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: Thursday, January 30, 2014

, , .

: Thursday, January 30, 2014

: , , .

:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.


:

.

,
.
.

.

,
.



, .. ,

.


1686 .,

1845 .,
1843 1847.

5.2.

,
.




, . 1
r,
F. ,
,
A = Frr.

Frr, F, Fr
F r.
Fr= Fcos,

A = Frcos.

r
. 1

A = (F,r).
,
dr

dA = (F,dr).

,
C D,
D

(F,dr)
C


,
.

,
.

,

, .. ();
L2T2.


().

():
1 = 1,61019 .

1. , .1 = 30
1,5 /

100 .
F, .
r = 1,5
,

Frcos = A;

A 100

77

r
cos

(1,5
)(0,8

,

10 1 . , ,
.

2. ,
, .
A = (F,dr) F
kx (
) dr dx.
,
x
20

12
x
A

kxdx

k
xdx

k
kx

0
2
2

0
0
0
x
0

x
0

1 N

x
C
xdx
N

1
N

3. ,
m h,
D
v.
A (F,dr)
,
C
. ,

Fdr = mg(drcos).
. 5.3 (drcos) = dy.
,
D

(
F
,
d
r
)

mg
)
dy

mg
dy

mg

, A = mgh ,
(h ),
.

dh

dr
a

. 2

5.3.

( )
W.

W dA/dt.
W
.

(/).

ML2T3
().
100
100 /.

( ):
1 = 103 3600 = 3,6106 .

1,31013 .


.
,

.

,
.

.

, ,
,

,

W = (F,v)
-

5.4.


.

.

,
,
.

F m
D.
, D
v.
F CD

.

D

AF,dr
C

F m(dv/dt), dr vdt:

dv

v
dt

F,
dr

dt

C
C
D

(dv/dt)v v(dv/dt :
D

(F,
d
r
)

v
d
v
d

m
v
,
dt

m
v

dt

dt
dt
C
C
D

D
1

1
2
21
2
F,
d
r

m
v
d
v

m
v

m
v

m
v
D
C

2
2 2

C
C
C
D

:
D

K
,d
r
K
.
D
C
F


D
.

v,

m,

K = mv2/2.
K
().



.

,
,
.

. 2 ,
D.
F = mg .
D

F, dr

mgh.

,d
r
D
C
F
,

1 2 1 2
mgh
m

D
C
2
2

2
2
D 2ghC

30- m = 10
.
.

K = mgh,

K = (10 )(9,8 /2)(30 ) = 2,9 .


2,9 /
100%, 2,9
.

,
2 3
.
23, 1020

,
.

;

4%.

5.5.

,
,

F, dr


C D,
C
D.

F ,
(. 3)
B

F,
d
r

F,
d
r

F,
d
r

. 3

, ,
,
.

:
(F,dr), ,
.
,
( )
, .

,

U:

UFd
, r


,
.


.

,
,
.
.
F dr
(F,dr)
(
).

m
h .

F = mg
( .)

U= (F, dr) = mgh

5.6.

,

.

,
.
,
.

n

2
n
m
v
j
j

U
(
r
,
r
...,
r
)

co

1
2
n
j

12
F=dP/dt (
) ,
:

dP/dt=0; P= const

5.7.


,
2
2
2

m
v
v
(
v
)
1
1 m
2
2 m
1
1

m
(
v
)
2
2

.
2 2
2
2

m1, m2 , v1, v2
, v1, v2
.

, ,
, .. v1 v2
(. 4).

m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2.

. 4


v1 v2 .

m1[v12 (v1)2] = m2[(v2)2 v22],


m1[v1 v1] = m2[v2 v2].
,
,

v1 + v1 = v2 + v2

,
,
:

m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2.


v1 + v1 = v2 + v2.
,

m
1v
1 m
2v
2
v1 2
v1
,
m
1 m
2
m
1v
1 m
2v
2
v2 2
v2
.
m
1 m
2


(v2 = 0),

m
2
m
1
2
1

v
,v
v
.
1
1
2
1
m

m
m

m
1
2
1
2
m1 > m2
, m1 < m2
, m1
= m2 ,
v2 = v1
.

, ,
(m1 = m2)

v1 = v2, v2 = v1


m1 m2
(m1 + m2),
(. 5.)

. 5

m1v1 + m2v2 = (m1 + m2 )v.

m
v
m
v
1
1
2
2
v
.
m
m
1
2


:

2
2
2 22
m
v
m
v
(
m

m
)
v
(
v

v
)
m
m
1
1 2
2 12
1
2
1
2

.
22
2
2
(
m

m
)
1
2


m1 m2,
100 /.

. 6

v1 = v2 = 100 /, m1 = 15 , m2 = 1,5 ,

3
3
(
15

10
)(
100
)

(
1
,
5

10
)(

100
)
V

81
,
8

3
16
,
5

10

20%
,
.

. 6

,

.

5.8.


.


.

(
). ,
2 2 .

20000 1 .
1
.


25%

.
2000 .

500 .


700 800
.
, 746 .



100 .


80 .


.
.

,
, 150 ,
: 80 40
15 .

, ,


500 .
,
, 700 .

(
)
1000
, 100
.
, 450
(500 ).
,

, 450 ?


40000 . , 450
= 18106 .


= E/t, :

E
18

10

4
t

3
,
6

10

10

P500

10
, 450 ,
.


.

300 .
,
.

(1 )
4180 .


80
150 :
110 .


4 ) = 9,5106 ;
=
(110
)(8,610
E PT

2260
.
400 .


1. , F
,

AF,dr
A

;

dA = (F,v).
P
dt
1 2
3.
K mv .
2
2.

4. :

F
,
d
r

5. F (
),

B

(
U
U
)

F
,
d
r
B
A

6. , N

(K + U) = const.
7. , N

= const.

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