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Biology Course Summary Department: Science Semester 1 Learning Objective #1 - Ecology Students will understand how organism interact

with each other and the environment. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #1 Define ecology and explain why ecology is important. Contrast abiotic factors with biotic factors and explain the concept of a niche. Explain the differences between population size, density, and dispersal and describe the various models of population growth. Describe the various types of interactions between species including why ecosystems usually contain only a few trophic levels and contrast a food chain with a food web. Describe the different biogeochemical cycles found in ecosystems. Describe the different biomes and identify the 5 different levels of organization in ecology. Timeline 2-3 weeks

Learning Objective #2 - Chemistry Students will understand basic atomic structure and the pH scale. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #2 Define element, atom, compound, molecule, ion, and isotope and explain their importance in Biology. Draw a model of the structure of an atom and explain what determines an atoms stability. Contrast ionic and covalent bonds. Describe how energy changes are involved in chemical reactions and explain how enzymes affect chemical reactions in organisms. Define solution, solute, solvent, and concentration. Contrast the properties of acids and bases and describe the pH scale. Timeline 2-3 weeks

Learning Objective #3 - Biomolecules Students will understand biological molecules and their functions in cells. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #3 Describe the structure of a water molecule and explain how waters polar nature affects its ability to dissolve substances. List two of waters properties that result from hydrogen bonding. Define organic compounds and name three elements often found in organic compounds and explain why carbon forms so many different compounds. Define functional group and explain its significance. Compare a condensation (dehydration) reaction with hydrolysis.
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Describe the monomers and polymers for sugars, explain where they are found, and identify the other names that sugars are known as. Compare the structures of the various types of proteins. Discuss proteins and their subunits, name the parts of monomers. Discuss the elements found in proteins. Describe the subunits of lipids and the various functions of lipids. Identify the other names for lipids. Discuss the importance of different fats found in our diets. Describe the function and structure of nucleic acids and their monomers.

Timeline 3-4 weeks

Learning Objective #4 - Cells Students will understand cell structure and function. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #4 Outline the discoveries that led to the development of the cell theory and state the cell theory. Identify a limiting factor on the size of cells and describe the relationship between cell shape and cell function. Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Describe the structure, composition, and function of the cell membrane. Name the major organelles found in a eukaryotic cell, and describe their functions. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Describe three structures characteristic of plant cells. Distinguish between tissues, organs, and organ systems. Demonstrate the proper use and care of a compound light microscope and stereomicroscopes and focus a compound light microscope and stereomicroscopes under low and high powers. Compare the movement of images seen through a compound light microscope and stereomicroscopes. Timeline 3-4 weeks

Learning Objective #5 Cell Membranes Students will understand how materials move in and out of cells. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #5 Explain how equilibrium is established as a result of diffusion. Distinguish between diffusion and osmosis. Explain how substances cross the cell membrane through facilitated diffusion and explain how ion channels assist the diffusion of ions across the cell membrane. Distinguish between passive transport and active transport. Explain how the sodium-potassium pump works. Compare and contrast endocytosis, exocytosis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis.
Timeline 3-4 weeks
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Learning Objective #6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Students will understand how cells create and use energy. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #6 Define the terms autotroph and heterotrophy and explain the relationship between producer, consumers, and decomposers. Explain how the structure of the chloroplast relates to its function and describe the role of chlorophylls and other pigments in photosynthesis. Explain the basics of photosynthesis. Define cellular respiration and explain the basis processes. Compare and contrast lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation. Timeline 2-3 weeks

Learning Objective #7 Cell Reproduction Students will understand how cells reproduce. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #7 Describe the structure of a chromosome and compare prokaryotic chromosomes with eukaryotic chromosomes. Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes (somatic cells). Give examples of diploid and haploid cells. Describe the events of binary fission and the parts of the cell cycle. Summarize the phases of mitosis and compare cytokinesis in animal cells with cytokinesis in plant cells. List and describe the phases of meiosis and compare the end products of mitosis with those of meiosis. Explain crossing-over and how it contributes to the production of unique individuals. Discuss cancer and how it relates to cell reproduction. Timeline 2-4 weeks

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Semester 2 Learning Objective #1 DNA and RNA Students will understand the structure and function of DNA, RNA and how proteins are made. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #2 Explain the function of DNA and describe the structure of DNA. Define the term complementary base pairing and explain the role of complementary base pairing in the replication of DNA. Summarize the main features of DNA replication and discuss the role of the various enzymes used in replication. Explain the primary function of RNA, compare the structure of RNA with that of DNA, and describe the structure and function of each type of RNA. Summarize the process of transcription. Describe the genetic code and distinguish between a codon and an anticodon, and state where each is found. Summarize the process of translation. Timeline 2-3 weeks

Learning Objective #2 - Genetics Students will understand the fundamentals of genetics and how it controls characteristics in organisms. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #2 Describe Mendels experiments and state two laws of heredity that were developed from Mendels work and how Mendels results can be explained by the scientific knowledge of genes and chromosomes. Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits and explain the difference between an allele and a gene. Use a Punnett square to predict the results of monohybrid, dihybrid , and a testcross genetic crosses and explain how probability is used to predict the results of genetic crosses. Explain the role of sex chromosomes in sex determination and compare sex-linked traits with sexinfluenced traits and describe how linkage affects the inheritance of traits and explain the effect of crossing-over on the inheritance of genes in linkage groups. Distinguish between chromosome mutations and gene mutations and explain how non-disjunction can cause human genetic disorders. Show how pedigree analysis can be used to illustrate the inheritance of traits. Differentiate between co-dominance, incomplete dominance, autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, polygenic, and X-linked recessive inheritance and give examples of each. Timeline 3-4 weeks

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Learning Objective #3 Gene Expression and DNA Technology Students will understand how evolution causes changes over time and how we classify organisms. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #3 Define the term gene expression and describe the regulation of the lac operon in prokaryotes. Distinguish between introns and exons, describe the role of enhancers in the control of gene expression and recognize the relationship between gene expression and morphogenesis.
List the key characteristics and terms of cancer and cancer cells.

Define genetic engineering and explain how restriction enzymes can be used to make recombinant DNA. Explain what a DNA fingerprint is and how it is prepared and distinguish between the following laboratory techniques: RFLP analysis, gel electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction. Describe the purpose of the Human Genome Project and the potential uses of the information collected in the project. Explain how gene therapy may be used in humans, how DNA technology can be used to produce medical products, improve crop yields and the food supply, and discuss some environmental and ethical issues in genetic engineering.

Timeline 3 weeks

Learning Objective #4 Evolution and Classification Students will understand how evolution causes changes over time and how we classify organisms. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #4 Explain how different aspects of geology (fossils, succession of life-forms, superposition, and biogeographic observations) have led to the development of evolutionary theories. Discuss the development of the theory of evolution and list some of the evidence that led Darwin to his idea of how species might change over time and explain Darwins two major theories. Describe the difference between homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures and discuss how similarities in marcomolecules and embryos of different species suggest a relationship between them. Explain the difference between coevolution, and divergent and convergent evolution. Describe the causes of genotypic variation in a population, explain how to compute allele frequency and phenotype frequency, and the importance of the bell curve to population genetics. Explain Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium and list five conditions that can cause evolution to take place. Define genetic drift and gene flow and tell how both can affect populations. Contrast the effects of stabilizing, directional, and disruptive selection on variations in a trait over time and discuss three kinds of reproductive isolation. Summarize the punctuated equilibrium hypothesis, and contrast it with the hypothesis of gradualism. Describe how paleoanthropologists gather evidence of human ancestry and discuss the traits of primates, anthropoids, and human. Understand the basics of how organisms are classified and the six kingdom system and levels of classification from the most general to the most specific. Timeline
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3-5 weeks Learning Objective #5 Bacteria, Viruses, and Protozoans Students will understand the structure and characteristics of bacteria and viruses and their impact on humans. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #5 Define bacteria, eubacteria, and archaebacteria, and note the relationships between them and describe the methods used to classify bacteria and archaebacteria. Describe the structure and reproduction of a bacterial cell, three ways that bacteria move, explain why bacteria are classified as Gram-positive bacteria from Gram-negative bacteria, and compare the heterotrophic modes of nutrition in bacteria with the autotrophic modes. Describe the ways that bacteria can cause disease in humans and specify how antibiotic resistance has come about, describe ways that bacteria resist antibiotics, and list three ways that bacteria are helpful to humans. Describe the structure and classification of viruses and identify the range of sizes and shapes among viruses. Compare and contrast viroids and prions with viruses and describe a bacteriophage. Summarize the five phases of the lytic cycle and compare the lytic and lysogenic cycles of viral replication and differentiate between a prophage and a provirus. Name four viral diseases that result in serious illness in humans and discuss the relationship between viruses and cancer and compare the two types of viral vaccines, and discuss other forms of viral-disease prevention. Compare algae with other protists. Describe the essential characteristics of diatoms, and explain their industrial importance. List the important structural characteristics associated with dinoflagellates. Discuss why Euglena is considered both a protozoan and an alga. Describe the two forms that characterize the life cycle of the slime mold. Compare fungi with other eukaryotic organisms and describe how fungi obtain nutrients. Describe three ways that fungi cause disease in humans, describe the types of food that fungi provide, and provide examples of fungis industrial importance. Timeline 2-3 weeks Learning Objective #6 Human Body Systems Students will understand the structure and function of some human body systems. Target(s) to Meet Learning Objective #6 Describe the structure of the heart and trace the flow of blood through the body Distinguish between arteries, veins, and capillaries in terms of their structure and function. Describe the exchange of gases in the lungs and trace the passage of air from the environment to the bloodstream. List the organic nutrients needed by the human body and identify foods containing each of the nutrients. Explain the process of digestion and how nutrients are processed and absorbed and name the organs involved. Explain how wastes are processed by our bodies and the organs involved. Name the three types of muscles and describe the structure of skeletal muscle fibers and how they contract.
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Explain the difference between the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Describe the structure and function of a neuron. Identify the main parts of the central nervous system and their function.

Timeline 2-3 weeks

Liberty High School 2012