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SOCIAL STUDIES FIRST TRIM REVIEWER

SESSION 1: HISTORY
EPHORUS
A Greek historian who is said to be the first universal historian

DIFFERENT MODES OF USING HISTORY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE


PREDICTIVE M ODE
Certain types of past development will happen again and that be understanding
history one can better handle future recurrences

“Those who do not know the past are condemned to


repeat it.”

HISTORICAL DISRUPTION MODE


Highlights the belief that some force is about to radically change the course if history
and therefore the future

RECENT HISTORY MODE


Looking to recent history for the trends that are likely to continue the future

DISAMBIGUATION OF THE DIFFERENT HISTORICAL NOTATIONS:


PREHISTORY
Historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records
exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood.

Studying paintings, drawings, carvings and other artifacts, some information can be
recovered even on the absence of a written record.

HISTORY
“The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people
cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and
in their future. History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the
carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future. Records of the past begin to be
kept for the benefit of future generations”.

-E.H. Carr, British Historian

THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR


The calendar system with the most widespread usage in the world today

It has been the unofficial global standard for decades.


Recognized by international institutes such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal
Union

DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS
A Christian Monk

Introduced the AD System in the Gregorian calendar

Counts time from the year Jesus Christ was born to replace Diocletian years, because
he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians

Dated Jesus’ Birth in the year AD 1 rather than AD 0 because the Roman Numerals had no
symbol for 0.

BC/AD VS BCE/CE
Both notations are based on a sixth century estimate for the year in which Jesus was born,
with Common Era designation originating among Christians in Europe at least as early as
1615.

BC/A D [A NNO D OMINI N OTATION ]

BC [B EFORE C HRIST ]

AD [A NNO D OMINI ]
Latin meaning, “in the year of our Lord,”

Because of this, AD is traditionally put before the numeral to which it relates, so that
it makes grammatical sense if understood in its expanded form: AD 1453

AD is usually put after the numeral, and is also acceptable to put it after the
identification of a century; 5th Century AD

BCE/CE [C OMMON E RA N OTATION ]

BCE [B EFORE THE COMMON / CURRENT ERA ]

CE [ COMMON / CURRENT ERA ]


th
Early 17 century - known as, “vulgar era,” or Ve, because of its Latin translation as Vulgus,
“the common people,” or those who are not royalty

19th Century – “Vulgar Era” came to be contrasted with “Christian Era,” and the word,
“Vulgar,” came to mean “Crudely Indecent,” no longer a synonym for “Common”

Has been adopted in several non-Christian cultures, by many scholars in religious studies
and other academic fields so to be sensitive to non- Christians

Does not explicitly make use of religious titles for Jesus, such as Christ and Lord, which are
used in the BC/AD notation
A range of arguments has been presented for the adoption of the Common Era notation.
Supporters of Common Era notation promote it as a more accurate and religiously neutral
notation better suited for cross-cultural communication.

On the other hand, some critics assert that the use of identifiers which have common
spellings is more ambiguous than the use of identifiers with divergent spellings. CE and BCE
have the same letters, “CE” in them, which may be confusing.

The removal of reference to Jesus in the Era notation is perceived by some Christians as
offensive.

THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE


NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS
As the sun was contracting from the nebular cloud, the flattened plane of the cloud began to
dissociate itself into its own matter lumps.

Small bodies moving through the dust and gas of the cloud began to accumulate.

The largest of these bodies probably had diameters no greater than a few tens of kilometers,
and they have been appropriately called planetesimals (“little planets”).

Even though the orbiting planetesimals travelled swiftly about the newly forming sun, their
speed relative to one another was not great, and they were attracted by gravity into larger
and larger masses. Earth grew, therefore from the accumulation of planetesimals.

GRAVITATIONAL CONTRACTION
Regions in the nebula have enough mass to be able to contract by their own gravity to form
a planet

ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Once a spinning body has started spinning, it will keep on spinning as long as no outside
influence affects it

Most models today are variations of the nebular model

As the nebular cloud contracts it gets hotter

BIG BANG THEORY


The matter in the universe originally concentrated in a mass about eight times the size of
our sun

An Explosion or, “Big Bang”, forces this material outward into space. It was from this
material that the galaxies and other bodies in space formed

Expanding universe
OSCILLATING UNIVERSE HYPOTHESIS
Began with an explosion

As the material travels outward, it is slowed down, then will stop and the universe will
contract

Another explosion will occur forcing the material outward again, then the process will repeat

One of the main faults of the Oscillating universe Theory is that the galaxies appear to be
moving apart at a rate fast enough to escape the gravitational pull that they exert to each
other.

STEADY STATE HYPOTHESIS


Does not depend on the idea of an explosion

The universe is not changing, as the galaxies move apart, new materials are formed in the
space in between them

If the steady-state theory is accepted, one would expect all the galaxies in the universe to
be very much alike.

New matter is continuously created as the universe expands, so that the perfect
cosmological principle is adhered to.

The universe is not only homogeneous and is otropic but it also looks the same at all
times

BINARY STAR HYPOTHESIS


Two stars that are bound to reach other’s gravity so they orbit around a common center of
mass.

Binary star systems are quite common and the pairing of stars appears to be random in
most cases.

The Solar System was created as a result of the explosion of a star next to the sun. The
fragments of the exploded star cooled down and amassed together.

Due to the sun’s gravitational pull, these fragments began to revolve around the sun which
came to be the different planets

PLANETESIMAL HYPOTHESIS
Widely accepted theory

A star once collided with the sun and the fragments of this star scattered in space
After collision, the small fragments cooled down; because of the sun’s gravitational pull,
they revolved around the sun and eventually became planets, moon and other materials
that comprise the Solar System.

ACCRETION
Occurs when small particles collide and stick together to form larger masses that eventually
grow into planets

A growing planet will sweep clear a zone to feed its mass

Planetesimal Hypothesis (Accretion Process)

SEVEN CONTINENTS
ASIA
Asia is the largest of Earth’s seven continents, lying almost entirely in the Northern
Hemisphere

Asia contains some of the world’s most spectacular natural features, including high
mountain ranges, vast plateaus, majestic river basins, and lakes and inland seas

Most of Asia’s climate is similar to the interior and eastern-coast climates of North America
at similar latitudes

The northernmost areas of Asia have a sub polar climate with very long, cold winters and
very short, cool summers

South of the subarctic regions is a broad stretch of land having a humid continental climate
with short summers
Winters are severe, but summer days are warm or even hot

Asia has the world’s highest point at Mount Everest in Nepal. It has the lowest point, too.
That’s near the Dead Sea, in an area of southwest Asia called the Middle East

AFRICA
Africa is the second largest of Earth’s seven continents, covering 23 percent of the world’s
total land area and containing 14 percent of the world’s population

It is a land of great geographical diversity

It is the birthplace of the human race

Africa generally consists of a series of flat and gently undulating plateaus occurring at
different levels, broken by a few mountainous areas and by the rift valleys of East Africa

Africa is the most tropical of the continents: Only its northern and southern extremes are
directly influenced by mid-latitude westerly winds and are considered to have temperate
climates

Temperatures remain high throughout the year, averaging more than 27°C annually, and
rarely falling below 21°C

NORTH AMERICA
North America is the third largest of the seven continents

The name America is derived from that of Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci, who may have
visited the mainland of North America in 1497 and 1498

All types of climate can be found in North America (Ice-covered plains = far north; tropical
weather = Caribbean Islands and Central America; Heavy Rains = Northwest Coast of North
America)

The eastern part of North America is composed primarily of plains, while the Western North
America is mountainous and rugged

North America is a land of big waters. A number of great rivers drain the continent. The
Mississippi, which flows from north to south in the central United States, is the continent’s
most important river

SOUTH AMERICA
It is the fourth largest of Earth’s seven continents

The desert regions of Chile is the driest part of South America

South America Climate is predominantly wet and hot

In general, however, most of the continent has warm weather the year around. Only in the
high Andes is it always cold
South America is home to the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largest
river (by volume), the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest
mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m (22,841 ft)); the driest place on earth, the Atacama
Desert; the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest

ANTARCTICA
Antarctica is the fifth largest of Earth’s seven continents. Antarctica surrounds the South
Pole and is a place of extremes. It is the southernmost, coldest, iciest, driest, windiest, most
remote, and most recently discovered continent

The continent of Antarctica is shaped somewhat like a comma

Its average elevation of more than 2,000 m (6,500 ft) is over twice that of Asia, the next
highest continent. However, much of this mass is ice

It is about the landmass of Australia

Only 2.4 percent of the total continental area is exposed rock

Only about 2 percent of the coast is exposed cliffs or beaches; the rest is made up of ice
cliffs that extend beyond the end of the continental rock

Air temperatures of the high inland regions fall below -80°C (-110°F) in winter and rise only
to -30°C (-20°F) in summer

EUROPE
Europe is the second smallest of the world’s seven continents

The name Europe is perhaps derived from that of Europa, the daughter of Phoenix in Greek
mythology, or possibly from Ereb, a Phoenician word for “sunset”

Europe is actually a peninsula—a piece of land that juts out from a mainland into water

Ural Mountains east of Europe divide the continent from Asia

Although much of Europe lies in the northern latitudes, the relatively warm seas that border
the continent give most of central and western Europe a moderate climate, with cool winters
and mild summers

You can see a great variety of landscapes in Europe. Many hills and mountains cover
northwestern Europe

The Great European Plain is a low-lying plain that reaches all the way from southern France
to the Ural Mountains in Russia. Some of Europe’s best soils and most productive farms are
found here

AUSTRALIA
Australia is considered the world’s seventh and smallest continent
Like an island, Australia is surrounded by water. But Australia is too large to be called an
island

Australia is one of the flattest lands on Earth. It has a vast, flat interior called “the outback”
(a series of great plains)

Australia has a tropical climate in the north, an arid or semiarid climate in much of the
interior, and a temperate climate in the south

Generally, coastal and highland areas, especially in the southeast, are cooler than interior
locations, and the north, particularly the northwestern coast, is the hottest region

Australia lacks mountains of great height; it is one of the world’s flattest landmasses

Despite these variations, the moderating influence of the surrounding oceans and the
absence of extensive high mountain ranges help prevent marked extremes of weather

BODIES OF LAND AND WATER


BODIES OF LAND
HILL
Extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area

Lower and less steep than a mountain

Many settlements were originally built on hills

CLIFF
A significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure

Common on coasts, in mountainous areas, escarpments and along rivers

Usually formed by rocks that are resistant to erosion and weathering

VALLEY
An area of low-lying land flanked by higher ground

The original natural habitat of the human species was the large river valleys of the world

Usually contain a stream or river flowing along the valley floor

MOUNTAIN
A region of land that is raised rather steeply above the surrounding terrain

Mountains are generally much narrower at the top than at the base

Distinguishable from hills by mountains’ generally higher elevation

PLATEAU
An area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain
Its top is flat or sloping

A volcanic plateau is a plateau produced by volcanic activity

VOLCANO
An opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and
gases to escape from below the surface

The word volcano is derived from Italian,”vulcano,” after Vulcan, the roman god of fire

Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like
mountains over a period of time

PLAIN
Plains occur as lowlands and at the bottoms of valleys but also on plateau at high elevation

A broad and flat land area

Plains are significant for agriculture and livestock

DESERT
Is a landscape or region that receives very little precipitation

It has an evaporation rate that exceeds precipitation, and, in most cases, a high average temperature

Daytime temperatures can reach 55°c (131°f) in the shade. At night the desert floor radiates heat back to the
atmosphere, and the temperature can drop to near freezing.

BODIES OF WATER

BAY
Bordered by land on three sides

Have calmer waters than the surrounding sea

Is set off from a larger body of water

LAKE
It is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river

Generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent
glaciations

All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales

STREAM
It is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks

In the United States, a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres)
wide

They serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration


SPRING
A spring is any natural occurrence where water flows onto the surface of the earth from
below the surface

The composition of spring water varies with the character of the surrounding soil or rocks

The groundwater then travels through a network of cracks and fissures, openings ranging
from intergranular spaces to large caves

STRAIT
A narrow, navigable channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water

Commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses

Straits can lie on important shipping routes, and wars have been fought for control of these
straits

OCEAN
Body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere

Approximately 74% of the earth's surface is covered by ocean

Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water

LAGOON
A body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water

Separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar
feature

Venetian laguna (Latín,: “lacuna”, ‘empty space’)

SWAMP
A wetland featuring temporary or permanent flooding of large areas of land by shallow
bodies of water

The water of a swamp may be either fresh water or salt water

Swamps were historically often drained to provide additional land for agriculture, and to
reduce the threat of diseases born by swamp insects and similar animals

EVOLUTION OF SPECIES
SIZE OF SKULL
Dividing line between apes and humans

NAME INFORMATION
Proconsul Earliest known ape
Primate related to humans

Anoiapithecus brevirostris Missing link between humans and apes

Pithecanthropus erectus Java man

Sinanthropus pekinensis Peking Man

1930

Australopithecus afarensis “Lucy”

Australopithecus robustus Flat face, Muscular jaw, flat teeth

Homo habilis “Handy man”

Homo erectus The first species to migrate from Africa

“Tukana Boy”

Able to construct tools and use fire

Homo Sapiens Skulls were slightly rounder and larger that Homo erectus

CHARLES DARWIN
1859

ORIGIN OF SPECIES
“Natural Selection,”

The survival of the fittest

SESSION 2!

MESOPOTAMIAN AND WEST ASIAN CIVILIZATIONS

MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATIONS
CURRENTLY IRAQ
Region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Mesopotamia is Greek for, “between rivers”


FERTILE CRESCENT
Region in Mesopotamia

Only suitable land for agriculture because of the two rivers

SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION

4000 BC

Nomad civilization at first because it had no constant resource

Learned farming so they settled down

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


12 city- states with their own government and independent leaders, who are seen as
delegates of god

System of ranks and heirarchy

Owned slaves, who are captured in war, or they sold themselves to pay off a debt

Wives of rulers enjoyed special powers and duties

RELIGION
Polytheistic

Believed that gods and goddesses behaved like regular people

Highest duty was to keep the divine beings happy for them to protect their city- states

Believed in afterlife: a grim place with no release

Z IGGURAT
A pyramid temple that soared toward the heaven

Home for their gods

EDUCATION
Only a few people are claimed to write cuneiform

The earliest form of writing: Latin for, “wedge”

Figures are wedge- like

Students are mostly the sons of upper- class professionals: priests, government officials,
military sea captains, scribes

Girls are not enrolled

CONTRIBUTIONS
Developed basic algebra and geometry
Based their number system on 6; ex. 1 hour= 60 sec.

Invented cuneiform

Invented the wheel; applied to pottery

AKKADIANS
2296 BCE – 2240 BCE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


World’s first empire established by Sargon

Bound together by roads and regular postal service

To maintain control over the empire, Sargon appointed his daughter as deities, installed his
sons as provincial governors, and married off his daughters to the rulers of the peripheral
parts of the empire

RELIGION
Polytheistic

Women were respected and they have played a significant role in the religious culture

DECLINE
Some speculate that bad harvest, (salinization) climate change or even a giant meteor
contributed to their decline

After the death of Sargon, he was replaced by incompetent leaders

CONTRIBUTIONS
Can be appreciated as a vital link in the chain of human progress, away from tribalism and
local royalties towards consciousness of wider, even of trans- national obligations

The first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library
established by Sargon

ASSYRIANS
2000 BCE- 612 BCE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


Warfare was so central to Assyrian culture

Encouraged a well ordered society

Riches from trade and loot from wars paid for splendid palaces in well planned cities

Law code has a repressive attitude towards women

The king also functioned as a high priest, and state god


DECLINE
Fell during 612 BCE because of its weak leaders

Assyria finally succumbed to the rise of the non- Babylonian Chaldean Dynasty

CONTRIBUTION
King Assurbanipal founded one of the first libraries in Nineveh

BABYLONIANS
1696 BCE to 1155 BCE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


Hammurabi established a bureaucracy with taxation and a centralized government

Emerged when Hammurabi created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms
of Sumer and Akkad

C RIME AND P UNISHMENT

C ODE OF H AMMURABI
First attempt by a ruler to codify or arrange and set down in writing all of the laws that
would govern a state

CRIMINAL LAW
Limited personal vengeance and encouraged social order

And eye for an eye and a life for a life

CIVIL LAW
Deals with private rights and matters

Was designed to protect the powerless, such as slaves or women

Believed that an orderly household was necessary for a stable empire

BABYLON REVIVED
An aggressive and ruthless king named Nebuchadnezzar revived the power of Babylonia and
defeated the Assyrian army

Built the hanging garden of Babylon

CONTRIBUTIONS
Introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and prescription in
medicine

The zodiac was a Babylonian invention

Glass making, textile weaving


WEST ASIA CIVILIZATIONS
HITTITES
1250 BCE- 1200 BCE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


The Hittite king acted as the supreme priest, military commander, and chief judge of the
land

Hittite justice rested on the principle of restitution of vengeance

Rarely resorted to the death penalty or to bodily mutilation

RELIGION
Their religion and mythology was heavily influenced by the Mesopotamian mythology

CONTRIBUTIONS
The most outstanding achievements of the Hittite civilization lay in the fields of legislation
and the administration of justice

Thought to have the first constitutional monarchy

First to use iron for their weapons and tools

DECLINE
Invaded and conquered by the sea people

HEBREWS
2000 BCE- 586 BCE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY

A BRAHAM
Considered to be the founder of the Israelite nation

Migrated to Egypt because of famine where they were enslaved

Moses led the Israelites in their escape (Exodus) from Egypt

David united the feuding Israelite tribes into a single nation

Had foreign negotiation with Egypt and Mesopotamia

Patriarchal

Saw leaders as fully human

Urged personal moratily and personal justice


RELIGION
Monotheistic

Believed in an all knowing and all powerful God and was present everywhere

Heart of Judaism is the 10 commandments

Sees themselves as bearers of a unique covenant with a single God (Yahweh)

DECLINE
High taxes and forced labor

Revolted after Solomon’s death

The kingdoms split: North: Israel; South: Judah

722 BCE- Assyrians – Israel

586 BCE- Babylonians- Judah

LYDIAN
800 BCE- 546 BCE

Located in the valleys of Hermus and Cayster rivers

Fertile soil, rich deposit of gold and silver

Croesus- one of the richest + most popular monarch in West Asia

RELIGION
Focuses on the divine mother Cybele

Shares characteristics of Anatolian religion

DECLINE
Cyrus the Great conquered Sardis – The capital city of Lydia

And annexed it with the Persian Empire

CONTRIBUTIONS
First to use coins in trade: gold, silver, both

PHOENICIANS
2500 BCE- 800 BCE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


Wealthy merchant aristocrats had certain right protecting them full strength of the law

Spread Middle Eastern civilization around the Mediterranean


Slaves were protected to some extent by the law and could earn money to buy their own
freedom

Occupation- sailors and traders- surrounded by the sea

Makes glass from coastal sand

To promote trade they set up colonies from North Africa to Sicily and Spain

DECLINE
Egypt invaded and rode control over Phoenicia in 1800 BCE

Subjugated again during the 8th century BCE by the Assyrians

CONTRIBUTIONS
Invented glass blowing technique

Our modern day alphabet is based on the Phoenician alphabet (22 symbols)

PERSIANS
650 BCE- 637 CE

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


Settled east of Mesopotamia

One of the several Aryan people

Persian Kings administered tolerance/ acceptance of the people they conquered

547 BCE- Cyrus the Great; Persians began to build the largest empire

539 BCE- Babylon falls to the Persian Armies of Cyrus the Great

Cyrus the Great set up the first efficient Postal System relays of mounted messengers

Darius divided the Persian Empire to 20 provinces. Each governed by a satrap

Through inspector- spies, known as, “eyes and ears of the king” the ruler kept track of his
governors

Each province had to pay taxes based on its resources and wealth and provide recruits for
the army

Everywhere in the empire the same system of weights were used

Xerzes, the son of Darius, spent 3 years preparation for a great fleet and army to punish the
Greeks for aiding the Lonan cities 498 BCE and for their victory over the Persians at
Marathon in 490 BCE

During the Spring of 480 BCE

RELIGION
6th century BCE- Zoroaster: “The world is a struggle between good and evil.”; Author of the
sacred book, “Zend Avesta”

Ahura Mazda was seen as the supreme god standing for truth, goodness, and light.

Ahriman was the evil spirit (darkness, etc.)

Zoroastrianism- official religion

DECLINE
Persian Empire became week when Satraps of different provinces started to fight for the
imperial throne

CONTRIBUTIONS
Architecture

SOCIAL STUDIES SESSION 3!


EGYPTIAN AND INDIAN CIVILIZATIONS
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS
“Egypt is wholly the gift of the Nile.” – Herodotus

“If the Nile smile, the earth is joyous, every stomach is full of rejoicing, every spine is happy,
every jawbone crushes its food” -“Hymn to the Nile,” quoted in the Literature of the ancient
Egyptians

N ILE R IVER
Without the Nile, Egypt would be swallowed up by the barren deserts that surround it

Unlike the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile River rarely brought death and
destruction

The Tigris and Euphrates and their tributaries curved up Mesopotamia into isolated areas,
while the Nile served to unify Egypt

S TRATEGIC L OCATION
Possessed enormous quantities of stone, which served as the raw material of architecture
and sculpture

The raw materials that the Egyptians lacked were close at hand

Copper- Sinai
Timber- Lebanon
Geography shielded Egypt from invasion and from immigration (only in the North
Mediterranean Sea leave Egypt exposed)

Egypt was nearly self sufficient

ORIGIN OF EGYPTIANS
Late Paleolithic Period

N ORTH A FRICA
@ Increasingly hot and dry
@ Forcing nomadic hunter- gatherer populations of the area to concentrate along the
Nile valley

Nomadic peoples may have been attracted to the area because of a hospitable climate and
environment

@ Realized the benefits of a more sedentary life and decided to settle there
@ Descendants of these people may have begun Egyptian Civilization in the Nile Valley

U NITING THE L AND


Ancient Egypt had two distinct Regions:

Upper Egypt: South

@ Communities along river to Aswan

Lower Egypt: North

@ Menes- King of upper Egypt


○ United two regions by using the Nile a Highway to send officials and armies

Pschent (sh-yen)

The name of the Double Crown of Ancient Egypt

Represented the pharaoh's power over all of unified Egypt

combined the Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Hedjet Crown of Upper
Egypt

THE OLD KINGDOM (2700-2200 BCE)


The strong rule set up by Menes became the basis of the Old Kingdom

The ruler was later called a pharaoh (fair-oh)

@ Also considered as one of Egypt’s many gods


@ Thought of themselves as the protector of the people and so tried to rule justly
@ responsible for all aspects of life in egypt
# Keeping the irrigation works in order
# Directing the army
# Maintaining peace
# Issuing laws
# Controlling the economy and trade
# Feeding the people
# Collecting taxes
@ Depended on a vizier, or chief minister, to supervise the business of the government
and acted in the name of the pharaoh
# Lesser officials helped the vizier carry out the many details of running the
Egyptian government and economy

P YRAMIDS
Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom had immense pyramids built to serve as their tombs

The Great Pyramid near Giza was built about 2600 BCE for the Pharaoh Khufu

So skillfully made that the blocks were fitted in place with such precision that a knife blade
could not be slipped between them

Declined due to the growing power of the nobles in the government

Some nobles challenged the supreme rule of the pharaoh which resulted to civil war

THE M IDDLE KINGDOM (2040-1700 BCE)


new pharaohs reunited the land, ushering in the Middle Kingdom

a turbulent period:

@ The Nile did not rise as regularly as it had


@ Corruption and rebellion were common
@ In 1700 BCE Foreign invaders, the Hyksos (“princes from foreign land”), occupied the
delta region.
○ Had horses and war chariots, bronze swords and daggers, and heavy bows.
○ Due to their superior weapons , the Hyksos were able to establish a ruling
dynasty by about 1670 BCE.
○ For 100 years the Egyptians were under foreign rule. But after learning to use
the Hyksos’ weapons, the Egyptians were able to regain their independence
and new Egyptian leaders rose to power.

THE NEW KINGDOM (1570-1070 BCE)


Powerful pharaohs brought Egypt to its height by expanding the Egyptian empire eastward
to the Euphrates River and southward in Africa.

T HUTMOSE II
Added Nubia to the empire and conquered Syria and Palestine

When Thutmose died, his wife Hatshepsut, seized power and ruled for more than twenty
years.

H ATSHEPSUT
A very powerful female monarch during the New Kingdom who exercised all the rights of a
pharaoh

Encouraged trade in the Mediterranean and Africa, and built temples

A KHENATON (A MENHOTEP )
Reduced the power of the priests in the Egyptian government and changed the Egyptian’s
worship of many gods to a single supreme god – Aton

But in reality, Akhenaton’s religion recognized two gods -Aton and himself

R AMSES II
One of the last effective rulers of the New Kingdom

He fought against the Hittites for almost twenty years

Marriage to the daughter of the Hittite king helped to keep peace for the rest of his long
reign

DECLINE OF THE EGYPTIAN EMPIRE


The pharaoh’s power began to weaken, while outside invasion also threatened the empire

Suffered from the invasion of the Libyans coming from West Africa, and the “sea people”
– raiders from Asia Minor, coming from the Mediterranean and Aegean seas who invaded
their coastline

In the succeeding centuries, Egypt came under the rule of many different peoples, among
them Kushites from the south, Assyrians, and Persians.

Egyptian dynasties often came back into power. However, not until the conquest of
Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC did native rule in Egypt finally end

INDIA
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
C. 2500- 1500 BCE

Flourished for about 1000 years then vanished

Covered the largest area of any civilization until the rise of Persia 1000 years later

The 2 main cities:

@ Harappa
@ Mohenjo- Daro

Each city was laid up with rectangular blocks larger than modern city blocks

Houses

@ Built of uniform over- fired clay bricks


@ Had modern plumbing systems
# Bathe drains, water chutes- sewers beneath streets

G EOGRAPHY
Located in the region known as South Asia/ Subcontinent of India

Large landmass that juts out from a continent

Rivers: Indus, Ganas, Bramahputra

River: Lok- mata or “mother of all people”

Deccan Plateau

@ Lack melting snow that feeds the river for irrigation.


@ Much of the region is arid, unproductive and sparsely populated

Eastern and Western Gahes

-low lying mountain ranges

Monsoon- seasonal winds pick up moisture over the Indian Ocean and then drench the land
with daily downpours

S OCIETY
Farmers

Wheat, barley, melons, dates

First people to cultivate cotton and weave its fiber into cloth

Some people were merchants and traders

Their contact with Sumer may have stimulated the development of their own system of
writing

R ELIGION
Polytheistic

Mother goddess – Source of all creation

Worshipped sacred animals – bull, etc

D ECLINE
Environmental degradation may have contributed to their decline

Also possible that the Indus River was blocked by mud due to a volcanic eruption which
flooded the city

Earthquake

Mortimer Wheeler
Aryans- Southern Russian invaded the region in large numbers with their superior
weapons, slaughtering, and forcing people to abandon their cities

MAURYA EMPIRE
321 BCE- Chandragupta Maurya

@ 1st Indian Empire

Had schools, libraries, and splendid palaces and temples

Maintained order through a well- organized bureaucracy

○ Effective but harsh

Had a brutal secret police that reported on corruption, crime, and dissent or opposing
opinions and ideas

Had specially trained women warriors to guard his palace

Asoka- Chandragupa’s grandson

Succeded – 268 BCE

After fighting a long and bloody war in the Deccan region of Kalinga, he was horrified by the
slaughter of 100 000 men

Turned his back on further conquest and converted into Buddhism

Became a vegetarian, non- violent, moral example and righteous leader

Promoted Buddhism but preached tolerance for other religions

TAMIL KINGDOMS
The Deccan Plateau was ruled by the Tamil Kingdoms

Women in the Tamil Kingdoms enjoyed a high status, their kingdoms were sometimes ruled
by queens

Deccan rulers tolerated all religions as well as foreigners who settled in their busy ports

Tamil merchants sent spices, fine textiles and other luxuries westward in the Roman empire

Tamil Kingdoms have left a rich and diverse literature

Tamil Proverbs:

“Distance promotes close friendship.”

“If in excess even nectar is poison.”

“The scorpion stings him who helps it out of the fire.”

GUPTA DYNASTY
India enjoyed a golden age under the Guptas who ruled from 320 – 550 AD

Gupta rule was more lenient compared to the Mauryas

Students were educated in schools that not only taught religion but mathematics, medicine,
physics, languages, literature and other subjects as well

The Guptas deviced the Arabic numerals, the concept of zero, and the decimal system

Surgeons were skilled in setting bones and in simple surgery to repair facial surgeries

T HE C ASTE S YSTEM
To Hindus, people in different castes were different species of beings. A high-caste Brahmin,
for example, was purer and therefore closer to moshka than someone from a lower caste

High-caste people had the strictest rule to protect them from the spiritually polluted, or
impure lower caste

The lowest ranked out-castes, or “untouchables,” held the “impure” jobs such as digging
graves, cleaning streets, or turning animal hides into leather

Despite the inequalities, caste system ensured a stable social order

FAMILY LIFE
Family interest came before individual interest

In Northern India, a bride’s family commonly provided a dowry, or payment to the


bridegroom, and financed the costly wedding festivities

By late Gupta times, upper-class women were increasingly restricted to the home. When
they were outside they were supposed to cover themselves from head to foot

Women were thought to have “shakti”, a creative energy that men lacked. Through
marriage, the woman’s “shakti” helped to make the husband complete


Ancient China and Japan!
ANCIENT CHINA
GEOGRAPHY
West and southwest= Tien San and Himalayas, Southeast= Thick Jungle, North= Gobi
Desert, East= Pacific Ocean

Isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the earth

The Chinese heartland lay along the east coast and the and the Valley of Huang He (Yellow
River), and the Yangzi

Chinese History began in the Huang He Valley, where Neolithic people began to form

SHANG DYNASTY (1659-1045 BCE)


Chinese civilization first took place

Closely related to the City- States of Sumer

Noblewomen had considerable status in government

Fu Hao- owned land and helped to lead a large army against invaders

Shang army used leather armor, bronze weapon and horse- drawn chariots

Most people in Shang, China were peasants

All family members worked in the fields

R ELIGION
Polytheistic

Had prayed to many gods and spirits

Highest god in Shang Di also had a mother goddess

King was seen as a link between the people and Shang Di

Offered sacrifices of food and other necessities to honor the spirits of their ancestors

The universe is a balance between Yin ang Yang

Yin- earth, darkness, female forces

Yang- heaven, light, male forces

S YSTEM OF W RITING
Developed early in their history

Uses both pictograph and ideograph to express thoughts and ideas

One of the most difficult language to learn (memorize at least 10,000 symbols to read a
newspaper)
Only the well to do could afford ro study how to read and write

ZHOU DYNASTY (1625- 256 BCE)


The battle hardened Zuo people marched oout their kingdom on the western frontier to
overthrow Shang

Promoted the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rebellion

Under the Zhou China developed ontp a feufal state

Local lords governed their own lands

Local rulers owed military recruits to the king

Zhou king’s rule is southern theoretical

During the Zhou period China grew new crops such as soybeans

Began to use money

China in area population and prosperity during the Zhou era

QIN DYNASTY
Zheng

A powerful ruler of the state of Qin unified all of China

Proclaimed himself Shi Huangdi (First Emperor)

Conquered most of the warring states within 20 years and constrained power with
the heir of, “Legalist Advisers”

Shi Huangdi

Used the method of rewards and punishmentand built an authoritarian government

Replaced the feudal states with 36 military districsts run be his military officials

Also sent inpectors to spy on the officials

Also forced noble families to live in his capital on Xianyang, where he could monitor
them

Jailed, tortured, and killed those who oppose his rule (Mostly nobles and Confucian
scholars)

To end dissent, he approved a ruthless campaign of book burning

Ordered the walls of individual states to be joined

When he died in 210 BCE, anger over heavy taxes, forced labor, and cruel policies
exploded into revolts

As Qin power collapsed the Han dynasty rose


HAN DYNASTY (206 BCE – 220 BCE)
Liu Bang

An illiterate peasant leader defeated rival armies and founded the Han dynasty

Gao Zu

Lowered taxes and eased the Qin emperor’s harsh policies

Appointed Confucian scholars as his Advisers

Emperor Wudi

Chose officials from Confucian “men of wisdom and virtues”

Had granaries set up across the empire

Imposed government monopoly on iron and salt

Followed the policy of expansionism by increasing the amount of territory under the Chinese
rule

Recognized that the best defense is offense

Opened a trade route called Silk Road that linked China and the West

Goods were relayed in stages from one sat on stages to another

Relied on well- educated scholars to run the bureaucratic government

Qualities include: Courteous, Dignified, Possesses knowledge in History, Poetry,


Music, and Confucian Teaching

Civil Service Examination

Collapsed when emperors can no longer control war lords and peasant revolt

EMERGENCE OF JAPAN
GEOGRAPHY
100 miles away from Asia Mainland

4 Main Islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku

4/5 of its land is too mountainous to farm

Surrounding seas have both protected and isolated Japan

Ring of Fire

EARLY HISTORY
Migrated from Asia Main around 2000 years ago
Pushed the earlier inhabitant the time onto the northernmost island of Hokkaido

Early Japanese society were divided into Uji (Class)

Yamato clan set up Japan’s first and only dynasty at around AD 500

Claimed direct descent from the sun goddess Ameratsu, chose the rising sun as their
symbol

Emperors were revered as a living god

RELIGION
Honored kami (nature spirits)

Shinto (ways of the gods)

Each clan worships its own god or goddess who was seen as the clan’s original ancestor

FOREIGN RELATION
Language is distantly related to Korean but completely different from Chinese

Japan and Korea had continuously traded and fought each other

Some leading families at he Yamato court has Korean Ancestors

Introduction of Buddhism and Chinese culture to Japan by Korean missionaries sparked the
internet of Japan towards Chinese Civilization

Prince Shotoku decided to learn about China directly instead of through Korean sources by
sending young nobles to study in China during the early 600’s

CHINESE INFLUENCE
Japanese rules adopted the title, “heavenly emperor” from the Chinese

Adopted a law code similar to that of China

In 710’s, the Japanese emperor built a new capital in Nara, modeled on the Tang Capital at
Chang’ an

Confucian ideas were also absorbed by the Japanese

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY

H EIAN P ERIOD
Imperial capital was in Heiam (Kyoto)

Emperors performed traditional religious ceremonies while wealthy court families wielded
real power

Noblewomen and noblemen lived in a fairytale atmosphere, beautiful pavilions, gardens, and
lotus pools
Despite many restrictions, Heian women were able to produce the most important works of
Japanese literature of the period

Sei Shonagon, a lady in waiting, wrote, “The Pillow Book,” which is about court manners,
amusements, décor and dress

Marusaki Shikiou wrote the world’s first full- length novel, “The Tale of Genji,” which is about
the adventures and loves of the fictional prince Genji and his son

JAPAN’S FEUDAL AGE


While the emperor resided in the splendid court at Heian, rival clans battled for the
countryside

Emperor remained powerless

Shogus- supreme military commander

Miramoto Yoritomo

Kamakura Shogunata in 1192

One of the 3 military dynastics that would rule Japan (700 Years)

Shogun distributed lands to the daimyos (warrior lords) supported him in time of need

Granted land to lesser warriors called samurai – those who serve

Bushido- way of the warrior- a code of values of the samurai (honor, bravery, and loyalty to
one’s lord)

“If you think of saving your life, you had better not to go to war at all”

“When his stomach is hungry, it is disgrace to fell hungry”

S OCIETY
Position of women declined steadily as the age of samurai progress

European code of Chivalry- samurai did not set women on pedestal

Peasants formed the backbone of society, (75%)

Merchants- lowest rank- gradually increased

M ONGOL INVASION
Mongol conquest of China and Korea also threatened Japan

Kublai Khan launched an invasion from Korea in 1274

After a ship carrying 30,000 troops arrived a typhoon wrecked many Mongol ships

1281- Mongols launched a larger force, but again a typhoon destroyed much of the Mongol
fleet
Japanese credited their miraculous delivery to the kamikaze (divine winds)

TOKUGAWA ERA
Kamakura Shogunate crumbled in the aftermath of the Mongol invasions

“The warrior does not care if he’s called a dog or beast. The main thing is winning”

1600- Tokugawa Leyasu defeated his rivals to become a master of Japan

Centralized feudalism

Required the daimyos to live in Shogun’s capital at Edu every other year, while their wife
and children had to remain in Edu

Only samurais were allowed to serve or hold governent jobs

Women’s freedom to move about or even travel with their husband was strictly regulated

With peace restored to the countryside, agriculture improved and expanded

Rapid population growth

Towns sprang up around the cashes of Daimyo

Z EN B UDDHISM
Emphasized meditation and devotion to duty

Seems contradicting

Zen monks were scholars but they stressed the importance of reaching a moment of
non- knowing

Stressed compassion for all, samurais fought to kill

Monks sought to express absolute freedom, rigid rules gave their masters complete
rule over them

Zen monasteries- upper class men expressed their devotion to nature- landscape gardening

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