a ride a#a5 "ro0 that pla!e. 8ou(ll be picked up at the airport by the hotel van. 3icking up hitchhikers is dangerous. +ic0 + n. So0eone #ho is to be +ic0e! + or the pro!ess o" +ic0in/ so0eone + is a +ic0 +$ The ta0i driver went to 7*77 ". dark !treet for a pickup. 6$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 so0ethin' + in a store, 5ou ,ui!7l5 'o into a store to bu5 so0ethin' 5ou need. I need to pick up some milk on the way home. >ould you pick a loaf of bread up on your way over1 7$ +ic0$$$ + p. 1. When 5ou +ic0 + a s7ill, 5ou learn it easil5. When 5ou +ic0 + a habit, you aFuire the habit. >hildren can pick up a new language very Fuickly. My son is picking some bad habits up from his friends. 8$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou resu0e doin' so0ethin' at the point #here 5ou stopped doin' it earlier, 5ou +ic0 + at that point. The teacher started the class by picking up where she had left off the previous week. .hen you return to work after a long vacation, it(s hard to know where to pick up. :$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 + a radio or tele1ision station or a !ertain "re,uen!5 on a re!ei1er, 5ou are able to tune it to that station or "re,uen!5. 2*8

.hen the weather is right,you can pick radio stations up that are hundreds of miles away. Ieneral )ohnston(s radio transmission was picked up by the enemy. #$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When the poli!e or other authorities arrest people, the5 +ic0 the0 +$ The border patrol picks up several people every day trying to bring drugs into the country. >harles was picked up for driving under the influence of alcohol. D$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 'et so0ethin' b5 !han!e #ithout loo7in' "or it, 5ou +ic0 it +$ # picked up a few stock tips from a guy I met on the plane. Marsha picked up some interesting books at a used bookstore. ()$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 + the !he!7 or the tab Ea tab is a list o" 0one5 that so0eone o#esF in a restaurant or other pla!e, 5ou pa5 it. Tom(s a real cheapskate@ he never picks up the check. $eather(s father picked up the tab for the entire wedding. (($ +ic0 + p.1. When the speed, le1el, or !ondition o" so0ethin' in!reases or i0pro1es, it +ic0s +$ Ausiness is stow this time of year, but it should pick up in 5ecember. The song starts out slowly, but then it picks up. +ic0 + n. -n i0pro1e0ent in the speed, le1el, or !ondition o" so0ethin' is a +ic0 +$ 4" a 0otor 1ehi!le is able to a!!elerate ,ui!7l5, it has +ic0 +$ The company(s profits increased after a pickup in sales. I need to take my truck to the mechanic. It doesn(t have an% pickup. ("$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 + a pla!e that is 0ess5, 5ou or'aniDe or tid5 it. Timmy(s mother told him he couldn(t play outside until he picked up his room. Get(s pick this place up it(s a mess.

(*$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou +ic0 + 0e0bers o" the opposite se<, 5ou approa!h and su!!ess"ull5 interest the0 in a se<ual or ro0anti! en!ounter. $ank tried to pick up Frank(s sister at the party last night, but she wasn(t interested. ?at picked up someone, and they went to a cheap motel. #nfinitive present tense sell out sell out & sells out -ing form selling out past tense sold out past participle sold out

($ se%% o t Eo"F Jo"ten passi1eK p.1. When a store se%%s o t o" so0ethin' or is so%! o t o" so0ethin', it sells all o" it. 2**

The toy store sold out of antigravity boots in two days. I wanted to buy that new computer game, but every store I went to was sold out of it. so%! o t part.ad). -"ter all o" so0ethin' "or sale in a store has been sold, the ite0 is so%! o t$ I saw the most beautiful shoes at the mall, but my si6e was all sold out. so%! o t part.ad). -"ter all the ti!7ets to a !on!ert, pla5, or other publi! per"or0an!e ha1e been sold, the e1ent is so%! o t$ 8ou(ll never get a ticket for the !uperbowl #nfinitive present tense straighten out straighten out & straightens out -ing form straightening out past tense straightened out past participle straightened out it(s been sold out for weeks.

($ strai/hten $$$ o t p.1. When so0ethin' is bent, !roo7ed, or !ur1ed and 5ou 0a7e it strai'ht, 5ou strai/hten it o t$ My elbow is so swollen that I can(t straighten my arm out. 's the city grew, many of the winding streets were straightened out. "$ strai/hten $$$ o t p.1. When 5ou strai/hten o t a !on"used situation or 0isunderstandin', 5ou ta7e steps to 0a7e it understandable and satis"a!tor5 to e1er5one in1ol1ed. Sort o t is si0ilar to strai/hten o t$ My hotel had me booked for the wrong days in the wrong room, but the manager straightened everything out. !ave your Fuestions for the meeting. /verything will be straightened out then. strai/htene! o t part.ad). -"ter a !on"used situation or 0isunderstandin' has been 0ade understandable and satis"a!tor5 to e1er5one in1ol1ed, it is strai/htene! o t$ Sorte! o t is si0ilar to strai/htene! o t$ /rik was upset with 5an, but they had a talk and now everything is straightened out. *$ strai/hten $$$ o t p.1. When 5ou strai/hten o t people #ho are a!tin' "oolishl5, 5ou do or sa5 so0ethin' that !auses the0 to a!t 0ore responsibl5. When 5ou strai/hten o t people #ho are !on"used, 5ou help the0 to understand. I told my son that if he gets in trouble one more time, I(m going to send him to military school. That really straightened him out. I(m totally confused about what I(m supposed to do. >an you straighten me out" take over take over & takes over taking over took over taken over

($ ta0e$$$ over EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' "ro0 one pla!e to another, 5ou ta0e it over or ta0e it over to a person or pla!e. )ane(s at home sick, so I(m going to take some chicken soup over. 'fter I finished my report, I took it over to the finance department. 3//

"$ ta0e$$$ over p.1. When people, 'roups, or !ountries ta7e !ontrol o" a pla!e b5 "or!e, the5 ta0e it over$ 'fter the government troops fled, the country was taken over by the rebels. The hijackers took over the plane and ordered the pilot to fly to $avana. ta0eover n$ A ta0eover is an a!tion to ta7e !ontrol o" a !ountr5, !it5, buildin', or other pla!e b5 "or!e. If the situation doesn(t stabili6e soon, there(s a real chance of a military takeover. *$ ta0e over E"ro0/asF p.1. When people are ele!ted, appointed, or hired to ta7e !ontrol o" a !ountr5, state, !it5, business, s!hool, buildin', and so on, and to repla!e the people in !ontrol, the5 ta0e over' ta0e over as so0ethin', or ta0e over "ro0 so0eone. >artos =rtega will be taking over as sales manager ne0t year. =rtega took over from Margaret >ummings, who had been the sales manager for *H years. ta0eover n. When people #ho are ele!ted, appointed, or hired ta7e !ontrol o" a !ountr5, state, !it5, business, s!hool, buildin', and so on, and repla!e the people in !ontrol, a ta0eover o!!urs. 'fter the takeover the new president made a lot of changes. 6$ ta0e over E"orF p.1. When 5ou start to do a )ob or so0e #or7 that other people are doin' in order to allo# the0 to ta7e a brea7 or be!ause the pre1ious shi"t has ended and a ne# shi"t has be'un, 5ou ta0e over$ When 5ou assu0e an obli'ation or a!!ept responsibilit5 "ro0 so0eone, 5ou ta0e it over$ .e work from H#33 ?.M. to midnight, and then the graveyard shift takes over. .hen Ginda was sick she couldn(t care for her children, so her sister took over for her until she was well again. Infinitive wipe out present tense wipe out < wipes out &ing form wiping out past tense wiped out past participle wiped out

($ 5i+e$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou re0o1e dirt or li,uid "ro0 the inside o" a !ontainer #ith a !loth, spon'e, or paper to#el, 5ou 5i+e it o t$ (ipe the microwave out it(s got spaghetti sauce inside it. I wiped out the inside of the glasses so they wouldn(t dry with spots. "$ 5i+e$$$ o t p.1. When 5ou are tr5in' to 7ill people, #eeds, inse!ts, and so on, and 5ou 7ill all o" the0, 5ou #ipe the0 o t$ 'n entire regiment was wiped out in the battle. The general said he would wipe out the rebels. 5i+eo t n. - situation in #hi!h all people, #eeds, inse!ts, and so on, are 7illed is a 5i+eo t$ The battle was a complete wipeout. "ot a single soldier survived. 23*

ECERCISE *Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Aour pi!tures are read5 and !an be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bet#een 1/G// -.6. and $G// P.6. 2. 4 didnBt 'et the boo7 4 #anted be!ause the store #as MMMMMMM MMMMMMM o" the0. 3. ThereBs a lot o" !on"usion about the ne# poli!5. We need to ha1e a 0eetin' to MMMMMMM e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM. 4. The 1i!e-president MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the president died. . Susie, 5our roo0 is 1er5 0ess5. Co0e in here and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM ri'ht no#: $. 6r. Nelson as7ed 0e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or &5dia #hile sheBs on 1a!ation. %. Sales o" air !onditioners al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the sprin'. 8. 4" #e 'et a bi''er antenna, #e 0i'ht be able to MMMMM a lot 0ore stations MMMMMM. *. 4t too7 0e an hour to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' "or the bee" ste#. 1/. The soldiers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the rebels. 11. Sall5 !alled and as7ed 0e to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a "e# thin's on the #a5 ho0e. 12. - !ountr5 this s0all !ould be MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM in a "e# da5s. 13. 4 #ish 4 hadnBt MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM on bread. No# 4 !anBt "inish 05 dinner. 14. 4B0 'oin' to pla5 'ol" #ith Charles ne<t #ee7. CeBs reall5 'ood, so 0a5be 4 !an MMMMMM MMMMMMMM a "e# #a5s to i0pro1e 05 'a0e. 1 . The theater MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM ten 0inutes be"ore the start o" the opera. 1$. 65 !arBs "ra0e #as so badl5 da0a'ed in the a!!ident that there #as no #a5 it !ould be MMMMMMMM. 1%. Aou donBt need to ta7e an5 0one5 to the restaurant. 9aren said she #ould MMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !he!7. 18. 8onBt )ust !lean the outsides o" the des7s > MMMMMMMM the insides MMMMMMMM, too. 1*. 4Bll be arri1in' at 3G4/ -.6. Would MMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMM that earl5 be a proble0H 2/. Can7Bs 'i1in' orders li7e heBs the president o" the !o0pan5. So0eone needs to MMMMM MMM hi0 MMMMMMMM. 3/2

21. S0o7in' is a bad habit that 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the Na15. 22. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM these !anteens be"ore #e be'in our hi7e. 23. This !ou!h is reall5 hea15. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMH 24. -"ter 5ou 'et 5our pa5!he!7, 5ou !an MMMMMMM it MMMMMM to the !ashier to !ash it. 2 . Can 5ou belie1e #hat Can7 didH Ce tried toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe bossBs dau'hter at the !o0pan5 pi!ni!. 2$. 4 "inished pa'e 4% 5esterda5, so 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on pa'e 48 toda5. 2%. Aou !an MMMMMMMM 05 na0e MMMMMMMM the list? 4B1e !han'ed 05 0ind. ECERCISE *D& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. Ca1e 5ou chopped upH Ethe onions, the0F

2. Aou !an !ross off. E&indaBs na0e, herF

3. +ill up #ith #ater, Ethe a,uariu0, itF

4. 4 need to pic up at the train station, E05 parents, the0F

3/3

. Can 5ou straighten outH Ethis 0ess, itF

$. The rebels too over. Ethe ro5al pala!e, itF

%. The5 !iped out. Ethe pala!e 'uard, the0F

ECERCISE *Dc ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The !onstru!tion business al#a5s i0pro1es in the sprin'. What does the !onstru!tion business al#a5s doH

2. Pirates 0i'ht ta7e !ontrol o" the ship. What 0i'ht happen to the shipH 3. 4n Ouestion 2, i" pirates too7 !ontrol o" the ship, #hat #ould this a!tion be !alledH 4. There #as a 0isunderstandin' at #or7, but Ni!ole e<plained e1er5thin' to the people in1ol1ed, and no# the5 understand. What did she doH

. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 0isunderstandin' no#H $. 2ran7 #as supposed to 'o to the "a!tor5 so he !ould 'i1e Ned a ride ho0e. What #as supposed to happen to NedH %. -ll the people in the to#n #ill be 7illed #hen the ene05 !aptures it. What #ill happen to all the people in the to#nH

3/4

8. So0eone ou'ht to dra# a line throu'h 9arenBs na0e on the list. What ou'ht to be done to 9arenBs na0eH

*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 9arenBs na0e a"ter so0eone dra#s a line throu'h itH 1/. Sarah #ent to the store to bu5 a C8, but the5 had all been sold. What did the store doH 11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the C8sH 12. To0 tried to bu5 a ti!7et "or the !on!ert, but all the ti!7ets had been sold. Wh5 !ouldnBt To0 bu5 a ti!7et "or the !on!ertH 13. Aou !ut so0e ba!on into 1er5 s0all pie!es be"ore 5ou put it on 5our salad. What #as done to the ba!onH 14. The laundr5 !loses at $G//, so Iane has to 'o there be"ore $G// to 'et her dress. What has to be done to the dressH

1 . The !opilot "le# the plane so that the pilot !ould eat dinner. What did the !opilot doH 1$. Todd o"ten as7s 0e to stop at the store and bu5 a ne#spaper. What does Todd o"ten as7 0e to doH 1%. 4Bll tell Susie not to 0a7e the #ater in the bathtub rise all the #a5 to the top. What #ill 4 tell SusieH 18. 4 stopped #ritin' 05 boo7 at pa'e *4 and later started #ritin' a'ain on pa'e * . What did 4 doH ECERCISE *D!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ bite o"", 2% blo# up, 33 brea7 o"", 2% brin' ba!7, 1* !o0e out, 32 !ut do#n, 23 hand o1er, 1* 7no!7 o"", 2% lea1e out, 32 loo7 o1er, 21 0a7e up, 23 pi!7 on, 21 pull o1er, 1* settle do#n, 21 slo# do#n, 24 #ear do#n, 1%

1. 8a1idBs 0other told hi0 sheBd li7e so0e 'rand!hildren, but heBs ha1in' too 0u!h "un as a ba!helor and isnBt interested in MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.

3/

2. 4 didnBt "inish 05 #or7 be!ause 4 #as trainin' a ne# e0plo5ee, and e<plainin' e1er5thin' reall5 MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 3. =obBs do!tor told hi0 he #as doin' too 0u!h #ei'ht li"tin' and that he should MMMMMMM MMMMMM. 4. The 0o1ie #asnBt the sa0e as the no1el. Se1eral !hara!ters #ere MMMMMM MMMMMM. . When 4 !au'ht 05 si<teen-5ear-old dau'hter s0o7in' !i'arettes, 4 reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMM. $. 4 didnBt sa5 5ou !ould use 05 !ar. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM those 7e5s ri'ht no#: %. There 0ust be so0ethin' #ron' #ith 05 !a0era > none o" the pi!tures 4 too7 MMMMMMMM MMMMMM. 8. Can 4 borro# 5our "ood pro!essorH 4 pro0ise 4Bll MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM to0orro#. *. WeB1e been #or7in' sin!e %G// -.6. &etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMand "inish to0orro#. 1/. ;1er5thin' on the 0enu loo7s deli!ious. 4 )ust !anBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 05 0ind. 11. 4" 5ou donBt stop MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 0e, 4B0 'oin' to tell 6o005. 12. 4 told 6ar7 not to pet the lion, but he didnBt listen, and his hand #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMM. 13. Ce realiDed he #as lost, so he MMMMMMMMM his !ar MMMMMMMMM and loo7ed at a 0ap. 14. 65 son as7ed 0e "or a 0otor!5!le "or his birthda5, but 4 told hi0 no, so heBs tr5in' to MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM b5 as7in' 0e a'ain and a'ain and a'ain. 1 . 4 'a1e 05 )ob appli!ation to the hu0an resour!es dire!tor, and he said heBd MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and 'i1e 0e a !all. 1$. 8o 5ou ha1e an5 'lueH (ne o" the ar0s has MMMMMMM MMMMMMMthis !era0i! doll. 3/$

6)$ FOCUS ON< /er n! +hrasa% ver&s vs$ +hrasa% ver&s .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .orWe ha1e seen in pre1ious se!tions that phrasal 1erbs are so0eti0es "ollo#ed b5 the -ing "or0. We ha1e also seen that transiti1e phrasal 1erbs so0eti0es ta7e 'erund ob)e!ts. -t a 'lan!e, there see0s to be no di""eren!e bet#een these t#o !onstru!tionsG ,im went away singing. -in' "or0 ,im stuck with singing. 'erund =ut be!ause a 'erund is a 1erb "un!tionin' as a noun, it !an be repla!ed #ith an ordinar5 non'erund noun. Co#e1er, this is not true o" the -ing "or0G ,im went away it. ,im stuck with it. 4n"initi1e present tense blow off blo# o"" P blo#s o"" -in' "or0 blo#in' o"" past tense ble# o"" past parti!iple blo#n o""

($ &%o5$$$ o.. p.v. [informal] When 5ou do not do so0ethin' that 5ou are supposed to do be!ause 5ou do not #ant to or be!ause 5ou do not thin7 it is i0portant, 5ou &%o5 it o..$ l was supposed to report for jury duty Monday morning, but blew it off. !ob had a hangover, so he blew off helping Marsha fi" her car. &rin/ + bring up & brings up bringing up brought up brought up

($ &rin/ $$$ + EtoF p.v. When people brin' so0ethin' "ro0 a hi'her le1el or position or "ro0 south to north to #here 5ou are, the5 &rin/ it + or &rin/ it + to #here 5ou are. #ould you please go downstairs and bring up the package that was just delivered$ %he rescue workers brought morphine up to the injured mountain climber. "$ &rin/ $$$ + p.v. When 5ou introdu!e a ne# topi! into a !on1ersation, 5ou &rin/ it +$ &ast night during dinner, 'ad brought up the idea of saving money by staying home instead of taking a vacation this year. (ou and your big mouth) #e were having a great time until you brought that up. *$ &rin/ $$$ + EtoF p.v. When 5ou &rin/ + !hildren, 5ou !are "or the0 as the5 'ro# to adulthood. When 5ou &rin/ + !hildren to belie1e so0ethin' or to beha1e in a !ertain #a5, 5ou tr5 to tea!h this belie" or beha1ior to the0. 3/%

%om was born in *anada, but he was brought up in the +nited States. Bringing ,uadruplets up is a lot of work. was brought up to believe in honesty and compassion. Infinitive present tense burst out burst out < bursts out &ing form bursting out past tense burst out past participle burst out

($ & rst o t p.v. When 5ou & rst o t lau'hin' or !r5in', 5ou be'in lau'hin' or !r5in' loudl5 and suddenl5. Heather burst out laughing when fell into the swimming pool. #hen Sam heard the news, he burst out crying. come back come back & comes back coming back came back come back

($ co-e &ac0 Etol"ro0F p.v. When people return to a pla!e #here 5ou are, the5 co-e &ac0 or co-e &ac0 to that pla!e or co-e &ac0 "ro0 the pla!e #here the5 #ere be"ore. %odd went to -lorida thinking it would be hot and sunny, but he came back talking about how cold and rainy it was. 'm never coming back to this awful place again. "$ co-e&ac0 p.v. When people, or'aniDations, !o0panies, or athletes o1er!o0e di""i!ulties and be!o0e su!!ess"ul a'ain, the5 co-e &ac0$ My home team came back from last place and won the championship. Senator 'olittle lost in ./00, but he came back to win in .//H. co-e&ac0 n. When people, or'aniDations, !o0panies, or sports tea0s o1er!o0e di""i!ulties and be!o0e su!!ess"ul a'ain, the5 0a7e a co-e&ac0$ %he !ulls were down by 12 points but won the game with an .03point lead 4 what a comeback! *$ co-e &ac0 p.v. When a !ondition, proble0, situation, or a!ti1it5 returns or 'reatl5 in!reases, it co-es &ac0$ l need to see the doctor. %he pain in my shoulder has come back. %here isn't much chance that double3digit inflation will come back any time soon. co-e&ac0 n. When a !ondition, proble0, situation, or a!ti1it5 returns or 'reatl5 in!reases, it 0a7es a co-e&ac0$ Health officials are concerned that tuberculosis is making a comeback. 6$ co-e &ac0 p.v. When a "ashion or "ad co-es &ac0' it be!o0es popular a'ain. Miniskirts are coming back this year. #estern movies and %5 shows go out of style and then come back every few years. 3/8

co-e&ac0 n. When a "ashion or "ad be!o0es popular a'ain, it 0a7es a co-e&ac0$ l saved all my !ide nec ties because # ne! they(d ma e a comeback someday. Infinitive present tense get off on get off on < gets off on

&ing form getting off on

past tense got off on

past participle gotten off on

($ /et o.. on p.v. [informal] When 5ou /et o.. on so0ethin' or /et o.. on doin' so0ethin', 5ou "ind it en)o5able and e<!itin'. Sally loves winter sports, and she especially gets off on snowboarding. Mountain climbing is what get off on. go awa% go awa% & goes awa% going awa% went awa% gone awa%

($ /o a5a3 p.v. When 5ou lea1e a pla!e or lea1e a person, 5ou /o a5a3$ /o away! 'm trying to study. Mark went away not reali6ing he had left his briefcase behind. "$ /o a5a3 E"orF p.v. When 5ou tra1el "or a period o" ti0e, 5ou /o a5a3 "or this ti0e. #e always go away for a few weeks in the winter. &ydia is going to go away for a while. *$ /o a5a3 EtoF p.v. When 5ou lea1e 5our ho0e and li1e te0poraril5 at another pla!e, su!h as a s!hool, 5ou /o a5a3 to that pla!e. 7ane didn't go away to school8 she went to a school near her home. Some young people are nervous about going away to school, but others look forward to it. 6$ /o a5a3 p.v. When a !ondition, proble0, situation, or a!ti1it5 disappears or 'reatl5 de!reases, it /oes a5a3$ l have a pain in my back that never goes away. f the rain doesn't go away, we'll have to call off the game. run around run around & runs around running around ran around run around

($ r n aro n! p.v. When 5ou r n aro n! a pla!e, 5ou run to 1arious parts o" it. )he cat ran around the room chasing the mouse. )he children !ere running around the museum, and the guard told them to stop. "$ r n aro n! p.v. When 5ou r n aro n! doin' so0ethin', 5ou 'o to 1arious pla!es tr5in' ur'entl5 to a!!o0plish so0ethin' that is i0portant to 5ou. %he woman was running around the store looking for her lost child. #e ran around the house trying to rescue whatever we could from the rising floodwater. 3/*

r naro n! n. When people are not honest #ith 5ou or help"ul to 5ou, the5 'i1e 5ou the r naro n!$ #hy didn't you just tell me the truth instead of giving me the runaround? Infinitive stick with present tense stick with < sticks with &ing form sticking with past tense stuck with past participle stuck with

($ stic0 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 5ith a habit, plan, or t5pe o" #or7, 5ou !ontinue as be"ore, #ithout !han'e. Stic0 to is si0ilar to stic0 5ith$ l don't like computers. 'll stick with writing letters by hand. %odd thought about a career change but decided to stick with teaching. "$ stic0 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 5ith so0ethin' that 5ou use, 5ou !ontinue to use it. My wife wants me to switch to decaffeinated coffee, but 'm going to stick with regular. My mother has stuck with vory soap for forty years. *$ stic0 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 5ith people, 5ou re0ain #ith the0 or re0ain lo5al to the0. t'll be very crowded at the festival, so stick with me so you don't get lost. %hat other guy running for senator has some good ideas, but 'm going to stick with Senator 'olittle. 6$ stic0 $$$ 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 people 5ith so0ethin', 5ou "or!e the0 to ta7e so0ethin' or deal #ith so0ethin' undesirable or unpleasant. 'm sorry to stick you with all this work, but you're the only one who can do it. %he shoes bought don't fit, but the store where bought them doesn't accept returns, so guess 'm stuck with them. ECERCISE 6)a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 didnBt 7no# an5one at the part5 e<!ept &eti!ia, so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her. 2. -ll Ti005Bs "riends are MMMMMM MMMMMM "or the su00er, so he #onBt ha1e an5one to pla5 #ith. 3. 4 ha1e a )ob inter1ie# at 8G3/ 6onda5 0ornin', but thatBs too earl5 "or 0e, so 0a5be 4Bll )ust MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM. 4. 6i'uel #as surprised ho# 0u!h he en)o5ed #at!hin' "i'ure s7atin'. Ce reall5 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. 31/

. &inda MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 the part5 tal7in' about #hat a 'ood ti0e she had. $. SusieBs birthda5 part5 e<hausted 0e. The 7ids #ere MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 5ellin' and s!rea0in' "or hours. %. 4 'a1e 05 'rand"ather a !o0puter, but he said heBd rather MMMMMM MMMMMM his old t5pe#riter. 8. 65 'rand0other #as MMMMMM M MMMMM on a "ar0, but she 0o1ed to the !it5 #hen she 'ot 0arried. *. 8an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu5in' a 0otorboat, but his #i"e said it #as a !raD5 idea. 1/. 4 7no# runnin' is 'reat e<er!ise, but 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM s#i00in'. 11. 4 hope hi'h-heel shoes ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? the5Bre so un!o0"ortable. 12. The stran'e noise in 05 en'ine has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM, so 4B0 'oin' to ta7e the !ar to a 0e!hani! a'ain. 13. 4 as7ed the 0e!hani! #h5 the sound 7eeps MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and !o0in' ba!7. 14. =obBs )o7e #as prett5 "unn5. ;1er5oneMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMlau'hin'. 1 . =ett5 s0elled s0o7e, and she MMMMMM MMMMMMM the house "ranti!all5 loo7in' "or the sour!e. 1$. Wh5 does the boss MMMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMM 0a7in' !o""ee e1er5 0ornin'H Wh5 !anBt so0eone else do itH 1%. 4 sa1ed 05 "ather a lot o" 0one5 b5 not MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to s!hool. 18. -"ter his de"eat, the "or0er !ha0pion said he #ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 1*. 2ran7 !a0e to 05 door #ith "lo#ers and an apolo'5, but 4 told hi0 to MMMM MMMM. 2/. Whene1er 05 brother in 2lorida 1isits 0e here in 6innesota, he MMMMMMMM so0e oran'es

ECERCISE 6)& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The5Bre not "ollo#in' the ori'inal plan. What arenBt the5 doin'H 2. 4 too7 so0e aspirin, and 05 heada!he #as 'one "or a #hile, but no# 4 ha1e a heada!he a'ain. What did 05 heada!he doH 311

3. Aou started to !r5 suddenl5 and loudl5. What did 5ou doH 4. Can7 #as supposed to 0eet #ith his parole o""i!er in the 0ornin', but he didnBt 'o be!ause he #anted to sleep late. What did Can7 do to his 0eetin' #ith his parole o""i!erH . The hotel des7 !ler7 didnBt tell 0e he had !an!eled 05 reser1ation b5 0ista7e. 4nstead he in1ented a lot o" !raD5 e<!uses that he 7ne# #erenBt true. What did the hotel des7 !ler7 doH $. ToddBs sister #as 1er5 upset, and he as7ed #hat the proble0 #as, but she told hi0 to lea1e her alone. What did ToddBs sister as7 hi0 to doH

%. S7iin' is #hat Ceather li7es 0ore than an5thin'. Co# does Ceather "eel about s7iin'H 8. ;1er5one in the "a!tor5 #as bus5, so #hen the deli1er5 tru!7 !a0e, 8a1id #as "or!ed to unload it b5 hi0sel". What happened to 8a1idH

*. Nan!5 be'an tal7in' about )oinin' the Pea!e Corps. What did Nan!5 doH 1/. The nu0ber o" people #ith 0alaria de!reased, but no# the nu0ber is in!reasin' e1er5 5ear. What is 0alaria doin'H

11. Po1ert5 is a proble0 that ne1er de!reases or disappears. What doesnBt po1ert5 doH 12. Aou #ent on a business trip three #ee7s a'o, and 5ou ha1enBt returned 5et. What ha1enBt 5ou done 5etH

13. Ned had to !all his bro7er i00ediatel5, so he ran to 1arious pla!es loo7in' "or a telephone. What did Ned doH 14. 4t #ould be ni!e to lea1e this !it5 "or a #ee7 or t#o. What #ould be ni!eH 1 . When 4 #as 5oun', 05 parents tau'ht 0e to belie1e in the 'olden rule. What did 05 parents doH ECERCISE 6)c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se either /er n!s or the -ing .or-$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.

.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM ECERCISE 6)!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ ba!7 do#n, 3$ do o1er, 34 "ool around, 3 'o b5, 3 'o do#n, 3$ 'o out, 32 hold a'ainst, 3 la5 do#n, 3$ lead up to, 34 0a7e o", 3 put up to, 34 run do#n, 3$ sti!7 around, 34 sti!7 to, 34 ta7e ba!7, 34 tri!7 into, 3

1. -t s!hool, &uis 'ot into a lot o" trouble "or so0ethin' 4 did, and no# heMMMMMMMMit MMMMMMMM 0e. 2. 4" 4 !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM a'ain, 4Bd do it di""erentl5. 3. The pri!e o" 'as is e<pe!ted toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMtoN1 a 'allon #ithin a 0onth. 4. The li'ht suddenl5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 4 !ouldnBt see a thin'. . 8o 5ou ha1e to 'o alread5H CanBt 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a "e# 0inutesH $. We donBt #ant to "or'et an5thin', so letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list one 0ore ti0e to be sure. %. The announ!e0ent #as a real surprise. 4B0 not sure #hat to MMMMMM MMMMMMM it. 8. This boo7 4 bou'ht is 0issin' so0e pa'es. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to the boo7store "or 0e to0orro#H *. Cri0e #as 'ettin' out o" !ontrol, so a ne# sheri"" #as ele!ted #ho pro0ised to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the la#. 1/. That 'un is loaded, so 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith it i" 4 #ere 5ou. 11. -"ter 4 threatened to 'o to the poli!e and tell the0 e1er5thin', he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and stopped 0a7in' threats. 12. 65 brother al#a5s thou'ht 4 #ould be a "ailure, so no# that 4B0 ri!h, 4 lo1e to MMMMM it MMMMM hi0 b5 !o0plainin' about ho# hard it is to 7eep a thirt5-roo0 house !lean.

13. 65 son is a 'ood bo5. 4" he #as shopli"tin', 4B0 sure so0eone MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit. 14. 4n 05 histor5 !lass #e studied the 1arious thin's that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !urrent situation. 1 . The 0onth #e spent in 4tal5 #as a lot o" "un, but it see0ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM so ,ui!7l5. 1$. 65 brother-in-la# is so snea75. Ce tried to MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM tellin' hi0 the !o0bination to 05 sa"e.

6($ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e in that re> ire into 5hen se! 5ith an o&,ect We ha1e seen in Se!tions * and 23 that so0e t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs re,uire a se!ond parti!le #hen the5 are transiti1e, #hi!h 0a7es the0 three-#ord phrasal 1erbs. 6an5 phrasal 1erbs #ith the parti!le in ha1e a 0eanin' that relates to entering or penetrating. When #hat is bein' entered or penetrated is na0ed, these 1erbs be!o0e transiti1e? ho#e1er, this is not done b5 addin' a se!ond parti!le but b5 !han'in' in to into. -nother #a5 to loo7 at it is to !onsider intro t#o parti!les, in and to, #ritten as one #ordG %he thief broke in. %he thieves broke into the jewelry store. =ut this is true onl5 "or 0eanin's o" the phrasal 1erb that relate to enterin' or penetratin', not "or all 0eanin's. So0e 0eanin's #ith in ha1e no into 1ersion Eand are in!luded in this se!tionF, and so0e 0eanin's #ith into ha1e no in 1ersion Eand are not in!luded in this se!tionF. 6oreo1er, so0eti0es into is optional, and the 1erb !an be used transiti1el5 #ith either in or into. We see also in this se!tion that there is o"ten a phrasal 1erb #ith an opposite 0eanin' #ith in and into !orrespondin' to out and out of: # sneaked in. # sneaked out. sneaked into the house. sneaked out of the house.

314

Infinitive present tense break in break in < breaks in &ing form breaking in past tense broke in past participle broken in

($ &rea0 inlinto p.v. When 5ou &rea0 in or &rea0 into a pla!e, 5ou enter ille'all5 usin' "or!e or de!eption. 9 thief broke in and stole my %5. #hen saw the smashed glass in the street, knew my car had been broken into. break-in n. . break-in is an illegal entry into a place using force or deception. %he police investigated a break-in at the li,uor store. "$ &rea0$$$ in p.v. When 5ou &rea0 in a ne# 0e!hani!al de1i!e or a !ar, 5ou use it slo#l5 and !are"ull5 until 5ou are sure it read5 "or hea1ier use. When 5ou &rea0 in a pair o" shoes, 5ou #ear the0 onl5 o!!asionall5 and "or a short ti0e until the5 are !o0"ortable. When 5ou &rea0 in people at a ne# )ob, 5ou train and super1ise the0 and 'i1e the0 less than the nor0al a0ount o" #or7 until the5 are read5 "or so0ethin' 0ore di""i!ult. l don't want to wear these boots on the e"pedition. haven't broken them in yet. #e're breaking in a new secretary, so things have been a bit confused at our office lately. &ro0en in part.adj. -"ter 5ou &rea0 in a ne# 0e!hani!al de1i!e or a !ar, a pair o" shoes, or people at a ne# )ob, the5 are &ro0en in$ l don't want to wear those shoes to the dance. %hey're not broken in yet. chec0 in check in & checks in checking in checked in checked in

($ chec0 inlinto p.v. When 5ou arri1e at a hotel and arran'e "or a roo0, 5ou chec0 in or chec0 into the hotel. 9fter arrive in 'enver, 'll go straight to my hotel and check in. 7im checked into the hotel while called home to check on the kids. "$ chec0$$$ in p.v. When 5ou arri1e at an airport and 'i1e 5our ti!7et to an a'ent and re!ei1e a boardin' pass, 5ou chec0 in$ (ou should check in at least two hours be fore your flight. (ou can wait over there in the lobby while check you in. chec09in n. The !ounter at an airport #here 5ou 'i1e 5our ti!7et to an a'ent and re!ei1e a boardin' pass is the chec09in or the chec09in !ounter. The pro!ess o" chec0in/ in is chec09in$ !efore your flight you have to go to the check-in counter. *$ chec0$$$ in p.v. When 5ou 'i1e 5our lu''a'e to an airline a'ent so that it #ill be !arried in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent rather than the passen'er !o0part0ent, 5ou chec0 it in$ 31

%hat bag is too big for carry3on 4 you'll have to check it in. chec0e! in part.adj. &u''a'e that has been chec0e! in or passen'ers that ha1e chec0e! in are chec0e! in$ :ow that we're checked in, we can wait in the boarding lounge. 6$ chec0 in E#ithF p.v. When 5ou 1isit or !all people brie"l5 and re'ularl5 be!ause 5ou #ant to 'et or re!ei1e i0portant in"or0ation "ro0 the0 or to 0a7e sure that a situation 5ou are both interested in is satis"a!tor5, 5ou chec0 in or chec0 in #ith the0. 9fter surgery, you'll need to check in once in a while to make sure the bone is healing properly. f Hank doesn't check in with his parole officer every week, the police will arrest him. Infinitive present tense +heck out check out < checks out &ing form checking out past tense checked out past participle checked out

($ chec0 o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou pa5 5our bill, return 5our 7e5, and lea1e a hotel, 5ou chec0 o t or chec0 o t o" the hotel. %here's always a long line of people waiting to check out at that time of the morning. Mrs. ;orcia checked out of her hotel and took a ta"i to the airport. checked out part.adj. 'fter you have paid your bill, returned your key, and left a hotel, you are checked out. <kay, we're checked out; now let's get a ta"i and go to the airport. chec0o t n. The ti0e be"ore #hi!h 5ou 0ust chec0 o t o" a hotel in order to a1oid pa5in' "or another da5 is the chec0o t ti0e. #e can sleep late tomorrow8 checkout time isn't until .=>> ?.M. ($ chec0$$$ o t p.v. When 5ou chec0 a pla!e or thin' o t' 5ou inspe!t it !are"ull5 or learn 0ore about it. %hat new Me"ican restaurant is great 4 you should check it out. Hey ;eorge, check out that car %oad is driving. #hen did he buy it$ *$ chec0 $$$ o t p.v. When 5ou chec0 people o t' 5ou in1esti'ate the0 in order to learn 0ore about the0. 4" 5ou sa5 that people chec0 o t' 5ou 0ean that the in"or0ation the5 ha1e 'i1en 5ou about the0sel1es, su!h as their edu!ation and #or7 e<perien!e, has been in1esti'ated and "ound to be a!!urate. 9pplicants for child care jobs should be thoroughly checked out. !efore you give that guy money to invest, you should check him out. -rank didn't get the job he wanted with the * 9. Some things on his resume didn't check out. 6$ chec0 o t p.v. When 5ou chec0 o t at a store, 5ou brin' the ite0s 5ou #ant to buy to the cashier and pay for them. 31$

%he store's closing in a few minutes. #e'd better check out. &ook at this line. t's going to take forever to check out. chec0o t n. The chec0o t or the chec0o t !ounter is #here 5ou pa5 "or ite0s in a store. (ou get the bathroom stuff, 'll get the groceries, and we'll meet at the checkout counter. Infinitive /o in present tense go in < goes in &ing form going in past tense went in past participle gone in

($ /o inlinto p.v. When 5ou /o in or /o into a pla!e, buildin', roo0, and so on, 5ou enter it. t's getting too dark to play tennis. &et's go in. -rank went into the kitchen to get a cup of coffee. "$ /o in p.v. When so0ethin' /oes in or /oes into a pla!e, !ontainer, en!losure, and so on, it belon's there, "its there, or !an be put there. %hat dish goes in the cabinet ne"t to the stove. 9ll those clothes will never go in this small suitcase. *$ /o in p.v. When soldiers enter !o0bat or an area #here !o0bat is li7el5, the5 /o in$ P %% o t is the opposite o. /o in$ %he :ational ;uard was ordered to go in and stop the riot. %he marine shouted, @#e're going in)@ as he jumped from the landing craft. let in let in & lets in letting in let in let in

($ %et $$$inlinto p.v. When 5ou %et people or thin's in or %et people or thin's into a pla!e, buildin', roo0, and so on, 5ou allo# the0 to enter b5 'i1in' the0 per0ission to enter or b5 openin' a door, 'ate, and so on. #hen the guests arrived, the butler opened the door to let them in. %he guard wouldn't let me into the stadium because had forgotten my ticket. "$ %et$$$ inlinto p.v. When an openin', su!h as a #indo#, door, hole, !ra!7, and so on, allo#s so0ethin' to enter, it %ets it in$ %hat small window doesn't let in enough light to read by. %he hole in the screen is letting the mos,uitoes into the house. +% / in plug in & plugs in plugging in plugged in plugged in

($ +% / $$$inlinto p.v. When 5ou !onne!t an ele!tri!al de1i!e to an ele!tri!al outlet, 5ou +% / it in or +% / it into the outlet. When 5ou !onne!t an5 !ord or !able to aso!7et desi'ned to re!ei1e it, 5ou +% / it in or +% / it into the so!7et. 31%

l plugged my ..>3volt %5 into a AA>3volt outlet and ruined it. %his phone isn't broken8 you just forgot to plug the phone cord in. +% //e! in part.adj. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e is !onne!ted to an ele!tri!al outlet, it is +% //e! in$ !e careful with that iron 4 it's plugged in. Infinitive present tense snea0 in sneak in < sneaks in &ing form sneaking in past tense sneaked in past participle sneaked in

($ snea0 inlinto p.v. When 5ou enter a pla!e #ithout an5one seein' or hearin' 5ou, 5ou snea0 in or snea0 into the pla!e. #hen was a kid used to sneak into the movie theater through the emergency e"it. f you don't have a ticket for the game, you'll have to sneak in. snea0 o t sneak out & sneaks out sneaking out sneaked out sneaked out

($ snea0 o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou lea1e a pla!e #ithout an5one seein' or hearin' 5ou, 5ou snea0 o t or snea0 o t o" the pla!e. Susie's father told her to stay upstairs in her room, but she sneaked out through the window. %he principal caught me sneaking out of my chemistry class. ECERCISE 6( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Close the door: AouBre MMMMMMMM the bu's MMMMMMMM. 2. (ne o" the students MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and stole the ans#ers "or the "inal e<a0. 3. 65 'rand"ather al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ne# !ar b5 not dri1in' it o1er / 0iles per hour until it had 'one 1,/// 0iles. 4. 6ar7 told 0e he bou'ht a lar'e-s!reen TV. &etBs 'o to his house and MMMMMM it MMMMMM. . 65 laptop !o0puter is in this ba', so 4 thin7 it #ould be better to 7eep it #ith 0e on the "li'ht than to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. $. These spea7ers MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM so!7ets in the ba!7 o" the stereo. %. -re 5ou sure this is the ri'ht 7e5 "or this lo!7H 4t #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. When 4B0 a#a5 on a business trip, 4 al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith 05 o""i!e e1er5 0ornin'. 318

*. 4 #as late "or !lass, so 4 #aited until the tea!her #asnBt loo7in' and MMMMMMM MMMMMMM. 1/. The soldiers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMMMMMMMM and !apture the ene05 position. 11.1 donBt trust that 'u5 05 dau'hter #ants to 0arr5. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM. 12. 8inner is bein' ser1ed. &etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe dinin' roo0. 13. ThereBs a !ra!7 in the base0ent #all thatBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ater. 14. -t the super0ar7et 5ou !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the e<press line onl5 i" 5ou ha1e "e#er than 1 ite0s. 1 . WeBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 3rand Cotel on Wednesda5. 1$. -"ter a #ee7 at the hotel, #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and 'o ho0e. 1%. -n5 bur'lar #ho tries to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 house is 'oin' to 'et a bi' surprise > 4B1e 'ot three bi' do's that arenBt 1er5 "riendl5. 18. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM onl5 1 0inutes be"ore 05 "li'ht ti0e, and 4 al0ost 0issed the plane. ECERCISE 6( & ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Iani!e entered the house ,uietl5 so that no one #ould hear her. What did Iani!e doH 2. &5dia unlo!7ed the door so that her brother !ould enter the house. What did &5dia doH 3. 6s. Cu00in's paid her hotel bill and le"t. What did 6s. Cu00in's doH 4. 4n Ouestion 3, 6s. Cu00in's had to lea1e the hotel be"ore noon so that she #ould not ha1e to pa5 "or another da5. What is noon at the hotelH . The #indo# o" Nan!5Bs house #as bro7en, and her )e#elr5, TV, and !o0puter #ere 'one. What happened to Nan!5Bs houseH

$. 4n Ouestion , #hat happened at Nan!5Bs houseH %. When 4 arri1e at the airport, 4Bll 'i1e 05 ti!7et to the a'ent, and sheBll 'i1e 0e a boardin' pass. What #ill 4 do at the airportH

31*

8. 4n Ouestion %, #here #ill 4 'o in the airportH *. The roo0 is "ull o" !i'arette s0o7e, and 9aren doesnBt #ant to enter it. What doesnBt 9aren #ant to doH 1/. 4 sa# an interestin' house #ith a @"or sale@ si'n on Pine Street as 4 #as dri1in' ho0e. To0orro# 4Bll stop and learn 0ore about it. What #ill 4 do to the house to0orro#H 11. When ;ri7 "lies to Colorado to 'o s7iin', he al#a5s 'i1es his s7is to the airline a'ent so that the5 #ill be put in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent. What does ;ri7 al#a5s do #ith his s7isH

12. 4n Ouestion 11, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe ;ri7Bs s7is a"ter he 'i1es the0 to the airline a'entH 13. Aou opened the #indo# ,uietl5, #hen no one #as loo7in', and le"t 5our house. What did 5ou doH 14. 6r. =a7er hasnBt arri1ed at his hotel and arran'ed "or a roo0 5et. What hasnBt 6r. =a7er done 5etH

1 . Can7 bou'ht a ne# C8 pla5er and !onne!ted the plu' to the outlet. What did Can7 doH 1$. 4n Ouestion 1 , ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe Can7Bs ne# C8 pla5erH 1%. =e"ore Ned #as hired "or his )ob in a nursin' ho0e, the hu0an resour!es 0ana'er at the nursin' ho0e !alled his pre1ious e0plo5er and as7ed ,uestions about Ned. What #as done to NedH 18. 65 "eet are 7illin' 0e. 4t #asnBt 1er5 s0art to #ear ne# hi7in' boots that arenBt so"t and !o0"ortable. Wh5 are 05 "eet 7illin' 0eH ECERCISE 6( c ; =rite seven ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 32/

ECERCISE 6( !' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ blo# o"", 4/ !o0e on, 3% "ill up, 3* 'et o"" on,4/ 'o a#a5, 4/ han' out, 3% help out, 33 lea1e o1er, 3% let do#n,3% li1e #ith, 3 narro# do#n, 3 put do#n, 3$ start out, 2/ strai'hten out, 3* ta7e o1er, 3 * tal7 to, 3%

1. 4 hope 5ou li7e spa'hetti, be!ause so 0u!h #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the part5 that #eBre 'oin' to be eatin' it "or a #ee7. 2. 65 son has pro0ised 0e a hundred ti0es that heBll sta5 out o" trouble and #or7 harder in s!hool, but he al#a5s MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 3. 4 #ant to #at!h the ne#s. 4tBs 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM as soon as this 'a0e is o1er. 4. ;1en thou'h 5ou donBt li7e 5our brother, 5ou shouldnBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM in "ront o" his !hildren. . Toda5 MMMMMM MMMMM !old and rain5, but no# the sun is out, and itBs a lot #ar0er. $. 4 !anBt dri1e be!ause o" 05 bro7en le', but Car0en said sheBd MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM i" 4 need an5thin'. %. 4B1e 'ot an appoint0ent to 'et 05 teeth !leaned to0orro# at 4G//, but i" 5ou #ant to 'o to the bea!h, 4 !an MMMMMMMM 05 appoint0ent MMMMMMMM. 8. The !o0pan5 #as !onsiderin' ei'ht !ities "or the ne# "a!tor5, but the5B1e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to three. *. - lot o" the e0plo5ees are !on"used about the ne# !ontra!t. We should as7 0ana'e0ent to ha1e a 0eetin' so that #e !an MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM. 1/. &5dia is 'oin' toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM"or Iud5 durin' her 0aternit5 lea1e. 11. Cer husband said he #asnBt 'oin' to stop s0o7in' and that she #ould )ust ha1e to learn to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMit. 12. The !o00er!ial on TV said that i" 5ou MMMMMMMM5our !arBs 'as tan7MMMMMMMM#ith their 'as, 5ouBd 'et better 0ilea'e and a !leaner en'ine. 321

13. WeBre plannin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a "e# #ee7s. Would 5ou 0ind #aterin' our plants until #e returnH 14. 8a1id put a pool table and a pinball 0a!hine in his base0ent. 4tBs a 'reat pla!e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and rela<. 1 . Can 5ou belie1e ho# rude that 'u5 #as to 0eH Nobod5 has e1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e li7e that be"ore. 1$. =ob is 1er5 7ind and 'enerous. Ce MMMMM MMMMMM MMMMMM helpin' other people.

6"$ 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s 5ith get, ( 6an5 phrasal 1erbs are based on the 1erb get, and it is i0portant to understand that the 0eanin' o" get in these 1erbs is not the sa0e as the nonphrasal "or0 o" get, 0eanin' receive. 4nstead, get has a 0eanin' si0ilar to become or change to: I got up at -:.../0 #as not up be"ore, and then 4 be!a0e up > 4 !han'ed "ro0 not bein' up to bein' up.F 6an5 phrasal 1erbs #ith get that relate to a !han'e in ph5si!al lo!ation 0i'ht see0 identi!al in 0eanin' to a 1ariet5 o" phrasal 1erbs usin' !o0e, 'o, and other 1erbs that des!ribe ph5si!al 0o1e0ent, su!h as !al , run, move, and so on, and o"ten the5 !an be used #ith little di""eren!e in 0eanin'G l came back last night. # got back last night. =ut there is a di""eren!eG get e0phasiDes the !han'e in lo!ation? !o0e, go, and so on, e0phasiDe the 0o1e0ent "ro0 one lo!ation to another. 4t is 1er5 !o00on to use the ad1erbs right and bac #ith get phrasal 1erbs. To re1ie# the ad1erb right, see Se!tions 1* and 22. To re1ie# the ad1erb bac , re1ie# Se!tion 2$ Eand do not !on"use the ad1erb bac #ith the parti!le bac 1. Note that t#o "or0s o" the past parti!iple o" get are sho#nG gotten and got. Gotten is 0ore !o00on in -0eri!an ;n'lish, but got is o!!asionall5 used. =oth are !orre!t.

Infinitive present tense /et &ac0 get back < gets back &ing form getting back past tense got back past participle gottenlgot back

($ /et &ac0 EtoF p.v. When 5ou return to a le1el or pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore, 5ou /et &ac0 or /et &ac0 to that pla!e. 322

#e left three weeks ago, and we didn't get back until yesterday. #here are you going$ Get right back here) Mark lost a tot of weight when he was sick, and it took him a long time to get back to his old weight. "$ /et$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' &ac0 or /et so0ethin' &ac0 to a person or pla!e, 5ou return it to that person or pla!e. 7im uses his mother's car in the morning, but she needs it to go to work at 2=1>, so he has to get it back before then. have to get these books back to the library 4 they're overdue. *$ /et$$$ &ac0 E"ro0F p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' &ac0 or /et so0ethin' &ac0 "ro0 so0eone or so0epla!e, 5ou ha1e so0ethin' that 5ou had be"ore. l couldn't believe got my stolen car back. 7im borrowed a book from me three years ago, and still haven't gotten it back from him. 6$ /et &ac0 E"ro0F p.v. When 5ou /et &ac0 or /et &ac0 "ro0 so0ethin' that is 1er5 hot or dan'erous or that 5ou should not be near, 5ou 0o1e a#a5 "ro0 it so that there is 0ore distan!e bet#een 5ou and it. Get back from the edge of the cliff) (ou might fall. 9s the ?resident came closer, the police told the crowd to get back. Infinitive present tense /et &ehin! get behind < gets behind &ing form getting behind past tense got behind past participle gottenlgot behind

($ /et &ehin! EinF p.v. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is stud5in' or #or7in', and so on, and the5 learn "aster or 'et 0ore #or7 done be!ause 5ou are learnin' or #or7in' 0ore slo#l5 than the others, 5ou /et &ehin! or /et &ehin! in 5our studies or #or7. When 5ou do not !o0plete #or7 as "ast as ori'inall5 planned and e<pe!ted, 5ou /et &ehin! s!hedule. Kee+ + is the opposite o" /et &ehin!$ Fa%% &ehin! is si0ilar to /et &ehin!$ &inda had some problems last semester, and she got behind in her studies. #ith all the bad weather we've been having, the construction project has gotten way behind schedule. /et &3 get b% & gets b% getting b% got b% gotten lgot b%

($/et &3 p.v. When 5ou /et &3 or /et &3 so0ethin', 5ou pass so0ethin' or so0eone #hile 5ou are #al7in' or dri1in' e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult be!ause there is not enou'h roo0. *an you move all that junk in the hallway please$ t's hard for people to get by. %here was an accident on the highway, and no one could get by. "$ /et &3 EonF p.v. When 5ou /et &3 or /et &3 on a !ertain a0ount o" 0one5, 5ou !ontinue #ith 5our #or7 or !ontinue #ith 5our li"e e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult. 323

'on't worry about me8 'll get by somehow. t's not easy getting by on BAC> a week. *$ /et &3 p.v. When so0ethin', su!h as a 0ista7e or a proble0, /ets &3 5ou, 5ou do not noti!e it. 've got a great editor8 no mistakes get by her. checked this report twice. How did all these misspellings get by me$ #nfinitive get down present tense get down & gets down -ing form getting down past tense got down past participle gottenlgot down

($ /et !o5n EtoF p.v. When 5ou 0o1e to a lo#er le1el or pla!e or "ro0 north to south, 5ou /et !o5n or /et !o5n to that le1el or pla!e. Eet + is the opposite o. /et !o5n$ Eo !o5n is si0ilar to /et !o5n$ (ou're going to fall out of that tree and break your neck. Get down right now) %he first thing did after got down to Miami was go to the beach. "$ /et$$$ !o5n E"ro0F p.v. When 5ou /et thin's or people !o5n' 5ou 0o1e the0 "ro0 a hi'her le1el or pla!e to a lo#er one. #hy do you always put the dishes on the top shelf$ can't get them down. %he fire fighters got the people down from the roof of the burning building. *$ /et !o5n p.v. When 5ou bend 5our bod5 and lo#er 5our head to a1oid dan'er or to pre1ent people "ro0 seein' 5ou, 5ou /et !o5n$ #hen the enemy soldiers started shooting, the sergeant ordered his men to get down. Get down! f the police catch us here we'll be in a lot of trouble. 6$ /et$$$ !o5n p.v. When thin's or people /et 5ou !o5n' the5 0a7e 5ou sad or depressed. 'on't let your troubles get you down. Everything will be all right. 7im's marriage problems are really getting him down. get in get in & gets in getting in got in gotten lgot in

($ /et inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in or /et into a pla!e, buildin', roo0, !ar, boat, and so on, 5ou enter it. Get in the car) #e're going now. #e'd better get into the school 4 the bell's going to ring soon. "$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in or /et into a pla!e, buildin', !lub, restaurant, 0eetin', and so on, 5ou obtain per0ission to enter. When 5ou /et other people in or /et other people into a buildin', !lub, restaurant, 0eetin', and so on, 5ou arran'e "or the0 to enter. #e'll never get into that club8 we don't know the right people. l didn't have an invitation to the party, but :ancy got me in. 27H

*$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' in or /et so0ethin' into a pla!e, buildin', roo0, !ontainer, en!losure, and so on, 5ou 'et the ob)e!t inside e1en thou'h it is di""i!ult. %he shoes are too small 4 can't get my feet in. How did they get that elephant into its cage$ 6$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in trouble or /et into a di""i!ult situation or a 0ess Ea mess is a !on"used or di""i!ult situationF, 5ou be!o0e in1ol1ed in it. When 5ou /et people in trouble or /et the0 into a di""i!ult situation or a 0ess, 5ou !ause the0 to be!o0e in1ol1ed in it. Susie got in a lot of trouble at school today. don't see any solution to this problem. How did ever get into this mess$ 7$ /et inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in or /et into a pla!e, 5ou arri1e. When the 1ehi!le 5ou are in /ets in or /ets into a pla!e, it arri1es. Co-e in is si0ilar to /et in$ 'm e"hausted. got in really late last night. 'll be waiting for you at the station when your train gets into the station. 8$ /et$$$ in p.v. When a store /ets so0ethin' in' it re!ei1es a deli1er5 o" so0ethin' that it #ill o""er "or sale. Daren asked the sales clerk when the store was going to get some summer dresses in. wanted to buy that new book, but the bookstore hasn't gotten it in yet. :$ /et$$$ in p.v. When 5ou /et an a!ti1it5 in' 5ou "ind the ti0e "or it or 0a7e the ti0e "or it. 'inner isn't until E=1>, so we've got time to get a tennis game in. #henever go to San -rancisco on business, try to get a baseball game in. Infinitive present tense /et o t get out < gets out &ing form getting out past tense got out past participle gottenlgot out

($ /et o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et o t or /et o t o" a pla!e, buildin', roo0, !ar, boat, and so on, 5ou lea1e or es!ape "ro0 it. #hen !ob heard his car's engine making a strange noise, he got out and looked under the hood. #e smelled gas and got out of the building just seconds before it e"ploded. "$ /et o t EtoF p.v. When 5ou 'o to a pla!e that is #est o" #here 5ou are or to a pla!e outside a lar'e !it5, 5ou /et o t or /et o t to that pla!e. l love it here in the city. almost never get out to the suburbs anymore. told my friend in :ew (ork, @ f you ever get out to *alifornia, please visit me.@ *$ /et$$$ o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et people o t or /et the0 o t o" a pla!e, 5ou ta7e the0 out or 5ou arran'e "or the0 to lea1e. 32

%he soldiers were surrounded, so they called for a helicopter to get them out. 9fter Hank was arrested, his lawyer got him out of jail. 6$ /et$$$ o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et o t or /et o t o" a dan'erous, a#7#ard, or di""i!ult situation, 5ou a1oid it. When 5ou /et people o t o" a dan'erous, a#7#ard, or di""i!ult situation, 5ou help the0 to a1oid it. Erik made a date with two girls for the same night. How is he going to get out of this mess$ (ou got me into this mess 4 you get me out! 7$ /et$$$ o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' o t or /et so0ethin' o t o" a !ontainer or pla!e, 5ou re0o1e it. Mother's coming for dinner tonight, so let's get the good china out. %he videotape is jammed8 can't get it out of the 5*F. 8$ /et$$$ o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et dirt or a stain o t or /et dirt or a stain o t o" a 0aterial, 5ou re0o1e it b5 !leanin'. %his detergent's ad claims it'll get dirt out even in cold water. 'o you think bleach will get this wine stain out of my white blouse$ :$ /et o t p.v. When in"or0ation /ets o t' it be!o0es 7no#n to people #ho are not supposed to 7no# it. !e careful 4 we'll be in a lot of trouble if this information gets out. %here was a huge scandal after the news got out. #$ /et o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou lea1e 5our house and do thin's that are rela<in' and "un, 5ou /et o t or /et o t o" the house. (ou work too hard8 you should get out more. :ed doesn't get out of the house much8 he prefers to stay home and play computer games. Infinitive present tense /et over get over < gets over &ing form getting over past tense got over past participle gottenlgot over

($ /et over EtoF p.v. When 5ou /et over to a pla!e, 5ou 'o there. When 5ou tell people to /et over here, 5ou #ant the0 to !o0e #here 5ou are. -rancisco called and he said he needs you to help him with something, so get over to his house right way. Susie, get over here and clean up this mess immediately) "$ /et over p.v. When 5ou /et over a proble0, illness, or e0otionall5 pain"ul e<perien!e, 5ou stop lettin' it a""e!t 5ou and !ontinue #ith 5our li"e. 've got a bad cold. 've been sick for a week, and still haven't gotten over it. (ou can't feel sorry for yourself forever 4 you've got to get over it and get on with your life. 27J

*$ /et over p.v. When so0ethin' happens that surprises 5ou or 0a7es 5ou an'r5, and 5ou !annot stop thin7in' about it, 5ou !annot /et over it. l can't get over seeing my e"3wife with her new husband. %he coach couldn't get over losing the state championship 2E to >. Infinitive /et + present tense get up < gets up &ing form getting up past tense got up past participle gottenlgot up

($/et + EtoF p.v. When 5ou 0o1e to a hi'her le1el or pla!e, or "ro0 south to north, 5ou /et + or /et + to that le1el or pla!e. Eet !o5n is the opposite o" /et +$ Eo + is si0ilar to /et +$ %om, your brother is in the basement. ?lease go tell him to get right up here and start doing his homework. haven't gotten up to my brother's house in *anada for a long time. "$ /et$$$ + p.v. When 5ou /et + or so0eone /ets 5ou +' 5ou rise "ro0 5our bed. When 5ou /et people up, 5ou !ause the0 to rise "ro0 their beds. l don't usually get up until ..=>> on weekends. make breakfast8 getting the children up and ready for school in the morning is !ill's job. *$ /et + p.v. When 5ou !han'e "ro0 a sittin' or l5in' position to a standin' position, 5ou /et +$ Stan! + is si0ilar to /et +$ %he teacher told the sleeping students to get up. 9fter he hit me, got right up and hit him back. ECERCISE 6"a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. That bo0b 0i'ht e<plode. 6a5be #e should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little. 2. -s soon as the !ar stopped, 4 MMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMM and #ent inside the house. 3. 4Bll lose 05 )ob i" this in"or0ation MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt tell an5one. 4. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ii0Bs death too7 0e a lon' ti0e. . No# the poli!e are outside. &oo7 at all the trouble 5ouB1e MMMMM 0e MMMM: $. 4 thou'ht these pants #ere ruined a"ter 4 'ot in7 on the0, but this deter'ent MMMMMMMM the in7 ri'ht MMMMMMMM. %. 4 #as #or7in' in 05 o""i!e on the third "loor, and 05 boss !alled "ro0 his o""i!e on the si<th "loor and told 0e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there i00ediatel5. 32%

8. Wor7, #or7, #or7 > thatBs all 5ou do. Aou need to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 0ore o"ten. *. 4tBs 4G1/. 4" #e hurr5, #e 0i'htMMMMMMa round o" 'ol"MMMMMMbe"ore it 'ets dar7. 1/. 4 #as tr5in' to lea1e #or7 a little earl5, but 05 boss said, @Aou !anBt 'o ho0e until G//. MMMMMMMM ba!7 MMMMMMMM here:@ 11. Would 5ou li7e to 'o shoppin' at Wal-6art to0orro#H The5 )ustMMMMMMMM so0e ne# stu""MMMMMMMM. 12. The 'a0e is sold out, but 4 7no# so0eone #ho 0i'ht be able to MMMMM us MMMMM. 13. What ti0e did 5our plane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last ni'htH 14. Can7 is in a lot o" trouble. 4" heMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMo" it, itBll be a 0ira!le. 1 . Ni!ole does her #or7 1er5 !are"ull5 and ne1er 0a7es 0ista7es. Nothin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMher. 1$. Aour sisterBs upstairs sleepin'. 3o tell her to MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM here and eat brea7"ast. 1%. &oo7, thereBs a bear: MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > it 0i'ht see us. 18. 65 husband spent his #hole pa5!he!7 on beer and lotter5 ti!7ets. 4 donBt 7no# ho# #eBre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this 0onth. 1*. 4 #ish 4 hadnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM late. 4 0issed the bus, and no# 4 ha1e to #al7 to s!hool. 2/. This is a 1er5 di""i!ult !lass. 4" 5ou donBt stud5 hard, 5ouBll MMMMMMM MMMMMMM. 21. The tea!her said, @Aour 0idter0 s!ore #asnBt 1er5 'ood, but 4B0 sure i" 5ou stud5 hard, 5ouBll do a lot better on the "inal. 8onBt let it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5ou.@ 22. ;<!use 0e, !ould 5ou 0o1eH 4 !anBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM. 23. 6i7e usuall5 lea1es around 8G// in the 0ornin' and MMMMM MMMMMM around G3/. 24. 65 !at has been in that tree "or three da5s. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMM her MMMMMMH 2 . 4tBs a0aDin'. 4 !anBt MMMMMM MMMMMM ho# 'reat To0 loo7s. 4Bll bet heBs lost "ort5 pounds. 2$. 4" 5ou lose 5our re!eipt,MMMMMMMM 5our 0one5MMMMMMMM "or so0ethin' 5ou bou'ht is usuall5 i0possible. 328

2%. Ti005Bs 0other said,@Who said 5ou !ould lea1e the tableH MMMMMMMMM ba!7 MMMMMMMM here and "inish 5our 1e'etables:@ 28. (ur nei'hbor !alled and saidlBAour do' is in 05 'arden. MMMMMM it MMMMMM:@ 2*. The situation in that !ountr5 is 1er5 dan'erous, so Washin'ton is 0a7in' plans to MMMMMMMM its e0bass5 sta""MMMMMMMM. 3/. 8a1id #as so si!7 he !ouldnBt e1en MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" bed. 31. 4t isnBt eas5 to MMMMMMMMMthis bi' !ar MMMMMMMMMthat s0all 'ara'e. ECERCISE 6"& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 65 "ather !a0e into 05 bedroo0, shoo7 05 shoulder, and told 0e that brea7"ast #as al0ost read5. What did 05 "ather doH 2. 4 li1e in Ne# (rleans, and itBs di""i!ult to "ind the ti0e to tra1el to 6innesota to 1isit 05 sister. What is di""i!ultH

3. -"ter 5ou #ere arrested "or drun7en dri1in', 5ou #ere in a lot o" trouble. What did 5ou doH 4. Aou need to return to 5our ho0e 1er5 ,ui!7l5. What do 5ou need to doH . -"ter Iud5 pa5s her bills, she )ust barel5 has enou'h 0one5 to sur1i1e until the end o" the 0onth. What !an Iud5 )ust barel5 doH $. 4" Ceather doesnBt #or7 harder in her 0ath !lass, she #ill not be able to sta5 at the sa0e le1el as the other students. What #ill happen to Ceather i" she doesnBt #or7 harderH

M. It(s been five years, but Frank is still sad about his brother(s death. .hat hasn(t Frank done yet1 8. 4 #as trapped in 05 !ar a"ter an a!!ident, but a res!ue #or7er re0o1ed 0e "ro0 05 !ar. What did the res!ue #or7er doH

*. -le< is re0o1in' his to5 train "ro0 the !loset. What is -le< doin' to his to5 trainH 1/. Carlos is standin' on a table so that he !an 'et the to5 airplane that he thre# on top o" the re"ri'erator. What is Carlos doin'H

11. The so"a #as too bi', and the 0o1ers !ouldnBt brin' it inside our ne# house. What !ouldnBt the 0o1ers doH 32*

12. There is a hu'e tru!7 in "ront o" us, and #e !anBt pass it. What !anBt #e doH 13. &5dia le"t the buildin' #hen she heard the "ire alar0. What did &5dia doH 14. -"ter 'ettin' out o" her !ar, Iani!e entered it a'ain. What did Iani!e doH 1 . ;ri7Bs bi!5!le #as stolen, but no# he has it a'ain. What did ;ri7 doH 1$. The pilot had 0e!hani!al proble0s #ith her airplane, but the !ontrollers on the 'round helped her land. What did the !ontrollers do to the pilotH

1%. =ill !alled and as7ed 0e to !o0e to his house 1er5 ,ui!7l5. What did =ill as7 0e to doH ECERCISE 6"c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brush o"", 3% !all ba!7, 28 !all up, 28 !lear out, 32 !ross o"", 3* "loat around, 34 'o inlinto, 41 lea1e behind, 3 pi!7 up, 3* plu' inlinto, 41 pun!h in, 3/ pun!h out, 3/ run around, 4/ sell out, 3* snea7 inlinto, 41 snea7 out, 41 start up, 2$

1. ThereBs nothin' to eat "or dinner toni'ht. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM so0e ta7eout "ood MMMMMMMM #hen 5ou !o0e ho0e "ro0 #or7 toni'htH 2. 65 brother #ants to store so0e o" his stu"" in 05 atti!, so toni'ht 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM so0e o" the )un7 up there MMMMMMMM to 0a7e 0ore roo0. 3. 4" 5ou #ant to 'et a ti!7et "or the Superbo#l, 5ouBll need to hurr5 > the5Bre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ast. 4. When 4 'o on 1a!ation, 4 #ant to rela< at the bea!h and MMMMM 05 #orries MMMMM. . Ned is #orried. ThereBs a ru0or MMMMMM MMMMMM that so0eone is 'oin' to 'et "ired. $. 4 !anBt "ind the to5 05 dau'hter #ants "or her birthda5 an5#here. 4B1e been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all da5 loo7in' "or it. %. 4B0 'oin' to be late "or #or7. Would 5ou 0ind MMMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMMH 8. 8an 0ust still be here in the o""i!e so0e#here. Ce hasnBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 5et. *. 4 ha1enBt tal7ed to Nan!5 in a lon' ti0e. 4 thin7 4Bll MMMMMM her MMMMMM toni'ht. 33/

1/. Nan!5 #as in the sho#er #hen 4 !alled, but her brother said sheBd MMMMMMMM 0e ri'ht MMMMMMMM. 11. -re 5ou sure this is the ri'ht 7e5H 4t #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the lo!7. 12. 6ar'aret Cu00in's de!ided to lea1e her )ob #ith a bi' !o0pan5 and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her o#n !o0pan5. 13. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMthe theater #as eas5. (ne o" our "riends #ent inside and opened the "ire e<it "or the rest o" us. 14. 65 "ather #onBt let 0e 'o to the dan!e, so 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter he 'oes to bed. 1 . None o" the bad thin's people sa5 about Charles bother hi0. Ce )ust MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 1$. 4 0ade a list o" people to in1ite to 05 #eddin', but a"ter 4 heard all those nast5 thin's Sarah said about 05 "ian!e, 4 MMMMMMMM her na0e MMMMMMMM the list. 1%. Well, 4 thin7 4B1e "i<ed the 1a!uu0 !leaner. &etBs MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and see i" it #or7s no#.

6*$ FOCUS ON< -o!a%s an! +resent +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s +e0e0ber that the present per"e!t is "or0ed #ith have or the !ontra!tion (ve and the past parti!iple. The onl5 di""eren!e is that has is not used "or the third person sin'ularG He has run up a big bill. He would have run up a big bill. The 0eanin's o" the 0odal and se0i0odal au<iliaries are un!han'ed in the present per"e!t, e<!ept "or may and might. Past s+ec %ation an! 3o !o not 0no5 5hat ha++ene!< might have or may have When dis!ussin' so0ethin' that #as possible in the past and 5ou do not 7no# #hat happened, either might have or may have !an be usedG 331

l wonder where 7im is. He might have stopped off at the bar. wonder where 7im is. He may have stopped off at the bar. =e!ause 5ou do not 7no# #hether Ii0 stopped o"" at the bar, either might have or may have !an be used. Past s+ec %ation an! 3o 0no5 5hat ha++ene!< on%3 might have When dis!ussin' so0ethin' that #as possible in the past and 5ou 7no# #hat happened, onl5 might have !an be usedG *limbing that tree was stupid. (ou might have fallen out. *limbing that tree was stupid. (ou may have fallen out. =e!ause 4 7no# that the person 4 a0 tal7in' to did not "all out o" the tree, onl5 might have !an be used.

Infinitive present tense &%o5 o t blowout < blows out blowing out blew out blown out &ing form past tense past participle

($ &%o5$$$ o t p.v. When a "la0e &%o5s o t or is &%o5n o t b5 a stron' #ind, it stops burnin'. When 5ou &%o5 o t a "la0e, 5ou use 5our breath to 0a7e the "la0e stop burnin'. 'on't open the window 4 the candles will blow out. couldn't light my cigarette8 the wind kept blowing the match out. %he stove isn't working. Maybe the pilot light has blown out. "$ &%o5 $$$o t Eo"F p.v. When so0ethin' is 0o1ed out#ard a#a5 "ro0 #here it #as b5 an e<plosion or a 1er5 stron' #ind, it is &%o5n o t or &%o5n o t o" #here it #as be"ore. %he force of the e"plosion blew all the windows out. &ook, there's a dead bird. %he wind might have blown it out of its nest. &%o5o t n. When a tire bursts and suddenl5 loses its air #hile 5ou are dri1in', 5ou ha1e a &%o5o t$ Maria had a blowout while she was driving, lost control of her car, and hit a tree. *$ &%o5$$$ o t p.v. When a pie!e o" ele!tri!al e,uip0ent or a "use &%o5s o t' it "ails be!ause too 0u!h ele!tri!it5 is passin' throu'h it. 'on't be surprised if the fuse blows out 4 you have seven lights, your computer, and your %5 all plugged into one outlet. #hen lightning hit our house, it blew all the telephones out.

332

#nfinitive give out present tense give out & gives out -ing form giving out past tense gave out past participle given out

($ /ive $$$o t EtoF p.v. When 5ou distribute so0ethin' to other people, 5ou /ive it o t or /ive it o t to the0. Han! o t is si0ilar to /ive o t$ %hey gave out free hats to the first C,>>> fans to enter the stadium. %he aid workers would have given more food out to the famine victims, but they didn't have enough. "$ /ive o t EonF p.v. When a 0e!hani!al or ele!tri!al de1i!e stops #or7in', it /ives o t or /ives o t on 5ou. When a suppl5 o" so0ethin' is !o0pletel5 used, it /ives o t or /ives o t on 5ou. %he e"plorers tost their way in the desert and died after their water gave out. bought a *hevrolet in ./G2 and drove it more than 1>>,>>> miles before it finally gave out on me. gross out gross out & grosses out grossing out grossed out grossed out

($ /ross $$$o t p.v. [informal] When so0ethin' /rosses 5ou o t' it upsets 5ou or 0a7es 5ou si!7 be!ause 5ou thin7 it is dis'ustin'. (ou had to dissect a cadaver in your biology class$ (uk, that would've really grossed me out. 9le" hates changing his little brother's diapers 4 it grosses him out. /rosse! o t part.adj. When so0ethin' upsets 5ou or 0a7es 5ou si!7 be!ause 5ou thin7 it is dis'ustin', 5ou are /rosse! o t$ l was eating an apple, and found half a worm in it. was so grossed out that almost threw up. head toward head toward & heads toward heading toward headed toward headed toward ($ hea! to5ar! p.v. When 5ou hea! to5ar! a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou 0o1e to#ard it. When 5ou sa5 that 5ou are hea!e! to5ar! or are hea!in/ to5ar! a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou 0ean that 5ou are plannin' to 'o there or that 5ou are 'oin' there but ha1e interrupted 5our )ourne5 and #ill resu0e it. Hea! .or is the sa0e as hea! to5ar!$ %he escaped convicts must have headed toward Me"ico. 'm heading toward ?ortland. #here are you going$ run up run up & runs up running up ran up run up

($ r n + EtoF p.v. When 5ou run to a hi'her le1el or pla!e, 5ou r n + or r n + to that place. un up and answer the phone if it rings, okay$ f 'd heard the baby crying, would have run up to his bedroom. 222

"$ r n $$$ + p.v. When 5ou a!!u0ulate a nu0ber o" debts, resultin' in a total debt o" a !ertain a0ount, 5ou r n + a bill "or that a0ount. ;iving my son a credit card was a mistake 4 he ran up a BA,C>> bill in only one month. *alling your family every week from 9ustralia must have run a big phone bill up. r n9 + n. - lar'e, sudden in!rease in the pri!e, 1alue, or !ost o" so0ethin' is a r n9 +$ !ill was lucky to buy C>> shares of the stock just before the big run-up. *$ r n + EtoF p.v. When 5ou run to#ard people, 5ou r n + or r n + to the0. %he prince didn't have any bodyguards. 9nyone could have run up and attacked him. 9fter the e"plosion, a man covered with blood ran up to me and asked for help. Infinitive shut up present tense shut up < shuts up &ing form shutting up past tense shut up past participle shut up

($ sh t + EaboutF p.v. [informal] When people stop tal7in', the5 sh t + or sh t + about so0ethin' the5 are tal7in' about. When 5ou are an'r5 and #ant people to stop tal7in', 5ou tell the0 to sh t +$ Marvin talks and talks and talks 4 he never shuts up. said was sorry about crashing your car. :ow will you please shut up about it) ($ sh t$$$ + p.v. [informal] When people or thin's !ause 5ou to stop tal7in', the5 sh t 5ou +$ %oad was making jokes about his wife at the party until she gave him a look that shut him right up. can't hear the %5 4 can you shut those kids up? stop off stop off ! stops off stopping off stopped off stopped off

($ sto+ o.. EatlinF p.v. When 5ou sto+ o.. at a pla!e or sto+ o.. in an area on the #a5 to another pla!e, 5ou stop there brie"l5 be"ore !ontinuin' 5our )ourne5. l would have stopped off at Sally's house this morning, but was late for work. "topping off in *airo on our way to ndia would be fun. tr% on tr% on & tries on tr%ing on tried on tried on

($ tr3$$$ on p.v. When 5ou tr3 on an ite0 o" !lothin' be"ore de!idin' #hether 5ou #ill bu5 it or borro# it "ro0 so0eone in order to see i" it "its or to see i" 5ou li7e it, 5ou tr3 it on$ She must have tried on twenty pairs of shoes before making up her mind. #ould you like to borrow this dress for the dance tonight$ Here, try it on. 334

ECERCISE 6*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 'ot into -tlanta last ni'ht, and to0orro# 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 6ia0i. 2. 4 shouldB1e MMMMMMMM this s#eater MMMMMMMM be"ore 4 bou'ht it. 4tBs too s0all, and no# 4 ha1e to return it. 3. Ni!ole "i'ured out #h5 all the li'hts #ere o""G a "use MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4. Sa0 !ouldnBt ha1e "inished the 0arathon? his stren'th !o0pletel5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . 4tBs a 'ood thin' &inda has health insuran!e? she has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hu'e bill at the hospital. $. When the 'as e<ploded, all the doors and #indo#s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. %. 6arshaBs al#a5s bra''in' about ho# s0art she is and teasin' 0e about 05 bad 'rades, but #hen 4 'ot 1// on the al'ebra test and she 'ot 2, it reall5 MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM. 8. WeBre not "l5in' dire!tl5 to Iapan? #eBre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in Ca#aii "or a "e# da5s. *. Can7Bs bad breath MMMMMMMM e1er5one MMMMMMMM. 1/. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM: 4B0 tired o" listenin' to 5our !onstant !riti!is0. 11. 4 #as so e<!ited to see 9aren a"ter so 0an5 5ears that 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her and 'a1e her a bi' hu'. 12. This 'as sto1e isnBt #or7in'. 4 thin7 the pilot li'ht 0a5 ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen 5ou opened the #indo#. 13. Iob appli!ations #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to e1er5one standin' in line. 14. When 4 sa# s0o7e !o0in' "ro0 the third "loor #indo#, 4MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMto loo7 "or the "ire. ECERCISE 6*& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$ 1. The "li'ht attendant #as blo!n out MMMMMMMM the hole in the airplaneBs "usela'e. 2. 2ree sa0ples #ill be given out MMMMMMM e1er5 !usto0er #ho #al7s throu'h the door. 3. Cis diseased heart "inall5 gave out MMMMMMMM hi0. 33

4. 4 #as so an'r5 that #hen 4 sa# hi0 4 ran up MMMMMMM hi0 and hit hi0. . 3eor'e and To0 0i'ht ha1e stopped offMMMMMMMM Ne# Aor7. $. 6a5be the5 stopped offMMMMMMMM Ii0Bs house in the suburbs. ECERCISE 6*c =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. The #ind ble! out. Ethe !andle, itF

2. The5 gave out. Ein"or0ation, itF

3. She ran up. Ea N4,/// bill, itF

4. Can 4 try on2 Ethese pants, theseF

. The s0ell grossed out. Ee1er5one, the0F

33$

ECERCISE 6*! ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. +osa bou'ht a !oat, but itBs too s0all. What should +osa ha1e doneH 2. Aour !arBs trans0ission "inall5 stopped #or7in' a"ter se1eral da5s o" proble0s. What did 5our _7 !arBs trans0ission doH 3. The pri!e o" 'old in!reased a lot 1er5 ,ui!7l5. What #ould 5ou !all this in!rease in the pri!e o" 'oldH 4. Todd didnBt 7no# that the ta!o he ate at 6i'uelBs house #as 0ade #ith !o# brains. When 6i'uel told Todd #hat he had eaten, #hat 0ust that ha1e done to ToddH

. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# 0ust Todd ha1e beenH $. The !hildren ran to#ard =ett5 1er5 ,ui!7l5. What did the !hildren doH %. The tru!7 dri1er #ouldnBt ha1e tra1eled to#ard 8etroit. What #ouldnBt the tru!7 dri1er ha1e doneH 8. Iani!e used her breath to stop the 7erosene la0p "ro0 burnin'. What did Iani!e doH *. Stoppin' 6ar1in "ro0 tal7in' is nearl5 i0possible. What is i0possibleH 1/. Sall5 as7ed her brother ho# he !ould ha1e a!!u0ulated su!h a lar'e !redit !ard bill. What did Sall5 as7 her brotherH 11. 8a1id sta5ed "ora !ouple o" ni'hts in 8en1er be"ore !ontinuin' to &asVe'as. What did 8a1id doH 12. 65 tire burst #hile 4 #as dri1in'. What did 4 ha1eH

ECERCISE 6*e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- +revio s sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$
bro7en in, 41 !he!7ed in,41 !he!7ed out, 41 !hopped up, 3* !o1ered up, 3% 33% !rossed o"", 3* "illed up, 3* le"to1er, 3% let do#n, 3% paid o"", 3% plu''ed in, 41 put o"", 31 rundo#n, 3$ sold out, 3* strai'htened out, 3*

1. 4" 5ouBre hun'r5, thereBs so0e MMMMMMMMMMM piDDa in the re"ri'erator. 2. This 0eat isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM enou'h? the pie!es are too bi'. 3. That "ood isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM? "lies are 'oin' to land on it. 4. So0eda5 Iohn #ants to 0o1e "ro0 this MMMMMMMMMMM nei'hborhood to a better one. . 65 "eet reall5 hurt be!ause these shoes arenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5et. $. 65 !ar loan is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? 4 0ade 05 "inal pa50ent last 0onth. %. -"ter "ort5-"i1e 5ears #ith the !o0pan5, 4 thou'ht the5 #ould 'i1e 0e 0ore than this !heap pen at 05 retire0ent part5. 4 "eel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 8. There arenBt ei'ht na0es on the list? there are onl5 "i1e > three are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. *. WeBre MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM no#? #e !an ta7e our lu''a'e up to our hotel roo0. 1/. We !an 'et a ta<i "or the airport no#? #eBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 11. The 'a0e isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? there are plent5 o" ti!7ets le"t. 12. No #onder this radio doesnBt #or7 > itBs not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 13. The tan7 isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5et? thereBs roo0 "or another 'allon or t#o. 14. 4s e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, or do 4 need to e<plain it a'ainH 1 . Wh5 are 5ou so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH 8id 4 sa5 so0ethin' that o""ended 5ouH ECERCISE 6*.' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ burst out, 4/ !o0e ba!7, 4/ 'et ba!7, 42 'et behind, 42 'o inlinto, 41 7eep at, 38 7eep a#a5, 38 7eep do#n, 38 7eep "ro0, 38 7eep o"", 38 7eep on, 38 7eep to, 38 7eep up, 38 snea7 inlinto, 41 snea7 out o", 41 #ipe out, 3*

1. Susie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 7it!hen and too7 a !oo7ie #hen her 0other #asnBt loo7in'. 2. When 4 #as a teena'er, 4 used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the house and 0eet 05 "riends a"ter 05 parents #ent to bed. 338

3. 4 )ust sha0pooed the !arpet in the li1in' roo0, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. 4. 4 need to see 05 ph5si!al therapist. That pain 4 used to ha1e in 05 7nee is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. . 8o 5ou ha1e a bi''er en1elopeH This letter #onBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM this s0all one. $. =ett5 as7ed the bus dri1er to stop, but he didnBt hear her and MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM 'oin'. %. 6aria lea1es "or #or7 at %G// in the 0ornin', and she doesnBt usuall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her house until a"ter 8G// in the e1enin'. 8. Ii0 has MMMMMMMM #a5 MMMMMMMM in his studies be!ause heBs been in the hospital "or se1eral #ee7s. *. 6ar1in #as a!tin' li7e su!h an idiot #hen he #as an'r5 that 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM lau'hin'. 1/. 8onBt 'i1e up no#>MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit: 11. 4t #as hard to MMMMMMMM 05 0a'aDine arti!le MMMMMMMM onl5 2,/// #ords > there #as so 0u!h 4 #anted to sa5. 12. 6i7e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !r5in' #hen his #i"e told hi0 she #anted a di1or!e. 13. 4 tr5 to ta7e notes in 05 histor5 !lass, but the tea!her tal7s so "ast that 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 14. The ene05 soldiers #ere al0ost !o0pletel5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the atta!7. 1 . That do' o" 5ours is dan'erous, so pleaseMMMMMMM itMMMMMMM"ro0 05 !hildren. 1$. The !and5 !o0pan5 has MMMMMMMM the !ost o" its produ!ts MMMMMMMM despite the rise in the !ost o" su'ar. 33*

66$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives an! +assive +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the ver& get 4t is i0portant to understand t#o di""erent but related uses of get in "or0in' the passi1e 1oi!e. get + a!,ectives< get = become

4t is 1er5 !o00on in ;n'lish to use get "ollo#ed b5 an ad)e!ti1e. This is not the passi1e. 4n this !ase get is si0ilar to become: She got sick yesterday. She became sick yesterday. get + +ast +artici+%es< a .or- o. the +assive

4t is also 1er5 !o00on to use get in pla!e o" be to "or0 the passi1e 1oi!e. The !onstru!tion is the sa0e? get is "ollo#ed b5 the past parti!ipleG 7udy got kicked out of school. 7udy was kicked out of school. There is a di""eren!e, ho#e1er, bet#een the passi1e "or0ed #ith be and the passi1e "or0ed #ith get: When the passi1e is "or0ed #ith get, there is o"ten Ebut not al#a5sF a su''estion that the sub)e!t o" the senten!e #as so0eho# responsible or partiall5 responsible "or #hat happenedG 7udy got kicked out of school. - person hearin' the senten!e abo1e 0i'ht thin7 that perhaps Iud5 did so0ethin' #ron' that resulted in her 'ettin' 0ic0e! o t o" s!hool. So0eti0es, to lea1e no doubt that the sub)e!t is responsible "or #hat happened, a re"le<i1e pronoun is usedG ,udy got herself ic ed out of school. get + +artici+%e a!,ectives< a!,ective or +assiveH

-s #e ha1e seen, in ;n'lish the past parti!iples o" 0an5 1erbs are used as ad)e!ti1es. When get is "ollo#ed b5 a past parti!iple, it is not al#a5s !lear #hether the senten!e is passi1e or #hether the past parti!iple is "un!tionin' as an ad)e!ti1eG 34/

l got mi ed up last !ee . # became mi ed up last !ee . 4n the e<a0ples abo1e, #e !an see that the past parti!iple is !learl5 "un!tionin' as an ad)e!ti1e sin!e get !an be repla!ed #ith become, but noti!e that the senten!e !an also pass the b5 test Edis!ussed in Se!tion 13F, #hi!h indi!ates that it is passi1eG l got mi#ed up by all the confusing road signs last week. -'ain, #e see ho# !losel5 related ad)e!ti1es and past parti!iples are in ;n'lish and ho# it is not al#a5s eas5 to distin'uish bet#een the t#o. 2ortunatel5, it is not usuall5 1er5 i0portant. What is i0portant is to be !o0"ortable usin' past parti!iples as ad)e!ti1es, and the 7e5 to doin' so is not to understand the di""eren!e bet#een true ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0 past parti!iples and past parti!iples #ith an ad)e!ti1e "un!tion but instead to understand that there o"ten is no di""eren!e.

Infinitive present tense beat up beat up < beats up &ing form beating up past tense beat up past participle beaten up

($ &eat$$$ + p.v. [informal] When 5ou &eat people +' 5ou hit the0 or 7i!7 the0 repeatedl5. %he muggers stole my money and then beat me up. %immy got beaten up at school today. &eat9 + part.adj. When so0ethin' is in bad !ondition be!ause o" hea15 use, it is &eat9 +$ My car is an old, beat-up piece of junk. carr% awa% carried awa%

($ carr3 a5a3 E#ithF p.v. [al!ays passive] When 5ou 'et carrie! a5a3 or carrie! a5a3 #ith so0ethin', 5ou do 0ore than is ne!essar5 or proper be!ause 5ou en)o5 it or be!ause 5ou thin7 it is i0portant. l was going to make a do6en cupcakes for desert tonight, but got carried away and ended up making forty. (ou should always start a new e"ercise program slowly. f you get carried away with it, you might hurt yourself. kick out kick out & kicks out kicked out kicking out kicking out

($ 0ic0$$$ o t Eo"F p.v. When 5ou 0ic0 people o t or 0ic0 people o t o" a 'roup, pla!e, buildin', roo0, and so on, 5ou order the0 to lea1e. Thro5 o t is si0ilar to 0ic0 o t$ 341

'avid drank too much and got himself kicked out of the bar. !ob's in our car pool, but he's always arguing with the other guys about something, so we're going to kick him out. #nfinitive present tense lock up lock up ! locks up ;ing form locking up past tense locked up past participle locked up

($ %oc0$$$ + p.v. When 5ou lo!7 all the doors and #indo#s o" a buildin', 5ou %oc0 it +$ %he manager always locks up before he goes home. #e locked our house up before we went on vacation. %oc0e! + part.adj. -"ter all the doors and #indo#s o" a buildin' ha1e been lo!7ed, it is %oc0e! +$ (ou can't get in the house 4 it's locked up. "$ %oc0$$$ + p.v. When 5ou %oc0 people +' 5ou put the0 in prison. %he police locked Hank up after they caught him shoplifting. #hoever committed that terrible crime ought to be locked up forever. %oc0e! + part.adj. So0eone #ho has been put in prison is %oc0e! +$ 3eing locked up in jail !as a terrible e&perience. %oc0 + n. - prison or other pla!e #here people are %oc0e! + is a %oc0 +$ <mar was put in the lockup after he was arrested for drunken driving. mi7 up mi7 up & mi7es up mi7ing up mi7ed up mi7ed up

($ -i4$$$ + p.v. When 5ou -i4 so0ethin' + that has t#o or 0ore in'redients, 5ou stir it so that the in'redients #ill be thorou'hl5 !o0bined. ?ut in the eggs, butter, sugar, flour, and water and then mi# it up well. 9n electric mi"er will mi# up the ingredients better than a hand mi"er. "$ -i4$$$ + p.v. When 5ou -i4 t#o thin's up, 5ou !on"use the0 #ith ea!h other. 7erry and his twin brother look e"actly the same, and everyone mi#es them up. :ewborn babies sometimes get mi#ed up in the hospital. -i4e! + part.adj. When 5ou are !on"used about so0ethin' that 5ou #ant to understand, or #hen 5ou ha1e e0otional or beha1ioral proble0s, 5ou are -i4e! +$ *an you help me with my calculus homework$ 'm really mi#ed up. 7immy is a mi#ed-up kid who gets in trouble with the police a lot. -i49 + n. - 0ista7e, 0isunderstandin', or !on"used situation is a -i49 +$ #aiter, think there's been a mi#-up. asked you for a chicken salad sandwich, but you brought me a tuna salad sandwich.

2H7

Infinitive present tense piss off piss off < pisses off &ing form pissing off past tense pissed off past participle pissed off

($ +iss$$$ o.. p.v. [informal and offensive to some people] When 5ou 0a7e people an'r5, 5ou +iss the0 o..$ (ou'd better stop that) (ou're pissing me off. 'on't make a lot of noise when Mark is trying to study8 it pisses him off. +isse! o.. part.adj. When 5ou are an'r5, 5ou are +isse! o..$ Melon ie got really pissed off at Heather for borrowing her necklace without asking and then losing it. rip off rip off & rips off ripping off ripped off ripped off

($ ri+ $$$o.. p.v. [informal] When 5ou ri+ people o"", 5ou steal so0ethin' "ro0 the0, !heat the0, or !har'e the0 0ore 0one5 "or so0ethin' than it is #orth. 'on't do business with Marvin8 he rips everyone off. Hank got ripped off by the drug dealer. ri+9o.. n. When so0eone steals so0ethin' "ro0 5ou, !heats 5ou, or !har'es too 0u!h "or so0ethin', this is a ri+9o..$ paid nine dollars to see that awful movie$ #hat a rip-off! stress out stress out & stresses out stressing out stressed out stressed out

($ stress$$$ o t p.v. [informal] When people or thin's stress 5ou o t' the5 0a7e 5ou #orried, ner1ous, or tense. Having that new manager around watching me all the time is stressing me out. Sally's sister has to take care of ,uadruplets all day without any help. %hat must stress her out. stresse!9o t part.adj. When 5ou are #orried, ner1ous, or tense, 5ou are stresse!9o t$ l had to make a speech at work today, and was so stressed-out afterward that took the rest of the day off. ECERCISE 66a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. The prison 'uard put Ia7e in a !ell and MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM. 2. To0 as7ed the barber to )ust !ut his hair a little bit, but #hen he loo7ed in the 0irror, he !ould see that the barber #as 'ettin' MMMMM MMMMM and !uttin' his hair too short. 343

3. ;ri7 pro0ised 0e that he #ould !o0e to 05 house to help 0e 0o1e so0e stu"" this 0ornin', but he still hasnBt sho#n up. CeBs al#a5s doin' thin's li7e that, and it reall5MMMMMMMM 0e

4. 4" Iani!e doesnBt pass her !he0istr5 test to0orro#, she #onBt 'raduate #ith the rest o" her lass, and #orr5in' about it so 0u!h is reall5 MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM. . 4 'ot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" s!hool a"ter 4 'ot !au'ht !heatin' on the test. $. The robbers MMMMM MMMMM the shop o#ner so badl5 that she had to be hospitaliDed. %. -dd a !up o" #ater and "our e''s to the !a7e 0i< and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM #ell. 8. The ni'ht 0ana'er "or'ot to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen she le"t the restaurant. *. The )e#elr5 store MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM 4 paid N ,/// "or a dia0ond rin' 0ade o" 'lass. 1/. The tea!her has t#o students #ith the sa0e na0e, and she al#a5s MMMMMMMM the0

ECERCISE 66& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be s re to + t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ 1. The thu's beat up. Ethe #o0an, herF

2. The hotel 0ana'er ic ed out. Ethe ro!7 'roup, the0F

3. The !ops are 'oin' to loc up. Ethe !roo7, herF

344

4. 4i&ing up is eas5. Ethe t#ins, the0F

. 3ettin' a tattoo 0ust ha1e pissed off. E5our "ather, hi0F

$. The !ontra!tor #as a!!used o" ripping off. Eho0eo#ners, the0F

%. -ll these proble0s are stressing out. Ethe sta"", the0F

ECERCISE 66c ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. To0 paid a 0e!hani! to repla!e his !arBs 'enerator #ith a ne# one, but the 0e!hani! put a used 'enerator in and still !har'ed To0 "or a ne# one. What did the 0e!hani! do to To0H

2. 4n Ouestion 1, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the 0e!hani! did to To0H 3. 4" the5 donBt stop 0a7in' so 0u!h noise, the 0ana'er is 'oin' to tell the0 to lea1e. What is the 0ana'er 'oin' to doH 4. Aou lo!7ed all the doors and #indo#s in 5our house. What did 5ou doH . 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 5our house a"ter 5ou lo!7ed all the doors and #indo#sH $. 6an5 !ars loo7 the sa0e these da5s, and itBs hard to tell the0 apart. 4" it is hard to tell the0 apart, #hat is it eas5 to doH 34

%. S!rat!hin' 05 brotherBs ne# !ar reall5 0ade hi0 an'r5. What did s!rat!hin' 05 brotherBs ne# !ar do to 05 brotherH 8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 05 brotherH *. &inda is 1er5 !on"used about ho# to use her !o0puter. Co# #ould 5ou des!ribe &indaH 1/. 8ri1in' in all this tra""i! is 0a7in' 5ou ner1ous and tense. What is dri1in' in all this tra""i! doin' to 5ouH 11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 5oursel"H 12. 4 let Charles use 05 s7is, and #hen he returned the0, the5 #ere in 1er5 bad !ondition. Co# #ere 05 s7is #hen Charles returned the0H

13. Sa0Bs "ather #as sent to prison "or ban7 robber5. What happened to Sa0Bs "atherH 14. 4n Ouestion 13, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe Sa0Bs "atherH 1 . 9aren #ent to the store plannin' to bu5 a pair o" shoes, but she ended up bu5in' "i1e pairs o" shoes, three dresses, "our blouses, and a ne# #inter !oat. What happened to 9arenH 1$. When the an'r5 people !au'ht the thie", the5 hit and 7i!7ed hi0 a'ain and a'ain. What did the an'r5 !ro#d doH 1%. When 5ou put all the in'redients in, 5ou ha1e to stir the0 so the5 #ill be !o0bined. What do 5ou ha1e to doH ECERCISE 66!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ brea7 inlinto, 41 brin' up, 4/ !o1er up, 3% help out, 33 7eep at, 38 7eep a#a5, 38 7eep do#n, 38 7eep "ro0, 38 7eep o"", 38 7eep on, 38 7eep to, 38 7eep up, 38 pa5 o"", 3% put up to, 34 sti!7 #ith, 4/ ta7e o1er, 3*

1. The ne#spaper stor5 !lai0ed that the 'o1ernor had ta7en a bribe and had then tried to MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.

2. That sto!7 4 bou'ht reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4t #ent up nearl5 1// per!ent in onl5 three 0onths. 34$

3. -"ter the ne# 0ana'er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ne<t 0onth, 5ou !an e<pe!t a lot o" !han'es. 4. Will 5ou 7ids MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, pleaseH 4B0 on the phone. . 4 told 5ou to stop. 4" 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM doin' that, 4B0 'oin' to 'et pissed o"". $. The poli!e thin7 the bur'lars 0a5 ha1e MMMMMMM MMMMMMM throu'h the ba!7 door. %. 4" 5ou 7ids 'o outside to pla5,MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM"ro0 that pile o" )un7>itBs "ull o" bro7en 'lass. 8. 4 need to tal7 to Ierr5 about his bad breath, but 4B0 ner1ous about MMMMM it MMMMM. *. 8an is so sad about #hat happened that he !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !r5in'. 1/. When 4 #ent to the !ar rental o""i!e, the5 had alread5 rented all the 'ood !ars, and the5 MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM a beat-up pie!e o" )un7. 11. The le'islature passed a tou'h ne# la# desi'ned to MMMMMMMM drun7en dri1ers MMMMMMMM the streets. 12. When 5ouBre depressed 5ou should tal7 to people about #hatBs troublin' 5ou, not MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 5oursel". 13. 4B0 bro7e > do 5ou thin7 5ou !ould MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM till pa5da5H 14. Nothin' the in1entor tried #or7ed, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it until he sol1ed the proble0. 1 . 4 !anBt belie1e that 05 dau'hter #ould steal 0one5 "ro0 0e. That a#"ul bo5"riend o" hers 0ust ha1e MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it. 1$. Iane did 1er5 #ell in her "irst se0ester o" !olle'e. 4 hope she !an MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM "or the ne<t "our 5ears. 34%

67$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the ver& turn 6an5 phrasal 1erbs are based on the 1erb turn. 4n 0ost !ases, phrasal 1erbs #ith turn in1ol1e t#o options and a !han'e "ro0 one option to the other or, #hen it is possible, a 0o1e !loser to one option and "arther a#a5 "ro0 the other. 4n other #ords, !hoosin' either - or = or, #hen it is possible to be so0e#here bet#een - and =, 0o1in' !loser to - and "arther a#a5 "ro0 =, or 1i!e 1ersa.

Infinitive present tense turn down turn down < turns down &ing form turning down past tense turned down past participle turned down

($ t rn $$$!o5n p.v. When 5ou t rn !o5n an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, 5ou !han'e the !ontrols to de!rease the le1el o" #hat it is produ!in' or doin'. T rn + is the opposite o. t rn !o5n$ *ould you turn the radio down? 'm trying to sleep. f it gets too cold, 'll turn down the air conditioner. "$ t rn $$$ !o5n p.v. When 5ou den5 a re,uest, 5ou t rn !o5n the re,uest or t rn !o5n the person #ho has 0ade the re,uest. l asked :ancy to go to the dance with me, but she turned me down. My re,uest for a pay raise was turned down. ;etting turned down every time apply for a job is getting me down. turn in turn in & turns in turning in turned in turned in

($ t rn $$$ in EtoF p.v. When 5ou in"or0 the poli!e that !ertain people ha1e !o00itted !ri0es or tell the poli!e #here the5 are, 5ou t rn the0 in or t rn the0 in to the poli!e. %he escaped prisoner got tired of running and turned himself in. #hen 7ake told me that he had murdered &uis, knew had to turn him in to the police. "$ t rn $$$ in EtoF p.v. When 5ou return so0ethin' that #as 'i1en to 5ou b5 a person in authorit5, 5ou t rn that thin' in or t rn it in to a person in authorit5. Han! in is si0ilar to t rn in$ %he police officer was ordered to turn in her badge after she was caught taking a bribe. %he delivery truck drivers have to turn their keys in to the dispatcher before they go home. *$ t rn $$$ in EtoF p.v. When 5ou !o0plete a test, report, or pro)e!t and 5ou 'i1e it to the person #ho assi'ned the #or7 to 5ou, 5ou t rn it in or t rn it in to the person #ho assi'ned the #or7. Han! in is si0ilar to t rn in$ 348

Melan'ie asked her teacher if she could turn her project in late. have to finish this report and turn it in to the sales manager by tomorrow. 6$ t rn in p.v. When 5ou 'o to bed, 5ou t rn in$ 'm really tired8 'm going to turn in early. t's getting late8 'm turning in. Infinitive present tense turn into turn into < turns into &ing form turning into past tense turned into past participle turned into

($ t rn into p.v. When so0ethin' t rns into so0ethin' else, it be!o0es that thin'. t was cold and rainy this morning, but it turned into a nice day. t's ama6ing that this small seed can turn into a huge tree. "$ t rn $$$into p.v. When 5ou t rn so0ethin' into so0ethin' else, 5ou !han'e it into that thin'. %he (oungs are thinking of turning their house in the country into a hotel. %he children turned the big bo" into a playhouse. turn off turn off & turns off turning off turned off turned off

($ t rn $$$ o.. p.v. When 5ou t rn o.. an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, 5ou !han'e the !ontrols to stop it "ro0 produ!in' or doin' so0ethin'. Turn on is the opposite o" t rn o..$ S5itch o.. and sh t o.. are si0ilar to t rn o..$ #ould you turn the light off? want to go to bed. #hen 'm driving and have to wait for a long freight train to pass, always turn my car off. t rne! o.. part.adj. -"ter 5ou ha1e !han'ed the !ontrols o" an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e to stop it "ro0 produ!in' or doin' so0ethin', it is t rne! o..$ T rne! on is the opposite o" t rne! o..$ S5itche! o.. and sh t o.. are si0ilar to t rne! o..$ l can't see anything 4 the lights are turned off. "$ t rn $$$ o.. p.v. [informal] So0ethin' that t rns 5ou o.. o""ends 5ou and !auses 5ou to lose interest in so0ethin' or so0eone. So0ethin' about a person o" the opposite se< that t rns 5ou o.. !auses 5ou to lose se<ual or ro0anti! interest in that person. T rn on is the opposite o. t rn o..$ #hen met 'an thought he was a nice guy, but his racist comments turned me off. got turned off when she lit a cigarette. t rne! o.. part.adj. When so0ethin' about a person o" the opposite se< !auses 5ou to lose se<ual or ro0anti! interest in that person, 5ou are t rne! o..$ T rne! on is the opposite o" t rne! o..$ #hat's wrong with :icole$ She was having a good time with -rank a little while ago, but now she seems kind of turned off. 2HL

t rno.. n. So0ethin' that o""ends 5ou and !auses 5ou to lose interest in so0ethin' or so0eone is a t rno..$ So0ethin' about a person o" the opposite se< that !auses 5ou to lose se<ual or ro0anti! interest in that person is a t rno..$ A t rn9on is the opposite o. a t rno..$ l don't like tattoos. %o me they're a real turnoff. *$ t rn o.. p.v. When 5ou t rn o.. a road or path that 5ou are tra1elin' on, 5ou lea1e it and start to tra1el on another road or path. When a road or path lea1es another road or path and tra1els in a di""erent dire!tion, it t rns o..' !e careful you don't turn off the main road 4 you'll get lost. %he path to the cabin turns off just after the big tree stump. t rno.. n. - road or path that lea1es another road or path and tra1els in a di""erent dire!tion is a t rno..$ #e're lost 4 think we should have taken that turnoff we passed a few miles back. Infinitive turn on present tense turn on < turns on &ing form turning on past tense turned on past participle turned on

($ t rn $$$ on p.v. When 5ou t rn on an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, 5ou !han'e the !ontrols to 0a7e it start produ!in' or doin' so0ethin'. T rn o.. is the opposite o. t rn on$ S5itch on is the sa0e as t rn on$ *an you turn the light on please$ t's dark in here. %his <ctober has been so warm that haven't turned the heat on once yet. t rne! on part.adj. -"ter 5ou ha1e !han'ed the !ontrols o" an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e to 0a7e it start produ!in' or doin' so0ethin', it is t rne! on$ T rne! o.. is the opposite o. t rne! on$ S5itche! on is si0ilar to t rne! on$ !e careful of the stove 4 it's turned on. "$ t rn $$$ on p.v. [informal] So0ethin' that t rns 5ou on pleases 5ou and !auses 5ou to 'ain interest in so0ethin' or so0eone. So0ethin' about a person o" the opposite se< that t rns 5ou on !auses 5ou to be!o0e se<uall5 or ro0anti!all5 interested in that erson. T rn o.. is the opposite o. t rn on$ #hen saw this house from the outside, didn't think would buy it, but the beautiful woodwork inside really turned me on. Erik's blue eyes turn on his wife. t rne! on part.adj. When so0ethin' about a person o" the opposite se< !auses 5ou to be!o0e se<uall5 or ro0anti!all5 interested in that person, 5ou are t rne! on$ T rne! o.. is the opposite o. t rne! on$ ?aul was really turned on after seeing all the beautiful women in the Victoria(s !ecret catalog. 3 /

t rn9on n. So0ethin' that pleases 5ou and !auses 5ou to 'ain interest in so0ethin' or so0eone is a t rn9on$ So0ethin' about a person o" the opposite se< that !auses 5ou to be!o0e se<uall5 or ro0anti!all5 interested in that person is a t rn9on$ A t rno.. is the opposite o" a t rn9on$ l bought my wife an ankle bracelet for 5alentines 'ay8 think they're a turn-on. *$ t rn on p.v. When people or ani0als that 5ou had 'ood relations #ith t rn on 5ou, the5 stop bein' "riendl5 and tr5 to hurt 5ou. &ydia used to be my friend, but now she's telling people terrible things about me. wonder why she turned on me like that$ #ild animals don't make good pets. %hey can be friendly one minute and turn on you the ne"t. 6$ t rn$$$ on EtoF p.v. [informal] When 5ou t rn people on to so0ethin', 5ou tell the0 about so0ethin' 5ou thin7 the5 #ill li7e or so0ethin' that #ill help the0. Maria turned me on to a great *olombian restaurant. %his was a good book. %hanks for turning me on to it. #nfinitive present tense turn out turn out & turns out -ing form turning out past tense turned out past participle turned out

1. turn out p.v. Husually followed by @to be@ plus an adjective, an infinitive verb plus a noun, or a complete sentenceI .hen things or people turn out to be a certain way, it is discovered or considered that they are that way. .hen things or people turn out to be something, it is discovered or considered that they are that thing. .hen you say that it turns out BthatC or turned out BthatC and then make a statement of fact, you mean that this information, which is contrary to what you believed or e0pected, was discovered to be true. l didn't think would like my brother's new wife, but she turned out to be very nice. !efore met Fusty's son, 'anny, assumed he had red hair like his father, but 'anny turned out to have black hair. thought Sam bought a Mercedes3!en6, but it turns out that he bought a !M#. thought Sam bought a Mercedes3!en6, but it turned out that he bought a !M#. "$ t rn o t p.v. When so0ethin' t rns o t' it be!o0es #hat 5ou #ant it to be!o0e. When so0ethin' t rns o t a !ertain #a5, it be!o0es that #a5. 'id the pictures you took at the wedding turn out$ %he pictures turned out perfectly. (our plan was e"cellent, but it didn't turn out well. *$ t rn$$$ o t p.v. When people, !o0panies, "a!tories, #or7shops, and so on, turn o t so0ethin', the5 0anu"a!ture it or produ!e it. %his new factory will turn out C>,>>> units per year. High schools in 9merica are turning out people who can barely read. 3 1

6$ t rn o t E"orF p.v. When people t rn o t or t rn o t "or an e1ent, the5 attend or parti!ipate in the e1ent. When people t rn o t to do so0ethin', the5 'o to a pla!e to do it. 9re you nuts$ How many people do you think would turn out for an outdoor concert n the middle of winter$ %housands of people turned out to see the ?ope when he visited. t rno t n. The nu0ber o" people #ho attend or parti!ipate in an e1ent is the t rno t$ 5oter turnout for the election was only around 1> percent. #nfinitive present tense turn over turn over & turns over -ing form turning over past tense turned over past participle turned over

($ t rn $$$ over p.v. When 5ou t rn so0ethin' over' 5ou 0o1e it so that the side that #as on the botto0 is on the top, and 1i!e 1ersa. When so0ethin' t rns over' it 0o1es so that the side that #as on the botto0 is on the top, and 1i!e 1ersa. #hen one side of the steak is cooked, turn it over and cook the other side. %he driver was killed when his car turned over. "$ t rn $$$ over EtoF p.v. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' to so0eone be!ause that person de0ands or re,uires it or be!ause 5ou are not its ri'ht"ul o#ner, 5ou t rn it over or t rn it over to that person. Han! over is si0ilar to t rn over$ %he detective always turns the evidence from the crime scene over to the lab for analysis. 9fter the thieves are captured, the stolen items will be turned over to the rightful owners. *$ t rn $$$ over EtoF p.v. When the poli!e or other authorities are loo7in' "or people and 5ou ta7e these people or trans"er !ontrol o" the0 to the poli!e or authorities, 5ou t rn the0 over or t rn the0 over to the poli!e or authorities. l caught a burglar in my basement, and turned him over to the police. %he local police chief was relieved to turn the terrorist over to the -! . 6$ t rn over p.v. When e0plo5ees o" a !o0pan5 lea1e their )obs and are repla!ed b5 ne# e0plo5ees, the5 t rn over$ *onditions at the factory were so bad that employees turned over at a high rate. #e have a very stable work force in our plant. Employees turn over very slowly. t rnover n. The rate at #hi!h e0plo5ees o" a !o0pan5 lea1e and are repla!ed b5 ne# e0plo5ees is the t rnover$ %he new personnel manager said her top priority would be reducing the high turnover.

3 2

7$ t rn over p.v. When a business t rns over so0ethin' that it sells, it !ontinuall5 sells it and repla!es it #ith ne# 0er!handise. #e're turning over forty cases of bananas a week in this supermarket. Snowtnobiles and skis turn over very slowly in the summer. t rnover n. Co# 0u!h 0one5 a business has 0ade in a !ertain ti0e period is its t rnover$ %he company's annual turnover increased by 1G percent compared to the previous year. Infinitive turn up present tense turn up < turns up &ing form turning up past tense turned up past participle turned up

($ t rn $$$ + p.v. When 5ou t rn + an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, 5ou !han'e the !ontrols to in!rease the le1el o" #hat it is produ!in' or doin'. T rn !o5n is the opposite o" turn up. #ill you turn up the %5$ can't hear it. t was free6ing in here last night, so turned up the beat. "$ t rn$$$ + p.v. When 5ou t rn + so0ethin', 5ou "ind it or learn o" it as a result o" an in1esti'ation or sear!h. When so0ethin' t rns +' it is "ound or is learned o" as a result o" an in1esti'ation or sear!h. %he police turned up enough evidence to convict 7ake of murder. 'espite a thorough search, the murder weapon still hasn't turned up. *$ t rn + p.v. When people or thin's t rn + at a pla!e, the5 appear there. Sho5 + is si0ilar to t rn +$ t's hard to plan a picnic when don't know how many people will turn up. Every few years my worthless brother turns up at my door asking for money.

ECERCISE 67a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 4 thou'ht 'oin' !a0pin' #ould be a lot o" "un, but it sure didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that #a5. 2. 4tBs 2G3/ in the 0ornin' > donBt 5ou thin7 5ou ou'ht to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM soonH 3. Ceather #as sort o" interested in To0, but his !hildish beha1ior MMMMM her MMMMM. 4. The store 0ana'er said that she usuall5 MMMM MMMM onl5 t#ent5 or t#ent5-"i1e units per 0onth. 3 3

. Ia7e thou'ht Can7 #as his best "riend, but Can7 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ia7e and no# the5Bre ene0ies. $. -ll the 0edi!al students 0ust MMMMMMMM their lab e,uip0ent MMMMMMMM be"ore lea1in' the lab. %. -n5 spies !au'ht behind ene05 lines #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the 0ilitar5 "or ,uestionin'. 8. The in1esti'ation MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM e1iden!e o" !orruption in Cit5 Call. *. This old house loo7s prett5 bad no#, but #ith enou'h ti0e and 0one5, 5ou !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM so0ethin' reall5 ni!e. 1/. 4 #ant to #at!h TV? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 11. The 1olu0e is too lo#? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 12. No# the 1olu0e is too hi'h? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 13. ThereBs nothin' 'ood on TV? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 14. The "irst thin' 4 noti!ed #hen 4 0et 05 #i"e "or the "irst ti0e #as her beauti"ul s0ile? it reall5 MMMMMMMM0eMMMMMMMM. 1 . ;0plo5ees MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a 1er5 hi'h rate in this industr5. 1$. Not 0an5 people are li7el5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or the parade in this 0iserable #eather. 1%. The bo5 #as 'i1en a re#ard "or MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ba' o" 0one5 that he "ound in the street. 18. To 'et to .n!le IohnBs house, 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 0ain road a"ter 5ou !ross the brid'e and dri1e north "or three 0iles. 1*. 6ar7 7no#s a lot about #ine. CeBs MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM to so0e e<!ellent #ines "ro0 Cali"ornia. 2/. 65 super1isor MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 re,uest to be trans"erred to San 8ie'o. 21. The "irst "e# !hapters o" this no1el #ere a little borin', but no# that 4B0 near the end, itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to be a prett5 'ood boo7. 22. Please MMMMMMMM the !arpet MMMMMMMM. 4 #ant to read the label on the ba!7. 3 4

23. - hu'e !ro#d is e<pe!ted to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the airport to #el!o0e the returnin' Stanle5 Cup !ha0pions. 24. This !o0pan5 has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "irst-rate 0er!handise "or a hundred 5ears. 2 . 4 told the tea!her that 4Bd been in the hospital and #ouldnBt be able to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 pro)e!t on ti0e. 2$. WeB1e had one proble0 a"ter another > this is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to be a bad day. 5%. When Ia7e told his 0other that he had 0urdered so0eone, she told hi0 he had to MMMMMMMM hi0sel"MMMMMMMM. ECERCISE 67& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an! no ns .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. Caterpillars be!o0e butter"lies. What do !aterpillars doH 2. 8an appeared at his un!leBs "uneral. What did 8an doH 3. 2ran7 #as thin7in' o" as7in' Iane "or a date, but #hen he sa# her s0o7in' one !i'arette a"ter another, he !han'ed his 0ind. What did IaneBs s0o7in' do to 2ran7H

4. 4n Ouestion 3, #hat does 2ran7 thin7 s0o7in' isH . 4n Ouestion 3, ho# did 2ran7 "eel #hen he sa# Iane s0o7in'H $. Whene1er 05 #i"e #ears 05 "a1orite per"u0e, 4 "eel ro0anti!. What does the per"u0e do to 0eH

%. 4n Ouestion $, #hat do 4 thin7 the per"u0e isH 8. 4n Ouestion $, ho# do 4 "eel #hene1er 05 #i"e #ears 05 "a1orite per"u0eH *. AouBre !han'in' the !ontrols o" the heater to 0a7e it #ar0er. What are 5ou doin'H 1/. The rate at #hi!h old e0plo5ees are repla!ed #ith ne# e0plo5ees in 05 !o0pan5 is 1er5 lo#. What is 1er5 lo# at 05 !o0pan5H

**. This factory manufactures 7D,333 cars every year. .hat does the factory do1

12. Ni!ole didnBt !han'e the !ontrols o" her radio to 0a7e it louder. What didnBt Ni!ole doH 13. The dete!ti1e as7ed e1er5 ban7 e0plo5ee a lot o" ,uestions about the 0issin' 0one5, but she hasnBt dis!o1ered an5thin'. What hasnBt the dete!ti1e doneH 14. -"ter the 'as station #ent out o" business, it #as bou'ht and !han'ed into a Chinese restaurant. What happened to the 'as stationH

1 . Sall5 #anted to d5e her hair red, but it be!a0e oran'e. What did Sall5Bs hair doH 1$. 9arenBs "ather as7ed her i" he !ould borro# enou'h 0one5 to pa5 his propert5 ta<es, and 9aren !ouldnBt sa5 no to hi0. What !ouldnBt 9aren doH 1%. ToddBs !o0pan5 #ill probabl5 0a7e N4 0illion this 5ear. What #ill ToddBs !o0pan5 probabl5 do this 5earH 18. Ned hasnBt 'i1en his paper to his tea!her. What hasnBt Ned doneH 1*. &5dia 7no#s that her brother robbed a ban7, but sheBs not 'oin' to tell the poli!e. What isnBt &5dia 'oin' to do to her brotherH 2/. So 0an5 people attended the politi!al rall5 that there #asnBt enou'h roo0 in the auditoriu0. Wh5 #asnBt there enou'h roo0 at the politi!al rall5H

21. 4n Ouestion 2/, the nu0ber o" people #ho attended the rall5 #as lar'e. What #as lar'eH 22. 8a1id #as too laD5 to #ash the ru', so he put the dirt5 side on the botto0 and the !lean side on the top. What did 8a1id do to the ru'H ECERCISE 67c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .rothis section$ 1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM . MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM %. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 3 $

ECERCISE 67!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro+revio s sections$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n -&er /iven a.ter each one$ beat up, 44 !arr5 a#a5, 44 'et ba!7, 42 'et behind, 42 'et b5, 42 'et do#n, 42 'et inlinto, 42 'et out, 42 'et o1er, 42 'et up, 42 'ross out, 43 head to#ard, 43 lo!7 up, 44 run up, 43 stop o"", 43 tr5 on, 43

*. I lost a very e0pensive gold watch, and I(ll be very surprised if I ever %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%. 2. 4 had dinner #ith so0e "riends, and #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a N // tab. 3. Ca1e 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to see 5our parents in -las7a latel5H 4. 4 should ha1e MMMMMM these pants MMMMMM be"ore bu5in' the0 > the5Bre too s0all. . Carlos #as hittin' his brother -le<, so -le< said to Carlos,@MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" here:@ $. 4 !alled 05 brother in 6ia0i and told hi0 that 4 #as lea1in' =oston at 8G4/ in the 0ornin' and that 4 should MMMMMM MMMMMM there around 1G// in the a"ternoon. %. 4 #ish 5ouBd !he# #ith 5our 0outh !losed > 5ouBre MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 8. (ur "li'ht #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Santa 2e until a"ter 0idni'ht. *. -"ter 4 lea1e Te<as, 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6ississippi. 1/. 9arenBs e<pe!tin' 0e "or dinner toni'ht at her house #a5 out in the suburbs, but 05 !ar is in the shop. 4 donBt 7no# ho# 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there. 11. The ni'ht 0ana'er has to lea1e earl5 toni'ht, so 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or hi0. 12. Can7 had a "i'ht #ith a 'u5 in a bar and 'otMMMMMMMMMMMMMMprett5 badl5. 13. 4 had a bad da5 at #or7, so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a bar "or a drin7 be"ore 'oin' ho0e. 14. So"ia is ha1in' a lot o" trouble in her histor5 !lass and isMMMMMMMM"urther and "urther %%%%%%%%. *D. 'fter her husband died, she had a hard time %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% it. *J. 8ou can use my credit card to buy a few things, but don(t get %%%%%% %%%%%%.

68$ FOCUS ON< +ron nciation o. +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e into -s #e sa# in Se!tion $, three-#ord phrasal 1erbs are nor0all5 a!!ented on the se!ond, or 0iddle, parti!le #hether the5 are separable or nonseparable. This also applies to phrasal 1erbs that !on1ert in to ln"o #hen the5 are used #ith an ob)e!t. -lthou'h these 1erbs are not 0ade up o" three #ords, re!all that into is a!tuall5 a !o0bination o" the parti!les in and to t#o #ords #ritten as one. 2or this reason, it is the "irst s5llable o" into that is a!!entedG %he speakers are built $%to the wall. This is also true o" phrasal 1erbs usin' into that do not ha1e an in 1ersionG l bumped INto an old friend.

#nfinitive present tense build in build in & builds in -ing form building in past tense built in past participle built in

($ & i%! $$$inlinto p.v. When 5ou & i%! so0ethin' in or & i%! so0ethin' into so0ethin' else, 5ou put it in the ite0 5ou are 0a7in' durin' its !onstru!tion or asse0bl5 rather than addin' it later. l told the builder that wanted him to build some shelves in. n the past, -M radios weren't built into cars 4 you had to add one later if you wanted one. & i%t9in part.adj. When so0ethin' has been put into so0ethin' else durin' its !onstru!tion or asse0bl5, rather than bein' added later, it is & i%t9in$ %he sound from the stereo goes to built-in speakers in every room of the house. bump into bump into & bumps into bumping into bumped into bumped into

($ & -+ into p.v. When 5ou & -+ into thin's or people, 5ou a!!identall5 hit the0 #ith 5our bod5. l couldn't see where was going in the dark, and bumped into the door. #ould you please move these bo"es 4 keep bumping into them. "$ & -+ into p.v. When 5ou 0eet people une<pe!tedl5 or unintentionall5, 5ou & -+ into the0. R n into is the sa0e as & -+ into$ #e bumped into Sarah at the mall today. Bumping into one of my neighbors while was in Fome sure was a surprise.

3 8

Infinitive present tense con into con into < cons into &ing form conning into past tense conned into past participle conned into

($ con $$$into p.v. [informal] When 5ou con people into so0ethin' or con people into doin' so0ethin', 5ou persuade the0 to do it b5 "oolin' or de!ei1in' the0, Tric0 into is si0ilar to con into$ %hey weren't sure that it was a good idea to give all their money to Marv'm, but he conned them into it. %hat crooked mechanic tried to con me into paying for a lot of repairs my car didn't need. con out of con out of & cons out of conning out of conned out of conned out of

($ con $$$ o t o. p.v. [informal] When 5ou con people o t o. so0ethin', 5ou persuade the0 to 'i1e it to 5ou b5 "oolin' or de!ei1in' the0. Marvin conned them out of their life savings. %hat crooked mechanic tried to con me out of BC2M. freak out freak out & freaks out freaking out freaked out freaked out

($ .rea0$$$ o t p.v. [informal] When 5ou .rea0 o t' 5ou be!o0e 1er5 upset or 1er5 an'r5. When 5ou .rea0 other people out, 5ou !ause the0 to be!o0e 1er5 upset or 1er5 an'r5. Melanie freaked out when she learned that her husband had been arrested for murder. wish you would take that Halloween mask off4 you're freaking me out. make for make for & makes for making for made for made for

($ -a0e .or p.v. When so0ethin' !auses another thin', situation, or e1ent to ha1e a !ertain ,ualit5 or !hara!teristi!, it -a0es .or the other thin', situation, or e1ent. !eer, pi66a, football, and the kids staying with their grandparents make for a perfect Sunday afternoon. 9lcohol and teenage drivers make for trouble. "$ -a0e .or p.v. [informal] When 5ou -a0e .or a pla!e, 5ou 'o there in a hurr5. 9fter the robbery, the bank robbers made for the border. %he enemy soldiers are getting closer 4 let's make for the hills. talk into talk into & talks into talking into talked into talked into

($ ta%0$$$ into p.v. When 5ou ta%0 people into so0ethin' or ta%0 people into doin' so0ethin', 5ou persuade the0 to do it. 3 *

My father didn't want to let me use his car -riday night, but talked him into it. %his museum is really boring. wish hadn't let you talk me into coming here with you. talk out of talk out of & talks out of talking out of talked out of talked out of

($ ta%0$$$ o t o. p.v. When 5ou ta%0 people o t o. so0ethin' or ta%0 people o t o. doin' so0ethin', 5ou persuade the0 not to do it. %hat man was going to jump off the building, but the police officer talked him out of it. Erik's parents talked him out of changing his major from business to philosophy. ECERCISE 68a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 65 dau'hter is tr5in' to MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM 'ettin' her a pon5, but 4 7eep tellin' her #e !anBt a""ord one. 2. When 4 ordered 05 !o0puter, 4 had the0 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM so0e e<tra 0e0or5. 3. 4t #as a ni!e surprise to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM -unt 9ath5 toda5. 4 hadnBt seen her in 5ears. 4. 8onBt tell 5our 0other 5ouBre 'oin' to sha1e 5our head > sheBll MMMMMMMM %%%%%%%%. . Ioe sa5s heBs 'oin' to ,uit s!hool, and #e !anBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit. $. Their sleaD5 son-in-la#MMMMMMMMthe0MMMMMMMMlendin' hi0 N14,///. %. 4t #as so dar7 last ni'ht that 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a tree and bro7e 05 nose. 8. Nan!5 and To0 donBt ha1e an5thin' in !o00on > that doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a happ5 0arria'e. *. 8onBt trust 6ar1in > heBll MMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our last penn5. 1/. When the ene05 soldiers atta!7ed, #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #oods. 3$/

ECERCISE 68& ; =rite ans5ers to the > estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be s re the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ 1. 9aren is tr5in' to persuade 0e to help her paint her house. What is 9aren tr5in' to doH 2. 2ran!is!o une<pe!tedl5 0et +aul do#nto#n a !ouple o" da5s a'o. What did 2ran!is!o doH 3. That la#5er is l5in' to 5ou and tr5in' to persuade 5ou to 'i1e hi0 e1er5thin' 5ou o#n. What is the la#5er tr5in' to doH 4. Ca1in' both o" 05 e<-#i1es at the part5 #ill 0a7e the e1enin' 1er5 un!o0"ortable. What #ill ha1in' both o" 05 e<-#i1es at the part5 doH . That dishonest 'u5 de!ei1ed 05 -unt 9ath5 to 'et her to sell her house "or a lot less than itBs #orth. What did the dishonest 'u5 do to 05 -unt 9ath5H $. Car0en is upset and 1er5 ner1ous be!ause sh