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Sandstone Acidizing

Outline

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Sandstone vs. Carbonate Sandstone composition Mineral surface area Reaction of HF with silicates Design methodology Fluid selection Mud Acid, Clay Acid and Organic Clay Acid. Avoid problems
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Objectives

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Describe the sandstone acidizing process. List the key components in sandstones. State the importance of mineral surface area. Describe the primary, 2nd and tertiary reactions of mud acid with clay. State the major components of spent mud acid. List the incompatible ions with spent mud acid and state why they are incompatible. State the problems associated with illite and chlorite. State the purpose of the each sandstone treatment stage. Describe the fluid selection process. Describe when/why Mud Acid, Clay Acid and OCA are used. Describe Mud Acid, Clay Acid and OCA treatment designs and how they are different. State how to avoid potential problems during a treatment.
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Carbonate vs. Sandstone


SANDSTONE Dissolution of the damaging mineral A small fraction of the matrix is dissolved Potential precipitation CARBONATE A large fraction of the matrix is soluble (>50%) Dissolution of rock (wormholes) damage bypass Diversion

Treatment of sandstone with high calcite content (>20%): Use carbonate design methodology Use sandstone diversion techniques Iron control may be a problem
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Sandstone Constituents
Secondary Cement (Carbonate Quartz) Clays (Pore lining i.e., illite) Clays (Pore filling i.e., Kaolinite) Quartz

*Feldspars *Chert *Mica

Remaining Pore Space

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Formation Minerals - Silicates


Minerals
Quartz Quartz Feldspars Feldspars Quartz Quartz Orthoclase Orthoclase Microcline Microcline

Chemical Composition
Si0 22 Si0 KAlSi O 33 88 KAlSi O KAlSi 3O 8 KAlSi O
3 8 2-3 1-2

Albite Albite Plagioclase Plagioclase

NaSi AlO 33 88 NaSi AlO Si 2-3Al 1-2O 8(Na,Ca) Si Al O (Na,Ca)


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Micas Micas Clays Clays

Biotite Biotite Muscovite Muscovite Chlorite Chlorite Kaolinite Kaolinite Illite Illite Smectite Smectite Mixed-Layer Mixed MixedLayer Mixed

(AlSi O ) K(Mg, Fe)3(OH) 33 10 22 (AlSi O 10) K(Mg, Fe) 3(OH) (AlSi O ) K(Al) OH) 3 O 10 ) K(Al) 2 OH)2 (AlSi
3 10 2 2 +2, Fe+3 (Mg, )) Si AlO (OH)8 66 33 10 (Mg,Fe Fe+2 , Fe+3 Si AlO 10 (OH) 8 Al (Si O )(OH) 4 (Si 4 O 10 )(OH) 8 Al

Si AlO (OH)2KAl 33 10 22 Si AlO 10(OH) 2KAl

10

(AlSi O )Mg5(Al,Fe)(OH) 33 10 88 (AlSi O 10)Mg 5(Al,Fe)(OH) Illite or Chlorite Kaolinite, Kaolinite, Illite or Chloritewith withSmectite Smectite

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Formation Minerals
Minerals Carbonates Calcite Dolomite Ankerite Siderite Sulfates Gypsum Anhydrite Others Halite Iron Oxides Chemical Composition CaCO3 Ca, Mg(CO3)2 Ca,(Mg,Fe)(CO 3) 2 FeCO 3 CaSO42H 2O CaSO4 NaCl

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Reaction Rate - Factors


Mineral Composition & Surface Area Dominant Factor Surface Area
Mineral
Quartz Feldspar Clays: Kaolinite Illite Smectite

Specific Area
Few cm2/g Few cm2/g 22 m2/g 113 m2/g 82 m2/g

Reaction Rate: Clays > Feldspars > Quartz


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Mud Acids: HCl HF


Hydrochloric wt% + Hydrofluoric wt%
12 3, 12 2 13.5 1.5 9 1.5, 9 1 6 1.5, 6 - 1 4.5 0.5

Siliceous minerals
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Reaction of Mud Acid (HCl HF) with Clay


Na or K Primary (5+x) HF + MM-AlAl-Si + (3(3-x+1) H + = (3-x)+ + M + + 2H O HSiF5 + AlFx(3 2
+ +

HF Clay Spent HF
Si(OH)4

Secondary X/5 HSiF5 + M-Al-Si + (3-x+1) H+ + H2O = AlFx(3-x)+ + M+ + Si(OH)4 Tertiary AlF2+ + M-Al-Si + (3-x+1) H+ + H2O = 2AlF2+ + M+ + Si(OH)4
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AlF2+
Si(OH) Si(OH) Si(OH)

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Precautions to Avoid Precipitates


Potassium fluosilicates K2SiF6
AVOID CONTACT WITH K, Na, Ca

Calcium fluoride CaF2


REMOVE CALCITE

Aluminum fluoride AlF3


MAINTAIN A LOW pH
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Hydrated/Amorphous Silica: Cannot Avoid

Si(OH)4

Al

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Former Site of Kaolinite Following Mud Acid Treatment

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Design Methodology to Maximize Stimulation

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Sandstone Acidizing Fluid Stages

Pre-acid Preflush: Overflush: Displaces spent acid away from the critical matrix. Diverter: Preflush: Main Fluid: NH Cl brine or displaces water containing Decreases fluidtoluene/xylene flow into the thief zone/s and increases flow into HCl organic acid) removes CaCO matrix to prevent the Mud acid removes silt and clay (alumino-silicate) formation damage 4 (or 3 from + + ++ incompatible cations (Na , K , Ca ) away from the wellbore. other non-treated zones. precipitation of CaF . 2

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Sandstone Acidizing Fluid Stages

1. Pre-acid Preflush: NH4Cl brine or toluene/xylene displaces water containing incompatible cations (Na+, K+, Ca++) away from the wellbore. 2. Preflush: HCl (or organic acid) removes CaCO3 from matrix to prevent the precipitation of CaF2. 3. Main Fluid: Mud acid (HCl HF) removes silt and clay (aluminosilicate) formation damage 4. Overflush: Displaces spent acid away from the critical matrix. 5. Diverter: Decreases fluid flow into the thief zone/s and increases flow into other non-treated zones.
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Sandstone Acidizing Fluid Selection

Matrix Treatment Design Methodology


Candidate Selection Establish Nature and Location of Damage Treating Fluid/Additive Selection Determine Pressure/Injection Rate Establish Fluid Volumes Develop Pumping Schedule and Placement Strategy Define Shut-in/Cleanup Stages Economics Assess Productivity and Profitability
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Fluids Available
Hydrochloric acid Preflush Main acid component Overflush Hydrofluoric acid systems Mud Acid Organic Mud Acid Fluoboric Acid (Clay Acid) Organic Fluoboric Acid (OCA)
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Organic Acids Formic Acetic Citric

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Selection Criteria
Formation mineralogy Reactivity Chemical composition Surface area Rock Structure HCl solubility Clay distribution Sensitivity Deconsolidation Precipitation Fines release Permeability Type of damage Mobility of induced damage Produced Fluids Oil wells: Sludge/Emulsions Gas wells: Water saturation Temperature Corrosion Penetration Bottomhole pressure

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Pre-Acid Preflush
Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) Guideline
3 wt% (<5% Clay) 4 wt% (5 -10%) 5 wt% (10 -15%) 6 wt% (>15%) (% Smectite + % Mixed Layer*0.5)*0.3) + (% Illite+ % Mixed Layer*0.5)*0.12) + % Kaolinite*0.08 + % Chlorite*0.12 + % Feldspar*0.05) Formation Brine

Calculated Concentration = 3% + HCl

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HCl Preflush/Overflush
HCl Fluid Selection Guide for All Temperatures
>100 md <10% silt and <10% clay All other combinations of silt and clay composition 15X 20-100 md 10X <20 md 7.5X

10X

7.5X

5X

<4% chlorite/glauconite, use < 20md Guidelines for HCl. 4-6% chlorite/glauconite, use <20md Guidelines for HCl with 5% Acetic Acid in PF/OF >6% chlorite/glauconite, use 10% Acetic Acid PF/OF to Organic Clay Acid HT <2% Zeolite, use 10% Acetic Acid in HCl PF/OF with 5% Acetic Acid in Mud Acid 2-5% Zeolite, use 10% Acetic Acid as PF/OF with Organic Clay Acid >5% Zeolite, use 10% Acetic Acid as PF/OF with Organic Clay Acid HT

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HCl/HF Ratio to Avoid AlF3 & CaF2 with CaCO3 Remaining


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M ax W t % of HF in Acid Form ulation

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

Ideal Case 0% Calcite

Increasing wt.% of calcite undissolved by HCl Preflush

3% Calcite 6% Calcite

10 20 30 Weight % of HCl in Acid Formulation

40

*Based on AlF3 & CaF2 ppt


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HCl Preflush Volume to Dissolve all Calcite 2 feet Radially

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Main Acid (HF) Volume


Targeted reduction: 90% in damage skin. Minimum skin achievable: Total of pseudoskin StimCADE
?

Skin Ski

? Volume
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Mud Acid Systems Available

Mud Acid Organic Mud Acid Fluoboric Acid (Clay Acid) Organic Clay Acid (OCA)

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Mud Acid
Nine HCI-HF formulations Dissolves siliceous minerals (silt and clay) Schlumberger (Dowell) offered the first commercial Mud Acid Service in 1940 in the (U.S. Gulf Coast).

+ HCl

HF
or

Y1 Mud Acid

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Field Generation of Mud Acid (HCl/HF)


NH 4 HF2 ( Y1) Y1) + X HCl (X - 1) HCl + 2 HF + NH 4 CI Mud Acid Dilute HCl / HF

( 25% HCl + 20% HF) HF) + HCl + H 20

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Silts and Clays


Native During Production (fines migration)

Carbonate Cemented Sandstones+ T> 300o F NARS201 T< 300o F Reg. Clay Acid ++ Severe Fines Migration Problems T> 300o F NARS201 Reg. Clay Acid+++ Organic Clay Acid 130oF <T<300oF Reg. Clay Acid+++ Organic Clay Acid

Noncarbonate Cemented Sandstones

Small Fines Migration Problem T> 130o F Clay Acid LT+++ Organic Clay Acid Use guidelines for damage induced by completion operations. Options: in matrix, sandstones: Noncarbonate cemented Overflush with 5% HCI containing Clay Control Agents L42, L53W or L55

A high HCI solubility can be indicative of carbonate cementation in the absence of petrographical data ++ No or limited HCI preflush preferred +++ Perform a Mud Acid treatment prior to pumping acid. Use guidelines for Small Fines Migration problem to select Mud Acid System

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Silts and Clays Induced by Completion Operations


In Fissures, Gravel Packs or High-Permeability Matrix Mud and Silt Remover Treatments+ In Matrix

Carbonate Cemented Sandstones++ Regular Clay Acid


+++

Noncarbonate Cemented Sandstones Mud Acid Treatments (MA)++++

++ +++ ++++

The MSR formulation should be based on the HCI guidelines and Mud Acid guidelines. For carbonate cemented sandstones, Breakdown Acid or HCI-base MSR is recommended. A high HCI solubility can be indicative of carbonate cementation in the absence of petrographical data. limited HCI preflush is recommended in this case. See Mud Acid Selection Guide for Native Damage

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Mud Acid Selection Guide HCl - HF


> 100 md < 10%silt and < 10% clay > 10%silt and > 10% clay > 10%silt and < 10% clay < 10%silt and > 10% clay 12 - 3 13.5 - 1.5 12 - 2 12 - 2 20-100 md 8- 2 9- 1 9 - 1.5 9 - 1.5 < 20 md 6 - 1.5 4.5 - .5 6- 1 6- 1

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Mud Acid Guidelines for Reservoirs with < 2% Zeolites*


< 10% Silt and <10% Clay > 10% Silt and >10% Clay Other > 20 md 8% HCl/2% HF with 5% Acetic 9% HCl/1% HF with 5% Acetic 9% HCl/1.5% HF with 5% Acetic < 20 md 6% HCl/1.5% HF with 5% Acetic 4.5% HCl/0.5% HF with 5% Acetic 6% HCl/1.5% HF with 5% Acetic

Mud Acid Guidelines for Reservoirs with 2 -5% Zeolites*


All Silt and Clay Ranges > 20 md OCA < 20 md OCA

Mud Acid Guidelines for Reservoirs with >5% Zeolites*


All Silt and Clay Ranges > 20 md OCA HT < 20 md OCA HT

*10% Acetic Acid PF/OF and use OCA when fines migration is a problem.

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Mud Acid Guidelines for Reservoirs with < 3 Chlorite/Glauconite


> 20 md < 10% Silt and <10% Clay > 10% Silt and >10% Clay Other 6% HCl/1.5% HF 4.5% HCl/0.5% HF 6% HCl/1% HF < 20 md 6% HCl/1.5% HF 4.5% HCl/0.5% HF 6% HCl/1% HF

Mud Acid Guidelines for Reservoirs with 4 - 6% Chlorite/Glauconite


> 20 md < 10% Silt and <10% Clay > 10% Silt and >10% Clay Other 8% HCl/2% HF with 5% Acetic 9% HCl/1% HF with 5% Acetic 9% HCl/1.5% HF with 5% Acetic < 20 md 6% HCl/1.5% HF with 5% Acetic 4.5% HCl/0.5% HF with 5% Acetic 6% HCl/1% HF with 5% Acetic

Mud Acid Guidelines for Reservoirs with >6% Chlorite/Glauconite*


> 20 md All Silt and Clay Ranges OCA < 20 md OCA

* 10% Acetic Acid PF/OF

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Clay Instability in HCl


All clays have a temperature at which they become unstable in HCl. Unstable clays decompose quickly, consume HCl and can migrate.

Mineral Zeolites Chlorites Illite Mixed Layer Smectite Kaolinite

Max. T in HCl (deg F) Short Berea Core #2: Acid 12-3 Mud Acid Test @ 300 F Jauf Core # 710 HCl and Mud Sensitivity 2500 Effluent From Core #640 6 wt% wt% Acetic Acid 15 wt% HCl 12 12 wt% wt%HCl HCl- 66 wt% 10 + 75 wt%Cl NH Cl 15 wt% HCl 12 wt% 3 HCl - HF 6 wt% NH Ammonium wt% Ammonium 6 wt% NH Cl 3 wt% HF 20000 3 wt% HF Acid Chloride Mud Chloride 150 2000 Fe 190 Al 15000 1500 Si 200 Ca Al Fe 10000 1000 200 K Si Mg 250 500
o

14000

12000

Concentration (mg/L)

Concentration ( mg/L)

10000

8000

6000

4000

Delta Pressure (psi)

5000

Mg
2000

K
5
5 7

0
0

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0 1

0.00 1
3

25.00 50.00 7 Cumulative 9 11 Volume 13 15 Pore


9

17
15 17

75.00 19
19

Sample 11 #

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Sample Number

17

Organic Mud Acid


Formic acid (9% L036 replaces 12% HCl) Less corrosive than comparable Mud Acid formulations Reaction rate ~ 1/4 that of Mud Acid Reduces sludge tendency

+ L36 (Formic)

HF
or

Y1 Mud Acid

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Retarded HF Systems
Problem

Mud Acid (HCl-HF) spends very rapidly near the wellbore and is not effective in removing clays and other fines deep in the formation. Some wells show good stimulation initially, but experience a rapid production decline.
Solution

Retarded Mud Acid system for deep Hydrofluoric penetration. A system that stabilizes formation fines. Low HF concentrations
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Retarded HF formulation using Fluoboric Acid (HBF4) Clay Acid Ammonium bifluoride + boric acid + HCl HBF4 + H20 HBF3(OH) + HF HF reacts with silt and clay HBF4 continues to generate HF slowly

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Kaolinite Observed With SEM

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Improved Penetration with Fluoboric Acid


800
Permeability, % Change

600 400 200 0 0


1st 6 in. Unconsolidation

Fluoboric/Clay Acid 12% HCl - 3%HF

10

20

30

40

Distance From Inlet (in.)


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Water Sensitivity Test Frio Sand


Untreated
% of Original Permeability 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Pore Volumes
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Treated
% of Original Permeability 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Distilled Water 6% Sodium Chloride Clay Acid Pore Volumes

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Fluoboric Acid Shut-In Time


Minimum ShutShut -in Time (hr)
BHST (F) ( F) Regular Clay Acid Clay Acid LT

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 225 250 300
*Clay Acid LT can be used to 130O F,
Matrix Engineering Solutions but is not Stimulation recommended above 130O F.

96 76 52 35 24 16 11 8 5 3 2 1 0.5

48 38 26 18 * * * * * * * * *

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Clay Acid Applications


Preflush to Mud Acid: Very acid sensitive formation Main Acid: Carbonate-cemented sandstones Overflush to Mud Acid: Enhanced fines control Shut-in and bring production back slowly
NH4Cl w/ U66 30-60 gal/ft HCl or DAD 50-75 gal/ft

Clay Acid 100-125 gal/ft


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Mud Acid 100-150 gal/ft

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Publications on Clay Acid


Mobil - SPE 8399 Arco - SPE 11722 Exxon - SPE 9387 Tenneco - SPE 14820 AGIP - SPE 20623 Statoil - SPE 24991 Statoil - SPE 31077 Ashland - IPA

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Evaluation of Fluoboric Acid Treatment in the Grand Isle Offshore area using Multiple Flow Rate Test
Seven case histories were presented A plot of (Pws2 - Pwf2) / Qg vs. Qg (the turbulence plot) was used as an evaluation tool.
2 2 ( P 2 ) Pws Pwf = = C L + D 'Q g Qg Qg

REF: McBride, Rathbone, and Thomas, SPE 8399

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(p2 ) / Q (PSI2 / SCFD)


2

6 months after RMA After RMA


1

After Clay Acid 3 years after Clay Acid


0 0 5 10 15

Q (MMCFD)
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12.0 10.0

Q (MMscf/D)

After Mud Acid Trt.

After Fluoboric Acid Treatment

8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0 -6 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (Months)
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Silicon to Aluminum ratios in HF and Fluoboric Acid effluents


Zone C(3.4) Sample B C C E F F HCL/HF 0.6 0.5 Fluoboric 2.9 2.5 1.6 1.7

A(1.7)

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SPE 20623 ADVANCES IN MATRIX STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY G. Paccaloni and M. Tambini AGIP Spa

Incorrect Stimulation Fluid


Initial: Reperforate: Mud Acid: Fluoboric Acid: 2200 BOPD 2000 BOPD 2000 BOPD 1900 BOPD 400 BOPD @ 6 months Same decline Same decline @ 60 months

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2000

Ashland Oil Well No. 3

1500 Production (BLPD)

1000 After Fluoboric Acid Treatment

500 Decline after Mud Acid & Clay Control Treatment 0 0 0.5 1 Time (Years) Figure 8 - Production of Oil Well No. 3 showing decline after Mud Acid treatment indicative of fines migration and sustained production after fluoboric acid treatment.
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1.5

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CONCLUSIONS
HBF4 generates HF at a slow rate thus providing deeper live-acid penetration than is possible with ordinary HCl/HF acid. Treatment with HBF4 prevents silt and clay migration/swelling through fusion of platelets and reduction of CEC. This should prevent fines dispersion resulting from both ionic shock and mechanical dislodgment. HBF4 normally is used n combination with HCl/HF acid. The faster-reacting HCl/HF acid removes damage immediately around the wellbore, while the HBF4 penetrates deeper to remove formation damage and to stabilize clays and other fines. A shut-in period is required following injection of HBF4 to allow spending of the acid and stabilization of the clay. HBF4 is less damaging to formation integrity than HCl/HF acid. Fluoboric acid minimizes silica formation. Case history studies of the use of fluoboric acid in sandstone matrix acidizing indicate that the system is very effective in removing formation damage and stabilizing formation fines.
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Organic Fluoboric Acid (OCA) for HCl Sensitive Sandstone Formations

Applications
HCl Sensitive Formations
Unconsolidated sandstones Chlorite Zeolite

High Silt/Clay Content


> 30% Silt/Clay

HT formations
T > 300 F
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Fluid Selection Guidelines


OCA-HT Temp >300F Temp < 300F Zeolite <5% Zeolite >5% any temp Chlorite <5% Chlorite >5% any temp yes yes yes yes yes yes OCA

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Experimental Methods
Sequential Acid Spending

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Testing Results
Sequential acid spending on 90% 100 mesh sand and 10% zeolite, 200oF
0.4

Si Concentration (Molar)

0.35

Organic Clay Acid 9/1 mud acid Clay Acid 3/1 mud acid

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

Sequential Reaction ----->

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140

Core Flow Testing 9/1 Mud Acid


Potential Fine Migration after Acidizing

120

Permeability (md)

100

80

60 6% N aC l F re s h W a te r 3% N H 4C l 15% H C L 9 /1 M u d A c id

40

20

0 0 50
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100

150

200

250

T im e (m in )
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Core Flow Testing OCA


1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 6% N aC l F r e s h W a te r 3% N H 4Cl 15% H C l OCA

Permeability (md)

Fines stabilized

T im e (m i n )
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Placement
1. NH4Cl preflush 2. 10% Acetic Acid 3. OCA 4. NH4Cl overflush 5. Diverter 6. Repeat 2-5 as required No Shut-in Required (25-50 gpf) (75-100 gpf) (100-200 gpf) (3-4 feet radially)

OCA 100-200 gal/ft

NH4Cl w/ U66 25-50 gal/ft

NH4Cl 25-50 gal/ft


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10% Acetic Acid 75-100 gal/ft

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Differentiation
Recomended Procedure
Low Temperature Non Sensitive Clays Low Clay Content Low Temperature Non Sensitive Clays High Clay Content Low Temperature Sensitive Clays Any Clay Content High Temperature Sensitive Clays Any Clay Content A A B D H I B C A B D E G 5% NH4Cl Preflush HCl Preflush Organic Acid Preflush Mud Acid Clay Acid Organic Clay Acid Shut In 5% NH4Cl Postflush Immediate Flow Back

Mud Acid Clay Acid


A C F H I

D E

OCA
A C F H I

F G

OCA HT

H I

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Case History #1 - GOM


Deep water turbidite sand 11,000 TVD, BHST 175 F Frac-Pac completion Permeability - 400 to 1600 md 5% Zeolite Compaction - 20 - 30% perm reduction Increasing skins - higher drawdowns
Well #1 Before After 775 1034 498 547 Well#2 Before After 218 1045 216 837
12,060

11,592

11,928

BOPD MCFD

Production levels sustained for more than 1 year

12,141

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Case History 1: GOM


5000

Treating Pressure - psi Injection Rate - BPM Acid at Perfs Increase Rate

10

4000

Injection Rate - (BPM)

Pressure - psi

3000

Pump OCA

2000

Start Displacement Start PostFlush Prime Pumps

End of Treatment

1000

0 220

245

270

295

320

345

370

Job Time (Minutes)

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Case History #4- Venezuela


Temp: 140 235 F Reservoir Pressure: 950 1400 psi Reservoir Permeability: 100 - 300 mD Depth: 2900 -4200 ft Gravel Packed with sand 20/40
280 Average Oil Prod, BOPD 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 0 30 60 90 120 Tim e after Treatm ent (days)
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Average Bef ore Average Act ual Average Expected M ud A cid Treatments

Formation lithology: Quartz: 48%-56% Mica: 3%-11% K-Feldspar: 1%-3% Kaolinite: 28%-36% Smectite: 1.4%-2.3% Illite: 1%-2.5% Chlorite: 1.1%-3%% Zeolites: 1.2%

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Case History #5- Pakistan


Temp: 340 F Reservoir Pressure: 4300 psi Reservoir Permeability: 160 mD Perfs: 3318.5m to 3328.0m Gravel Packed with sand 20/40 Acetic acid and OCA w/ VES diverter
Formation lithology: Quartz: Mica: Feldspar: Smectite: Glauconite: Chlorite: Siderite: FeFe-Dolomite 49%49%-60% 1%1%-3% 1%1%-6% 1.4%1.4%-2.3% 1% 7%7%-10% 7%7%-20% 0%0%-7%

Post-Stimulation Pre-Stimulation
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Lowered FWHP ~400 psi Maintain production at 50 MMscfd

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Organic Fluoboric Acid: Conclusions


OCA provides safe stimulation of sensitive formations
Zeolites, Chlorites and high temp formations High clay content

OCA provides deeper penetration Undesirable precipitates are minimized Fines Migration is controlled No shut in required

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Sandstone Acidizing Conclusions


Damage identification determines the types of acid and other solvents used. Fluid selection for a mud acid treatment is based on permeability and mineralogy. A knowledge of the chemical reactions involved between acids with formation minerals and connate fluids is required. Appropriate volumes of preflushes and overflushes help prevent incompatibilities. The primary reaction of mud acid with silt and clay occurs very fast. Secondary and tertiary reactions do not contribute to damage removal. Hydrated silica (silica gel) is normally not a damaging precipitate. Retarded acid with silt and clay control properties are required in sandstone reservoirs with production declines. Acid sensitive sandstone reservoirs cannot be treated with a conventional mud acid treatment, i.e. they require a organic fluoboric acid system. Although guidelines exist for volume selection a numerical simulator is recommended to quantify acid volumes.
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Matrix Stimulation: Sandstone


Sandstone Stages 1. Pre-acid Preflush Fluids @ End 2. Acid Preflush of Treatment?? 3. Main Treating Fluid 4 3 2 1 4. Overflush

StimCADE Demo

5. Diverter Stage

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