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HANDOUT

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A1000 S12 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

Edition : 06

770 00924 0120VHBE

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE

The Bell Education Centre put in a great effort to give you this document. In case you have any remarks, do not hesitate to send us your comments. Our Training Directory describes all training programmes and modules this document (and others) is used in. This document was especially written for use during class instruction. The contents of this document is generic. It deals with concepts and principles, rather than with the latest releases of and modifications to the product delivered to the customers. International audiences use this document. It is therefore written in a clear, concise and above all, consistent language.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE

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PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. A1000 S12 OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Exchange structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Equipment practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Configurations and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Supplementary Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Centrex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 Business Communication Group (BCG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Operation, Administration & Maintenance (OA&M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 The Digital Switching Network (DSN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Digital Switching Element (Multiport) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Switching in the Multiport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5 Network addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6 Blocked Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.7 Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Generic structure of a module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Terminal Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Physical implementation of the Control Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 The On Board Controller (OBC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Description of the different hardware modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 The Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Digital Trunk Module (DTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Highperformance Common Channel Module (HCCM) . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Service Circuit Module (SCM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Trunk Testing Module (TTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6 Clock & Tone Module (CTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.7 Digital Integrated Announcement Module (DIAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.8 Peripheral & Load Module (P&L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.9 ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.10 Mixed Subscriber Module (MSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.11 ISDN Trunk Module (ITM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.12 The Data Link Module (DLM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.13 EPM: Extended Peripheral Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.14 ISDN Remote Subscriber Unit (IRSU) ISDN RSU Interface Module (IRIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Remote Terminal Sub Unit (RTSU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 3
3 9 10 12 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 19 21 23 27 33 37 39 40 42 50 50 55 56 56 64 83 84 95 99 110 112 117 122 122 124 124 127 136

2. A1000 S12 HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3. A1000 S12 SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


3.1 Functional subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
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3.2 Software concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 3.2.1 Finite Message Machine (FMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 3.2.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 3.2.3 System Support Machine (SSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3.3 Communication between processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 3.3.1 Communication within the same CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 3.3.2 Communication over a virtual path (VP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.3.3 Communication over a user controlled path (UCP) . . . . . . . . . . . 168 3.3.4 Communication with the internal packet protocol (IPP) . . . . . . . 171 3.4 Software modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 3.4.1 Logical grouping of the Call Handling software into call control planes . . . . . . . . 174 3.4.2 Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 3.4.3 Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 3.4.4 Device handler FMMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 3.4.5 Signalling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 3.4.6 Call Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 3.4.7 Auxiliary Resources TCE Allocator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 3.4.8 Analysis of the Called Party Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 3.4.9 Subscriber analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 3.4.10 Trunk Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 3.4.11 Device Interworking Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 3.4.12 Private Access Resource Management (PARM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 3.4.13 Physical mapping of the software onto control elements . . . . . . 223

4. A1000 S12 EXCHANGE CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225


4.1 Input/Output exchange devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Control Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Control element configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Terminal Control Elements (TCEs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 System Control Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Auxiliary Control Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Software principles and organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Programs and data on mass storage media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Memory organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 CE logical and physical identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 JRack family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Training Exchange (TREX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Rack alarm gathering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 dtuaPossible accesses to an exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Overview of the call types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Call handling blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Terminating or Local Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Transit or Outgoing Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Hunting to lines/trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 227 227 228 229 230 233 234 234 235 236 240 251 253 254 256 258 259 260

5. CALL HANDLING OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

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5.4 Overview of the call phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Originating exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Incoming exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Generic call scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Release (Local Call only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Local call with analogue subscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Seize Aparty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Start scanning for digits / Send dial tone to Aparty . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Activate call control / Perform Aparty analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Receive prefix digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 Perform prefix analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Receive remaining digits / Release receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 Perform Bparty analysis / Request DID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Seize Bparty / Start ringing phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.9 Activate charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.10 Pass to stable state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.11 Detect ring trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.12 Stop charging / Release Aparty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.13 Release Bparty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Local call with ISDN subscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Example of an ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Overview of the ISDN protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Layer three: the network layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Layer two: the data link layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.5 Layer one: the physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.6 Terms and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.7 Handling of a Q.931 message in S12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.8 Local ISDN call overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.9 Local ISDN call in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Outgoing / incoming call with CCS N7 signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 CCS N7 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 Outgoing / incoming N7 call overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 Outgoing / incoming N7 call in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Transit N7 call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Outgoing / incoming call with CAS/R2 signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 CAS line signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.2 R2 register signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3 Outgoing / incoming R2 call overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.4 Outgoing / incoming R2 call in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

260 260 263 264 264 269 270 273 275 281 288 289 291 293 296 298 304 305 306 307 311 312 312 314 315 316 318 319 321 322 325 330 330 333 339 346 354 355 355 359 366 368

6. CALL HANDLING EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

7. FACILITY HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373


7.1 Overview of some of the supplementary services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
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7.2 Facility handling model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 General structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Call and Facility Control System (CFCS) architecture . . . . . . . . 7.3 Supplementary service data structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Semi permanent data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Dynamic data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Triggers to activate supplementary services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Trigger from the Originating profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Trigger from the Prefix Analysis result. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Trigger from the terminating profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.4 Recall pulse from the subscriber received. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.5 Trigger from received signalling events (Event monitoring). . . . 7.4.6 Busy/free changes of a subscriber line (Monitor Access). . . . . . 7.5 Facility handling examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 Subscriber Control (SC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.2 Call Completion to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.3 Malicious Call Identification (MCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Charging functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Different ways to charge calls... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Bulk billing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Detailed billing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 Detailed billing observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.4 Toll ticketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.5 Automatic Message Accounting (AMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.6 Division of revenue (accounting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.7 Charging statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.8 Limit of credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.9 Advice of charge (AOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.10 Facility charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Charging methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Unit charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 Continuous charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Charging analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1 Charging analysis with MMC commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.2 Charging parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.3 Software involved with charging analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Charging generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Charge scale changeover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Charging collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Bulk billing collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7.2 Detailed billing collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7.3 Division of revenue collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 Charging output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8.1 Bulk billing output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

379 379 380 381 381 383 385 385 386 387 387 388 390 393 393 395 401 407 408 408 408 408 409 409 409 409 410 410 410 410 410 411 413 413 413 423 425 426 427 427 428 431 433 433

8. CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

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8.8.2 Detailed billing output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 8.8.3 Division of revenue output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

9. MAINTAINING AN A1000 S12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439


9.1 System and microprocessor initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 CE initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2 System initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.3 OBC initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Introduction to maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Hardware and software used in maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Maintenance concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.3 Security block states and state transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4 SBL management on CE Level (SBL=CTLE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.5 Automatic error handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.6 Corrective maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.7 Alarm system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.8 Preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.9 Summary report for all scheduled routine tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 IOS overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 IOS functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3 Overall structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Hardware configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Fileoriented interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.2 Logical file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.3 Logical device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.4 Physical and virtual devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 The MMC interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.2 MMCdialogueinterface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.3 MMCmonologueinterface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.4 Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Exchange administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Traffic measurements collection and supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 Measurements based on statistical counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2 Call observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.3 Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Exchange management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1 Analogue and ISDN subscriber line administration . . . . . . . . . . .
vii

439 439 445 454 455 455 458 458 459 463 465 467 471 472 478 480 483 483 484 486 490 494 494 495 496 498 499 499 500 502 503 504 507 508 508 511 513 514 514

10. OPERATING AN A1000 S12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

11. ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507

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11.3.2 Routing administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 11.3.3 Prefix administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 11.3.4 Charging administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 11.4 Network management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.1 Destination controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.2 Routing controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.3 Machine congestion analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ANNEX A : list of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANNEX B : definition boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 547

522 524 528 532

11.5 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532

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1.

PREFACE
Alcatel 1000 System 12 (A1000 S12) offers the main advantage of having fully distributed control. As a consequence, the hardware and software are structured in separate modules, each module interacting with others by means of well defined interfaces. Because of this modular structure it is possible to study each module separately. The System Overview was the basis to gather fundamental information about System 12. Only general topics of every domain were treated. The main objective of the Functional Description is not only to give the reader more information about every module (hardware and software), but first of all to link all these modules together. These links are explained by describing a local and an outgoing telephone call in more detail. The intention is that after this course, a trainee understands exactly which hardware and software parts are involved in a telephone call. From each part he will posses the functional knowledge. It is certainly not the purpose of this course that detailed information is given by the trainer. Detailed material is explained in separate courses, that follow the Functional Description. At certain points in the text, references to the detailed courses are made. To arrive to those objectives, a good knowledge and understanding of the following items is necessary before getting started :
-

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General knowledge of digital telephony and data communication System Overview: 770 00435 6560VHBE

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1. A1000 S12 OVERVIEW


1.1 Introduction
During the first years of this century the role of the telephone industry was that of providing a worldwide network dedicated, above all, to voice communication. For that purpose, Analogue and mechanical nodes and transmission means were developed. However, the appearance of new technologies, such as the computer and the capacity for the large scale integration of circuits, has led to great changes. These changes are, on the one hand, the automation of the telephone networks through the incorporation of stored program switching nodes and digital transmission mechanisms; and on the other, the emergence of needs for nonvoice communication: data, images, etc., which in turn impacts the design and development of communication networks.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Therefore, at present a series of alternative networks are being created. These new networks must by means of international standards and strategies, in order to create a single integrated service network. In this context A1000 S12 presents itself as a switching system that is applicable to almost all existing networks and adaptable to future needs and services. A1000 S12 is designed mainly for use in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), providing access to Analogue subscribers, ISDN, mobiles, private branch exchanges, remote units, etc. Furthermore, the system can be incorporated into the Packet Switching Network (PSN), Broadband ISDN, Intelligent Networks, Telecommunication Management Network, Alcatel MAN, etc.

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Figure 1 : A1000 S12 environment


Public Switched Telephone Network

Remote Subscriber Unit (RSU)

Private Exchange (PBX)

Packet Switching Network

Network Service Centre (NSC)


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A1000 S12

Broad Band Network

Cellular Network

Analogue Subscriber

ISDN Subscriber

From a user point of view, access to A1000 S12 is provided by a set of I/O interfaces in order to use its services and control its operation. Telephonic interfaces allow telecommunication network users to connect each other to exchange information (voice and data). The most basic interface is the two wireloop, although there are also more powerful ways of access by using high quality carrier systems. Thus, digital exchanges are connected to each other by means of multiplexed lines (digital trunks). This means that several conversations are transmitted by just one physical cable. In addition, data links are used to gain access to O&M remote centres or data processing centres. The simplest known interface is obviously the subscriber loop. This subscriber loop is made up of a couple of wires used for full duplex transmission. It goes without saying that the line features allow the transmission of Analogue signals within the band from 300 to 3400 Hz. Subscribers telephone sets employ either decadic or multifrequency dialling. This sort of line is used for voice communication as well as for data communication by means of modems.

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Figure 2 : Analogue subscribers

Analogue telephone set

A1000 S12

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Modem

freq.
300 3400

Power

Another interface, defined according to the same type of physical connection, is the set of basic accesses to ISDN. As we already know, sophisticated digital transmission and reception equipments can use a couple of wires for the emission of two 64 Kb/s channels (voice or data) and additionally one 16 Kb/s channel used for signalling.

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Figure 3 : ISDN subscribers


ISDN telephone set NT

A1000 S12

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B1: 64 Kbps
PC

B1 B2 D

B2: 64 Kbps D : 16 Kbps

An upper level is the access to the telephonic network from Private Branch Exchanges. These PBXs are connected to the host exchange through different types of interfaces. The most basic interface consists of a set of lines (couples of wires) in charge of distributing the outgoing calls, with the host exchange handling the incoming calls directed to the subscribers line. Another method is to use highquality lines (PCM Links). This allows advanced control access by using a signalling channel (usually #16). Finally, PBXs can be connected to ISDN exchanges by means of the PRA interface (Primary Rate Access) whose structure is similar to PCM but which uses a different signalling protocol. In order to provide global telephone service, all the telephone network exchanges are connected to each other by means of trunks. Usually digital, these trunks forward the information through 2048 Kb/s PCM frames supported on coaxial cables, radiolinks, or optical fiber.

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Figure 4 : ISDN PABX ISDN telephone set NT ISDN PABX

30 B

Coaxial Cable

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PC

B1 B2 D B1: 64 Kbps B2: 64 Kbps D : 16 Kbps A1000 S12

Finally, let us consider the access to network management centres. The most commonly used systems are the N7 signalling and X.25 data protocols. The O&M and Taxation users (OMUP and TAXUP respectively) are usually connected to the Network Service Centre (NSC) through the N7 signalling network. The X.25 protocol is used as link between the exchange and some data processing centres (EDPC).

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Figure 5 : Exchange interconnection

Remote Exchange Remote Exchange

PCM format 30 +1+1

Coaxial Cable
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Coaxial Cable

A1000 S12

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Figure 6 : Management centres NETWORK SERVICE CENTRE

N7 NETWORK N7

N7 X.25

X.25 A1000 S12

PSN X.25

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X.25
ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING CENTRE

1.2 Exchange structure


The A1000 S12 exchanges are characterized by two essential properties: digital technology and distributed control. First, A1000 S12 is said to use digital technology because its control and functions are performed by programs that are executed on microprocessors, and the information internal handling (switching and transmission) is carried out by fully digital techniques. These features make the system capable of handling any piece of information, whatever its nature (speech, data, text, etc.), as long as it is digitized, thus ensuring a better quality thanks to the actual advantages of digital transmission and the absence of moving or mechanical parts. Secondly distributed control means that the functions carried out by the system, from a global point of view, are divided into sets of tasks which are grouped in a homogeneous way and assigned to specific and specialized control elements. This idea allows to obtain of a very reliable system for failures of control elements do not entail a meaningful impact on the system. Furthermore, the way in which the different functions are organized allows new ones to be added without having to redesign the system and, therefore, permits the easy adaptation to new needs and services as they arise in the market. The implementation of a system with these characteristics is achieved with the design of an internal digital switching network that interconnects the different system modules to transmit

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internal control information as well as user data over the same paths. This internal network can be easily extended by the addition of new modules. Furthermore, the network switching control is of the gradual type (noncentralized) which simplifies its use. Another factor contributing to the reliability of the System is that the network allows to link two modules through multiple paths in order to ensure minimum blocking probability. Another significant advantage is the use of customized integrated circuits (CLSI Custom Large Scale Integration ), which allows the optimization of the number of functions performed by each printed circuit board, making possible the building of extremely compact and reduced equipment.

1.2.1 Hardware

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The A1000 S12 functional structure is remarkably simple; it consists of an internal switching network to which a variety of terminal modules are connected according to the size of the exchange and the services and facilities offered. The A1000 S12 functional diagram has, therefore, a spider look (Spider Diagram) where the nucleus is the internal switching network and the extremities are the modules. These modules are connected to the network through transmission PCM links modified for their adaptation to the functions required by the system interior. The internal switching network (DSN Digital Switching Network) is formed by a set of basic switching elements arranged under a folded topology. Given that the DSNs number of stages and planes can be increased with great easiness, there are two potential ways of expansion: the number of inlets (terminals connected), and the possibility of alternative paths (traffic flow capacity). On the other hand, all the modules are connected to the network through two modified PCM links presenting a single input and output protocol irrespective of the module. All the modules contain a common part called Control Element or CE , composed of a microprocessor and its memory, and a standard interface circuit towards the switching network. These CEs are classified into two groups: Terminal Control Elements or TCEs, and Auxiliary Control Elements or ACEs . The TCEs are those control elements that are connected to a cluster or circuitry associated with the specific module functions, for example line circuits, trunk circuits, etc.. The interface towards the cluster circuits is also standard. However, there are other control elements which are exclusively dedicated to performing support functions for the TCEs. They carry out specific tasks such as error handling, prefix analysis, local subscriber identification, etc., without including any cluster or circuitry aside from the actual CE. These control elements are called ACEs.

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Figure 7 : System diagram AUXILIARY CONTROL ELEMENTS TRUNK MODULES


TRUNK CIRCUITS

SUBSCRIBER MODULES ACE TCE


Analogue CIRCUITS

TCE

DIGITAL SIGNALLING HANDLING MODULES


DIGITAL SIGNALLING CIRCUITS

TCE Digital Switching Network

C&T CIRCUITS

TCE

CLOCK & TONE MODULES


P&L CIRCUITS

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SERVICE CIRCUITS

TCE

TCE

SERVICE MODULES

PERIPHERAL & LOAD MODULES

Some of the major A1000 S12 modules are briefly described below:
-

Analogue Subscriber Module: Composed of a control element and a set of line circuits that provide access to Analogue subscribers. The different types of Analogue subscribers (regular, public coinbox, priority class, etc.) are all supported through the same type of line circuit. There are other similar modules for access to ISDN subscribers, mobile subscribers, etc.

Digital Trunk Module: Consists of a CE and the digital trunk circuits required to provide access to external systems (telephone exchanges, private automatic branch exchanges, remote subscriber units, etc.) through a standard PCM link. The same piece of equipment is able to handle different signalling types (MF or digital) that can be supported by specialized signalling modules (Services Circuit Modules and Digital Signalling Handling Modules).

Peripheral & Load Module: This module performs functions to access pieces of equipment such as peripherals (Man Machine Communication terminals, printers, tapes, disks, etc.) and panels and alarm lamps.

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Clock & Tone Module: Provides the system synchronization signal and generates the necessary telephonic tones.

ACE

They perform auxiliary functions depending on the associated set of programs and data. These programs define the name given to the ACEs. These and other modules will be described in detail later in this document. The singular structure described above allows the original design to be maintained for the whole range of A1000 S12 applications.

1.2.2 Software
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The software is organized under the support of an operating system and a data base that are specific to the system and over which a set of application programs or software modules are arranged. The operating system is made up of a series of software functions that allow for the management of all the system resources (CPU time scheduling, memory management, communication through the network, etc.). This software subsystem is distributed over the system microprocessors. The data base consists of the information it contains in the form of tables or relations (relational data base), and the programs to manage and access the data contained. These two elements, the data and the programs, are also distributed over the system, yet all the information can be accessed by any microprocessor. The programs in charge of performing the actual system functions, such as signalling, switching, charging, etc., are designed as independent modules. These modules reside in the control element or elements where they must carry out their tasks. The exchange of data between different software modules, whether they reside in the same CE or not, is coordinated making use of the services provided by the operating system and carried out by means of data units called Messages .

1.2.3 Equipment practice


The A1000 S12 digital exchanges are extremely compact and can be installed in regular commercial buildings. As regards the equipments physical appearance, the System consists of printed circuit assemblies, panels, subframes (also called shelves) and racks.

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As mentioned before, the use of the customized circuit manufacturing technique (CLSI) allows the integration of a great number of functions in a single printed board. These smallsized boards are inserted into slots, inside subframes laid in racks, which are accessible from the front as well as from the back. These racks are arranged in rows that appropriately interconnected form the exchange floor over a small area. Each module is composed of one or more PBAs, which may be equipped in different locations of several racks. This means that the rack equipment layout is variable. Furthermore a set of DC/DC converters are provided to supply different voltages to the circuits (5V, 12V,...) Figure 8 : A1000 S12 Exchange floor RACK

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SYSTEM 12 SUBRACK

ROW

PBA

EXCHANGE FLOOR

1.3 Configurations and applications


The A1000 S12 modular structure accommodates a wide range of different configurations using the same basic elements and similar equipment structures. All possible configurations, from small remote units to large local exchanges, are covered. Furthermore, the system can be set to offer the most advanced user facilities whatever the configuration. A brief list of the A1000 S12 product range is outlined on the following page:
-

Local, transit (toll) and combined exchanges From 512 to 256 000 lines Up to 60 000 trunks

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International exchanges Small capacity exchanges: SSA (Small Stand Alone) From 256 to 3 840 lines VSSA (Very SSA) From 16 to 768 lines. Remote applications Remote Subscriber Units Up to 976 Analogue lines Other configurations Network Service Centre SSP in intelligent networks

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1.4 Supplementary Services


From a subscriber point of view, A1000 S12 offers a wide range of supplementary services. Some of these supplementary telephone services, such as the following ones, are common to Analogue and ISDN subscribers:
-

Fixed Destination call: The exchange provides a preprogrammed number without digits send.

Abbreviated dialing: Using a short number the user can establish calls to public subscribers.

Do not disturb: If active, the exchange considers the user as being busy, and every terminating call to the user is released.

Call forwarding on no reply: Calls to the user are forwarded only on no reply after a timeout.

Completion of calls to busy subscriber: The exchange manages the calls to the user holding the incoming call until the terminating subscriber is free.

Malicious call identification Information about terminating calls to the user is stored in case a defined signal is incoming from the called subscriber.

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etc.

Other facilities, as those outlined below, are exclusively for ISDN subscribers:
-

Advise of charge: The user is informed about charging throughout the call duration or/and at the end of the call. The information is shown on the display of the telephone set.

Usertouser signalling: ISDN users are able to send their own information through the ISDN using the particular features of the N7 signalling system.

etc. ., Wide Area Centrex (WAC), and

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Also, we can mention here some services like Centrex Business Communication Group (BCG).

1.4.1 Centrex
First of all, Centrex is an implementation of a private telecommunication network exchange that is not located on the premises of the private network operator but which is part of a public local exchange. The users of a Centrex have the impression of being connected to one homogeneous private telecommunication network, which is invisible to them. The Centrex service is able to provide supplementary services inside the Centrex Group. However, a Centrex subscribers must be connected to the same local exchange.

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Figure 9 : Centrex Structure

Subscriber 1 A1000 S12 PBX 1

Subscriber N

CENTREX

PBX P
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Centrex user 1 Centrex user M

The Wide Area Centrex service improves the basic Centrex to support extensions connected to different exchanges. The main limitation of WAC is that it has a private numbering plan which is completely associated with the public numbering plan.

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Figure 10 : Wide Area Centrex Centrex B subscribers

EXCH B

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EXCH C EXCH A

Centrex C subscribers

Centrex A subscribers

1.4.2 Business Communication Group (BCG)


To solve the above problems, A1000 S12 supports also the Business Communication Group service. Business Communication is a service that allows business user belonging to different exchanges to have a virtual private telecommunication network. ISDN and Analogue subscribers belonging to Centrex, and private exchanges, can be connected by this service. Using a private numbering plan, BC users establish calls for voice or data purposes in the Business Communication Group. Of course, using the public numbering plan, users can reach any subscriber outside the group. This private numbering plan can have a different structure compared to the public numbering plan.

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Figure 11 : Business Communication Group PBX Centrex B subscribers

PBX

PBX PBX EXCH B

EXCH C
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EXCH A

Centrex C subscribers

Centrex A subscribers

1.5 Operation, Administration & Maintenance (OA&M)


The administration of the A1000 S12 is made easier with the creation of a powerful manmachine communication system. This communication mechanism supplies the operator with simple and easy access to all the information related to subscribers, trunks, etc., and, of course, provides all the necessary output messages regarding operating troubles or other events that should be notified. The only requirements for the use of this system are a series of inputoutput devices (specific VDU, PC with emulator, printers, etc.) that permit the introduction of actiontotake orders in the form of operation commands, and the output of messages in the form of text lists either on screen or on the printer. All the commands that can be executed by the system are arranged in different specialized areas related to subscribers, trunks, charging, etc.

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2. A1000 S12 HARDWARE


2.1 The Digital Switching Network (DSN)

2.1.1 Introduction
The key element in the distributed control possible is the Digital Switching Network. This network is a device that carries out spacetime switching, i.e., it transfers the contents of an incoming PCM channel to another channel time of a different PCM link . Figure 12 : Spacetime switching
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LINK 1 LINK 2

LINK 1 CHANNEL 5 LINK 2

LINK 8

CHANNEL 12

LINK 8

The network is used to switch PCM channels that carry speech samples from the terminal circuits as well as messages between control elements.

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Figure 13 : Communication between processors


TCE TCE

SWITCH

SPEECH SAMPLES SWITCH

SWITCH TCE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TCE

NETWORK CONTROL DATA CONTROL DATA

The network presents a folded structure, that is, all the modules are connected to the same side of the network and the procedure used to access a module from any other module is always the same irrespective of the modules involved. The channels supporting every communication progress through the network up to a reflection point before they reach their destination. This structure allows the use of the same basic design for all applications and facilitates future extensions.

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Figure 14 : Communication progress through the network


SOURCE

CH X

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DESTINATION

CH Z

REFLECTION POINT

2.1.2 Digital Switching Element (Multiport)


The network is made up of a series of identical units called Digital Switching Elements or Multiports. The Multiports are interconnected by 32channel PCM links. The multiport has the ability to carry out spacetime switching between the channels of 16 incoming PCM links and those of 16 outgoing PCM links. Each incoming PCM link ends at one of the 16 receiver ports in the multiport, and each outgoing PCM link starts at one of the 16 transmitter ports. Physically, the multiport is made up of 1 LSI mounted onto a printed circuit board. This LSI contains 16 receiver and 16 transmitter ports, and is called SWEL.

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Figure 15 : Multiport structure

line adaptation (Amplifiers) ports PCM link SWEL 0 . . 7 8 . . 15

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

communication bus

To facilitate the representation of the network, a multiport is depicted with the ports numbered 0 to 7 on its left and those from 8 to 15 on its right, without implying any functional change. Ports 8 to 11 are named Low Ports, and ports 12 to 15 High Ports. Figure 16 : Multiport representation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

low numbered ports

high numbered ports

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2.1.3 Switching in the Multiport


The content of each channel is stored, upon arrival, in a memory when it arrives. At the appropriate moment it is read to be transmitted towards the correct destination. In this way the switching network has progressive control. The first two of the 16 bits in each channel are the protocol bits. If a channel is not to be switched, the protocol is 00 (CLEAR); on the other hand, if switching is to be initiated through a channel, these two bits is 01: SELECT command. The remaining bits are used for different purposes. There are several types of SELECT command. The first is called SELECT Fixed Port, Fixed Channel. Here, the remaining bits indicate the outgoing port and the outgoing channel. This data relating the input with the output is stored in a special memory. Once the SELECT has appeared, the switching step has already bee carried out through the storage in the memory, using a common bus mainly composed of: four destination port number lines, five destination channel number lines, and sixteen data lines. The figure shows a multiport switching scheme. The channel X content is saved in an input memory. At the time of its creation, the stored protocol is compared against the previous channel state. If the state is IDLE and the protocol is clear, nothing happens and the state remains the same. If the state is IDLE, but the protocol is SELECT, the saved channel and port destination identities are stored in the state memory, and the channel state changes to BUSY. On the other hand, if the channel is already BUSY, and the protocol different from CLEAR, the saved channel content is sent to the addressed transmitter to be stored there in its output memory (into the word addressed by the destination channel identity). To do this, the lines of the common bus are used. The channel state remains BUSY. The arrival of two consecutive CLEAR idles the channel state. Protocol overview:
-

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

00 : IDLE protocol 01 : SELECT protocol 10 : ESCAPE protocol 11 : SPATA protocol

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Figure 17 : Multiport switching


BUS RECEIVE PORT CH X 0 1 2 0 1 2 DEST. PORT 5 DEST. CHANN. 16 31 INPUT MEMORY 31 STATE MEMORY DATA IDENTITY VERIFY 4 TRANSMIT PORT OUTPUT MEMORY 0 1 2 ADDRESS CH Y

31

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

STATE

DEST. PORT

DEST. CHANN.

The speech samples representing analogue signals are bytes that are sent as successive contents of the same channel. The messages between microprocessors are transmitted as bytes (in some cases 12 bits are used), and sent in the same way. The following consecutive contents of the same channel will come with a protocol 11 (SPATA) if they are speech samples, or 10 (ESCAPE) if they are data (message between Ps).

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Figure 18 : Communication between processors


MULTIPORT TCE
CX CX

MULTIPORT TCE
CZ CZ

MEMORY
CY CY P

10


8 BITS ESCAPE 16 BITS

MEMORY
P

MESSAGE TRANSMISION
MULTIPORT TCE A/D 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED CX CY

MULTIPORT

CZ P

TCE CI CX D/A

11

SPATA


8 BITS

SPEECH TRANSMISSION

However, another possibility is the arrival of other SELECTs that are addressed to multiports located deeper in the network. These SELECTs will be handled as SPATA or ESCAPE. The multiport will handle all of them the same way, driving the channel contents through the outgoing channel pointed out in the memory. The situation will continue as described until it is cleared with the arrival of two consecutive CLEAR (00) protocols which will release the association between the incoming and the outgoing channels. The selection indicating the output port and channel is too strict and for this reason other types of SELECT commands are used more often. These other SELECTs may indicate only the outgoing port, allowing the actual transmitter to choose a channel from those it has free. This SELECT command is called SELECT Fixed Port Any channel. In the most extreme case, neither the port nor the channel is indicated. For this latter case, the receiver has stored in its memory the identity of the ports that have at least one free channel. When one of these SELECT types is used, the transmit port is requested to provide the identity of the channel that will be used.

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Figure 19 : Port memory with free transmit port channels


CHOOSE ONE RECEIVE PORT INPUT MEMORY 0 1 2 0 1 2 STATE MEMORY LOGIC CHANNEL TRANS. PORT 8

SELECTED CHANNEL

31 0 1
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

31 8 1 15 TRANS. PORT 15

PORTS WITH FREE CHANNELS EVERY TRANSM. PORT WRITES PERIODICALLY INTO THIS MEMORY 1 = AT LEAST ONE FREE CHANNEL 0 = NO FREE CHANNELS

This SELECT command is called SELECT Any port, any channel. This command chooses any channel of a port in the set 8to15. This allows the progression of the incoming channel deeper through the network (right side on the drawings). There are other SELECTs that are used for a very particular case of progression through the network which will be seen later. These commands are the SELECT Any Low port, any channel (any channel of the port 8, 9, 10 or 11), and SELECT Port P or P+4, any channel. In order to allow for the proper operation of everything seen thus far, every incoming PCM link contains an alignment pattern in all its zero channels to allow the recognition of the start of each frame. The transmitter ports emit this pattern through their zero channels.

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Figure 20 : Patterns emitted by the transmit port 0 Rx p Tx 0 31 0 Rx 0 Tx q

Multiport A
Pattern Alignement

Multiport B

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2.1.4 Network Structure


The switching network is made up of a set of multiports that are connected in such a way that there is full accessibility between the terminals and the probability of internal blocking is minimal. First, we will study the connection of the modules to the network and then, the interconnection of the multiports. a. Connection of the modules to the network The modules are connected through a pair of multiports called Access Switches (AS). Each PCM link outgoing from the TI is connected to the first port in each AS. Depending on the traffic carried by the modules, eight or four of them are connected to two multiports making up a structure called TSU (Terminal SubUnit). In this example, if the modules are subscriber modules, a TSU can contain a maximum of 1024 subscriber lines.

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Figure 21 : TSU structure for subscriber modules


0 8 9 1 10 TO GROUP SWITCHES

MODULE 0 ACCESS SWITCH


7

11 12 13 14 15

MODULE 1

8 9 TO GROUP SWITCHES

1 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

10

ACCESS SWITCH

11 12 13

MODULE 7
7

14 15

In order to allow the interconnection of modules belonging to different TSUs, ports 8 of the eight access switches are linked together, using the first eight ports (07) of a multiport as shown in the figure below. This multiport is called Group Switch (GS).This structure is called TU (Terminal Unit).

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Figure 22 : TU structure


TI 1st TSU

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


TI 4th TSU


TI


TI


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

GS 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ONLY ONE MULTIPORT IN FIRST STAGE

Thus, four TSUs form a Terminal Unit (TU). The eight access switches are numbered from 0 to 7 and connected to the same port number in the GS. AS 0 and 4 belong to the first TSU, 1 and 5 to the second one, 2 and 6 to the third one and, 3 and 7 to the fourth one. b. Interconnection of Group Switches If there is more than one TU, it will be necessary to interconnect them. This is achieved with multiports in a second network stage. Up to eight TUs are connected under a structure named SECTION . A Section is established by connecting the eight GS in the first stage with another eight multiports in the second stage, using a multipathtopology.

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Figure 23 : Section structure


0 FROM 1st TU 7 8 9 0 1 8

0
15 7

0
15

0 FROM 2nd TU 7

8 9

0 1

1
15 7

1
15

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

0 FROM 8th TU 7

8 9

0 1

7
15 7

7
15

1st STAGE

2nd STAGE

SECTION
The algorithm that defines the connection between the 1st and 2nd stages is as follows: 1st stage multiport no. = 2nd stage port no. 1st stage port no. 8 = 2nd stage multiport no. If there is more than one section, up to 16, it will be necessary to interconnect all of them through a third stage. This third stage must be the last stage, thus all ports are oriented to the sections. The third stage is made up of groups. Each group is formed by eight multiports, each of them connected to all sections via one PCM link.

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Figure 24 : Network structure


ACCESS SWITCHES 0 1 2 3 4 TI 7 5 6 7 8 8 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 0 7 7 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 15 7 8 0 7 15 8 0 7 15 7 15 15 0 0 TI 0 8 0 0 8 0 0 1st STAGE 2nd STAGE 3rd STAGE

15 GROUP 0

SECTION 0

0 0 7

0 0

0 0

15

15

15

0 7 7

0 7

0 7

15

15

15 GROUP 7

SECTION 15

The interconnection of the 2nd and 3rd stages is defined by the following equations: 2nd stage port no. 8 = 3rd stage group no. 2nd stage multiport no. = 3rd stage multiport no. 2nd stage section no. = 3rd stage port no. Although one group interconnects all the sections, a maximum of eight groups may be implemented in order to increase the number of possible paths and minimise the internal blocking.

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The set of sections and groups is called PLANE . As mentioned before, the access switches of each TU are connected to the plane through port 8. If, due to traffic needs, more paths must be provided, up to three more planes can be connected to ports 9, 10 and 11 of the access switches (at least two planes are equipped). Ports 12 to 15 are used to connect the ACEs (ACEs are also connected to ports 4 to 7 for low traffic TSUs), the Clock & Tone modules and the Peripheral and Load modules. Figure 25 : Network structure with four planes
SECTION 15 7 7 GROUP 7 7

SECTION 0 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

GROUP 0

7 0 8

15

7 0

15

15 0 0 PLANE 1 PLANE 2 STAGE 3

STAGE 1 9 10

STAGE 2

PLANE 3 11 TERMINAL INTERFACE ACCESS SWITCHES PLANE 4

The exchange sizing up rules define the number of group switches per plane necessary for a given number of terminals, while the value of the expected traffic flow gives the number of planes, bearing in mind that the equipment is identical in all planes and that two planes are always equipped for security purposes.

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Figure 26 : Network growth

TRAFFIC

1 STAGE

2 STAGES

3 STAGES

4 PLANES

3 PLANES

2 PLANES

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

NUMBER OF TERMINALS
2.1.5 Network addresses
A network path will be established with consecutive SELECT commands that a control element will emit through one of the channels that link it to the access switches. This way, the path will be established gradually, advancing towards the interior of the network up to the reflection point in order to reach the destination module. This path will be the shortest possible one, in such a way that, for modules of the same TSU, the reflection will take place at the access switch, for modules of the same TU at the 1st stage, for modules of the same section at the 2nd stage and, at the 3rd stage when they belong to different sections. This means that the number of SELECT commands used will be 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively.

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The following figure shows an example of a path established between the CEs A and B, with a single SELECT command, that is, the reflection point is at the access switch. The command used is the following one (on this figure and on the following ones, only the first plane is represented):

Step (1) SELECT PORT 4, ANY CHANNEL. Figure 27 : Reflection at the Access Switch
2
1st STAGE TI 0 2nd STAGE 3rd STAGE

(1)
0 4 8 0 4 8
0 8 0

0
15
7

0
15 15

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CE A

0 4

TI 3

7
CE B SECTION 0 15 7

7
15 15

GROUP 0

0
15 7

0
15 15

8 7

7
15 7 15 15 GROUP 7

15

SECTION 15

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The following figure shows a path set with 3 SELECT commands, that is, the reflection point is located in the first stage. The commands used are: (1) SELECT LOW PORT, ANY CHANNEL (2) SELECT PORT 2/2+4, ANY CHANNEL (3) SELECT PORT 2, ANY CHANNEL Figure 28 : Reflection at the first stage
1st STAGE TI 0

(1)
0 8

(2)
0 2 4 6
8

2nd STAGE

3rd STAGE

0
15

0 0 7

0 0

15

15

CE A

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TI 2 8 0 7 15 7 SECTION 0 15 8 0 7 15 GROUP 0

(3)
CE B

6
8 0 0 0 15 7 15 15 8 0 0

1 7 5

0 7

0 7

15 SECTION 15

15

15 GROUP 7

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The following figure shows a path established with 7 SELECT commands, that is, the reflection point is located at the third stage. The commands used are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) SELECT LOW PORT, ANY CHANNEL. SELECT ANY PORT, ANY CHANNEL SELECT ANY PORT, ANY CHANNEL SELECT PORT 15, ANY CHANNEL SELECT PORT 7, ANY CHANNEL. SELECT PORT 1/1+4, ANY CHANNEL SELECT PORT 2, ANY CHANNEL Figure 29 : Reflection at the third stage
TI 0 (1) 0

(2)
8

1st STAGE
8 2

2nd STAGE
0 0 8

3rd STAGE
0 0

2
6

0
15 7

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

15

15

(3)
CE A 0 8

(4)
8 7 15 7 0 8 0

7
15 15

SECTION 0

GROUP 0

8 0 15

0 0

0 0

15

15

(7) TI 2

(5)
1
8

1
5

7
15

(6)

0 7

7
7 15 15

CE B 2 5 8

SECTION 15

GROUP 7

In order to be able to connect two modules through a path, it is necessary that each module is unequivocally defined. This is achieved with the coordinates of network addresses, indicated with the codes ZYXW or DCBA :

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Z: Indicates the section number (015). Y: 1st stage multiport number to which its TU is connected (07). X: Lowest access switch number to which its TSU is connected (03). W: Control element number within its TSU (07 and 1215). Another view of coordinates is related in the following figure: Figure 30 : Meaning of the coordinates

15

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

15

8 0 7 0 15 15

TI 2

ACCESS SWITCH 2 1 5 8

1
7

15 SECTION 15

7 15

15
GROUP 7

CE B

2
5

COORDINATE W Input ports to Access Switch

COORDINATE X Input ports to 1st Stage

COORDINATE Y Input ports to 2nd Stage

COORDINATE Z Input ports to 3rd Stage

2.1.6 Blocked Paths


As we have seen, the path establishment process is progressive through the network and, to a large extent, random since the exact path that is going to be selected is not known beforehand.

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When a SELECT command is executed in a multiport, the transmitter port involved sends an acknowledgement signal to the receiver, provided that the switching can be carried out. Thus, when executing the SELECT port P, any channel, if the transmitter port P has no free channels it will not send the acknowledgement signal, whereby the incoming channel passes to the not acknowledged state (NACK) , which is memorized at the receiver. The switching steps that have been established up to the NACK point are then no longer of any use and the path must be released. For this, the processor that originated the SELECT command is notified making use of channel 16 of the PCM links parallel to those along which the path was thus far established. Figure 31 : NACK sending through the network 1 2 7 4 3 5
16

SWITCHING NOT POSSIBLE 0 8

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TI 6

16

4
P

TRANSMISSION NACK BACKWARDS

T5 WITH NO FREE CHANNELS

(1), (2), (3): (4): (5): (6):

The path is set up to the first stage. At this stage switching is not possible. Using backward channel 16 the input channel identity (i.e. 4) is sent back towards the first stage. The multiport at this first stage sends back the identity of the input channel with in channel 16, using the connection related data. The microprocessor reads this identity and is able to make another attempt.

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2.1.7 Tunnels
When a loss of sync occurs at a pair of ports or in the event of a hardware failure, alarm information is transmitted through channel 0 towards a microprocessor. The arrival of the alarm is marked by changing the channel 0 protocol from CLEAR to SPATA. Since this information travels through channel 0 and this channel is not switched using SELECT commands as for the other channels, switching is performed through preset hardware switches at every multiport in such a way that the HIGH and LOW ports are linked together. This association is named Tunnel, meaning that is, whatever reaches receiver port P at channel 0 time, leaves through transmitter port P+8 also at channel 0 time; and whatever arrives at receiver port P+8 leaves through transmitter port P. This way, in a totally equipped network, the alarm information will reach two microprocessors. In these microprocessors, when channel 0 with SPATA protocol arrives, the channel 0 content is stored in a specified position of the CE RAM, where the microprocessor can read it.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

In the case of a network that is only partially equipped, the alarm may reach only one microprocessor. If this is the case, the tunnel is called cave . However, in some cases of partial equipment the alarm may not reach any microprocessor; therefore, it will be necessary to implement enough HW jumpers or crosslinks for these paths to be at least caves so that the alarms can reach at least one microprocessor.

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Figure 32 : Alarm Information reaching the processors


CONTROL ELEMENT

0
CH 0

8
CH 0

SYNCHRONISATION LOST IN RECEPTION

CH 0

15

6
ALARM

14
CH 0 ALARM

0
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CH 0

1
CONTROL ELEMENT CH 0

0
CH 0

CH 0

10

P
ALARM

11

ALIGN. PATTERN 16

CHANNEL ZERO

SPATA SYNCHRONISATION LOST ALARM POINTER: ORIGIN OF THE ALARM

2.2 Generic structure of a module


An A1000 S12 exchange is made up of a set of functional modules linked to each other through the digital switching network. Each module is formed by a series of circuits that perform similar functions, whether of a telephonic or nontelephonic type. Generally, all the modules have the structure shown in the following figure:

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Figure 33 : Module structure

MODULE CIRCUITS

TERMINAL INTERFACE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PROCESSOR & MEMORY

CONTROL ELEMENT
Two basic parts can be distinguished in the figure: the specific module circuitry which is . which is common to all specific to each particular case, and the Control Element (CE) system modules. The latter in turn is formed by a microprocessor with its main memory, where the main programs that control the module functions are executed, and a device called Terminal Interface (TI) , which allows the communication between the module and the other modules in the exchange through the switching network. There will be modules in the system that have no associated circuitry. These modules are known as ACEs (Auxiliary Control Elements) and their only relation with the exchange HW is their connection to the network through the Terminal Interface. Therefore, these modules will perform support auxiliary functions for the rest of the system. Given their HW independence, the functions are assigned to these control elements with more flexibility than to the others, and they may be replaced by others in case of failure. Some examples of functions that will be carried out by the ACEs are: prefix analysis, charge analysis, trunk resource allocation, statistics, etc. We will first study the structure of each of the Control Element parts and then their functions and the circuits associated with each specific module are discussed.

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2.2.1 Terminal Interface


The terminal interface is the component that enables the control element to use the channels of the network PCM links. Thanks to the TI, a control element will be able to transmit data packets addressed to another TCE, and also to receive data packets coming from other control elements. Another important function of the TI is to accept the two PCM links originated at the module circuitry (line circuits, trunks, etc.) and establish the port and channel switching towards the network. All these functions are performed under processor control or, in some cases, are commanded by the channel content in the same way as the switch works. The TI employs four pairs of receiver/transmitter ports, two pointing towards the network and two towards the module circuitry, to perform its functions. There is a fifth receiver port connected to tone distribution in such a way that a tone can be sent to a line circuit. Each receiver has two software selectable inputs, one of which (except for port 5) is always connected to the pair transmitter port, for test loop purposes. This structure is depicted in the figure below. The link that arrives at port 5 from the tone generator carries the samples of each specific tone along fixed channels. Therefore, the emission of a given tone towards a terminal will simply consist of port and channel switching under the control of the processor. Port 5 receives two input PCM link, and has no transmitter. Furthermore, the TI includes a 2 or 4 KWord RAM memory called Packet RAM . The microprocessor uses it for the transmission and reception of data packets. The packets to be sent are written into a specific part of the RAM, which contains the Select commands for setting up the path through the network and the data to be transmitted. The data must be 64 words length or less. On the other hand, the receiving packets are not written into RAM randomly, instead, discrete areas of 64 consecutive words must be used. The microprocessor uses two specific words from its memory map for carrying out its orders over the TI.

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Figure 34 : Terminal Interface basic structure

T1 R1 TO / FROM CIRCUITS T3 R3

R2 T2 TO / FROM NETWORK R4 T4

TONES A
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

R5

TONES B

Therefore, the final structure of the TI is as shown in the following figure. Figure 35 : Terminal Interface structure

T1 R1

ORDERS AND DATA PACKETS

R2 T2

T3 R3 2/4 KWORD

R4 T4

R5

MICROPROCESSOR

Before we see how the processor handles the abovementioned memory, let us enumerate some of the most important channel states, that is, the possible states of the channels arriving at the receivers and of those leaving the transmitters. Thus, looking at a receiver, the incoming channels may be in one of following states:

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FREE: The channel is not switched, and clear protocols are received in each frame. PUT TO RAM: The channel content is written into a specific RAM address each time it is received: Figure 36 : PUT TO RAM state

CH X

CH X

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CUT THROUGH: The channel is linked to a transmitter outgoing channel: Figure 37 : CUT THROUGH state

CH X

CH Y

RECEIVE PACKET: The channel is receiving a data packet sent by another control element through the network. Every time this channel time is reached, its content is loaded into consecutive positions of the RAM starting at a specific initial address:

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Figure 38 : RECEIVE PACKET state

CH X

CH X

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Similarly, the transmit channels may be in one of the following main states:
-

IDLE : The channel is not assigned to any channel of any receiver to establish a switching step with it, nor is it being used by the processor for data transmission. A channel in this state sends CLEAR protocols. LAUNCH : A channel in this state will launch the data contained in a RAM area starting at a specific initial address provided by the processor: Figure 39 : LAUNCH state

CH X

CH X

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FETCH : A transmitter channel in this state will go to RAM to fetch (extract) the content of a single memory position indicated by the processor: Figure 40 : FETCH & INDIRECT CUT THROUGH states

CH X

CH X

CH Z

CH Z

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Using the FETCH state in combination with the corresponding PUTTORAM of a receiving channel, it is possible to join both channels. This feature is called INDIRECTCUTTHROUGH.
-

CUT THROUGH : In this state, the transmitter channel is linked to a receiver channel: Figure 41 : CUT THROUGH states

CH X

CH Y

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The COMMANDs procedure is used to modify the behavior of the channels. The COMMANDs are orders written by the processor into two reserved memory words and read by the port whose identity is written into a third register. Figure 42 : Transmission of orders to Ports

T1 R1

R2 T2

T3 R3

R4 T4

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

COMMAND WORDS O PORT IDENTITY P P 1 ORDER & PARAMETERS 2 DIRECTED TO PORT P

R5

1. 2. 3. 4.

The micro writes the command code (o) and the parameters (p) into the command words. The micro writes the target port id. into a register. Every port periodically scans this register. Only the addressed port is triggered. This port reads the command order (o+p), and executes it.

With the abovedescribed procedure, the processor will order the transmission of a data packet addressed to another Control Element:

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Figure 43 : Packet transmission


6

6 PACKET RAM 5 4 01

CH X


16
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

COMMAND WORDS PORT IDENTITY

2 1

1. Writing of packet to be sent: SELECTs to establish network path SOP (Start Of Packet flag) Data

EOP (End Of Packet). 2. Writing of command: Launch packet through any free channel Memory address where the packet is located. 3. Writing of the identity of the port to be used for the launch. 4. All ports read this register. 5. The called port reads the command words. 6. The command is executed by writing the words as successive contents of the chosen channel.

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The packet launched is received, through the network, by the TI of the destination Control Element. The reception proceeds is as follows: Figure 44 : Packet reception

1 SOP CH X CH X 4 CH X EOP EVENT 4 EVENT CONTENT: PACKET RECEIVED USED ADDRESS


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FIFO

PACKET RAM

EVENT R. 6 5 8


FREE

1 The receiver detects the Start Of Packet indicator, SOP. 2. It looks in a FIFO for the address of a free packet area in the P.RAM. 3. Starting at this address, it writes the successive channel contents (packet). 4. When the receiver detects the EOP, it enters the event into a register: Arrival Incoming channel Address. 5. This situation is recorded in an external register, indicator of ports that have events. This register is periodically read by the processor. 6. When the processor reads in the register that a receiver has an event, it reads the event (by executing a command), and finds out that a packet has arrived and where the packet is in RAM.

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7. Finally, the processor reads the packet and registers the packet address as free in the FIFO so that it can be used again. In some A1000 S12 System modules, the module circuitry contains a local processor, the OBC (On Board Processor) . This processor has the asset of being able to send and receive messages to/from another OBC or another system Control Element, by establishing a path in the TI as if it were one more network stage. Figure 45 : OBC OBC communication
MULTIPORT CLUSTER TCE MULTIPORT CX TI OBC CY CZ TI OBC TCE CLUSTER

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MULTIPORT

This is possible because the incoming channels of the TI receiver ports accept selection commands in the same way as multiport ones do. These commands carry out the operation called TRANSPARENT SELECTION.

2.2.2 Processor
The processor will be the part of the Control Element in charge of coordinating the module performance. To achieve this, the processor will basically carry out two types of operations through the Terminal Interface:
-

Set up spacetime switching between the channels of the different ports. Occupy channels in the outgoing PCM links to send data packets (messages) to other CEs through the network, or to the actual module circuitry.

The information that goes from the TI to the network through the different channels of the PCM links, will undergo successive spacetime switching steps to arrive at the destination Control Element through the appropriate channel. There, it will be captured by the processor (in the case of messages) or switched towards the circuitry of the module in question. For the processor to be able to carry out its functions, it must be provided with a 1, 4 or 8Mbyte memory, where the different programs to be executed at any given moment will be stored.

2.2.3 Physical implementation of the Control Element


Originally, the Terminal Interface occupied a whole board known as TERI, while the processor occupied several boards, one with the actual processor and several with the

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memory. Later, the processor and the memory were integrated into one board called TCPA/B. Nowadays, the whole control element is contained in a single board of which there are several different versions: MCUA : In this particular version, the microprocessor used is the 8086 or a compatible. The microprocessor is clocked at 8 MHz and addresses 1 Mbyte of memory. In this example the PBA is used as TCE for subscriber and service circuit modules. Figure 46 : MCUA structure

TO TO CLUSTER TI NETWORK

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

C&T

PROM

RAM 8086 1 Mbyte

PROG. CLOCK

PROT. RAM

INTERR. CONTROLLER.

MEMORY BUS

SERIAL OUTPUT

MCUB : The microprocessor used is the 80386 or a compatible. In System 12, a 4 MB, 8 MB and a 16 MB variant of the MCUB are used. The microprocessor is clocked at 16 MHz. It is used in some modules (i.e. Peripheral and Load TCE, N7 Digital Trunk modules,..), and for the ACEs. Besides the larger RAM capacity, the memory bus goes out as a multimaster bus, allowing the MCUB RAM access to be shared with an external processor.

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Figure 47 : MCUB structure and RAM sharing

TO CLUSTER

TI

TO NETWORK

C&T

80386
PROG. CLOCK INTERR. Controller

PROM RAM up to 16 LOCK RAM Mbyte

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SERIAL INTERFACE

BUS CONTROL LINES

EXTERNAL MULTIMASTER MEMORY BUS

RAM

MCUB
RQ

80386

BUS CONTROLLER BUS GRANT

shared accesses RQ

OTHER PROCESSOR

MCUC : The microprocessor used is the 80486DX266 or a compatible. In System 12 a 16 MB, a 32 MB and a 64 MB variant are foreseen. The MCUC is primarily used for ACEs, especially for the SCALSV.

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Figure 48 : MCUC structure

TO CLUSTER

TI

TO NETWORK

C&T

PROM
Cache 8Kb

80486
PROG. CLOCK INTERR. Controller

RAM up to 64 Mbyte
LOCK RAM

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SERIAL INTERFACE

BUS CONTROL LINES

EXTERNAL MULTIMASTER MEMORY BUS

RAM 80486

MCUB
RQ

BUS CONTROLLER BUS GRANT

shared accesses RQ

OTHER PROCESSOR

MCUE : due to the unavailability of 8086 and compatible processors, a new board has been developed, fully compatible with the MCUA, and used to replace the MCUA in new exchanges or when existing exchanges are extended, and this for modules such as line modules, improved service circuits modules, high performance common channel signalling modules, ... . The microprocessor used on the MCUE is the 32bit 80386EX, running at a speed of 25 Mhz. In System 12, an 8 MB version is provided, extendable to maximum 16 MB. Compared to the MCUA, a performance improvement of factor 4 has been noted.

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Note : Although the MCUE has initially been developed to replace the MCUA, and therefore has been provided with a low speed bus (LSB), the devolpment has been done in such a way that it can also be used instead of a MCUB. This is valid for modules such as the ISDN Subscriber Module, the ISDN Remote Interface Module, ...

The following table gives an overview of main characteristics of the existing MCUxs. Table 1 : CE Overview MCUA 8086 8 Mhz 1 Mbyte on board RAM MCUB 80386 16 Mhz up to 16 Mbyte on board RAM Current variants: 2, 4, 8 and 16 Mbyte serial output HSB/MMB MCUC 80486 66 Mhz up to 64 Mbyte on board RAM Current variants: 16, 32 and 64 Mbyte serial output HSB/MMB MCUE 80386 25 Mhz up to 16 Mbyte on board RAM Current variants: 8 and 16 Mbyte serial output LSB (special variant) HSB presently not required i d( (update d i is possible)

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

serial output Multiplexed bus LSCB (special variant) i )

Note : The name MCUE given to that new module suggests that there should also be another module, called MCUD. This is indeed the case : the MCUD is a highperformance Pentiumbased processorboard. It is not mentionned in the previous list, because up to now, it is not used in any EC7.4 SW release.

All MCUx have three LEDs whose meaning is shown on the figure. The fast test is performed by a PROM stored program which tests the TI, the memory, and the bootstrap checksum. If this fast test is successful, the Bootstrap program is started which requests the CE downloading. If not one of three possible failures is shown.

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Figure 49 : MCUx LEDs meaning


1 1 1 OK X = BLINKING 1 = LIGTHING 0 = OFF 1 0 LOAD REQUEST 0

FAST TEST RUNNING 0 0 0 OK


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

END OF LOAD INDICATION

1 1 TI failure 0

0 Bootstrap 1 Checksum 0 failure 1 0 RAM failure 1

X X X

ACTIVE

2.2.4 The On Board Controller (OBC)


In many modules, the module circuitry contains its own resident processor which is in charge of routine and initialization tasks, relieving the Control Element of these functions. For this OnBoard Processor to work, a standardized interface is located in the module circuitry. This interface is called OBCI (OnBoard Controller Interface) and allows for the OBCTCE dialogue and the direct handling of channels by the OBC, and also for the dialogue with other OBCs/TCEs in the network:

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Figure 50 : OBC communication


MCUx OBCI PCM LINK PCM LINKS PCM LINKS

OTHER TCEs OR OBCs OBC P

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Similar to the terminal interface, the OBCI contains some PCM ports. With in channel commands sent to the correct OBCI (using an address because more than one OBCI can be connected in parallel) connections can be established to send data, ... Also connections towards the OBC processor are possible (the OBC is connected via a parallel bus using DMA channels to pass data to and from the OBCI). For packet sending between the TCE and the OBC, it is possible to establish temporary paths. For call connections (e.g: trunks ) it is possible to make fixed connections which exist until a release command is given.

2.3 Description of the different hardware modules

2.3.1 The Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM)


Each of the A1000 S12 modules is dedicated to a specific task. The Analogue Subscriber Module provides the line end circuit for the analogue subscribers. Each module is made up of ALCN boards (Analogue Line Circuit board type N) and each board handles sixteen analogue subscribers. The module is composed of eight ALCN boards, thus serving, 128 subscribers. There exists also a RNGF boards for ring current generation, the TAUC for testing and the RLMC board for alarms (these PBAs only implemented in some of ASM modules: two TAUC and two RMLC per rack). All these PBAs are connected to a MCUA/E type control element via two PCM links. Every two control elements of the subscriber modules are connected in such a way that each has access to the ALCN boards of both, and all of these sixteen boards may be handled by one of the two control elements in the case of failure of the other one. In A1000 S12, this connection mode is known as CROSSOVER (represented as XOVER).
Note : Besides the ALCN, another board can be used : the ALCP, which makes also uses of the latest CLSI techniques, but only provides connections to maximum 8 subscribers. This board was

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developed in such a way that it is compatible with ELC technology, and can therefore be used as replacement of the older ALCB on the ERack family. In the following text, we will only refer to the ALCN. The reader should be aware that the text is also valid for an ALCP.

Figure 51 : Analogue Subscriber Module structure


4 1 0

MCUA/E ALCN
A B TO THE NETWORK

15
16 x 4 = 64 64 x 2 = 128 LINES

8 5 0

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ALCN
15

A B

ASM A
TAUC/RLMC

8 5 0
A

RNGF

ASM B MCUA/E

ALCN
15
16 x 4 = 64 64 x 2 = 128 LINES

TO THE NETWORK

4 1 0

ALCN
15

A B

PCM LINKS 4 Mb/s

The following functional blocks are found in each ALCN board: 1. Input resistance and relay contacts to the test (TAU) and ring (RING) buses, in general: Input interface. 2. Transmission interface (one per line). 3. Digital signal processing block (analogue to digital conversion). (One block per every four lines.) 4. MCUA/E interface block. One per board.

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Figure 52 : ALCN functional blocks


4 x 4 = 16 LINES
0,3
12,15 8,11 4,7

TRANSM. INTERFACE

1
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESS.

INTERFACE WITH THE CE (MCUA/E)

DPTC

2
PCM LINKS TO MCUA/E

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TAU BUS

RING BUS

ALCN

The main functions of every block are:


-

Input interface High Voltage protection (=line protection) Relays to connect the line, send ringing current, execute in/outward tests,... Resistors to detect off hook and on hook Overcurrent protection.

Transmission Interface Couples voice band signals to the line Supplies DC current to the subscriber (48/60V) 2 to 4 wire conversion.

Digital Signal Processing A/D and D/A converters: conversion of the analogue speech signal into an 8bit logarithmic sample and vice versa

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digital and analogue filters gain control: switching an attenuation / amplification network into the subscriber terminal circuit in order to maintain a specified transmission level echo cancellation.
-

DPTC (Dual Processor Terminal Controller) Interface between subscriber terminals and even/odd TCEs Control of the line functions upon reception of TCE commands Informing the TCEs about HW events (errors, off hook, ...).

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The PCM inputs and outputs of the four digital processing blocks are joined and connected to the processor interface (DPTC) . There, they enter into channel switches that, according to the appropriate control, associate the fixed channel of each line with one of the channels of the two PCM links that go towards the two MCUA/Es (XOVER). The controls are performed by the control element based on the transmission of messages through channel 16, which is reserved for this use. The messages are delimited with the SOPEOP (Start and End of Packet) flags. After the SOP, a DPTC address byte is used to drive the message towards a particular DPTC. The data bytes contain codes that are used to read or write from/into different control registers contained in the DPTC and, significantly, the bytes of a memory composed of 16 sets of eight bytes each (one set per line), also contained in the DPTC. Each bit of the bytes in these sets handles a certain control of the line associated with this set. In order to send the different controls, the bits are transmitted serial, periodically sweeping the memory, towards the four digital processing blocks and, from each of these, to the four transmission interfaces. Each line will take only the controls that are addressed to it.

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Figure 53 : Control Paths


X_OVER

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

PCM 4 Mb.

0 SERIAL CONTROL OUTPUT


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ONLY CHAN. 16

TO / FROM MCUA/E

LINE 1 7 REGISTERS 0 LINE 16 7

SERIAL EVEN RECEPTION

CONTROL MEMORY

INTERFACE WITH PROCESSOR (DPTC)

Working principle:

The DPTC contains some registers and 16 maps with data (one map/subscriber). Whenever something happens (subscriber on hook, ...) it is stored in the correct map (a bit toggle). Then it is up to the DPTC to inform the TCE. This is done by sending a CH0 alarm which is received in the Packet RAM of the terminal interface. The SW reads this location regularly to detect the CH0 alarm in time. Upon detection, the SW sends commands towards the DPTCs (the CH0 alarm doesnt explain what has happened and doesnt explain which DPTC generated the alarm). When the DPTCs receive this polling command, they will report the events (e.g: DPTC of the 2nd ALCN, the 3th subscriber lifted the handset) This information is also called a mismatch. All DPTCs have the opportunity to report their events one by one (a cyclic., timed multiplexed algorithm). It is also possible to send information towards the hardware. E.g: to switch the relays (to send ringing current), the SW launches commands towards the correct DPTC to change data in the map of the correct subscriber (1..16). After that the DPTC sends this information to a decoder to drive the relays. Remember: The HW informs the TCE about events by sending a CH0 alarm (subscriber mismatch, HW error or SW error)

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The TCE SW can send commands to the HW and/or retrieve information from the HW by sending and/or receiving information via CH16.
-

The module is completed with a RNGF board for ring current generation. The function of this board is to generate the ringing signal to send through any of the lines. To perform this function, the board contains two current generators from which two pairs of wires go out, each covering 64 subscribers. In each of these boards the ring current is applied or cut with the adequate cadence, by closing the appropriate relay. For more information about the ringing, see the chapter of the local call in PART II. Rack layout

Given the high integration of each board, up to twelve line modules may be located in a single rack , connecting the control elements of every two modules according to the XOVER method. Figure 54 : ASM location
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

X_OVER

AIR BAFFLE

RACK TYPE JA00


MCUA/E

1 2

8 ALCN

RNGF

MCUA/E

RNGF

One module occupies only ten of the sixteen slots in each subframe side, leaving six free slots for other boards and converters. One rack contains two measuring boards, TAUC (one per side), that depend upon the two control elements of two concrete modules. Each of these boards sends a measurement bus, that covers all the modules on one side (right or left).

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Figure 55 : Measurement bus distribution


AIR BAFFLE

MCUA/E

TAUC

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


TAUC description

ALCN

PCM LINK (X_OVER) METERING BUS

The two RLMC PBAs are connected in a similar way, .


-

Each TAUC board, used to carry out measurements, is formed by two distinct parts: one that physically takes the measurement and another one that processes it. For the physical measurement, the TAUC contains a series of measuring devices and generators connected to the test bus by relays. The contacts are closed, assigning one device or another, according to what is written in the interface with the control element similar to that used in the ALCN boards (DPTCs). To connect the test bus to the subscriber line, a command is sent towards the correct ALCN to close the relays.The TAUC executes the measurement and evaluates the result (Digital Signal Processing part). Test results can be sent to the TCE via a dedicated channel and further on to the maintenance. Thus a measuring circuit is used to observe the line voltage, for a fixed measurement range, and to send it, converted to digital, to the control element through the assigned channel. The measurement will be carried out over the terminating resistance previously arranged for it. This circuit will serve as an encoder for the transmission of audio signal samples, by closing the loop with the adequate impedance and fixing the precise range. In the outgoing direction, the circuit will be able to feed the measurement bus with a programmable DC or AC voltage by connecting the signal generator, to transmit audio signals that obey the samples received from the control element through the adequate channel.

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The TAUC may be used to carry out different measurements by performing the appropriate connections through accurate controls. For example, one measurement that may be taken is the resistance, RL, between the two wires, a and b, of one of the lines. In the TAUC, there is a processor that is responsible for the required algorithms, such as the RL calculation in the above example. This processor is specialised in Digital Signal Processing (DSP). It is related to the control element through the same interface used in the ALCN board, the DPTC. Different types of measurements may be taken, not only electrical but also audio signal evaluations. Following the figure examples, a program in the DSP generates a signal with known frequency and power. The signal is sent to the MCUA/E and from there to the line to be measured (step 1 of the figure). The line pair is deviated to the measurement bus through which it enters the TAUC where it ends at the simulated subscriber termination [2].The measuring circuit takes samples of the signal received, the samples are sent back via the MCUA/E and reenter the DSP which evaluates them [3]. Finally, the result is sent to the control element (MCUA/E)[4]. All test procedures are always triggered by the maintenance software. Therefore the results are sent to this software at the end of the process. Figure 56 : Measurement example
CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MCUA/E ALCN 1
DPTC


600 Ohm.

DIGITAL NETWORK

TAUC 3 1

MEAS. CIRCUIT

ANALOGUE PART
FREQ. GEN.

3 4

1
RESULT

DSP

3
ALGORITHM

MCUA/E

4
RESULT

DPTC

DIGITAL PART

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2.3.2 Digital Trunk Module (DTM)

The function of the digital trunk module is to act as interface between a transmission PCM link at 2 Mb/s and the system internal links at 4 Mb/s, as well as, in some cases, to act as interface between the signalling used in the trunk and the exchange control. Figure 57 : Digital Trunk Module
DIGITAL TRUNK

DIGITAL LINK

2 Mb/s

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

NETWORK

4 Mb/s

VOICE SIGNALLING


CONTROL

We may find trunks with multifrequency signalling or with signalling through messages (common channel signalling). All the different trunk modules will have to perform some common tasks:
-

Clock extraction and conversion of line code to binary In order to read the incoming bits properly, a 2 MHz clock must be regenerated resembling as closely as possible the one used at the transmitter side. This regeneration is carried out by a circuit through the observation of the incoming pulses. If the incoming signal were to present too many consecutive zeros the clock regeneration would be a difficult task. For this reason, the information is not transmitted directly in binary, but socalled line codes are used: Figure 58 : Binary transmission

0 ?

The line code, HDB3 code in Europe (AMI in USA), consists of the transmission of three different logical levels (1, 0, +1). The 1s are transmitted alternately as +1 and 1. If more than three consecutive zeros are to be transmitted, the fourth zero is changed to 1 with the same sign as that of the last coded 1.

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Figure 59 : HDB3 transmission 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 IS SENT 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

Therefore, it is necessary to reconvert the signal from HDB3 line code to binary at the receiver side, by performing the inverse task as that performed at the transmitter side.
-

Retiming Each exchange sends data through the transmission link with its own clock, which may vary to some extent from that of the receiver exchange. Therefore, it is necessary to perform retiming or adaptation to the clock signal at the receiver side. This is achieved through the use of a memory buffer where the data is written according to one clock, and read according to the other clock. If the difference between the read clock and the write clock remains for a longer time then using this buffer maximum 1 frame is skipped or read twice (this is called: SLIP). CCITT allows only one slip in 70 days. Figure 60 : Retiming
HDB3 / BIN

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

RETIMED SIGNAL

ADDRESSES

ADDRESSES

PULSE SLOPES CLOCK REGENERATION

2 Mb/s WRITING LOGIC EXTERNAL CLOCK

RETIMING BUFFER MEMORY READING LOGIC

1/2 2 Mb/s 4 Mb/s INTERNAL CLOCK

Frame alignment

detection

In the transmission link, the start of each of the 32channel PCM frames is marked by the repetitive transmission of an alignment pattern every two frames. Therefore it is necessary to recognize this pattern in order to detect the start of each frame.

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Figure 61 : Frame alignment PCM LINK HDB3 / BIN LOSS OF FRAME ALIG. ALARM FRAME ALIGNMENT DETECTOR To ensure this recognition, an alignment detector will observe if the pattern is repeated in channel zero every two frames. The third time that this process fails, the system falls in the alignment loss state and an alarm is produced. It is possible that the alignment pattern is not observed where it should be, but if this does not occur three consecutive times, the system will not fall in the mentioned state. These error situations are counted and read by the control which, when a threshold is exceeded, produces an excessive error rate (ERR) alarm.
-

ERROR COUNTER

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CRC4 detection As an added protection procedure, CCITT recommends the use of the Cyclic Redundancy Code CRC4, which consists of the elaboration of a 4bit checking code taking as input all the bits in eight frames. The code, C1C2C3C4, is sent in the first bit of the four zero channels that carry the frame alignment pattern in the eight following frames. This first bit is not used for alignment since the alignment pattern consists of seven bits only. The receiver side elaborates its own C1C2C3C4 character every eight frames and compares it with the one it receives in the eight following frames. With the comparison result, the receiver side accepts the reception as valid or not, and produces an alarm in the second case. Figure 62 : CRC4
FRAME 0 FRAME 0 FRAME 7 FRAME 7

CRC CODE

C1 C2 C3 C4 C1 F.A.P. C2 F.A.P. C3 F.A.P. C4 F.A.P.

F.A.P.= FRAME ALIGNMENT PATTERN

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a. Modules that handle multifrequency signalling: Digital Trunk Module Low The PCM transmission link has its frames organized into groups of sixteen frames each, called multiframes. The groups are recognized by a specific pattern that travels through channel 16 of frame 0. The channels 16 of the subsequent frames are used for the line signalling of two of the link channels: channel 16 of frame 1 for the signalling of channels one and seventeen, that of frame 2 for channels two and eighteen, etc. Four bits are used for the line signalling of each channel.


16
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Figure 63 : CAS signalling FRAME 1 16

FRAME 0

FRAME 2 16

MULTIFRAME ALIGNMENT

a b c d a b c d

a b c d a b c d

LINE SIGN. CHAN. 1 LINE SIGN. CHAN. 17

LINE SIGN. CHAN. 2 LINE SIGN. CHAN. 18

These four bits will represent the line signalling variations corresponding to the most commonly used trunks, in the same way as the E and M pair are used in an E and M analogue trunk to indicate the trunk status. Figure 64 : Line signalling

M E

E M

Ready Acknowledgement

M E M E

= = = =

+ +

E M E M

= = = =

+ +

Ready Trunk seizure

Taking this system as an example, bit a would be sufficient for the exchange of signalling.

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Figure 65 : CAS encoding FRAME 1

16

XXXX

1 0
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

M = + M =

This line signalling method is called CAS (Channel Associated Signalling). Register signalling (transmission of digits and different dialogue controls between exchanges), is carried out with different multifrequency signalling systems. The telephonic events to be exchanged are represented by a pair of frequencies out of a specific set of, usually, six different frequencies. In order to detect this signalling, it will be necessary to deviate the channel towards a service module made up of a DSPA board (similar to the one described in chapter 2.3.4). This board will have the adequate programs loaded in the DSP, since each service module will be able to receive and analyze up to 32 channels of up to eight different signalling systems, such as R2, ... Figure 66 : MF treatment

16

CAS MF CODE


Y ANALYSIS

DSPA SCM
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Figure 67 : Trunk & DSPAs


X Y

Z X Z Y A B

SCM
ANALYSIS

DSPA

B X + Y + Z +.......+ A + B = 32

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TRUNKS

The outgoing codes to be transmitted are also generated at the service module, from where they are sent through the network towards the corresponding trunk. Figure 68 : MF codes transmission X

Y
CODE TO BE SENT

DSPA TRUNK

In the A1000 S12 system, there exists two modules which perform all the different tasks of the CAS digital trunk mentioned here : these modules are called Digital Trunk Module Low (DTML), and both consist of only one board : the DTUA and the DTUE.

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Figure 69 : DTUA/E

2 Mb/s

D T U A/E
DIGITAL TRUNK DIGITAL NETWORK

The DTUA/E contains the Terminal Interface, the processor and the TCE memory, plus the typical trunk functions included in a single block. As shown on the next figure, the board consists of: a digital trunk physical interface block that contains the adapting and isolation transformers, the loop that allows the feedback of the outgoing signal and the circuit to extract the 2 MHz clock (this extracted clock may be wired with the Clock and Tone modules to serve there as a master reference see further). The Trunk Access circuit (TRAC) contains, in a single LSI circuit, the logic for HDB3tobinary conversion, retiming, frame alignment handling, CAS extraction, multislot handling and management of the different alarms (Trunk Interface). The circuits that act as the TI and the actual control element are also located on the same board. The control element is composed of the processor, its PROM and RAM memories, and a number of associated circuits (interrupts, clock, etc). Using the DTUA/E, the processor reads the CAS received for each channel from the TRAC memory, and writes the CAS to emit. The conversation channels are switched towards their destination at the onboard TI. This destination may be another trunk, an analogue subscriber or a service circuit, depending on the current call phase. The next table gives an overview of the main characteristics of both DTMLs. The next figure shows schematically the layout of the DTUA. Table 2 : DTUA vs. DTUE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DTML
DTUA
1 PBA = 1 module Single trunk CAS or no signalling Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit) 8086

DTUE
1 PBA = 1 module Single trunk CAS or no signalling Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit) 80386EX

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1 Mbyte 2 x QUAP+ POCO TRAC No FW Not DTRE compatible No RLMA connection No Xover

8 Mbyte (up to 16 Mbyte) 2 x QUAP + POCO TRAC Loadable FW Not DTRE compatible No RLMA connection No Xover

Figure 70 : DTUA block diagram


ACCESS CIRCUIT TO TRUNK (TRAC) HDB3 /BIN RETIMING FRAME ALIGN. CRC4 MULTISLOT ALARMS 8 / 16 BITS

PHYSICAL INTERFACE WITH THE LINE


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2 Mb/s

TI PART

EXTERNAL RECOVERED CLOCK (2 Mb/s)

TO C&T MODULE

PROM, RAM

8086 PROCESSOR DTUA PBA

The DTUE is designed as a low cost alternative to replace the DTUA. The functionality of the DTUA is limited by
-

The restricted performance of the onboard processor The 1 Mbyte memory capacity

These restrictions are erased with the inroduction of the DTUE. Based on a MCUE (with 80386EX microprocessor) as TCE part and the implementation of minimum 8 Mbyte (up to 16 Mbyte) of memory capacity, the DTUE stands for an increased performance with at least a factor 3 compared to the DTUA.

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The DTUE shalll support both the real mode and protected mode operation by providing the Virtual Machine Motor (VMM) and the Common CESW Interface (CCSI) in one FPROM. The DTUE will run the same real mode code as the DTUA. This will be realised by the VMM.In addition a hardware independent CCSI shall be provided for protected mode operation. This shield avoids direct HW accesses by the SW. This funtion will be implemented on all new processor boards to avoid SW impact in case of future HW changes in the processor area. Figure 71 : Signalling & speech channels path
TI 16 X X Y 16

MCUA/E
Z

ALCN

0 1 31

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CAS

CE

DTUA/E The CAS digital trunk module (DTM_L), based on the DTUA/E board, are linked to the network forming high traffic TSUs, that is, TSUs of four modules each. A JH00 rack may hold up to fifteen of these TSUs. Where such a large implementation is not required, the DTML modules may be located in several positions of other rack types:

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Figure 72 : DTML physical situation


1 2 3

AIR BAFFLE
10 11 12

RACK TYPE JH

13

14

15

DTUA/E

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SWITCH


AIR BAFFLE

RACK TYPE JB

DTUA/E

SWITCH

ACE

ISCM

b. Modules that handle common channel signalling: Digital Trunk Module High. In common channel signalling, one channel of one of the links that make up a route is used for the transmission of signalling messages. These messages, conform to CCITT Number 7 recommendation, may be related to any route channel, that is, to channels of the same link carrying the signalling or channels of a different link. A route is usually formed by at least two links for reliability purposes. In A1000 S12, links that do not

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carry N7 signalling are implemented with Digital Trunk Module Low as seen in the previous section. Figure 73 : Common channel signalling

1 2 3 4
EXCHANGE A
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

EXCHANGE B

SIGNALLING MESSAGE ANY CHANNEL IN ANY LINK A B CHANNEL WITH SIGN. MESSAGE

The N7 signalling messages have the following structure: The 64 Kb/s of a signalling channel are organized into frames delimited by two 8bit flags. These frames are given a sequence number when sent forward (FSN: Forward Sequence Number) and recognized backwards on the basis of the said number (BSN: Backward Sequence Number). The frame data field is used for the transmission of the actual message. This field contains the following subfields: the message length, the origin, the destination and the trunk and channel identity within the trunk to which the message is referred (CIC) .

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Figure 74 : Number 7 protocol


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NEXT FRAME
FLAG CRC FSN BSN FLAG 8 16 MESSAGE 8 VERIFICATION CODE BSN

2 Mb/s

CHANNEL DEDICATED TO SIGNALLING (USUALLY CHANNEL 16)

LEVEL 2 FRAMES
64Kb/s

FIRST BIT TO BE SENT

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LENGTH ORIGIN DESTINATION CIC: CIRCUIT IDINTIFICATION CODE (LINK & CHANNEL) BODY OF THE MESSAGE LINK / CHANNEL FSN

FRAME N. RECEIVED

BIB: TOGGLED TO REQUEST RETRANSMISSION

FRAME N IS FORWARDED

FIB: TOGGLED TO INDICATE START OF RETRANSMISSION

A digital trunk with N7 signalling will look for the channel dedicated to signalling at the beginning of each frame, check its uncorrupted reception (CRC ) and send the acknowledgement for the frame uncorrupted arrival in the next transmission in the opposite direction. From the actual message data, the trunk will determine whether the message is directed to this exchange or to another one. In the first case, the trunk will pass the message to the digital trunk module in charge of receiving the link and voice channel to which the message is referred. In the second case, the trunk will send the message to the trunk handling the outgoing signalling channel that will reach the destination point. This function is named Signalling Transfer Point. In the N7 protocol, all these functions are named MTP (Message Transfer Part) level 3 discrimination, distribution and routing functions.

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Figure 75 : Routing and distribution


DTM HIGH CH 16 DTM HIGH CH 16 CH 16 ROUTING Destination

DISTRIBUTION DTM LOW O.K. BSN = FSN RECEIVED BIB = 0, FRAME OK

CIC

DTUA

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

detects the frame (flags) and checks CRC if OK, acknowledges uncorrupted reception if the destination is: . this exchange, sends message to the digital trunk that receives the indicated channel, identified by the CIC indicator (distribution). . another exchange, sends message to the digital trunk that handles the appropriate signalling channel (routing). A continuous flux of filling frames or FISUs, i.e. frames without data field, is sent between the frames with data fields (messages), called MSUs (Message Signalling Units). The FISUs do not increment the FSN field, but may use the BSN field for acknowledgements. There are two different types of DTMH which are capable of handling N7 signalling messages : the IPTM and the DTUB.
-

The IPTM module : The IPTM basically consists of two boards : a DTRI and a MCUB. In the first board, the DTRI, we find the same digital trunk physical interface as the one used in the DTUA, with the possibility of setting the test loop; and, also, the same Trunk interface with the common functions of HDB3tobinary conversion, retiming, CRC4, frame alignment and multislot service, but without making use of the CAS extraction function. The voice channels, once timeadjusted and converted from 8 to 16 bits, pass through the TRAC and go to the MCUB for subsequent routing through the network.

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2 Mb/s

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IPTM
Figure 76 : IPTM structure
TRAC PHYSICAL INTERFACE OBCI

MCUB

CH X, CH Y

EXTERNAL CLOCK

LIN / OUT

ILC

OBC (386)

MEMORY BUS

RAM

DTRI

Although channel 16 is usually the signalling channel, there may be as many as four. The signalling channel passes through the TRAC, also in a transparent manner, but is switched through the TI, reflected in the Access Switch, sent back through the TI and at the OBCI towards the ILC. This ILC circuit (Integrated Link Controller), which is, preprogrammed by the onboard processor OBC, observes the arrival of the messages (flag detection). The ILC then passes these frames to a memory and notifies the OBC when this process ends. The OBC deals with the level 2 & MTP level 3 distribution and routing functions. Therefore the OBC sends the message through the OBCI, the MCUB and the network to the DTUA that handles the associated speech channel or to the IPTM that reroutes the message to the destination exchange (Signalling Transfer Point). The channel 16 loop is handled in this way to make it common, from a software point of view, in case an IPTM module handles the incoming signalling channel that is received in another DTM or when a specific HCCM N7 treatment module is used.

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Figure 77 : Message routing and distribution

CH 16

TRAC CH 16

2 Mb/s

CH Y
1 2


MCUB
CH Y

CH X

OBCI
3

ILC
4

DMA 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DTRI


RAM

DMA MESSAGE DTUA

DISTRIBUTION AND ROUTING

OBC LEVEL 2 TREATMENT MTP LEVEL 3 FUNCTIONS IPTM


CH A CH 16

Therefore, a route with N7 signalling is composed of a certain number of links without any signalling channel, based on the DTUA board (CAS handling logic omitted), and at least two links with a signalling channel each (usually channel 16), used to transmit and receive the N7 messages. These signalling links are based on the DTRI board. Figure 78 : Route structure

DTUA SPEECH CHANNELS

DTUA

EXCHANGE A


IPTM


IPTM MESSAGES RELATIVE TO ALL THE SPEECH CHANNELS IN THE ROUTE

EXCHANGE B

Since the IPTMs (Integrated Packet Trunk Modules) do not handle all the links of a route, but only those links carrying N7 signalling, only a few of them are implemented. The exact number of IPTMs that is equipped per route depends on the actual route traffic flow. These

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modules are combined into high traffic TSUs, four modules per TSU. Therefore, one of these TSUs is implemented inside a subframe of the JH rack. Figure 79 : Rack JH00 look

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


RACK JH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 15 MODULES WITHOUT SIGNALLING (DTUA) 10 11 12 13 14 15 PBAs SWITCH DTRI MCUB RACK JF

SUBRACK

DTML (DTUA)

DTMH (DTRI + MCUB)

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Where such a large number of trunks are not needed, the DTMLs (DTUA) and the IPTMs may be equipped in different positions of the other racks, such as the JF. These possibilities are show on the previous figure.
-

The DTUB module :

This module combines MCUB and DTRI functions on one board and offers a second 2 Mbit/s trunk interface for optional use. The reduction of the HW from 2 to one PBA offers considerable cost improvements. In the first implementation step (from EC74 on), DTUB will replace the current PRA and Frame Handling (PHI) applications of the IPTM module. For low end PRA applications, like partial PRA, not making concurrent use of all 30 PRA user channels, the DTUBvariant with the second trunk interface will offer a further considerable cost improvement. In further implementation steps (EC75 or later) the one board trunk module could with comparable, or slightly improved performance replace the present and some further planned IPTM applications, which require HDLC channels with various protocols (e.g. : IPTM/CCS and IPTM/X.25). Crossover configurations and connections to the RLMA cannot be supported by DTUB bacsue of nonaccessability of cluster links. The next two figures represent the two DTUB variants. The first is called the 1trunk variant, having two ILCs connected to one trunk. In this example the board can terminate up to 4 HDLCchannels for that one trunk. The other is called the 2trunk variant, having two ILCs connected to one trunk each. Here a DTUB can terminate up to 2 HDLCchannels per trunk. The following table shows a comparison between both available DTMHs. Table 3 : IPTM vs. DTUB

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DTMH
IPTM
DTRI + MCUB Single trunk Nr7, ISDNPRA, X31, X25 Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit) 80386SX (+80386) 4 Mbyte OBCI TRAC 2 x ILC Loadable FW DTRE pin compatible RLMA connection No Xover

DTUB
1 PBA = 1 module Dual / Single trunk Nr7, ISDNPRA, X31, X25 Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit) 80386DX 8 Mbyte 2 x QUAP + POCO 2 x / 1 x TRAC 2 x ILC Loadable Firmware DTRE pin compatible RLMA connection No Xover

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Figure 80 : DTUB 1 trunk

2Mbit trunk TRK I/F TRAC QUAP 0

DSN

DSN QUAP 1

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Tone POCO ILC 1 ILC 2 I/F

INTI

SRAM

BA

80386

DRAM (8Mbyte)

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Figure 81 : DTUB 2 trunks

2Mbit trunk TRK I/F 1 TRAC 1 QUAP 0

DSN

2Mbit trunk TRK I/F 2 TRAC 2 QUAP 1

DSN

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Tone POCO ILC 1 ILC 2 I/F

INTI

SRAM

BA

80386

DRAM (8Mbyte)

If the processing capacity of the IPTM/DTUB is insufficient to handle the signalling messages, the DTUA board may be used to deviate the signalling channels to a special module in a semi permanent way. This special module is called HCCM (Highperformance

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Common Channel Module) and is able to handle N7 signalling messages from up to eight different origins. The structure of this module is described in the following section.

2.3.3 Highperformance Common Channel Module (HCCM)


Figure 82 : HCCM structure
DTUA MCUA/E

ch 16
8

ANY CHANNEL WITH SIGNALLING MESSAGE


SLTA

2 1

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ILC 2 1 FLAG 3 DMA ROUTING AND DISTRIBUTION 4 OBCI RAM

LEVEL 2 PROCESS

SIGN. CONTR. (8086)

OBC (80186)

DUAL PORT MEMORY

RAM

SLTA
The HCCM is composed of a control element and up to eight SLTA boards (Signalling Link Termination type A). Each SLTA handles one signalling link. With the HCCM, a mucher higher amount of signalling traffic can be handled : with an HCCM, a total traffic of 8 x 700

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MSU/s can be treated, which allows a traffic of almost 1E per link. An IPTM has a much lower capacity : as the 4 possible signalling links must all be treated by the same OBC, the total capacity is restricted to 540 MSU/s, for the 4 links together (this means a traffic of approximately 0.2 E per signalling link). The signalling channel is conveyed through the network up to the MCUA/E in charge of the eight SLTAs and, from there, sent by a fixed channel i assigned to each SLTA. Once in the SLTA, this fixed channel is switched at an OBCI towards a fixed channel of port 1, which is then received by an ILC. When the ILC detects the frames, it passes them (without the flags) to a memory by means of DMA. A dedicated process, known as Signalling Controller, checks the frame uncorrupted reception (level 2 analysis), and passes the message to a double port memory, notifying the onboard processor or OBC. The OBC then reads the message and continues the process according to the message destination address. Therefore, it routes the message towards the digital trunk (DTUA) that receives the CIC voice channel, or towards the SLTA associated with the outgoing signalling channel that will be used to reach the destination.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2.3.4 Service Circuit Module (SCM)


This module is necessary for the detection, analysis and generation of the codes of the different multifrequency signalling systems used between exchanges, for the detection and the analysis of the multifrequency line codes (DTMF), as well as for the realisation of multiparty calls. Figure 83 : Subscriber MF signalling analysis
samples a/d

Service Circuit Module ch x ch a ch y ch b ch a ch b

fx+fy

ALCN

Signalling X Trunk ch i DTUA Present code of subscriber MF signalling system

Present code of the interexchange signalling System X

MF code f1+f2 samples

The analysis to find out the multifrequency code present in the incoming channels consists of the use of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters. These filters consist on the application of an algorithm based on the multiplication of a set of samples of the signal to be

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analyzed by a set of coefficients or weighting factors. These coefficients are specific to the frequency which presence is to be confirmed. The result of the addition of all those successive products provides the instantaneous amplitude value that the frequency being analyzed presents in the channel. The more coefficients used, the greater the detection precision, but also the longer the time required (t = n*125 micros). The use of 128 coefficients is a sensible choice since that amount is sufficient to comply with the requirements of all the signalling methods. The receiver will apply the algorithm multiplications and accumulates to find, or not, one and only one pair of frequencies that present an amplitude higher than a set minimum. It will carry out this process several times until it accepts the detection as valid for a time longer than a minimum specified in each system: persistency test. When multifrequency signalling is used, the Service Circuit Module not only must be able to analyse the incoming multifrequency signals, but must also be able to emit multifrequency codes. Figure 84 : Service Circuit Module
fx+fy ch i MF signalling Trunk ch j ch b fw+fz ch d ch c ch c ch b ch a Service Circuit Module

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SENDING (TRANSMITTER) ANALYSIS (RECEIVER)

The SCM specific hardware has sufficient processing power to analyse the incoming multifrequency codes of up to 32 inputchannels (these codes may be MF as well as DTMF signalling codes, with a maximum of eigth different sets of frequencies), and emit at the same time all the multifrequency codes of maximum two different signalling systems (each signalling system consisting of a set of frequencies in the forward direction, and a set of other frequencies in the backward direction). This emission is done by placing each fixed code (e.g. f1+f4) into a fixed channel, dedicating 2 times 15 channels to each multifrequency system (15 channels for the forward MF signals and 15 channels for the backward MF signals). These codes are then to be distributed by the control element to the different TCEs.

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Figure 85 : Used channels on the PCM

ch i S1 1 MCUA/E S3 1 15 17 15 17 S2 31 Total number of input channels= 32

ch j S4 31 SCM HARDWARE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The whole logic required to handle the thirtytwo incoming channels of up to eight multifrequency systems and to emit the corresponding codes in four sets of fifteen channels each, is located in a single board called DSPA (Digital Signal Processor type A). This PBA contains a specialised processor for digital signalling handling named DSP, with its own RAM memory, a set of programmable FIFOs contained in the queues RAM (64Kx16), and the queues RAM interface LSI named QRC (Queue RAM Controller). An On Board Controller (80186 or compatible) controls the queues RAM using the QRC and handshakes with the DSP.

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Figure 86 : SCM structure

DSPA PBA

CE MCUA/E PBA 0
TI

Queue RAM 64K x 16

31 31
Queue RAM interface

SIGNAL PROCESSOR DSP

RAM
MICRO PROCESSOR.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

RAM PROM RAM interrupt


OBC 80186

The OBC in the board initializes the queue RAM interface (QRC), assigning one FIFO to each incoming channel. This FIFO will receive the samples of the code to be analyzed. On the other hand, a certain RAM area is reserved in the queues RAM for the exchanges between the OBC and the Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which will carry out the adequate algorithms. A third RAM area is used for the TCEOBC message exchange. The CE sends a message, through channel 16, containing a task performance request. The message is sequentially written into the queue RAM area that was assigned to channel 16 during the initialization.

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Figure 87 : Message to DSPA OBC


Area assigned to the channel 16 (Message)

CH 16 TI

Message read by the OBC Message to the OBC: Request for a receiver Ch 1, Sign X

RAM
MICRO PROCESSOR
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

OBC 80186 PROM RAM

CE MCUA/E PBA

The OBC, using this interface area, assigns a FIFO to the successive contents of the channel to analyze. The OBC then writes the task performance request to the DSP, indicating the FIFO and the MF system, into an exchange memory area. It then interrupts the DSP which will read the command.

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Figure 88 : Task performance request to DSP


Queue RAM 5

CE MCUA/E PBA

FIFO N

CH 1 TI

OBCDSP memory interface

Queue RAM interface

DSP

RAM
MICRO PROCESSOR
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1 RAM
OBC

1. OBC command : assign FIFO N to input channel 1 2. The OBC requests the DSP to run system X algorithm with FIFO N samples 3. The OBC interrupts the DSP 4. The DSP reads the OBC command. In the assigned incoming channel the CE sends the samples to be analyzed. Through the QRC these are written into successive FIFO addresses. Taking into account the read command, the DSP runs the filtering algorithm.

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Figure 89 : Filtering algorithm running on the DSP


sample 3 sample 2 Queue RAM Filtering algorithm running

CE MCUA/E PBA

sample 1 CH 1

TI

Queue RAM interface

DSP

RAM
MICRO PROCESSOR
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

RAM

The DSP, when it arrives at a conclusion, it writes the result into the DSPOBC interface zone of the queue RAM and notifies the OBC by means of an interruption. The OBC then reads the result. Figure 90 : Algorithm results

CE MCUA PBA
CH 1

QRAM

QRAMITF TI DSP

RAM MICRO INT OBC

RAM

The CE sends periodically requests towards the OBC, to ask for results.The OBC prepares a message, with the result found, in the queue RAM area associated with channel 16. The message will be transmitted sequentially, through the interface, as contents of this channel (16).

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Figure 91 : Sending of results to the CE

CE MCUA PBA

CH 16 assoc. RAM

QRAM

Result Msg

QRAMITF TI
CH 16

RAM MICRO OBC

In parallel with all this, the DSP must be writing, periodically, the FIFOs associated to the channels outgoing towards the TCE that will carry the different multifrequency codes of the different systems.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Figure 92 : Writing the FIFO

CH1, LINK 1 CH1 LINK 1

CH 31, LINK 2


Queue RAM 31 Periodic Updating

f1+f2. System 1 f2+f3. System 1

f5+f6. System 2

1 TI

2 DSP

RAM
MICRO PROC.

RAM Queue RAM interface

These writings to the FIFOs must be performed within the appropriate period so that the FIFO is never emptied, taking into account that the emission period is 125 micros. Another task carried out by the DSPA is that related to the multiple conference. It offers the Conference Bridge service for, typically 3 or 5 parties, but with a capacity for up to 10 parties. The speech samples of the different subscribers involved in the multiple conference are carried to the DSPA, where the DSP adds them and outputs them through different channels of the link going towards the MCUA/E.

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Figure 93 : Conference Bridge

Speech A

B+C

ALCN
Speech B
B

A B C

A+C

MCUA/E
CA B

ALCN
Speech C
C B+C A+C

DSPA

A+B A+C B+C

DSP

ALCN
A+B

A+B

Initialisation

OBC

Task Request

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The multiple conference may be performed in a simplified way, by simply adding the different contributions, or in a complex way, by amplifying the weaker signals and not amplifying the stronger signal at any given moment. Taking this into account, the DSPA, depending upon the loaded software, may have different configurations, with different combinations of senders, receivers and conference bridges. The following table shows some examples of these configurations:

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Figure 94 : Possible SCM Configurations Senders 60 60 60 45 45 45 30 30 30 30


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Receivers 0 16 32 0 16 32 0 0 0 16 16 16 32 0 0 0 16 32 0 0 0 16 16

SCB3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 Simplified Conference Bridge for 3 Subscribers

SCB5 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 6 6 0 6 0 Simplified Conference Bridge for 5 Subscribers

30 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 0 0 0 0 0

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The Service Circuit Module is a hightraffic module and is therefore arranged in TSUs of four modules each: Figure 95 : Service Circuit Module TSU

Access Switch DSPA MCUA/E 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DSPA

MCUA/E

15

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Access Switch DSPA MCUA/E 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DSPA

MCUA/E

15

The whole Service TSU may be implemented in a single subframe: Figure 96 : Location in JH00 rack
RACK JH00

SWITCH

MCUA+DSPA


Same PBAs

SUBRACK

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2.3.5 Trunk Testing Module (TTM)

This module is used to perform trunk tests for fault detection, and, for periodic checking of the service quality offered by the trunks. Several operations may be carried out on the trunks using of this module, which consists of a Control Element (MCUA/E) plus specific hardware. The TTM will be able to perform measurements on trunks that end in exchanges that, although not A1000 S12, are equipped with devices conforming to the CCITT recommendations. Figure 97 : TTM Module

TTM
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CLUSTER PBAs

MCUA/E

Thus, TTM will be able to evaluate the power and noise level of a voice signal received through any channel of a link, and to generate any type of voice frequency tone in the opposite direction. The two ends of the link to be measured may understand each other through the exchange of multifrequency signalling based on the CCITT Number 5 code (ATME2 ). This code may be detected and passed to the CE, and also, generated by it. The CAS signalling is inserted in the unused bits (1 to 4) of each digital link channel, and switched towards the TTM where it is observed. The following figures show, some of the TTM test facilities. On the sender side the TTM function is called DIRECTOR and on the receiving side the function is called RESPONDER. The TTM is also capable of executing Service Quality Tests. This test generates a number of calls to specified directory numbers in remote exchanges.These DNs are called robot numbers because they do not correspond with a normal subscriber. A robot is nothing else than an automatic answer circuit which can be an external device connected at MDFlevel or a TTM if the remote exchange is a A1000 S12 exchange. The test result indicates the number of successful calls (answer). The test result give a good idea of the service quality of the exchange since the hardware and the normal call handling software is used.

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Figure 98 : In band filters Digital Trunk Module ch x DSN

Trunk Exchange A Test equipment CLUSTER MCUA/E

Signal Filtering and evaluating ( Typical used Filters: Sofometric


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

and broad band (400/2800 Hz)) Figure 99 : On demand signal generation Digital Trunk Module ch x DSN Exchange A Test Equipm.

CLUSTER

MCUA/E

Any combination of three tones in the vocal band with variable power. Aleatory Noise

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Figure 100 : Inchannel CAS and frame alignment tests


0 1 15 16 SYNC

17

30

31

CAS Signalling


4 1 Sample CAS CH 1 DSN

Digital Trunk Module

PCM CAS

Exchange A
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

X Y

CH 0 W CLUSTER MCUA/E

SYNC Pattern Observation CAS Signalling Obervation


DSN X

Figure 101 : BER and fixed pattern tests

Exchange A

1110111.......11111 Periodic CCITT pattern or Fixed data sample


CLUSTER MCUA/E


CH P

Digital Trunk Module

Periodic Pattern Check or Delivering to the Control Element of the fixed data sample

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Figure 102 : Two wires and V.24RS232 interfaces


Exchange A

Digital Trunk Module

DSN X

CH P

Z
CLUSTER MCUA/E

1 2
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

V241

V242

2 wire interface

16

External Test Equipment

External Test Equipment based on PC

Figure 103 : Inchannel CAS


DIGITAL TRUNK


CH X 8 CH X CAS

CH 16 1 1


4 X 8

CH X

CAS

TTM Processing

The TTM is also able to check the uncorrupted reception of the frame alignment pattern from any link (Line Error Rate or LER test). This module can also generate and check the cyclic patterns to be inserted into a channel to be tested, as recommended by the CCITT, (Bit Error Rate or BER test); or fix the sample value to be sent through a channel, invariably the same, and check it at the other end. Another test that can be performed by the TTM consists of converting to analogue and offering to the exterior, the signal received through a certain digital link channel. In the same

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way, it can offer the contents of a channel to one of two V.24 interfaces for its connection to the corresponding measuring device. All of this is achieved using specific hardware based on the DSPA board, practically the same board as that used in the Service Circuit Module. The only difference is that the DSPA used here incorporates of an OBCI since without it, it would not be possible to chain the two DSPAs contained in the TTM to the TCE links. The module is completed with a MIRB (Modem Interface and Rate Adapter Board) that passes the contents of a channel to V.24, and a TDAA (Test Desk Adapter Board) which converts up to six channels to analog. These two boards are optional. Figure 104 : TDAA / MIRB location

TDAA

MIRB

1 2 3

1 V24


DSPA

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MCUA/E

Both, the structure and the operation of the DSPA are similar to those of the board used in the Service Circuit Module, with the before mentioned exception of the OBCI inclusion. This interface provides the means to discriminate between the TCE messages that are addressed to one DSPA or to the other, given that these messages start with an OBCI address that the DSPAs recognize. This configuration makes possible the simultaneous analysis of up to 30 channels.

2.3.6 Clock & Tone Module (CTM)


This module, essential for the system, is in charge of the generation of the 8 MHz basic clock that will be distributed to all the multiports and control elements, ensuring the system synchronism. It is also responsible for the generation of exchange supervision tones as well as real time. These functions are so important that the module is always duplicated, the two CTMs working in active/hotstandby mode.

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Figure 105 : Clock and tones module


Double distribution from unique source of clock Remote Exchange Digital Trunk Selection DTUA/DTRI Selection Double tone distribution

2Mbps

Clock Generation Feed Back

MCUB

External References
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DSN

Tone Generation CTM 1

CTM 2

Each Clock & Tone Module sends its 8 MHz output signal to the other one. Within each module, the two 8 MHz signals enter a selection circuit where the same signal is selected by both modules so that, the two parallel clock distributions end up distributing the same clock signal. That is, the two clocks reaching all the multiports and control elements are taken from the same source: the output of the active CTM. The selector changes automatically from one signal to the other when it does not receive a clock from the selected CTM. The tones are distributed in parallel to all the control elements. They enter the control elements through TI port 5 with a fixed channel pattern that is Administration dependent.

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Figure 106 : Clock and tone distribution


DSE 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 15 8

MCUA/MCUB CLOCK A TI TONE LINK PCM

CLOCK B TONE LINK PCM

8 MHz

8 MHz

Tone Link PCM


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

31

Tenth of Seconds Seconds

Tenth of hours (2 bits) Hours (4 bits) Tenth of minutes (3 bits) MInutes (5 bits)

Tone 2 Samples Tone 1 Samples

Each module is made up of the MCUB, the two boards, RCCB and CCLA, for clock generation, and one DSGA board for tone generation. The DSGA contains the interface registers used by the control element (MCUA/E) to send and read data to and from the OBC (8086) located in the RCCB. The CTM performs a prioritybased selection at the RCCB of one reference signal. The RCCB receives four external synchronization signals at 2 MHz from four exchanges linked to this one by digital trunks, one atomic clock signal that is the same for all the exchanges, the oscillator output of the other CTM and its own oscillator output. The CCLA will track the selected reference signal and, with it, will produce an 8 MHz clock that enters a second selector that also receives the clock produced by the other module. Both modules selectors are initially set for the selection of one of the clocks, namely the one produced by the module defined as A by a backpanel connection. Therefore, at powerup, module A will be the active and module B the hotstandby module.

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Figure 107 : RCCB and CCLA structure

MODULE A

CCLA
RCCB
8 KHz 8 MHz

8 MHz

Active
From Digital Trunks + Priority
2 MHz
8 KHz

PLL

MCUA/E

1 2 3 4
ATOMIC CLOCK

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Divisor

Selector
1

OBC 8086

OSC

DSGA
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
TONES

MODULE B

CCLA
RCCB
8 KHz 8 MHz

8 MHz

Hot Stand By
From Digital Trunks + Priority
1 2 3 4
ATOMIC CLOCK

PLL

MCUA/E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 MHz
8 KHz

Selector

Divisor

OBC 8086

OSC

0 DSGA
TONES

The two OBCs (A and B) must periodically activate a circuit that supervises the proper operation of the firmware. If, at the active CTM, this periodic activation does not take place or, the CCLA stops providing a clock signal, the output selector will automatically switch to the other input in order to receive the signal produced by the other module, which from that moment on will be the active one. Given that the two modules selectors are joined, the selector will also switch at the other module for it to output its own clock signal since it is the active CTM. If all the external references fail, the OSC (oscillator) output is taken as a reference. Each module takes the output of the other one as the highest priority reference.

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The RCCB and CCLA boards have LEDs on their stiffener whose meanings are indicated on the figure below. Figure 108 : RCCB and CCLA LEDs

Fast test FLL Alarm OBC Alarm Fast test PLL Alarm Clock outgoing Alarm

R C C B
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

C C L A P B A

P B A

Voltage to the PLL out of range (BELLOW) Voltage to the PLL out of range (ABOVE)

The output of each CCLA/RCCB pair is sent towards a distribution PBA which is called CLTD (Cock & Tone distribution). From there the clock is distributed again towards each lead rack (every tenth rack), in which another CLTD is located (if there are more than 10 racks, more than one CLTD is needed). From there, the CLTDs distribute the clock signals (both from the same source) to the other 10 racks which contain RCLA boards for further clock distribution.

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Figure 109 : Clock distribution


Switching or CE PBA JA00 CLTD

Distribution to all CEs and SWITCH PBA inside the rack

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CCLA RCCB CLTD RCLA


CLTD


JB00 JF00

Figure 110 : Clock distribution scheme


Row Lead Rack CLTD Active RCCB CCLA Any Rack in the same row

CLTD

RCCB CCLA Hot Stand By CLTD


RCLA PLL RCLA PLL PLL 8 MHz SWITCH or CE PBAs

The CLTD is simply a distribution board. It may deliver a signal to up to 20 different destinations using of no special logic except for the logic necessary to detect the absence of

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a clock signal. If it detects such lack of signal, it lights up the LED on the board stiffener and sends an alarm to the rack alarm board which, in turn, sends it to Defence. Figure 111 : CLTD board
ALARM

INPUT

LED ON

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

20

The RCLA board is, somehow, more complex. It collects the signals from the two distribution buses, reshapes the pulses and randomly selects one of the two signals. To ensure smooth switching to the nonselected signal, when required, the RCLA aligns the two signals. This board uses the selected clock signal as reference for an oscillator that, in an autonomous manner, tracks it and produces the 8 MHz clock to be distributed to all the multiports and control elements in the rack. As you can see in the next figure, the RCLA may produce two alarms. When the second alarm is produced, the RCLA outputs are blocked and it warns the other board for it not to reach the same block situation.

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Figure 112 : RCLA alarms


RCLA

A chain

14

B Chain
Output Blocking

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Difference between select and standby branches > treshold Extreme correction to the PLL

There is not reference Difference between PLL output and reference > treshold No PLL output

Report to the pair PBA in the rack for not blocking

Alarm 1

Alarm 2 To the Alarm PBA

Chain A clock input lost Chain B clock input lost Clock output lost Chain A tone input lost Chain B tone input lost Chain selection: on(B) off(A)

The RCLA PBA have three LEDs with the meaning showed in previous figure. Every multiport or control element receives the two clock signals from the two RCLAs in its rack and, in turn selects one of them randomly and, using it as reference for an oscillator, regenerates the 8 MHz clock necessary for the board operation. As before, if the selected signal is not received, the selector will switch to receive the other one.

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Figure 113 : Clock distribution into the rack


Sending to another PBA in the module 2 MHz 4 MHz 8 MHz MCUA

Aleatory selection

14

14

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Two RCLA of subrack

RCLA

RCLA

The tones are generated by the DSGA board. This board contains the physical interface between the OBC and the RCCA board, and the control element processor. Therefore, without this board, the clock part of the module could not communicate with the processor. The samples of the different exchange tones, as well as, the controls required for their orderly reading and transmission through the prefixed channel, are stored in a PROM located on the actual board. The RCCA OBC writes the Time Of Day (TOD) into a DSGA register every 100 ms., for its transmission through two fixed channels.

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Figure 114 : Tone and Time of day (TOD) generation


Time of Day Tone 1 Samples Tone 2 Samples

DISTRIBUTION
Tone Link PCM 0 1 2 3 4 31

RCCA

DSGA
Samples and control PROM

MCUB

OBC

time indication R A M

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Micro processor

Time of day

OBC Bus Register

The tones are subsequently distributed in parallel with the clock signals via the CLTD and RCLA boards. Every control element receives the two tones through its TI port 5 and can choose the appropriate channel of any of the two receivers, to send the required tone through any of the channels of the transmitter ports in the TI.

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Figure 115 : Tone distribution


DSGA Row Header Rack Any Rack in the same row RCLA CLTD MCUB CLTD 1 20 TI 20 CLTD 1 DSGA C&T MODULES 6 20 MCUB CLTD
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1 1 6 Clock RCLA 1

Clock

TI 1 Clock Regeneration 5 MCUA

TI

20

The TSAB (Test Signal Analyzer board) is connected to the free MCUB port (3) towards the module side. This board performs the same test analysis functions as the signal processor contained in the TAUC board. The TSAB is implemented in the cases where the TAUC is not; for example, in toll exchanges where it might be necessary to perform some measuring algorithm concerning tones or announcements. Figure 116 : TSAB location

CLOCK & TONES

TSAB

S/P DSP

PROM

RAM


1 3 ch 1 ch 1 109

MCUB

MICRO PROCESSOR

The MCUB processor is related to the signal processor in the TSAB through readings and writings from/to a RAM. This RAM will also be used to load the program to be executed by

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the DSP if it is not in the PROM. The data, signal samples, go through channel 1 of the PCM link that connects the two boards, the TSAB and the MCUB. The C&T modules are always equipped in the JF rack at the fixed 001D and 001C network addresses. The CLTDs used for the distribution towards the leading rack CLTDs, are located in the same subrack as the CTMs. The first leading rack is the JF00 rack itself, so another CLTD pair is provided within the rack. Figure 117 : Clock and Tone modules in the JF rack

RACK JF00
TO OTHER RCLAs IN THE ROW

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CLTD
RCLA

CLTD
RCLA

C&T A
CCLA RCCB


DSGA

MCUB


TSAB

CLTD

C&T B

TO OTHER ROW HEADER RACK

2.3.7 Digital Integrated Announcement Module (DIAM)


The announcements module is used to send the different messages required to notify the calling subscribers about certain situations such as, for example, that the called subscribers

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phone number has changed. This module will also be used to send the time, that is, the talking clock. The DIAM consists of a single board called Dynamic Integrated Announcements PBA (DIAA), whose memory can optionally be extended with the AMEA board. The announcements are sent to the Clock & Tone Module to be distributed by the tone bus, if they are fixed announcements; or, through the network towards their destination if, they are variable. The variable announcements, such as the message giving the new phone number of a called subscriber, are composed by the control element of the DIAM from elementary ones. Figure 118 : Announcements distribution
Fixed Announc.

DIAA Time and 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Tones


RCLA CLTD

MCUA ALCNs

Varriable Announc.: New subscrbers number

RCCA CCLA DSGA 5

MCUA

ALCNs

CLTD

31

time tone1 Tone Distribution tone2

ann1 ann2

For the elaboration of the announcements, the DIAA contains a processor specialized in signal processing, a DSP; a Queue RAM, where the samples to be sent through each channel are stored as blocks; and the corresponding Queue RAM Controller, QRC, which operates similarly to the one seen in the DSPA. The control element is also located in this same board.

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Figure 119 : DIA structure


FIFO RAM ch X DSP TI

Program RAM

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Sample RAM (4 MB)

PROM RAM 8086 DIAA PBA

AMEA PBA

!6 MBytes

With the configuration shown above, up to 524 seconds of announcement time may be stored in the DIAA and, up to 42 minutes if the AMEA is implemented.

2.3.8 Peripheral & Load Module (P&L)


The P&L module is responsible for all communication between the exchange control and the peripheral devices, and for the download of the microprocessors equipped in the system. An exchange is always equipped with two P&L, working in active/standby mode. Regarding its peripheral functions, the P&L modules handles the MMC system in order to collect the operation commands and present their results to the operator using the VDU and printer peripherals. It also controls the access to the mass storage peripherals like tape, magnetic and optical disk, which contain the programs and data of all the CEs in the exchange. Furthermore, the P&L module is responsible for loading the different exchange CEs during the initial exchange load or later individual reloads. Due to the importance of this module functions, it is always duplicated and the pair works in ACTIVE/STANDBY mode. In this way there is always one working, the other being ready (updated memory) and waiting to take over if the former one fails. Both P&L modules are connected to fixed network addresses: 000C and 000D.

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Therefore, when any control element receives the power (poweron), or it has received a message from maintenance software forcing its reload, a BOOTSTRAP program (stored in PROM) will be started. This program sends messages requesting a reload to both P&L TCEs. One P&L module replies to the requesting CE and reads the software packages related to that CE from disk, sending it, through the network, to the starting module. Figure 120 : CE down loading

Control Element RAM

Load Bid Request

ACTIVE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Micro PROM

DSN P&L


Reply and Software Loading

STAND BY

P&L

Besides the tasks related to the load of the software, the P&L module is in charge of the following functions: Coordinate the maintenance actions and manage the tests started as consequence of a corrective or preventive maintenance action. Handle the ManMachine Communication system, in order to receive operation commands and present their results. Control the mass storage peripherals for the performance of the reload, the load of overlay programs, the charging data collection, etc. These peripherals are: tapes, magnetic disks and optical disks which will replace the tapes in the future. Handle and coordinate the system extensions. ... The structure of the P&L module is shown in the following figure.

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Figure 121 : P&L board structure


16 alarms fire,intrusion,.. Inputs alam readings/lamp commands CH 16

MCUB

DPTC

20 active urgent alarm


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Multimaster Bus CLMA

lamps

non urgent alarm


local RAM ROM serial chans

RAM 8 MB

80386 shared memory

request and grant lines

MMCA (optional)

SCSI ctrller

80186

FIFO 80186 RAM

PROM

DMCA Magnetic Disk SCSI

four more devices

Bus Optical Disk

Adapt

Formater TAPE

Up to 8 SCSI devices

The module is composed of the control element (MCUB), DMCA board (Direct Memory Controllers), the CLMA (Central alarm PBA) and, optionally, the MMCA (ManMachine Controller).

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The MCUB, as the control element, can handle up to eight mass storage peripherals with a standard interface called SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) and with the support of the DMCA for the performance of the purely mechanical tasks. The devices may be either magnetic or optical disks, or magnetic tapes with their corresponding formatters and adapters to the SCSI. The MCUB can also handle two asynchronous terminals or up to four of them if one MMCA extension board is implemented. A maximum of two MMCAs can be equipped per P&L module, allowing the connection of eight more terminals, or else the terminals may be connected in a shared mode. Figure 122 : Simplex configuration

DMCA A

DMCA B

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MMCA A

MMCA B

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Figure 123 : Duplex Configuration

DMCA A Request line 4 MMCA A 4 Request line

DMCA B

MMCA B

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The figure above shows how to connect two MMCAs with four shared terminals. Although the diagram shows the connections of only two MMCAs, when four of them are equipped, the connections are done in the exact same way.When a MMCA is going to work with one terminal, it activates the request line so that the terminal will be captured by that side (that MMCA) and the other side will not be able to close the access relays for that terminal. The CLMA communicates with the MCUB through channel 16 messages that are collected by a DPTC interface. This message collection is done in a way similar to that in the ALCN (line board). When the MCUB sends a message to the CLMA, four bytes are written into a memory that is later emptied into a control register. This register handles the periodic erasure of a counter that, when not preset, produces an alarm: Dual failure . This alarm is wired together with the alarm of the other module so that both CLMAs must fail simultaneously before the alarm signal is sent to the Main Panel for Alarms (MPA). The CLMA LEDs have the following meaning: 1. active board 2. urgent alarm 3. nonurgent alarm. The MCUB can read up to 16 floor alarms (fire, intrusion, etc.) and the status of four keys, from the main panel (MPA). Optionally a second CLMA can be connected which will simply receive and light up more alarms while the dual failure handling mechanism is deactivated.

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The two P&L modules, as well as the two CTMs, are located in the same rack: the JF00 rack. Figure 124 : P&L into the rack JF00

1st and 2nd (opt) CLMA


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DMCA

MCUB

air baffle


1st and 2nd (opt) MMCA


Access switch

2.3.9 ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM)


The ISDN Subscriber Module is prepared to receive a Uinterface . This interface provides for the digital transmission and reception to/from the subscriber of two 64 Kb/s channels for

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speech or data, and one 16 Kb/s channel for signalling or X.25 packets, using the same pair of wires of the actual analogue subscribers. Figure 125 : Basic access diagram
Four wires S interface NT A1000 S12 EXCHANGE B B D 8 8 4 a b subscriber loop (two copper wires) ISDN Subscriber Module

4 2 2

TA

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TA

PC

Up to eight terminals can be connected to the subscriber side. They will be connected directly if they are ISDN terminals, or through a Terminal Adapter (TA) in the case of nonISDN terminals. To allow for the transmission of the 144 Kb/s (the two B plus the D channels) through the pair of wires, the line codes of three or four levels are used. These line codes are the 4B/3T, which sends a ternary symbol representing a fourbit pattern; or the 2B/1Q, which sends a quaternary symbol representing a twobit pattern. These line codes reduce the speed to 3/4 or 1/2 of the original speed, depending on the code used. The subscriber module will be in charge converting this code to binary. Besides the code adaptation, the subscriber module must also separate the two transmission directions and cancel the incoming echo. The line signalling of the eight possible terminals consists of the transmission of messages through the D channel. Therefore, the eight terminals must compete for the use of the available 16 Kb/s available. Conceptually, these messages are similar to the N7 messages between exchanges. A link level is used to protect the transmission of these messages, i.e. (Highlevel Data Link Controller) frames of a particular the messages are sent in HDLC format called LAPD (Link Access Procedure D). This format allows the transmission or reception of messages to/from more than one terminal since it contains a terminal identity field.

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Figure 126 : Signalling levels


Terminal + TA ISDN Subscriber Module Internal dialogue

Dialling


D D flag CRC DATA control address flag SETUP Type of info Called Number

Call Control

Level 2 Level 3 Level 2 Frame

speech audio 3.1


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Terminal identity (1/8): TEI Service Type (Signalling or packet): SAPI Frame type: establishment or information or receiver ready or etc.

digital Calling number Facilities

Level 3 information

The ISDN subscriber module is made up of eight ISTA/ISTB/ISTC boards (ISDN Subscriber Termination type A PBA). Each board handles eight subscribers, so the ISM provides access to a total of 64 ISDN subscribers. In the same way as for the analogue subscriber module, every two ISMs are connected in crossover (XOVER).

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Figure 127 : ISM PBA composition


TO THE OTHER CE (CrossOver)

a 1 b 8

ISTA/B/C MCUB

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ISTA/B/C

8 x 8 = 64 Subscriber loops

1. The ISTA board, which is used when the Uinterface uses the 4B/3T coding, almost contains the same circuits as the DTRI board used in the N7 trunk module. Thus, we have the ILC for the partial handling of level 2, and the OBCI as the local spacetime switching element. These circuits plus the UIC (UInterface Controller), which performs the abovedescribed functions of code adaptation and echo cancellation, make up the ISTA board (see figure 128). Each UIC receives clock signals (channel time strobe) that it uses to order its output. Four ILCs, each with two HDLC frame handlers, are programmed by the OBC to check if there are frames, delimited by flags, in the eight possible D channels: ILC1 will check the first D channel and the second D channel, and so on. When one HDLC in one ILC finds a frame, it puts it in memory and notifies the OBC. The OBC then analyzes the level 2 fields and eventually responds by extracting the signalling message and sending it, through the OBCI, to the control element (MCUB). At the request of the CE, the OBC drives the switching of the speech channel in the OBCI.

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Figure 128 : ISTA structure


ch1: B1 7 7 0 4B/3T OBCI

T/4B clock UICs Echo cancellation Decodig to binary 1 ILC ILC 2 ILC 3 ILC 4 sending to CE

V* Interface found frame 1 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ...............32 B3 B4 D1 D2 .............. found frame PROM Level 2 Analysis Level 3 extraction Ordering of switching the speech channels OBCI switching OBC

B1 B2

RAM

2. For the 2B/1Q line code, a similar board, differing only in respect of the UIC LSI, has been designed. This board is named ISTB. 3. Recently, a new board has been developed : the ISTC, which can be used for both 4B/3T and 2B/1Q coding. This card exists in different hardware variants ISTCT > 4B3T coding for the Uinterface (replacing the ISTA) ISTCQ > 2B1Q coding for the Uinterface (replacing the ISTB) ISTC(+)T > 4B3T coding for the Uinterface (replacing the ISTA) ISTC(+)B > 2B1Q coding for the Uinterface (replacing the ISTB) (ISTC(+) supports HDLC tunnel.)

Compared to its predecessors, this ISTC is an enhanced ISDN board in terms of use of state of the art technology leading to increased performance. In line with cost control, technical improvements are introduced: technological progress, corrections needed to meet changed standards and functionality. To cope wuth these new features, memory size is increased allowing more OBCcode and software resources, but also the double memory feature for future support of software replacement with Zero Outage Time (ZOT) and Stable Call Preservation (SCP).

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The functional enhancements are 1) compliance to newest standards of ETSI 2) Support of Zero Outage Time (ZOT) and Stable Call Preservation (SCP) 3) HW Identification 4) HDLC Frame concentration function for Bchannels Because of ISDN subscriber demands for internet, there is an increasing demand for HDLC frame handling no longer only on Dchannels but as well on Bchannels. Up to now we handled packet traffic on Bchannels circuit switched. This strategy must be extended because of internet calls are characterized by other/new traffic values. Those are in average a much longer call holding time a low average data rate (compared to 2*Bchannel bandwidth)
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

an unbalanced average data rate from subscriber to network compared to from network to subscriber traffic peaks using the complete bandwidth to one subscriber Because of those characteristics a frame concentration function shall be implemented, which allows concentration of packet traffic from several (amount is traffic dependent ) Bchannel to a single 64 Kbit/s channel on a cluster link. In average a concentration factor of 8 is envisaged. Therefore each Bchannel shall be terminated by a HDLC controller. 5) HDLC Tunnels and Cluster Bus Contention Mechanism The basic characteristic of a HDLCtunnel is, that it provides between two modules of A1000S12 and across the DSN a permanently established 64 Kbit/s channel, which is terminated on both ends by a hardware HDLC controller. Examplary an HDLCtunnel can be accessed on the cluster bus of subscriber module by multiple (OBC)processors (sharing the same channels), while it ends on the other side in a single processor, which handles the concentrated traffic.

2.3.10 Mixed Subscriber Module (MSM)


Besides the Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM) and ISDN Subscriber Module, a third type of subscriber module exists, which consists of a MCUB, and a number of ALCx and ISTx, allowing to connect to the same module a number of analogue and/or ISDN subscribers.

2.3.11 ISDN Trunk Module (ITM)


The subscriber access previously studied provides only two channels for speech/data at 64 Kb/s and is called basic access. For high traffic subscribers such as an ISDN PABX, a

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different access, called primary access, is used. This access is based on a digital 32channel PCM link where one channel is reserved for the signalling of all the others. Figure 129 : Primary Rate Access

31

16

SIGNALLING CHANNEL:
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Sending of point to point LAPD frames TEI = 0, SAPI= signalling with signalling messages related to the rest of the channels In the A1000 S12 system, the module that receives such interface is the ITM. This module is made up of a DTRI and an MCUB board, identical to those used in the N7 trunk module but with different software. The ITM boards contain the software required to handle the ISDN levels two and three. Figure 130 : IPTM functions in PRA
CH X CH X TRAC CH 16 CH Y

HDB3 / BIN RETIMING FRAME ALIGNEMENT TREATMENT 8 / 16 BITS LAPD FRAMES ILC

SIGNALLING MESSAGES LEVEL 3 TREATMENT

MCUB

PROM

OBC RAM 386 DTRI

LEVEL 2 ANALYSIS

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2.3.12 The Data Link Module (DLM)


The A1000 S12 modules do not support modem connections (e.g: HCCM, IPTM, ...) When an analogue modem connection is required (e.g: connections towards an Electronic Data through the Packet Switching Network (PSN), analogue N7 Processing Centre (EDPC) connections, ...), an additional module is used: the Data Link Module. The Nr7 message is prepared in the HCCM (or IPTM) module. From there it is transmitted towards the DLM module which is connected to the modem using a V24 functional interface. The DLM is composed of two PBAs: the MCUA/E and the MIRB. The MCUA/E contains the CE and the TI. The MIRB PBA is responsible for the physical data transmission to the EDPC.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


ACE IPTM X.25

Figure 131 : Analogue N7 connection


DATA TO BE SENT

DLM

modem MCUA/E MIRB modem

DTE1

DTE4

modem X.25 PKT GENERATION LAPB

X.25 PACKET DCE PSN

2.3.13 EPM: Extended Peripheral Module


Extended Peripheral Module (EPM) provides the means of interworking between S12 and Local Area Network (LAN), which is combined with TCP/IP on transport and network layer and 10 BaseT Ethernet on data link layer and physical layer. As a node in a local area network (LAN) which uses 10 BaseT Ethernet as a backbone, EPM allows S12 to interconnect with all nodes of a LAN by means of TCP/IP protocol. The advantages of developing EPM module is that :

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By using TCP/IP functions in EPM, as an interface between S12 and LAN, application programs can be developed on the WSs/PCs Because of the powerful tools and libraries to design graphic user interface (GUI) with a workstation, such as X windows, MOTIF, Sunview, etc. S12 programmers can develop user friendlier interfaces An alternate for S12 to provide other I/O channel devices. For example, the network measurement data or the charging data can be sent directly to a workstation or a PC disk. I High speed transmission channel toward PC/WS, compared with RS232.

The EPM module will be implemented as a system ACE in phase 1. More than one EPM module is possible in one exchange which act as nodes for different LANs. The number of EPM modules depends on the traffic load of various applications. The maximun traffic load per EPM will be evaluated during testing.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

An interesting board in the EPM is the LAN Module Controller (LMCA) PBA. This PBA interfaces to a twisted pair ETHERNET LAN (10baseT) external device or HUB. It will be used in the S12 EPM for LAN applications. The PBALMCA environment in the S12 system is presented in the next figure.

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Figure 132 : LMCA

TERMINAL TERMINAL CLUSTER INTERFACE INTERFACE PART DSN

PROCESSOR
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

BUFFER DEMUX

MMB/HSB

ETHERNET I/F

LAN

MEMORY SERIAL INTERFACE

PROCESSOR PART

LMCA
The processor (D229) is a 32bit Intel 80386 compatible microprocessor The memory includes up to 8 Mbytes of onboard memory. The ETHERNET LAN interface circuits comprise the following areas:
-

Serial network interface controller (SNIC). The serial network interface used in PBALMCA is NS DP83902 (Serial Network Interface Controller, SNIC) D1701. It provides a comprehensive single chip solution for 10BASET IEEE 802.3 networks. Address ID PROM. This is used to store a unique network address. Buffer memory. The buffer memory (D1601,D1602) is used for temporary storage of receive and transmit packets.

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I/O ports . The I/O ports are the buffer which interface between processor and SNIC. 16/32 Bit data Bus buffer. The data bus buffers (D1604 and D1607 or D1613 and D1616) are used for 16bit bidirection data transfer. LED Indicator. These LEDs are used to indicate the status of LAN chip.

2.3.14 ISDN Remote Subscriber Unit (IRSU) ISDN RSU Interface Module (IRIM)
The IRSU is a mixed analog/ISDN telephone line concentrator, designed for use in both rural and urban environments. Subscribers connected to an IRSU receive the same services and facilities as if they were connected to a subscriber module. An IRSU allows the remote connection of up to 976 analogue subscribers, 480 ISDN subscribers or a combination. The proportion of analogue and ISDN can be varied to meet changing requirements, using the ratio of one ISDN to two analogue subscribers. Several IRSUs can be connected to an A1000 S12 exchange, which is called the multidrop configurations. This multidrop configuration consists of a maximum of eight IRSUs, providing access to up to 1024 analogue or 512 ISDN subscribers or a combination. The interface module used in the A1000 S12 exchanges is the so called IRIM. The actual interface is realised with digital links. Figure 133 : IRSU point to point configuration
IRSU Up to 976 Analogue or 480 ISDN subscriber

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PCM LINKS

IRIM

A1000S12

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Figure 134 : Multidrop configuration UP TO 1024 OR 512

IRSU

IRSU

IRSU

IRIM

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The multidrop configuration can be easily extended till the maximum number of 8 IRSUs by adding new IRSUs. The dialogue between the IRIM and each IRSU in the multidrop is based on the control of a series of multiplexers , named K1 and K2. These multiplexers make possible the isolation of the IRSU (e.g. when the feeding fails), or the closing of the loop from one IRSU on, as well as, the option to insert messages or not into channel 16, or letting the messages addressed to another IRSU or to the IRIM pass through. Figure 135 : Multiplexers in the multidrop configuration

K2 (LOOP)

CH 16 LAST IRSU

IRIM

K1 (BY PASS)

CH 16 LOOP

ALL CHANNELS CH 16

MIO

DATA

CONTROL


K2 TOKEN IRSU ADDRESS IRSU TO IRIM IRIM TO IRSU

IRSU 8

IRSU 1

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Lets suppose that the K1 and K2 muxes are in the position shown in the figure. The channel 16 loop mux is in the position that lets channel 16 go forward to be transmitted by the IRIM. After the complete loop channel 16 will come back to this mux. Using the token and the address field in the signalling frames, the IRIM starts the procedure to exchange data in the multidrop. The token is passed in a circular way and only the IRSU which has the token can send CCS Nr7 messages to the IRIM and at the same time, receive MSUs from the IRIM. Both the IRSU and the IRIM consist of several specific boards, mainly the DTRH or the digital trunk,the CALC for the simplified clock and alarms; the control element board (MCUB) in the IRIM, the subscriber PBAs (ALCN and /or ISTA/B) in the IRSU, with the addition of the RNGF and the TAUC PBAs for ringing and testing functions. Furthermore, the optional boards for transmission, the TMIA and LPFA, can be added.

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Figure 136 : IRSU structure at PBA level


32 ALCN / ISTA + RNGF + TAUC HIGH LINES LAST IRSU

CLOCK

OBCI

TRAC TMIA K1 AMPLIFIERS

OBC

OBC

ILC

K2

CALC

DTRH TMIA

CLOCK

OBCI

TRAC

OBC OBC ILC

CALC

DTRH

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LOW LINES

32 ALCN / ISTA + RINGF

STANDARD PCM TANSMITION EQUIPMENT

TWO PCM LINKS


TRAC OBC OBCI


TRAC OBC DTRH OBCI IRIM

DTRH

X_OVER

MCUB TI TI

MCUB

The DTRH board has the following structure:

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Figure 137 : DTRH PBA structure


OBCI
CH 16

2 Mb/s
CH 16

CH 1

CH 1

ILC
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LOOP CONTROL

USART

256 K PROM

1K RAM

OBC 80386

DTRH V24 TEST INTERFACE

First we find the same physical interface (transformers and loop) used in the DTUA and the DTRI and also the same trunk interface circuit for HDB3 binary conversion, retiming and frame alignment handling. Then we find a PCM link at 4 Mb/s (16 bits/channel) that goes to the OBCI. In the OBCI, channel 16 is switched towards the ILC to monitor the messages. Also the multiplexer is shown via which the CH16 loop can be opened or closed (see explanation before). On the other hand, the CALC board (Clock & Alarms) contains a simplified clock circuit that produces the internal clock, using the 2 Mb/s clocks regenerated from the PCM links. These reference clocks are sent by the clock regeneration circuit contained in the physical interface circuit of each DTRH. This board is duplicated in each IRSU. Each CALC controls the clock to be selected (choice between their own or the partner clock). In that way, only one single clock is distributed. In each CALC, the selected clock is supervised, and a switching is performed in case of failure. The CALC also contains the logic required for the handling of the alarms and the control of the TMIA loops.

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An 8031 processor collects the IRSU alarms (converters, etc.), writes alarm indicators, and reports changes to SW in the host. The processor handles the TMIA loops, through a programmable interface contained in a chip, and also controls the ring current and its assignment to one of the board by closing the appropriate relays. It must be clearly understood that, with this architecture, the call and the PCM link channels used are under the control of the IRIM control elements (MCUBs). A possible call scenario could then be as follows: Figure 138 : Call Handling simplified scenario for IRSUs
5 ALCN 1 DPTC O B C I 2 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 3 DTRH CH 16

DTRH

O B C I


Y 4 4

MCUB

TONES

OBC

OBC

DTRH CH 16 O B C I

DTRH

O B C I

OBC

OBC

1. The related DPTC line collects the hook off event. 2. This event is read by both OBCs of the two DTRH PBAs 3. Using the token protocol, both OBCs send a message containing the event to the mate OBCs in the IRIMs 4. These OBCs, knowing from the message content that the related line is a high one, transfer the event to the high MCUB (if it is on line). 5. The MCUB software selects a speech channel (Y) in the MCUB DTRH link, and another one (X) is selected in the PCM link towards the IRSU. In the DTRH, both channels are joined, allowing the tones to reach the IRSUs over this path. The IRSU is informed of this speech channel assignment by a channel 16 message. The Call Control software continues, using this strategy, with a message flow IRSUIRIM, and vice versa, to perform the different Call Control decisions in the host exchange.

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To increase the traffic capacity of the IRSU multidrop, calls between subscribers connected to the same IRSU are switched internally (within the IRSU), whereas calls between subscribers connected to different IRSUs on the same multidrop are switched locally, using only a channel of the PCM link in each direction for each call. In case the communication between the IRSU and the host exchange is lost, the IRSU will be switched to standalone mode. Functions to be performed depend on whether an optional Emergency Call Feature (EFC) is equipped or not. If so, up to 23 stable calls between subscribers connected to the same IRSU can be handled. If required by the traffic, the number of available PCM channels can be doubled by duplicating the number of PCM links. To do so, the DTRF board is used instead of the DTRH as the former has two PCM links. Figure 139 : DTRF PBA structure

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LINK 1

TRAC

OBCI

LINK 2

TRAC

OBCI

LSCM

OBC ILC RAM

DTRF

With this, the IRSU structure would be:

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Figure 140 : IRSU structure using DTRF PBAs


ALCN/ISTA

CALC

DTRF

DTRF

MCUB

CALC

DTRF

DTRF

MCUB

ALCN/ISTA

IRIM IRSU
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The IRSU contains maximum 61 ALCNs or 60 ISTAs, as the ALCN boards may be substituted by ISTA boards (some exceptions for some positions). In case of maximum capacity (976 analogue lines or 480 ISDN subscribers), one IRSU is placed in half a JR03 rack, occupying three subframes (shelves). One rack may hold up to two IRSUs, the transmission equipment being installed separately.

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Figure 141 : IRSU Rack distribution and IRSU alternatives


ALCN

16

16


14

AIR BAFFLE

15

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TRANSMISSION EQUIPMENT BATTERIES

TAUC

RNGF

DTR M/F

CALC

CONVERTERS

480

ISDN LINES

240
FRAME WITH 3 SHELVES

112

FRAME WITH 2 SHELVES FRAME WITH 1 SHELF OR CABINET

40 24

32 64

96

256

512

976

ANALOG LINES

The TMIA and CALC boards have some LEDs and keys on their stiffener that have the following meaning: Remark: Going signal = from previous IRSU and Back signal = from next IRSU.

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Figure 142 : CALC and TMIA PBAs


Urgent Alarm Non Urgent Alarm Sanity Timer Expired Pass done Going signal lost Back signal lost

By pass mux switch Loop mux switch

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Loop bypass activated Loss of synchronisation

CALC

Loop done

2.4 Remote Terminal Sub Unit (RTSU)


In addition to IRSUs, and in particular for larger subscriber clusters, it is possible to optically remote entire parts of an Alcatel 1000 S12 exchange, including some subscriber modules and their access switches to the Digital Switching Network. These segregated parts are named RTSU (Remote Terminal Sub Units), which can be equipped with one or more analogue or ISDN TSUs Terminal Sub Units, linked to the host by means of optical fiber. As explained in previous chapters, every subscriber TSU is composed of up to eight analogue or ISDN modules connected to ports 0 to 7 in two Access Switches. Further modules (Auxiliary Control Elements, P&L TCE, C&T TCE, etc.) can be connected to ports 12 to 15. The Access Switches use ports 8 to 11 to connect to the group switches in planes 0, 1, and optionally 2, and 3. The figure shows an example of these TSUs for a fourplane DSN.

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Figure 143 : TSU structure


SUBSCRIBER MODULE 0 0 1 ACCESS SWITCH 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

N
ACCESS 8 9 SWITCH 10 1 ACCESS 8 N 11 SWITCH 9 12 10 7 1 13 ACCESS 8 11 14 SWITCH 9 12 15 7 10 GROUP 13 11 SWITCH 14 12 15 7 13 14 15

SUBSCRIBER MODULE 1

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

N
0 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

N+4

ACCESS SWITCH

SUBSCRIBER MODULE 7 7

0 PLANES 2 1

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NOT SUBSCRIBER NOT SUBSCRIBER NOT SUBSCRIBER NOT SUBSCRIBER MODULE MODULE MODULE MODULE

If, as in the above TSU example, subscribers are located in a remote area, an RTSU can be used to provide telephone access to these subscribers. The figure represents a scheme of that possible configuration. Figure 144 : Remote Terminal Sub Unit

REMOTE AREA

HOST SITE

MODULE 0 ACCESS SWITCH MODULE 1

Optical Fiber
1

1 1 7 1 2 3 0

7 GROUP SWITCH 7 ACCESS SWITCH MODULE 7

The concept of RTSU remote subscribers and optical links makes possible to spread subscriber lines of an exchange to be spread over a vast area, entailing copper pair cost saving and allowing long distances from the subscriber cluster to the host exchange. All these remote subscribers are offered the same functionality as the local ones. In case of isolation, due to a link failure, the RTSU must make it possible to set up internal calls. Therefore, for MF analysis purposes, some SCMs are equipped in the RTSU. Another

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feature of the RTSU is the possibility of connecting a VDU to it for onsite Operation and Maintenance purposes. The link to the host is realised by extending all the 4 Mbps PCM links between the access switch and the group switch in the first stage of the Digital Switching Network. Every Access Switch offers a 4 Mbps link to every equipped plane in the host. These links are multiplexed at both ends using one or more multiplexers, which are implemented as standard Alcatel 1000 S12 PBAs. These multiplexers can combine up to eight 4 Mbps PCM links in a 34 Mbps CCITT G.703 link and a binary interface to an EOC (electrooptical coupler). This EOC can also be provided in a standard Alcatel 1000 S12 PBA. The transmission system also gathers the clock and tone provision in the cluster from the host. The tone link is sent as a 4 Mbps PCM link, and the clock is extracted from the 34 Mbps link by the multiplexer. This clock is the reference used by the SCLA Simplified CLock version A PBA, to produce and distribute the internal clock in the RTSU. This board includes a PLL circuit that is able to provide a clock signal in the case of a link failure. This SCLA board plus the control board is named the RTSU Emergency Clock & Tone Module RECM. The figure shows an RTSU architecture for one TSU with 1024 analogue lines approx. 0.15 Erlang per line, or 512 ISDN subscribers. Two optical lines therefore two multiplexers are always used for reliability reasons.

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Figure 145 : RTSU architecture and connection


1 0 ASM/ISM 2 7 ASM/ISM X 1 ACCESS SWITCH N 8 11 12 15 M E U O C

0 1 8 ACCESS SWITCH N+4 ASM/ISM 1 7

8 11 12 15

M U E O C X

SCM 1

SCM (opt)

2 Clock

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

RECM C&T Distribution

Tone

Optical Fiber

M E O C X N U 1 N 8 9 10 11 12

N+4 E O C M U

ACCESS 8 9 SWITCH 10 1 ACCESS 8 13 11 N SWITCH 9 14 12 10 7 15 1 13 ACCESS 8 11 14 SWITCH 9 12 15 7 10 13 GROUP 11 14 SWITCH 12 1 7 15 13 14 2 15

3 X PLANES

Clock

Tone

For more than one TSU segregation multiRTSU, it is not necessary to provide eachTSU with its own multiplexer (one or two). It is possible to take advantage of the eight inputs of the multiplexer to mix the links of each TSU. The second example on the next page shows a multi RTSU example which supports three TSU accesses using four multiplexers. In these multiRTSU configurations, where three or more 34 Mbps connections are needed, it is generally more economical to multiplex the links (G.703 outlet) to a higher order e.g. 140 Mbps using a commercial multiplexer and EOC.

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Figure 146 : MultiRTSU example


TSU 0

4 Mbps Access Switch M U Access Switch x 34 Mbps

TSU 1
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M U Access Switch x M U Access Switch M U x x 140 Mbps

TSU 2

Access Switch

M U x

Access Switch

The RTSU is implemented in the JA02 rack. This rack, fully equipped, supports up to 12 subscriber modules (ASM or ISM ones), 3 service modules, 6 RTSU Emergency C&T modules, 6 multiplexers, and up to 6 Access Switches. The EOC PBAs can be equipped in the air baffle area of the rack. In the host, the RTSU optical links are connected to a set of EOCs and multiplexers located in the rack type JJ02. This rack has the same configuration as the JJ00 rack (see the Exchange configuration chapter), but includes a number of slots for the multiplexer PBAs.

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Figure 147 : JA02 Rack

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1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 AIR BAFFLE 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8
-

ALCN / ISTX

Subscriber Module MCUB

SCM

Multiplexer

RECM

SWCH

This rack is used to equip three different sizes of TSU. For traffic reasons, an exchange should not have a mixture of different RTSU sizes, except in those cases where RTSUs have not reached their final size to allow for future extensions. The quantity of ASM/ISM per TSU is defined by the traffic per line according to the following list: Low traffic RTSU (less than 0.151 Erlang/Line): 8 Subscriber modules/TSU Medium traffic RTSU (less than 0.201 Erlang/Line):6 Subscriber modules/TSU High traffic RTSU (less than 0.275 Erlang/Line):4 Subscriber modules/TSU. According to this ratios, the maximum capacity of the JA02 rack is of three high trafficTSUs .

The following figures contain two schematics of rack and RTSU configurations for high and low traffic TSUs. The first one shows a three high traffic TSU RTSU configuration twelve subscriber modules. The second one shows, a three low traffic TSU RTSU 24 subscriber module. In the second case, two racks JA02 are needed.

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Figure 148 : RTSU Rack for High Traffic TSU


Module 2 TSU 2 Module 3 TSU 2

Module 0 TSU 2

Module 1 TSU 2

Module 2 TSU 1

Module 3 TSU 1

AIR BAFFLE
Module 0 TSU 1 Module 1 TSU 1

Module 2 TSU 0

Module 3 TSU 0

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Module 0 TSU 0

Module 1 TSU 0

Figure 149 : RTSU rack configuration for Low Traffic TSU


Module 2 TSU 1 Module 3 TSU 1 Module 6 TSU 2 Module 7 TSU 2

Module 0 TSU 1

Module 1 TSU 1

Module 4 TSU 2

Module 5 TSU 2

Module 6 TSU 0

Module 7 TSU 0

Module 2 TSU 2

Module 3 TSU 2

AIR BAFFLE
Module 4 TSU 0 Module 5 TSU 0

AIR BAFFLE
Module 0 TSU 2 Module 1 TSU 2

Module 2 TSU 0

Module 3 TSU 0

Module 6 TSU 1

Module 7 TSU 1

Module 0 TSU 0

Module 1 TSU 0

Module 4 TSU 1

Module 5 TSU 1

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3. A1000 S12 SOFTWARE


3.1 Functional subsystems
The Alcatel 1000 S12 software provides all the exchange services by managing the relevant circuits. The main service is the call handling function, with a series of additional facilities (abbreviated address, three party, detailed billing, etc..). In addition, the software offers to the administration a broad range of features intended for operation, administration, and maintenance tasks. This software is broken down into a series of subsystems by grouping common functions. Furthermore, by successively breaking down these functions they are grouped into areas and finally modules.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The software breaks down into six basic subsystems :


-

Operating System Database Call Handling Telephonic support Maintenance Administration.

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Figure 150 : Software building blocks ADMINISTRATION

CALL MAINTENANCE HANDLING

TELEPHONIC
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SUPPORT

DATA BASE

OPERATING SYSTEM

Every subsystem breaks down into a series of software areas.


-

The Operating System and the Data Base contain the following software areas: Operating System Nucleus Network Handler Input/Output Man Machine SW Load and initialization Clock, Tone and Calendar Data Base Management System

The Telephonic Support subsystem is made up of: Telephonic Device and Signalling Adaptation

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Signalling Handling Charging Remote Subscriber Unit Network Service Centre Packet Switching CCITT N7 Common Channel Signalling Message Transfer
-

The Call Handling consists of the following areas: Call Handling and Facilities

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Call Service
-

Maintenance covers the areas: Maintenance SW Status and Alarm SW Line and Trunk testing SW Test Signal Analyzer and Test Access Unit SW

Finally, the Administration subsystems contains: Administration SW (Traffic and performance measurements) Extensions

At the lowest level are the software modules. The software areas are divided into modules that are completely independent of each other. These modules are called Finite Message Machines (FMMs) and System Support Machines (SSMs). The communication between FMMs is carried out through normalized data structures known as messages. The interaction between FMMs and SSMs is performed by means of procedure calls in the FMM > SSM direction, and through messages in the SSM > FMM direction. All these software modules are distributed over the different hardware modules. As can be seen in the figure, the software is distributed among the different modules. This distribution is not carried out in an arbitrary way, instead each module contains that part of the software it needs for its operation. The support software (Operating System Nucleus, Network Handler, Data Base SW, and so on) is distributed over all CEs in the exchange.

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3.2 Software concepts

3.2.1 Finite Message Machine (FMM)


a. Definition and characteristics An FMM is the basic softwarebuilding functional block and has the following properties: It can communicate with other FMMs but only through messages. From the outside, an FMM is a black box, i.e. its internal structure is not known to the rest of the system. Its functional behavior is uniquely defined by the set of messages it sends and receives.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

It may be in one of several different states and transactions between these are allowed. A limited set of messages is defined for each state. After receiving a message, the FMM may generate and transmit output messages and its state may change. Figure 151 : An FMM as a black box M3_INFO_LDC M1_ORIG

FMM
M2_CH_INFO

M4_SLCT_CH M5_ACT_CACO

FMM INTERFACE:
M1_ORIG M2_CH_INFO b. Finite State Machine (FSM) By definition, we know that an FMM may be in one of several states. The FMM may emit one or more output messages and/or change from one state to another upon receipt of a message. This state change mechanism brings us to the FINITE STATE MACHINE concept. For a proper understanding of this concept, we will study the example shown in next figure. It shows how the FMM can receive messages A, B and C and, in turn, send M3_INFO_LDC M5_ACT_CACO & M4_SLCT_CH

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messages D and E. The functional behavior of the FMM is completely defined when the message reception and transmission sequence is known. The sequence in our example will be: For the FMM to send message D, it must first receive either message A, or C and then B. To send message E, it must receive message B before A. This FMM may be built with three states. Figure 152 shows the way the FMM works. The three states are: INIT: This state indicates that the FMM is waiting for message A, B or C. If it receives message A, it sends message D and changes to the INIT state. If it receives message B, it changes to the B_REC state. If it receives message C, it changes to the C_REC state. B_REC: This state indicates that the FMM received message B and is now waiting to receive message A. When this message arrives, the FMM will send message E and go back to the INIT state. C_REC: This state indicates that the FMM received message C and is waiting to receive message B. When it arrives, the FMM will send message D and go back to the INIT state.

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Figure 152 : FSM structure


START FMM

INIT STATE

WAITING MESSAGES

INIT

B_REC

C_REC

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

STATE B_REC

STATE C_REC

INIT STATE

INIT STATE

INIT STATE

c. Types of FMMs Before studying the different types of FMMs to be found in the system, we must first define a term that is very important in all FMM executions : the PROCESS. An FMM consists of a part that is pure code, called process definition, and another part with the data, known as process data. The execution of a process definition with its associated process data is known as process. Let us now study the different types of FMMs with the help of some practical examples. Monoprocess FMM First, let us have a look at the FMM that analyzes the prefix. When executed, this FMM will establish, among other things, the call destination, i.e. whether the call is local or outgoing. The FMM will start its execution (process definition) using the data area (process data) at the moment it receives a request in the form of a message. When the execution ends, the FMM will output a message and the data area will no longer be needed for this request. When a new message arrives at the FMM, asking it to analyze of a prefix, the same process definition will be executed again and the same data area will be used. This means that a single data area is required for this type of FMM. These

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FMMs are therefore called MONOPROCESS since only one process may be active at any given moment. Figure 153 : Monoprocess FMM

PROCESS DEFINITION

PROCESS DATA
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Multiprocess FMM For the second example, lets take the FMM that handles the call setup. When a call is set up, a process is created which uses a data area to store all the information required for this call. This FMM will be handling one subscriber for a more or less prolonged time; if during this time, another subscriber starts a call, the FMM will have to store data for this second call. The FMM will then not be able to use the same data area, since it has already been taken by the first call. If the FMM must handle multiple calls simultaneously, independent data areas (one for each call) have to be created. The FMMs that are implemented in this way are called MULTIPROCESS FMMs. In this case, an independent data area is created for each new request. When the execution of a request is completed, the data area used for it is released. The FMM part that is in charge of creating and releasing the data area is called SUPERVISORY PART and has its own data area. The FMM part responsible for carrying out the actual FMM function, is called APPLICATION PART. The execution of the supervisory part is known as a supervisory process, and the execution of the application part on one data area is called an application process. This means that multiprocess FMMs always have one supervisory process and a variable number of application processes.

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Figure 154 : Multiprocess FMM SUPERVISORY PART PROCESS DEFINITION

PROCESS DATA

APPLICATION PART PROCESS DEFINITION

PROCESS DATA
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Monoprocess multidevice FMM Up to now, we have seen two different types of FMM monoprocess and multiprocess each having its own specific structure and operating mode. As seen before, a monoprocess FMM can only handle one execution request at a time. There is, however, a special type of FMMs which has a single process but can handle more than one request simultaneously. Let us consider an FMM that scans the line circuits. The number of these circuits is fixed and known beforehand; furthermore, the scan must be executed continuously. Under these conditions, one data area per circuit will be required but the number of these areas is also fixed. We could implement this FMM as a multiprocess one. In this case, the FMM supervisory part would have to create an application process per circuit only once, at the initialization time. All these processes, however, would have to exist forever since the scan must be performed continuously. This solution does not seem to be the smartest, nor the most adequate. The alternative is a monoprocess FMM that uses one data area per device. The result is then a single process that controls a fixed number of circuits. This type of FMM, i.e. implemented in this way, is known as a MONOPROCESS MULTIDEVICE.

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Figure 155 : Monoprocess Multidevice FMM

PROCESS DEFINITION

DEVICE 1 DEVICE 2

DEVICE N
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

d. Overlay FMMs There are kinds of FMM which do not require a periodic performance or/and which occupy too much memory. FMMs with these properties are not resident (permanently) in the CE memory, and are therefore called OVERLAY FMM OFMM. They are stored on the system disk and will only be loaded into CE memory when their performance is needed. At this moment the FMM program code and data will be set up in a particular zone of the CE, called Overlay Zone. e. Shell based systems The FMMs that we saw so far are implemented as one software unit. There are a number of drawbacks though with this implementation: the maximum size of a software unit is 64 kB; if the software is CDE dependent a lot of variants have to be written and maintained; if the software handles signalling, possibly different versions of signalling have to be handled, so again a lot of variants have to be written and maintained. To solve all of these problems, an FMM can be implemented as a socalled Shell Based System (SBS). The FMM contains a shell and a number of entities. Each entity performs a specific task. Figure 156 gives an example.

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Figure 156 : Shell based system

entity 1 entity 2 entity 3

S12 messages

shell

S12 messages

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shell based system


Usually the shell is implemented as an FMM. The entities can be: a part of the FMM; an SSM (with interface procedures); a procedure that is linked with the FMM to form one software unit. There are a number of rules in an SBS. Here are a few: only the shell can receive S12 messages from other software units; both the shell and the entities can send messages to other FMMs; the entities communicate indirectly with each other, via the shell; internal messages are used: for the communication between the entities; for the communication between the shell and the entities. the shell and the entities use shared data.

internal messages

entity N

3.2.2 Messages
a. Standard messages In the previous section, we have seen how the communication between FMMs is performed through normalized information structures, called MESSAGES. These messages have the following properties:

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When a message is sent, the information will be placed into a 64byte data structure, called MESSAGE BUFFER. Each Control Element (CE) will have a certain stock (pool) of message buffers. The message buffer structure consists of two parts: header and body. The header is used to route the message towards the destination FMM and occupies 16 bytes. It includes among others, the following information fields: a number (msg_identity), which uniquely defines the message; a priority; message type; etc, as shown in the next figure. The body, in turn, is divided into two parts. The first part is the text, or the actual information, which occupies 40 bytes. The second part is reserved for use by the Operating System and occupies 8 bytes. Each message structure is defined off_line and is known by different FMMs which must use them. When an FMM has to send a message, it must first request one of the free message buffers. The Operating System will search for a free buffer and return a pointer with the message buffer starting address to the requesting FMM. This pointer will be used to copy the message to the message buffer. In the same way, a pointer will be passed to the destination FMM, where it will be used to read the message information. Figure 157 : Message structure INFORMATION LENGTH MSGIDENTITY PRIORITY TYPE DESTINATION SOURCE HEADER

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BODY

TEXT (40 BYTES MAXIMUM)

RESERVED WORDS

b. Types of standard messages Although up to now, we have basically referred to the messages as the communication means between FMMs, they are actually used for the intercommunication of FMM processes. The messages will always be sent/received through the message buffer mechanism. There are two main types of messages depending on whether the destination process is known by the originating process or not. These two types are:

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BASIC MESSAGE: This type of message is sent from an FMM (process) to another FMM (process). The actual destination process is not specified when the message is sent. Determination of the destination process will be a function of the Operating System. As an example of this type of messages, let us take the FMM which handles the call set up. When a new call is set up, there is no active process for its handling; thus, the first message that the FMM (which detected the call set up), sends to the former FMM, is the one without a specific destination, a basic message. DIRECTED MESSAGE: This type of message is sent by a process to a known destination process. In the above example, when the call set up continues, the originating process already knows which process is attending to it. Therefore, in this case, the originating process will send the events to the destination process in the form of directed messages. There are two rules to be taken into account when sending and receiving messages. These rules, graphically represented in the next figure, are: A supervisory process may send and receive basic as well as directed messages. An application process may only receive directed messages; however, it may send either basic or directed ones. The same rules that apply to the supervisory part of a multiprocess FMM also apply to the monoprocess FMMs. Therefore, the only process of a monoprocess FMM, will be called supervisory process. Figure 158 : Rules for sending & receiving messages BASIC SUPERVISORY PROCESS DIRECTED DIRECTED

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BASIC

BASIC DIRECTED APPLICATION PROCESS DIRECTED

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c. Creation of application processes Now that we have studied the different types of FMMs and messages that are generally found in the system, we can describe the mechanism used to create an application process for a multiprocess FMM. The steps followed to achieve this creation are shown in the next figure. [1] A basic message is sent from a process to the supervisory process of an FMM. As a result, this supervisory process decides to create an application process that will handle the request received in the message. [2] The supervisory process will use the O.S. services to create the application process. The new process will have an identity that is known, from the time of its creation, by the supervisory process.
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[3] At this point, the supervisory process can send a DIRECTED message to the created application process since it knows its identity. This message will contain all the information that the supervisory process received in the basic message. [4] The application process reads the information received in the directed message and starts its execution. The result of this execution may be either a basic message to another process or a directed message to the process that sent the first basic message. From now on, the originating process will communicate with this application process through DIRECTED messages (remember that the application processes can only receive directed messages). [5] When the application process has completed its task, it will notify this and the resources assigned to it will be released (process data).

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Figure 159 : Application process. Creation


BASIC PROCESS 1 3 DIRECTED

SUPERVISORY PROCESS


2 OPERATING SYSTEM 5 4 ANY OTHER FMM (PROCESS)

APPLICATION PROCESS
DIRECTED 4 BASIC

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d. User buffer When a process has to send more than fourty bytes, it uses two buffers: a message buffer and a user buffer. The user buffer is a memory area that can have any size up to 64 kB. The user buffers are organised in memory pools. Each memory pool contains a number of buffers of a particular size. Within a control element you can have up to 10 different memory pools. A control element can therefore have user buffers of 10 different sizes. The message buffer is organized exactly as seen before; however, the header contains an indicator notifying that it has a user buffer associated with it, while the text includes a field indicating the length and the address of the user buffer. When a process wants to send a message with a user buffer, it delivers them to OS. OS then puts the message in a delivery queue and presents it when appropriate. The process that receives the message obtains the length and address of the user buffer to read the information contained therein.

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Figure 160 : Message buffer with associated user buffer

MESSSAGE BUFFER HEADER DATA 1 POINTER TEXT LENGHT DATA


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USER BUFFER

e. Compound messages The messages discussed so far have a fixed structure: both the length of these messages and the layout of the messages is fixed. When the higher level FMMs communicate, the same message has to be sent a number of times during a call, but the layout may differ depending on circumstances, such as when the message is sent and what kind of facilities the subscribers have. For ISDN subscribers there is an extra difficulty: they communicate with the exchange with ISDN signalling, that uses optional components. These messages have to be sent from one FMM to an other in the form of a S12 message. The standard S12 messages do not support optional components. To cope with these restrictions of the standard S12 messages, a different type of S12 message can be used: the compound message. A compound message contains a number of message blocks. Each message block has a message block identifier (MBID), a length indication and the contents part.

3.2.3 System Support Machine (SSM)


a. Definition and characteristics Generally, the software modules are implemented as FMMs and written in the high level language CHILL. The FMM not only offers specific advantages (modularity and flexibility), it also has some drawbacks: Many times, the software must be available and ready to attend to certain events, e.g. a hardware interrupt. This readiness is not furnished by the FMM model since, as mentioned earlier, the FMMs are only started through the reception of messages.

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In the case of common support routines which we want to group into independent SW modules, we could actually use FMMs. However, every time one of those routines were to be used, a message would then have to be sent to the FMM containing them. This would involve a great shuffle of messages and overload, with the subsequent loss of time for their reception and transmission. The reasons exposed here are more than enough to think out a different module, one module to complement the FMMs and solve the above problems. This software module is known as SYSTEM SUPPORT MACHINE (SSM). An SSM is designed as a set of routines, all within the same module, that carry out some support function for one or more FMMs. These routines are not started through messages, but through procedure calls; although they can actually send messages to the FMMs. b. Types of routines in a SSM
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Interface routines These routines are started by FMM processes through procedure calls. In this case, the routines are executed as if they were part of the calling program. The interface routines may send and receive directed messages, such as the answerback message from the FMM to which a message was previously sent. The routines of this type are the only ones that may be called by an FMM process. Furthermore, for a process to be able to make use of these routines, the process and the SSM interface routine must be in the same CE. Clocked procedures These routines are run periodically. They are mainly used for scanning telephonic devices. The interrupts are masked out during the execution of these routines, so they will not be interrupted by a timer or any hardware event. Interrupt procedures These routines are executed whenever a hardware interrupt takes place. Just as the clocked procedures, they also run with the interrupts masked out. For this reason, both the periodic and the interrupt procedures must have a short execution time so that no hardware interrupts are missed. Consequently, these routines will not be able to send or receive messages as this would take too long. Thus, functions that require a longer execution time, or the sending of messages, will not be designed with these type of routines; instead, they will be designed as Event Handlers. Event Handlers These routines run with the interrupts allowed and, therefore, will be able to send messages.Their main function is to prepare and send messages based on the data

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provided to them by the periodic and/or interrupt procedures. These routines have an associated flag (event flag) that, when set by the periodic and/or interrupt procedures, or even FMMs processes, indicates to the Operating System that the Event Handler must be started. Once the execution of the Event Handler has ended, control is given back to the Operating System. Figure 161 : Interconnection of an SSM and other modules

MESSAGE

FMM

O. S.

SSM

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DIRECTED
INTERFACE PROCEDURE CLOCKED PROCEDURE INTERRUPT PROCEDURE EVENT HANDLER

MESSAGES

SSM ROUTINES

MESSAGES

MESSAGES

3.3 Communication between processes


As we already know, the software stored in the different control elements is organized in the form of FMMs, SSMs, and OS modules. Of all these software tools, the FMMs are those used to create processes that perform the application functions. These processes exchange information with each other by means of standardized messages. The transfer of these messages, from the originating to the destination process, is carried out via the OS, and may be established within a single microprocessor or, between different CEs through the internal switching network. The following figure shows an example of the transmission of messages between the A, B and Y FMMs resident in the CE1 and CE2 control elements.

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Figure 162 : Communication between processes


FMM A FMM B

OPERATING SYSTEM

CE 1 DSN CE 2

FMM Y
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OPERATING SYSTEM

This transfer works as follows: the originating process must first obtain a message buffer and fill it in correctly and then it must ask the OS for its transmission. Thanks to the Operating System, the transmission of these messages is completely transparent to the processes involved. The destination process is known from the type of message and the information contained in the message header, and the path to follow is established by an algorithm called routing. The routing result may be internal (communication within the actual CE) or external (communication between different CEs). There are two different ways to start the routing procedure, depending on whether the message is a directed or a basic one. If it is a directed message, the originating process knows the identity of the destination process, and writes it into the message header. This destination process identity contains the identity of the CE where the process is executed. Therefore, the routing will consist of comparing the two CE identities (origin and destination) and deciding whether the message is internal or external. In the case of a basic message, the originating process does not know the identity of the destination process. In this case, routing is essentially based on the message number. For this situation, the OS data provides a set of tables called MRT Message Routing Tables in each system control element. These tables contain for every message the information necessary to find out the destination process identity or the CE where the destination FMM resides.

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Figure 163 : Routing of Basic and Directed messages


Ps1 FMM A External Internal

Ps1
FMM B
External Internal

Pa1 HEADER

Pa1
OPERATING SYSTEM HEADER OPERATING SYSTEM

INFO INFO MRT BASIC MESSAGE DIRECTED MESSAGE

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As we already know, the basic difference between the two types of messages is that, directed messages may be sent to any type of process (supervisory or application), whereas basic messages may be sent only to supervisory processes. The reason for this is that the routing result is the identity of the destination FMM and this identity only provides a link to the supervisory process in an unambiguous manner.

3.3.1 Communication within the same CE


If the routing result indicates that the message is internal, the Operating System must complete the transmission by presenting the message to the destination process. This presentation is not carried out immediately, instead the message is inserted in the delivering queues with its corresponding priority. The message stays in this queue until the moment when it is presented to the destination process.

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Figure 164 : Internal communication

FMM A

FMM B

P2

P1
HEADER
INFO

OPERATING SYSTEM
INTERNAL

MESSAGE

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MRT
DELIVERING QUEUES

3.3.2 Communication over a virtual path (VP)


Virtual Paths (VP) are temporary paths that are used exclusively for the transmission of a message and are released after the message is completely received. This is the most commonly used type of path and it is dedicated to the support of individual exchanges of information. As we already know, a path can be released by sending two or more Idle or Clear commands through the actual path. The message arrival acknowledgements are also sent through virtual paths. a. Communication with messages On the other hand, if the Operating System decides, based on the routing result, that the message is external, it will be necessary to establish a communication path through the network with the remote control element that contains the destination process. Once the identity of the destination CE is known, the Operating System must see to the transmission of the message. This transmission is carried out in accordance with the steps. [1] Copy the message buffer to the TI memory. First a launching buffer is reserved in the TI Packet RAM. The message is copied from the Main Memory into this buffer. Of course, the message will be preceded by the SELECT commands required to establish the path towards the destination

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CE, and the SOP or Start Of Packet indicator. Furthermore, a CRC and the EOP or End Of Packet command are appended to it. [2] Order to launch the buffer: Once the buffer is copied, the OS orders its launching using of the TI control registers, where a command is given to launch the packet in any free channel. In the response command the TI indicates the chosen channel identity. The TI hardware sends the messagewords from the buffer to the chosen channel, in an autonomous way. Once the launch is completed, the TI notifies the OS which releases the associated buffer of the actual TI packet RAM. Figure 165 : Transmission of an external message
TI TI PRAM
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PRAM DSN 4

2 5

MICRO

MICRO

Main Memory

Main Memory

[3] Progress through the network: The SELECT commands, written at the beginning of the packet, establish a network path that terminates at the TI of the required control element. [4] Collection and storage in the destination TI: The SELECT commands of the packet sent stay in the different network multiports, so that the first word arriving at the TI is the Start Of Packet, SOP. This indicator causes the TI hardware to collect all the incoming information until the arrival of the EOP and store it in its internal memory. [5] Copy the buffer to the main memory of the destination CE:

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Once the EOP is detected, the TI notifies the microprocessor through the appropriate registers. This provokes the entry of the OS which transfers the message to the main memory, checks the CRC, and releases the buffer used. After the message is copied to the destination, the Operating System again analyzes the message in order to obtain the identity of the destination process and stores it in a presentation queue. Besides the wellknown NACK mechanism (backward information), provided by the network when the continuation of the path establishment proves impossible, the Operating System uses an error protection protocol. This protocol consists of the transmission of an acknowledgement with CRC. This acknowledgement is materialized in the transmission of an acknowledgement message (ACK). If the message does not arrive within a specified period of time (To in the figure), the originating Operating System retries the message launch a certain number of consecutive times (usually three). If the acknowledgement is still not received, apart from other actions to be taken, the appropriate error reports are generated and sent towards the defence CE responsible for error handling. Figure 166 : Error protection
CE1 Message 1 (1) Ack CE2 DEF

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Message 2 (1) To Message 2 (2)

Message 2 (N) To Error Report

However, this whole operation is transparent to the processes involved and they are not notified of the correct or incorrect message arrival. Therefore, the actual processes must support, if required, their own acknowledgement protocol.

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To continue with these ideas, there are basically two strategies to establish a path through the switching network: the virtual paths and the user paths. b. Communication with user buffers The user buffer transmission is carried out by splitting it up into 64byte portions (due to the mapping of the Terminal Interface PRAM). These portions are sent through the network using a heldup path towards the destination CE. This path is established by the first packet sent and is held by SPATA words until the transmission of the last packet. The destination OS assembles the incoming portions using the previously reserved area. Difference must be made between small user buffers (up to 128 bytes) and large user buffers.

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Figure 167 : UB transfer indication

U.B. up to 128 bytes


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USER

MSG_UB

OS

MSG UB
Held Path

MSG (keep conn.) UB[1]

(UB[2]) (clr conn.) ACK

OS

USER
Get UB

MSG_UB

U.B. 256 bytes or more

MSG UB

USER

MSG_UB

OS
Get U.B. (VP) ACK ACK_UB (VP) ACK

OS

USER
Get UB

MSG UB

UB[1](keep conn.) Via 2 Held Path s

(UB[n]) (clr conn.) MSG (VP) ACK

. . .

MSG_UB

MSG UB

User Buffers up to 128 bytes In this case the user sends the message with user buffer to OS (see figure 167). OS transmits this message and the user buffer to the remote side via the DSN. The first packet sets up the connection and the last packet clears the connection. At the end an acknowledgement is sent back to the originating OS. The first packet contains the message itself (standard S12 message). The header information indicates the

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presence of a user buffer, so that the destination OS can allocate a user buffer. At the end of the scenario the message with user buffer is sent towards the user. User Buffers of 256 bytes or more This scenario also starts with the transmission of the message with user buffer towards the OS. In this case the originating side sends a request (message via virtual path) to the destination side for a user buffer. The destination OS allocates a buffer and sends an acknowledge back (also message via a virtual path). This ACK_UB message contains the pointer to the user buffer (in the destination CE). Then the user buffer is transmitted via two held paths (see figure 168, the first packet makes the connection and the last packet clears the connection for each held path). Finally the A1000 S12 MSG is sent via a virtual path. This message already contains the new pointer (points to the user buffer in the destination CE). The complete message with user buffer is delivered to the user.
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Figure 168 : Transmission of a user buffer via two held paths


TI DSN PRAM VP 1 VP 2 TI PRAM

1 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 N SPLIT 1 N SPLIT 2 N SPLIT 2 1 1 2 3 3

1 2 3

N SPLIT 1

Another strategy used to save transfer time is to pack the data in the outgoing channel. Up to now, we have seen that eight of the sixteen bits of an A1000 S12 PCM channel are used to carry data through the network. For user buffer transfers the bit packing method is used. This new method consists on carrying 12 bits instead of 8 on each PCM channel thus achieving a better transfer time.

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Figure 169 : Packing strategy

1 Protocol Bits 2 Protocol Bits 3 Protocol Bits

BYTE 1 BYTE 2 BYTE 3 8

UNPACKED

1 Protocol Bits B2L 2 Protocol Bits B2H 3 Protocol Bits B5L 4


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BYTE 1 BYTE 3 BYTE 4 8

PACKED

Note: Another way to send information greater than fourty bytes is to organize it in successive message buffers. This strategy saves the time spent in the search for the user buffers and in the splitting up of the buffer, but increases the transmission time as it involves the routing of each and every one of the messages making up the series to be sent.

3.3.3 Communication over a user controlled path (UCP)


There are also User Controlled Paths (UCP). The main feature of these user paths is their twoway and lasting nature. The paths are assigned to two processes, one at each path end. These two processes are considered the path users. This type of path is primarily used to create a conversation path between two subscribers or two trunks located in different control elements, but also for the massive exchange of control data between CEs. Therefore, unlike the virtual paths, the UCPs are established and released under direct user control. These two functions, path establishment and release, are performed using the services offered by the operating system. When a user, for instance the process PA, seeks to establish a UCP towards the remote process, PB; it asks the OS for a user path.(step 1). This request assigns, from this moment on and in a biunivocal manner, the process PA to the identity of the path that will be created. This means that all the messages that arrive through the created UCP will automatically be sent to process PA.

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Figure 170 : Request of an UCP

DSN O.S. 1 O.S.

PA

CE 1
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CE 2

Now the originating process PA has to associate the UCP to the destination process, PB. In order to achieve this, PA requests the transmission of a basic message via the UCP (step 2). As a consequence of the request, the Operating System sends a message notifying the creation of the UCP to the destination side OS (step 3). The latter, defines a new UCP identity that will be significant within that CE (CE 2), and responds with the creation of the return path (step 4). At this moment, the twoway path is established in the network, although it has not yet been assigned to any process on the destination side. All messages transmitted through a UCP carry a UCP identifier which is relevant on the originating side within the message body; therefore, once the message has reached the destination CE (step 5), the OS there must change that identity into one that is locally significant. This is done in a similar way for each message arriving through a UCP. However, the first message must be sent by use of the routing algorithm (basic message), for no process has yet been assigned to the UCP. Once the OS finds out the destination process, it places the message in a queue and hands it over to process PB when required (step 6).

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Figure 171 : Notification to the destination process

DSN O.S. 4 2 PA 5

3 O.S. 6

CE 1
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CE 2

The receiving process must now ask the OS for its association to the created UCP (step 7). Figure 172 : Answer from the destination process

DSN O.S. O.S. 7 PA P

CE 1

CE 2

Once the path is established, and the processes involved are identified, the path can be used for the fast exchange of messages. However, these user paths are used above all for the connection of telephonic devices; that is, subscriber to subscriber, subscriber to trunk, subscriber to service circuit, trunk to service circuit, etc. In order to carry out these connections, it is necessary to link the established user path with the port and channel corresponding to the external telephonic device. This link is performed through a request to the operating system. The OS orders the Terminal Interface internal switching to establish the duplex connection by a Cut through operation. This task is performed in the two CEs involved.

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Figure 173 : Switching in the Terminal Interface


TERMINAL INTERFACE CH N CLUSTER CH M Tx Rx Tx Rx CH B

CH A UCP

PRAM

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Figure 174 : Connection of a subscriber to a UCP

TERMINAL INTERFACE ASM HARDWARE CH N CH M CH A CH B DSN

TERMINAL INTERFACE CH C CH D CH O CH P ASM HARDWARE

Either process (origin or destination) may ask the Operating System for the release of the user path while it is being used. As a consequence of this release request, the respective OSs release the established communication and notify the associated processes.

3.3.4 Communication with the internal packet protocol (IPP)


The communication mechanisms discussed so far provide services that are sufficiently generic for the transmission of messages. Yet there still are some limitations:
-

the time that a message must wait in the delivery queues none of the previous procedures allows for the transmission of messages to remote OBCs the routing algorithm can provoke a work overload in some control elements, especially those associated with packet handling (N7, X.25, ISDN,...).

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These problems are solved by the use of a new internal communication protocol called IPP (Internal Packet Protocol). This protocol was introduced to support the transfer of messages between an N7 user, resident in the module that provides access to the speech channel, and the module that provides access to the associate signalling trunk. This introduction considerably increased the performance of the message transfer between them, and its use was subsequently extended to include the data and packet communication areas. Figure 175 : IPP protocol in N7
UCP INCOMING DTM ch x IPP
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ACE

UCP OUTGOING DTM ch y

IPP

N.7 DTM ch 16 IPP

N.7 DTM ch 16

P&L

C&T

Due to design reasons, there are different types of IPP users: for N7 application, for X.25, OSI stack, etc. These software modules are called interworkings (IWs), and, as we will see later, in order to take full advantage of the IPP protocol, it is suggested to code them under a particular structure so that they can be activated from any other software module by procedure calls. The part of the Operating System responsible for managing this protocol can support only one kind of user, a module called Common IPP (CIPP) or IPP Handler is added between the interworkings and the actual OS. The functions of this new module are to provide multiple users with access to the IPPs, to receive and route the messages towards their corresponding points, to reserve the required channels in the network as well as in the cluster PCM links for the transparent transfer of IPP packets to the OBC/s through the Terminal Interface, etc. When a process needs to transmit data using the IPPs, it stores the information into a memory buffer and through the corresponding IW, passes the buffer to the Common IPP with the identity of the destination CE or OBC and the destination IPP user identification in that CE. The Common IPP adds an IPP header with the identities related to the transfer over IPPs to the packet and transmits it to the destination CE.

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An important factor to be taken into account is the size of the information to be sent. If the information is too long to be sent in a single message, the Common IPP must find an alternative way for its transmission. The most commonly used procedure is to place the information in a message buffer and a user buffer Segmenting. If the information to transfer is excessively long, the previous procedure becomes too slow. Therefore, the transfer time can be reduced by using of a transmission mechanism similar to the user buffer, that is, splitting up the information into two halves, and sending them through two paths Splitting. Both procedures are invalid for communication with OBCs, given the need to use heldup paths (not supported by the OBC Operating System). Figure 176 : Transference of an IPP packet
MESSSAGE CE or OBC Identity BUFFER

IW Identity
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HEADER IPP HEADER IPP PACKET DATA DATA TEXT

The transmission of medium length messages (similar to the N7 packet size) or to/from OBCs, is carried out by a strategy called Chopping. This mechanism consists of dividing up the information into multiple portions that form a set of separated but related messages. For very small messages the data from several users are grouped Grouping and sent as a whole in a single message buffer, thereby significantly improving the traffic flow between micros. At the destination the message is passed to the Common IPP of that side, which stores it in a new buffer and hands it over to the destination IW through the procedure call. As we have seen, one reason that supports the advance in performance is the fact that the IPP implementation offers a dedicated message transfer. By dedicated, we mean that the messages are directly handed over to the corresponding user module, without having to pass through the routing or message presentation queue steps. However, one first drawback is that the destination user (IW) must be designed as an SSM routine. Furthermore, the users must have knowledge of the different identities of the CEs, OBCs and IWs involved in the communication.

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Figure 177 : IPP levels

FMMs
IPP PACKET S12 MESSAGES

SSMs
IPP PACKET

INTERWORKING

Internal Interface

Common IPP

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OPERATING SYSTEM
NH BYPASS

DIGITAL SWITCHING NETWORK

The Common IPP or IPP Handler supports the two protocol types: connection oriented and connectionless. The connection oriented protocol is mainly designed for the communication with OBCs. In this case, the CIPP manages a table to link the connection identities with the associated OBC identities. The second case (connectionless) allows the transmission of data units to CEs or OBCs without any sequence number.

3.4 Software modules

3.4.1 Logical grouping of the Call Handling software into call control planes
In every access module (ASM, ISM, IPTM, ...) there is software to handle a call. Figure 178 shows the building blocks in the call origination and in the call termination modules. The building blocks are always present, independent of the type of access: BA, PRA, analogue line or trunk.

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Figure 178 : Call Handling building blocks


AUXILIARY CONTROL ELEMENTS SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION PREFIX ANALYSIS TRUNK SEARCH CALL AND FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM

PARM

SIGNALLING HANDLING

CALL ORIGINATION

CALL TERMINATION

SIGNALLING HANDLING

SIGNALLING HANDLING

DSN
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DEVICE HANDLING

DEVICE HANDLING

BA PRA Analogue Line Trunk (CAS or Nr7)

BA PRA Analogue Line Trunk (CAS or Nr7)

These different blocks can be placed in 3 planes:


-

Call Control Plane; Protocol Plane; Connection Plane.

Each of these planes performs tasks within their own area.

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Figure 179 : Call Handling Planes DEFINE CALLED DEVICE Prefix Analysis Subscriber Identification Trunk Search PARM

Call and Facility Control System

CALL CONTROL PLANE

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Signalling Handling

Signalling Handling

PROTOCOL PLANE

Device Handling

Device Handling

CONNECTION PLANE

CALL ORIGINATION

CALL TERMINATION

a. Connection Plane (Device Handling) The main tasks are: cluster handling (seizure and release); speech path control (join, release, ...); Allocation of devices to various requesters. In general it consists of an FMM and SSM. It also keeps the busy/free status of the devices (therefore the FMM part is a monoprocess multidevice). The type of device is also dependent upon the module, e.g: trunks for a DTM, subscriber lines for an ASM, Bchannels for a PRA, ... Not only access modules contain a device handler. The Service Circuit Module for example, also contains a device handler where the devices are the senders/receivers. b. Protocol Plane (Signalling Handling) One of the major tasks of the exchange during the setup of a call is signalling. Line signalling:

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Hardware events coming from the Device Handler (changes in the state of the subscriber line) are sent towards the signalling software. These events must be translated into telephonic events which can be passed to a higher software level. Conversely, logical telephonic signals coming from the higher level software must be translated into commands for the operation of the subscribers line equipment. Examples: offhook of a subscriber, trunk seizure, clear forward/backward, ... The line signalling function is performed by the signalling handling software. Register signalling: Register signalling deals with the supervision of transmitting and receiving identities. These identities can be sent by the subscriber via his push button set or dial set, or via MF/R2 or No7 for incoming/outgoing calls. For a push button set the DTMF code is detected in the hardware of the SCM. The device handler collects the result from the hardware and delivers it towards the signalling handling software. The same principle is used for trunks with MF signalling. For a dial set the digits enter the ASM by means of line events, and are therefore detected in the device handler of this module. The device handler delivers the digits (after counting the pulses) to the signalling handling software. For incoming trunks with No7, the messages enter the signalling handling software and contain the digits. Combining line and register signalling: When using more sophisticated signalling systems, it becomes possible to combine some events in one message. E.g: if a Q931_SETUP (ISDN) message enters the exchange, it combines the seizure (line signalling) and the digits (register signalling) in one message. The same applies for the Nr7 messages used on trunks. Conclusion: Whatever type of signalling is used, the result is always the same. The signalling handling software will collect the digits so they can be transmitted towards the higher software level, the Call Control. Summary of the main functions: Protocol interpretation and translation into Call Control plane terminology and vice versa. Protocol interpretation and translation into Connection plane terminology and vice versa.

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Establishing a datalink. Communication within the protocol plane (=intersignalling communication) Administration of timers and call references used in call control procedures. Administration of access resources. Handling of auxiliary devices such as senders and receivers. c. Call Control Plane This is the highest software level within the module. It controls the setup and the release (during unstable phase) of the call. When events enter the signalling handling software, it can check in the data if call control should be informed or if the event is treated locally.
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The main tasks are: Number Analysis Routing Call configuration management (complex facilities) Registration / erasure / activation / deactivation of features ordered by the subscriber The call control plane is signalling independent The call control plane is steered by data coming from the building blocks within the group: DEFINE CALLED DEVICE. These building blocks are discussed in the next chapters. Figure 180 gives a more detailed view of the call handling planes. The software blocks are described in the following chapters.

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Figure 180 : Call handling planes

CALL CONTROL PLANE


CALL SERVICES

TRA

TRC

PATED

LSIF

ARTA

CALL AND FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM

CFCS

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PROTOCOL PLANE
SIGNALLING SIGNALLING SIGNALLING

SIG

SIG

SIG

CONNECTION PLANE
DEVICE HANDLER DEVICE HANDLER DEVICE HANDLER

DH

DH

DH

SCM HARDWARE ASM HARDWARE DTM HARDWARE


OPERATING SYSTEM and DATABASE
3.4.2 Operating System
The A1000 S12 software is divided into nine subsystems. Each subsystem has its specific function.

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Figure 181 : Software Subsystems

ADMINISTRATION

MAINTENANCE

DATABASE

OPERATING SYSTEM

CALL CONTROL

CHARGING

RESOURCE MANAGER

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CALL SERVICES CALL HANDLING

DEVICE HANDLER TELEPHONIC FUNCTIONS

The Operating System is the subsystem that provides support to the rest of the system, by managing the own resources of each processor. These resources are, as in any other processor system, the time and the memory of each one of them. Regarding the time, the Operating System is in charge of its management, since it is the Operating System which determines the task to be performed at any given moment. The memory, having a limited capacity, will also be controlled by the Operating System, which is in charge of its distribution among the programs that require it. For these reasons, the Operating System will be stored in all the CEs of the different modules. Given its control over time and memory, the Operating System will be essential for the existence of the FMMs and the SSMs since it will allow the communication through messages and will take part in the activation process of the different SSM routines. This subsystem will also handle the clock and peripheral interrupts, thereby allowing the execution of the appropriate SSM routine. Another function of the Operating System will be to control the switching network and the Terminal Interface, since it will establish the physical communication paths between the different system modules. Finally, it will be in charge of the reloading and recovery of the different control elements for which purpose it is equipped with error handling elements. Once an error is detected, the Operating System will interact with the Maintenance modules for subsequent recovery.

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The main functions of the Operating System can thus be summarized as follows:
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Manage processor time: For the OS to be able to perform this function, there is a series of different tasks to be carried out by the processor. The operating system indicates at all times which of these tasks is executed according to the previously assigned priority. The OS will have FIFO queues for managing each of these priorities. Manage main and mass memory: When creating a process, the Operating System provides it with a data area, and when it terminates the Operating System releases this area so that it may be allocated to a new process. The OS provides the message buffers allowing these processes to intercommunicate. It also controls the memory areas reserved for the overlay programs, indicating the relevant areas and their respective contents. Timing: The OS will start the clocked procedures (inside SSMs) at a fixed time interval per routine. Other processes (FMMs) can start relative and absolute timers (periodic or not) and the OS will inform the process upon expiration of the timer(s). Message Handling: OS will deliver the messages to the appropriate processes according to their priority. Control the switching network and the Terminal Interface: The OS allows for the transmission and reception of messages by controlling the Terminal Interface memory, ports and channels. It also controls the switching network since it will be in charge of writing the network control commands for the establishment and release of paths. CE load and initialization: A set of OS modules are responsible for requesting the load, when necessary, of the different programs loaded in the processor memory. They are also responsible for managing the initialization process of the different programs. Control the manmachine communication peripherals: The whole input/output system is part of the Operating System; the OS will therefore contain the controllers for the different peripherals. Control the loading and execution of overlay programs: The OS will control the loading and execution of these programs when required.

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Functionally, the Operating System can be broken down into several functions, all of them independent of each other. This basic breakdown is as follows:
-

Programs support: Creates the conditions necessary for the execution of the different FMMs and SSMs. It supports the sequential execution of the processes, for which purpose it handles the processes (creates, activates and terminates them) and performs the process time planning. It provides time services for the implementation of timeouts. It collects, controls and initiates local actions for all errors detected. It allows for the execution of Overlay programs. CEs communication interface: carrying out allows the rest of the Operating System, to send/receive messages to/from the Operating System of other modules.

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Network Handler: Directly controls the TI and the switching network. Loaders and Initializers: They obtain the load packet, load it into memory and initialize the different programs. Input/Output System (IOS): In charge of the peripherals, the manmachine communication and direct memory access. Figure 182 : Operating System functional breakdown

NETWORK & CIRCUITRY HANDLER

ALL CEs

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CEs INTERFACE

PROGRAMS SUPPORT

LOADERS & INITIALISERS

INPUT / OUTPUT SYSTEM P&L

All the kernel OS functions are loaded in all the CEs, but specific functions are loaded only in the corresponding CEs. In the above example, the Operating System controls the cross over in the line TCEs, the input/output system in the P&L TCE, etc.

3.4.3 Database
So far we have seen that all software functions are implemented as FMMs, SSMs or specific OS modules which will have to handle subscriber and exchange data. In previous systems, each program had its own data file. This method has two drawbacks: REDUNDANCY, which means that a piece of data can be stored in more than one place and be used by more than one program, and INCONSISTENCY, which occurs when a program updates a piece of data

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in its own data file, without changing it in the data files of the other programs in which the same piece of data is stored. a. Objectives and use Given modular structure of the software , a piece of data can be used by different FMMs (data users) not necessarily belonging to the same subsystem and, due to the A1000 S12 distributed control, these users will probably be executed in different control elements. Therefore, a solution must be found so that the data can be shared by the different users. The two abovementioned drawbacks can thus be obviated. In summary, a DATABASE can be defined as a common pool of consistent data, shared by different programs. This DATABASE concept covers two objectives: no data redundancy and data consistency.
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How then are we to implement our DATABASE so as to bring it in line with the FMM and SSM concepts? The data will to be stored in zones of the CE memory and/or on disks. If one FMM requires a piece of data, it will only have to search for that piece of data in that place. The problem remains how the FMM calculates the physical address of the piece of data. This problem is resolved with the introduction of programs that handle the data directly. The function of these programs will consist of accepting data requests from the FMMs in the form of procedure calls (not through messages), localizing the specific piece of data in that place and, giving the piece of data back to the user that requested it. This set of programs is called DATABASE CONTROL SYSTEM (DBCS). As a result of the introduction of these programs, data independence is achieved with respect to the data user programs. This increases the modularity and the future security of the data. Possible changes in the DATABASE itself will not have any effect on the programs that use it. Bearing in mind the Virtual Machine concept, it can be stated that the data and the DBCS that handle them form a virtual machine with respect to the data user FMMs. Besides convenient data access, another basic database property is that of data SECURITY, so that the data is protected against unauthorized access and also during dangerous situations such as data copy or update. The system in charge of providing this security is the DATA BASE SECURITY SYSTEM (DBSS), which is contained in the Peripheral & Load module.

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Figure 183 : Data Base overview


DATA BASE CONTROL SYSTEM

DATA

CE 1

CE 2

CE N

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PROCESS 1

PROCESS N

b. A1000 S12 relational database Definitions. The Database used by A1000 S12 has a relational structure, i.e. the data is organized into bidimensional tables called relations. A RELATION is a bidimensional matrix where the rows are known as TUPLEs. The tuples are divided into fields, called DOMAINs, which are the matrix columns. All the tuples in a relation have the same domains. An example of a relation, i.e. a bidimensional representation of data, is shown in the next figure. In the relations, KEY is the name given to the domain or set of domains that uniquely identify a certain tuple. The different programs achieve the data access, always, by getting one whole tuple.

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Figure 184 : Example of a relation
DOMAIN KEY
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TUPLE

Types of relations. The database system distinguishes two types of relations according to whether the relations exist physically or only logically (such a relation exists only for the user): 1. REAL relations, are relations that are physically stored in memory or disk, as they have been defined. If a user requires a tuple, it will be presented as a whole. 2. VIRTUAL relations, are relations that do not physically exist but are supported by a set of real relations. There are different types of virtual relations depending on how they are made up: REDEFINED. MULTITARGET. PROCEDURAL. A REDEFINED VIRTUAL relation is supported by a single base relation and its domains are a subset of the base relation domains. The key of the redefined relation must be the key of the base real relation. Whenever a user asks for a tuple of a redefined relation, the DBCS will search for the tuple in the corresponding real relation. Only the subset of domains defined for the redefined relation, will be extracted and presented to the user. This new relation will have a name different from that of the base real relation.

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Figure 185 : Redefined relation


REAL RELATION (ONLY ONE TUPLE REPRESENTED) D_KEY D_1 D_2 D_3

R_1

D_KEY

D_3

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REDEFINED RELATION (USER VIEW)

A MULTITARGET VIRTUAL relation is made up of domains of two or more real relations. Of this set of relations, constituting a multitarget, one is the starting base relation, the key domain of the multitarget relation being the same as that of the base real. The joining with the rest of the relations that originate the virtual one, is performed through the common domains and by means of a JOIN operation.

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Figure 186 : Multitarget relation


D_KEY D_1

REAL RELATION R_1

D_KEY

D_1

D_2

REAL RELATION R_2

B JOIN

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MULTITARGET RELATION (USER VIEW) D_KEY (R_1) D_1(R_2) D_2(R_2)

A PROCEDURAL VIRTUAL relation will be built up by a special procedure when the regular procedures provided by the database prove inadequate. Obviously, the relation is not physically stored in memory and is based on one or more real relations. Whenever a user requires a tuple of a procedural relation, the DBCS calls the procedure that searches for the requested information within the relevant real relations. This procedure will build the requested tuple and present it to the user that asked for it.

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Figure 187 : Procedural relation


R_A A11 A12 A13 B11 R_B B12 B13 N11 R_N N12 N13

PROCEDURE

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A13

B12

N11

USER VIEW

A property common to all types of virtual relations is that it is absolutely necessary that all the base relations are in the same control element as the FMM that requested the virtual relation. Physical location of the relations. A relation need not necessarily be stored entirely within one CE, nor does it have to be in a single CE. In other words, a relation may be split up and distributed among a set of CEs, or copied entirely to more than one CE, or even both. It is, however, also possible that neither of these two conditions are present; in this case the relation is called NORMAL. A relation is said to be DISTRIBUTED when it is split up among a set of CEs. Each of these CEs has a set of tuples in storage depending on the value of one or more of the relation domains; these domains are called distribution domains. In this way only that part of the relation needed in the CE is loaded.

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Figure 188 : Distributed relation DISTRIBUTION CE_1


USER DATA BASE DBCS R_1

CE_2
DATA BASE

CE_3
DATA BASE

DBCS R_1

DBCS R_1

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6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

A relation is called REPLICATED when there is an entire copy of the relation in several CEs. One of the CEs, called master, will control the modifications of the relation tuples which is important to maintain the data consistency. A replication control procedure can find which CEs contain a copy of the relation. Figure 189 : Replicated relation REPLICATION CE_1
USER DATA BASE DBCS R_1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

CE_2
DATA BASE

CE_3
DATA BASE DBCS R_1 1 2 3 4 5

DBCS R_1

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When both possibilities occur together, the result will be a DISTRIBUTED and REPLICATED relation. The distribution always taken place first, and then each of the parts into which the relation is divided, is replicated on a set of micros.. c. Communication between the user and the DBCS In order for a user (FMM) to be able to obtain a piece of data from the database, it will have to call an interface procedure that is a component of the DBCS. When the FMM calls this procedure, a pointer (p) to a data area within the FMM is passed, as a call parameter, to the DBCS. This data area, that belongs to the FMM, is known as the USER WORK AREA (UWA) and it is used as the communication area between the calling process (user) and the DBCS. Figure 190 : User DBCS interface

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FMM P


RUWA R1 R2 R3

UWA

DB STATUS


DATA
R1 R3

DBCS

R2

In this FMM data area (the UWA), amongst others, the following main fields may be found: 1. DB_STATUS: This field will contain information about the result of the operation requested after getting back from the DBCS.

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2. RUWA: Relation User Work Area. In this area, one tuple for each of the relations that the FMM has access to, may be stored. We will explain the way to make this communication effective with an example. Lets suppose that a FMM process (data user) requires to read a tuple of the relation R_1. The steps to follow are: 1. The call to access the data is done by the process to the DBCS. As said before, a pointer to the UWA is passed as a call parameter. 2. The DBCS is the system in charge of searching for the data in the data storage device (memory or disk) and of obtaining the requested relation tuple. 3. If the tuple is found, it is copied into the RUWA for the R_1 relation.
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4. An indicator of satisfactory result of the operation will be written into the DB_STATUS field. 5. The control will be given back to the calling FMM process. Figure 191 : UWA handling

FMM
1 CALL

GET R_1

UWA
DB_STATUS

5 RETURN

DBCS

4 SET DB_STATUS

RUWA R_1
D1 D2 D3 D4

DATA
3

R_1
COPY TUPLE

D1

D2

D3

D4

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d. Direct Access Relations Even though the use of the DBCS for the access to the data stored in the database, has many advantages, it also has a great inconvenience that we cannot obviate: The calls to the DBCS take up execution time. In order to reduce the time necessary to find the requested information, the users are, in some cases, allowed to access the database by themselves. To accomplish this, the users look for the relation start address in the database only once, at the initialization time. For the subsequent accesses, the users simply fetch the data directly from the database, knowing the relation start position beforehand. This type of access has an important restriction: it is valid only for read actions on real relations. For the performance of relation modifications, it will be necessary to call the DBCS.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

3.4.4 Device handler FMMs


The device handlers manage different devices depending on the module used: a. Device handler in the ASM In the ASM there are 128 subscribers (256 in Xover) and the ring circuits. They are handled by the Subscriber Module Device Handler FMM (SMD). The SMD is a monoprocess multidevice FMM with a separate data zone for each device. The task of SMD is to manage the busy / free status of the devices. In addition to the FMM there is an SSM. The SSM is called the Line Circuit, Ring Circuit Device Handler SSM (LCRC DH SSM). The SSM contains: clocked procedures and event handlers to scan the hardware for events; interface procedures to drive the hardware (hardware of the subscribers and the ringing PBA). b. Device handler in the ISM In the ISM you find the same device handling software as in an ASM. The device handler can handle both analogue and ISDN subscribers. c. Device handler in the DTM In the DTM there are 31 trunks, which are looked after by the Trunk Circuit Device Handler FMM (TC DH FMM). The TC DH is a monoprocess multidevice FMM (why ?). When a DTM is selected, and a trunk request enters, the TC DH selects a free trunk and marks it busy. Also the TC DH FMM has an SSM counterpart to perform scanning and driving of the hardware: the Trunk Circuit Device Handler SSM (TC DH SSM).

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d. Device handler in the SCM In the SCM there are maximum 32 DTMF receivers . The FMM that manages these devices is called the Service Circuit Device Handler FMM (SC DH FMM). The SC DH FMM is a monoprocess multidevice FMM. The SC DH FMM is complemented with the Service Circuit Device Handler SSM (SC DH SSM). The SSM takes care of the driving of the senders and the scanning of the receivers. It receives DTMF digits from subscribers and R1 or R2 information from trunks. It passes the digits onebyone to the signalling subsystem.

3.4.5 Signalling system


In every access module the signalling is handled by a corresponding signalling system. In the case of a subscriber module (ASM or ISM) and the trunk modules (DTM or IPTM), the signalling system has quite a large number of functions. If these access modules have at least 4 MB memory, the whole signalling system can be present in the access module. If however the access module only has 1 MB memory, the signalling system is split into two parts:
-

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

the terminal related functions are stored in the TCE (the access module); the call related functions are stored in an ACE. Typically this is the System ACE for Call Services (SCALSV). a. Signalling system in the ASM All subscriber events pass via the signalling FMM (line and register signalling). For each event signalling knows (from a table) if call control should be notified or not. The signalling system is called the Analogue Subscriber Signalling System (ASSS). Since the ASM only has 1 MB memory, ASSS is split into ASSS_TSIG (in the ASM) and ASSS_ASIG (in a SCALSV). b. Signalling system in the ISM The signalling system in the ISM is the ISDN Signalling System (ISS). An ISM has 4 MB memory, so the whole ISS is kept in this TCE. Because of the CDE dependency of the ISDN signalling systems, ISS is implemented as a SBS. There are different entities for the different ISDN versions, but also different entities to handle the different layers in ISDN signalling. c. Signalling system in the DTM This signalling depends on the signalling used for the trunk (to which trunkgroup it belongs). DTM signalling takes care of the line and register signalling between the exchanges. Here again you can have a split signalling system. Depending on the signalling type, you have:

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CAS_ASIG (in the SCALSV) and CAS_TSIG (in the DTM); ISUP_TUP_ASIG (in the SCALSV, handling both ISUP and TUP signalling) and ISUP_TSIG, TUP_TSIG (in the DTM). d. Signalling in the SCM Here the Register Signalling SSM (RSIG SSM) collects the digits onebyone from the SC DH SSM. Once a certain number of digits has been received, RSIG reports them to the requesting signalling system. The RSIG is always informed about the requested number of digits, so it knows when the digits should be transmitted in bunch towards the requesting signalling system.

3.4.6 Call Control


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This plane contains Call and Facility Control System (CFCS). CFCS is a multiprocess FMM.

CFCS handles: the basic call setup for subscribers; the basic call setup for trunks; supplementary services; the interface towards the SSF for IN services. Whenever a call starts, the FMM is activated. Activation means the creation of an application process. CFCS is implemented as a SBS:
-

the shell is part of the application process. each entity has its specific task. Entities can be common or CDE. This depends on the main call control functions they logically belong to: basic call setup: these entities are common; supplementary services: these enities are CDE; interface to IN: these entities are common.

3.4.7 Auxiliary Resources TCE Allocator


ARTA stands for Auxiliary Resource TCE Allocator. Resource means a DTMF receiver or an R2 sender / receiver.

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ARTA finds a Service Circuit Module that contains the correct receiver or sender and that is available. Its implemented as a monoprocess FMM and is located in the System ACE for Call Services. The actual search for a SCM is performed by a procedural relation. This relation is consulted by ARTA. Figure 192 explains how the procedural relation works: Figure 192 : ARTA procedural relation Procedural Relation INDEX 2 1 a 2 3 5
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SCM 1 SCM 2 SCM 3 SCM 4 SCM 5 SCM 6

AVAIL UNAVAIL UNAVAIL AVAIL AVAIL AVAIL c b

4 5 6

ARTA RUWA 4 SCM 4 AVAIL

Following steps are taken in the procedural relation : [a] The index is used to select a tuple from the relation. [b] Starting from this index, a sequential search is done until an SCM with the status AVAILABLE is found. [c] The tuple is copied to the RUWA of the ARTA FMM. [d] The index is updated to make sure that the next search starts with the next SCM in the list. Then we return from the procedural relation.

3.4.8 Analysis of the Called Party Digits


Based upon the received digits, the destination of the call has to be defined. This is done by an FMM, called PATED (Prefix Analysis and Task Element Definition).

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PATED consists of two functional parts


-

Prefix Analysis. This part provides a digit preparation and analysis, resulting in a Condensed Prefix (CPX), a Cause or a request for more digits. The CPX is a number assigned to all digit combinations which result in a common set of tasks : all subscribers connected locally, which must be charged in the same way have a same CPX, while all digit combinations leading to the selection of the same outgoing route (for outgoing calls) have another CPX assigned to it. A cause is a number indicating which faulty situation occurred. The cause value found by PATED could for instance be a value indicating DN Not Assigned. In the case of a CPX or a Cause, the result is passed to the second part for further analysis. In the case of a request for more digits, a message is sent back to CFCS to receive more digits from the originating side. Task Element Definition. This part receives the result from the previous part (CPX or Cause) and retrieves information about the tasks to be executed to complete the call. These tasks are : destination information, charging parameters, restrictions, numbering type and signalling information. These tasks not only depend on the received digits (CPX), but some of them are also a function of the time of day, the type of call (normal call, operator call,...) or the origin of the call (subscriber, incoming trunk,...).

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Figure 193 gives an overview of the structure of PATED. We will describe the different blocks in greater detail.

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Figure 193 : PATED Structure

Prefix Analysis Received digits Digit preparation & Digit Analysis

Task Element Definition Request more digits CPX CAUSE Task Element Definition

Type of call

Category Analysis

Tasks

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Origin

Origin Analysis

Time

Time Analysis

a. Category Analysis Here, the Type of call is analysed. Possibilities are : Operator call, Data call, Test call, normal call, priority call,... The result of this analysis serves as input for the Task Element Definition and for the Digit Preparation. b. Origin Analysis In this block the origin of the call is defined. This origin is a combination of : Type of Numbering Plan (telephone, telex, private numbering plan,...) Nature of Address : The Nature of Address specifies the layout of the received digit stream (International, National, Network Specific,...). This value indicates whether or not the country code is inserted in the received digit stream, whether or not the trunk code is inserted ... . SourceCode : Defines the type of originating equipment (Subscriber, trunk, test , trunkgroup,...) to which the

equipment,...) and the group (subscriber group originating device belongs.

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The result of this analysis serves as input for the Task Element Definition and for the Digit Preparation & Analysis. c. Time Analysis Here, the time of day is analysed. This analysis result serves as input for the Task Element Definition block. d. Digit Preparation The function of digit preparation is to adapt the layout of the received digit stream to a standard digit stream layout, used inside the exchange. Example : Suppose the standard layout in the exchange is : 0 P Q A B C D E ...
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Where

P Q = The zone prefix A B C = The exchange prefix D E ... = The subscriber identity inside the exchange

If the received digit stream has layout A B C D E..., digits 0 P Q have to be inserted before the A. The digit preparation depends on The received digits The type of call The origin of the call (Source code + nature of address + Numbering plan indicator) Figure 194 gives an overview of the digit preparation.

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Figure 194 : Digit preparation Received digit stream

Origin

Digit Preparation
Adapted digit stream

Type of call

Received digits
0 P Q A B C D E ...
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Origin
Sourcecode Subscr Subscr Incoming Nataddr. Numb. plan unknown unknown National Internat. ... E164 E164 E164 E164 ...

Type of call Adapted digit stream


Normal Call Normal Call Normal Call Normal Call ... 0 P Q A B C D E ... 0 P Q A B C D E ... 0 P Q A B C D E ... 0 P Q A B C D E ... ...

A B C D E ... P Q A B C D E ...

I1 I2 I3 P Q A B C D E ... Incoming ... ...

e. Digit Analysis In this block the received digits are analysed to define the destination and the tasks to be executed to reach that destination. For the analysis of the digits, we use a tree structure. Figure 195 shows the layout of this tree. Each element of the tree contains 16 entries. The first digit, D1 is used as an index in the first element. Here we find a pointer to a next element. Now we use the second digit, D2 as index in this new element. Again we will find a pointer to a new element. We will continue with this algorithm, each time using the next received digit (D3, D4,...), until we find an indication that the prefix has been analysed. In the last entry we will find a Condensed Prefix (CPX) or a CAUSE. This result is now passed to the last block, the Task Element Definition. The result of digit analysis not only depends on the received digits, but also on the origin of the call. This is implemented by making the entry point in the tree structure origin dependent. In the block Origin Analysis, we will find the entry point in the tree structure. From this entry point on, we will start analysing the received digits. This implies that for another origin, we will follow a completely different branch in the tree and so the final result will be different.

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Figure 195 : PATED Tree structure Numbering plan indicator Nature of address SourceCode Origin Analysis D1
0 1

... ...
15

... ...
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D2

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

D3

... ...

Digit Analysis Result


(CPX or CAUSE)

f. Task Element Definition This block defines the tasks that have to be executed to reach the desired destination. Most tasks depend not only on the Analysis result (CPX),, but also on the origin, the type of call and even the time of day. Therefore the outputs of all 4 blocks of the prefix analysis part (see figure 196) serve as input for this Task Element Definition block. The most important information we find here includes : Do we have a terminating or an outgoing call Do we have open numbering or closed numbering. What is the length of the number. Is it a priority call or not If we have an outgoing call, ... after how many digits do we start trunk selection

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Type of call LOCAL OUTGOING

Extra Information
DNET Routecode of Called Subscriber , start selection point, ...

So far, we have only discussed the successful analysis of an existing prefix. Now let us see what happens if something goes wrong. We did not receive enough digits (yet) to find a Condensed prefix. Suppose we received 3 digits from the originating device. After having analysed the third digit, we still have not found a CPX. In that case, PATED will send a message back to Call Control, asking for one or more digits. After having received some more digits, Call Control will send all digits back to PATED, where digit analysis continues. REMARK: The number of digits, which is sent to PATED, is always greater than or equal to the number of requested digits retrieved from OLCOS . For example: an ISDN subscriber provides all the called digits in one message, so all the digits are transmitted to PATED and there will not be a request for more digits. Another possibility is that the received number does not exist. Instead of finding a condensed prefix (CPX), the digit analysis output will give us a CAUSE. Now we will have to find out what we have to do to end the call properly (e.g. It will tell us that we have to send a congestion tone to the calling subscriber.) This is done by the same Task Element Definition block. This time we will send the CAUSE value instead of the CPX to the Task Element Definition. Now we will find a list of tasks that have to be executed to end the call. Just as in the normal case, these tasks are also a function of the Origin, Type of Call and Time of day. This feature of PATED is also useful if we find other problems during the call handling. (e.g. we can not find a free DTMF receiver, A timer expires, a Q931 protocol error is detected,...) Each possible problem is identified with a CAUSE value. When such a problem occurs, we will send the corresponding CAUSE value to PATED. In PATED, the Digit Analysis step is skipped and we jump immediately to the Task Element Definition step. Here, too, we find a list of tasks to solve the problem.

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Figure 196 : PATED for CAUSE analysis

Prefix Analysis Digit preparation & Digit Analysis CAUSE

Task Element Definition

Type of call

Category Analysis

Task Element Definition

Tasks

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Origin

Origin Analysis

Time

Time Analysis

3.4.9 Subscriber analysis


a. Subscriber data in general During a call a lot of information about subscribers is needed. Some of the data is required to set up the call, other information describes the facilities that a subscriber may have. Since the amount of data is so big, the data is stored in two locations: the data that is required to set up the call is stored in the subscribers TCE itself. We call this the subscriber data at TCE level. The data is retrieved by the device handler FMMs and the signalling FMMs; the rest of the subscriber data, including possible facility data, is stored in an ACE. This ACE contains both the originating and the terminating profiles . The FMM that retrieves all the subscriber data in the ACE is the Local Subscriber Identification (LSIF) FMM. We therefore talk about the subscriber data at LSIF level. The ACE that is mentioned here is the SACELSIF. Please refer to chapter 4.2.4..c for more information on this ACE. At this moment it is important to know a little about the configuration of this ACE.

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The SACELSIF works in an active / standby configuration. The amount of subscribers a SACELSIF can handle is limited. So in a medium, and certainly in a large exchange there will be a number of these SACELSIF pairs. The problem then of course is to know which one of these pairs to choose when the subscriber data at LSIF level is required. The directory number equivalent thousands (DNET) of the subscriber that is anlysed, is used for that purpose. This applies to both an originating subscriber, as to a terminating subscriber. First let us have a look at the subscriber data itself. Figure 197 shows the organisation and location of the subscriber data. Figure 197 : Subscriber Data location COL

COS DNE DNE analysis facility_1 facility_2

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OLCOS TCE level

LSIF level The next chapters describe these data blocks one by one. b. Class Of Line (COL) The COL gives information about the physical line that is connected to the exchange. For an analogue subscriber it indicates amongst others: the settings of the hybrid on the ALCN board; the type of set (push button set, dial pulse set, combined set); whether a hardware key is used on the set. c. Originating Line Class of Service (OLCOS) This is the data we need when a subscriber originates a call. The OLCOS data is the bare minimum data to set up a call. The most important fields of this OLCOS are: the terminal number or data key. This is the index into this data; the directory number equivalent (DNE). Such a DNE consists of the directory number equivalent thousands (DNET) (DNEU) ; and the directory number equivalent units

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if the tuple represents a subscribers line, the equipment number (EN) is given. The EN consists of the LCE identity of the TCE and the terminal number or datakey; if the line belongs to a PABX, the PABX identity is given; the tone map, that indicates which dial tone to apply. d. DNE analysis The DNE analysis indicates:
-

the type of directory number (DN). Some possibilities are: not assigned number; normal subscriber line;

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MultiSubscriber Number (MSN); Direct DiallingIn Extension (DDIExt). depending on the type of DN, further information is given: if the DN represents a single subscriber line, the equipment number (EN) is given. The EN consists of the LCE identity of the TCE and the terminal number or datakey; if the DN represents a line of a PABX, the PABX identity is given. e. Class Of Service (COS) The COS data gives information about both public subscribers (analogue and ISDN) and BCG subscribers. The COS data contains both the originating COS data and the terminating COS data. f. Facility data The data that describes the different facilities is stored in separate relations. As an example there is a relation that holds the abbreviated dialling information, an other relation that holds the call forwarding information, and so on. If a subscriber does not have any facilities, no tuple out of these relations are allocated to this subscriber. If an operator assigns a facility to a subscriber, a tuple from the relation that describes that facility is allocated to the subscriber. The tuple is then linked to the subscribers COS data. If a second facility is assigned, a tuple from an other relation is allocated and linked to the COS data as well. The COS data and the facility data thus form a chained structure. The reason for implementing the facility data in a chained structure,

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is that you only have to use a tuple of a particular facility relation if the subscriber has that facility. In the example of figure 197 the subscriber appears to have two facilities. g. Retrieval of data for originating subscribers To describe the subscriber data in detail and how it is retrieved, let us have a look at an example. Let us assume closed numbering with seven digits. Let us call the digits D1D2D3D4D5D6D7. Figure 198 indicates how the DN can be broken up into the DNET, the DNEU and the DNEH. Figure 198 : DNET, DNEU and DNEH DNEU

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
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DNET DNEH Figure 199 gives an overview of the subscriber data structure. Figure 199 : Subscriber data in detail LSIF level DN analysis 00 DNET OLCOS DNEU D5 formula DNEH 99 DNEH analysis D6D7 00 facility_2 block of 100 tuples COS link chain

TCE level TN or DK

COS

facility_1

99

The subscriber data is retrieved in the following sequence:

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[1] The OLCOS data is retrieved in the TCE. The key to this data is the terminal number (TN) or the data key (DK). The DNET is amongst others used in the SCALSV to find the correct SACELSIF.
Note : An analogue subscriber can only have one profile stored at TCElevel in R_OLCOS; that profile is stored against the TN. An ISDN BA can have up to 8 MSNs assigned to the same access, thus to the same TN, and for each of these MSNs, a separate profile can be stored. For each MSN, a tuple has to be stored in R_OLCOS. At TCElevel, a specific procedural relation, called the SCREENING PROCEDURE, will translate the TN and MSN in a new parameter called the DataKey (DK), which is used as a key in R_OLCOS.

[2] In the SACELSIF the first action is to find the directory number equivalent hundreds (DNEH). The DNEH is calculated with a formula: DNEH = (DNET 1) * 10 + D5 + 1. [3] The DNEH is then analysed. The DNEH can represent:
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a block of 100 DNs for normal subscribers; a block of 100 DNs reserved for an indialling PABX; an unused block of 100 tuples. If we assume that the DNEH represents a block of 100 DNs for normal subscribers, then the DNEH analysis gives a link into the DN analysis block. [4] To find the correct entry in the DN analysis block, you have to take the link as provided by the DNEH analysis and increment it with the last two digits of the DN (D6D7, in the range of 0 to 99). The DN analysis gives the information as presented in chapter d. This includes the type of DN and further information. If we assume a single subscriber line, the further information also contains a link to the COS link chain. [5] The COS link chain always contains at least one link: the link to the COS. This data is always required. If the subscriber has facilities, then further links can link all the additional tuples (in different relations) together. [6] The COS data was described in chapter e. The facility data was described in chapter f. h. Retrieval of data for terminating subscribers In the case of a terminating call, PATED gives us: an indication that it is a terminating call; the DNET value of the terminating subscriber. This value was derived during digit analysis.

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In CFCS, we collect the remaining digits (D5, D6 and D7) from signalling. We use the DNET value to find the appropriate SACELSIF and send a request to LSIF to start subscriber identification. As in figure 201 LSIF retrieves the EN of the terminating subscriber, together with the subscriber data. With the EN we have know the location of the Bparty. i. Restriction match In the case of a terminating call, LSIF has to examine if the call is allowed to continue. This check is called the restriction match. Figure 200 shows how it is implemented. Figure 200 : Restriction match Access Status
normal line normal call priority call
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dataline

coinbox

operator line

Calling Party Category

operator call CAUSE

CAUSE

CAUSE

testcall

No CAUSE Destination restricted There is a restriction match table. We select a row using the Calling Party Category as index. For originating calls, the CPC comes from the COS data. For (CPC) incoming calls, the CPC value is retrieved from the remote exchange via signalling (sent from the remote exchange as a Type Of Call (TOC)). In the selected row, we use the access status as index to pick out one element. The access status was retrieved from the TLCOS. The value in the selected element tells us if the call is allowed (no Cause) or not (destination restricted).

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Figure 201 : LSIF

LSIF

OLCOS

DNET,DNEU

RETRIEVAL OF OLCOS

originating subscriber terminating subscriber Prefix Digits


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DNET

PATED

DNEU

RETRIEVAL OF TLCOS OK/ NOK

CALLING PARTY CATEGORY

Restriction Match

3.4.10 Trunk Search


Figure gives an example of (a part of) a network. Suppose that a subscriber from exchange A wants to call a subscriber from exchange D. In the following chapters you find a number of definitions that are used in the routing of this call.

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Figure 202 : Routingblock Route

Exch C

Exch A

Exch D

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Exch B

a. Trunk A trunk corresponds with one channel of a PCM link. A trunk is bidirectional. To avoid that the exchanges at either side of the trunk try to seize the trunk simultaneously, two possibilities exist: you can declare some of the trunks as outgoing and the rest of the trunks as incoming. The fact whether a trunk is outgoing or incoming only reflects which exchange can seize the trunk: an exchange can only seize the outgoing trunks. As a result, the trunks that are declared as outgoing in one exchange, have to be declared as incoming in the exchange at the other end of the PCM link and vice versa. you can also declare the trunks as bothway trunks. In this case both exchanges can seize the trunk. In this case the possibility of a collision exists. The software then has to solve the problem. Every trunk has to be handled by a particular signalling system. This way the seizure and all the other events of the trunk can be reported to the exchange at the other side of the trunk, but also the digit information can be reported.
Note : Let us abbreviate trunk to TK.

b. Trunkgroup Trunks that have the same characteristics can be grouped into a trunkgroup. Typically the same characteristics means:

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interconnecting the same exchanges; having the same direction (outgoing, incoming or bothway); using the same signalling system (for example MFC, CCS N7). Figure 203 : trunkgroups Trunks

30 trunks DTM 1 DTM 1

30 trunks
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DTM 2

DTM 2

Trunkgroup AB1 R2 trunks Exch A 30 trunks IPTM 1 IPTM 1 Exch B

31 trunks DTM 3 DTM 3

30 trunks IPTM 2 IPTM 2

Trunkgroup AB2 Nr7 trunks

In figure 203 exchange A is connected to exchange B with 5 PCM links. There are two trunkgroups: trunkgroup AB1, with R2 trunks and trunkgroup AB2 with CCS N7 trunks. identity of the trunk module + The equipment number of a trunk consists of the LCE the channel number, or the trunkgroup identity and the trunk sequence number. In the figure, trunkgroup AB1 contains 60 trunks, spread over 2 DTMs, while trunkgroup AB2 contains 91 trunks, spread over 2 IPTMs and one DTM.
Note : Let us abbreviate trunkgroup to TKG.

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c. Route The collection of all the trunkgroups between two exchanges is called a route. At present this definition is primarily used for administrative and traffic management purposes. d. Trunkgroup combination At present subscribers can demand a certain minimum bearer capability of the network. Possible bearer capabilities are: speech; 3.1 kHz audio; 64 kb/s unrestricted digital.
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In addition, if the subscriber has activated certain facilities, possibly a minimum signalling dependency is also required. Possible signalling dependencies are: any; digital mandatory; ISDN signalling preferred; ISDN signalling mandatory; ISUP signalling mandatory. Hence, when a call is outgoing and a trunk has to be selected, it is possible that not all the trunkgroups can be used, if they do not support the minimum bearer capability or signalling dependency. Therefor a restriction has to be built in to the trunk search mechanism. Observe the following figure.

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Figure 204 : Definition of trunkgroup combination lists and trunkgroup combinations

trunkgroup Characteristics 4 5 6 ISUP Digital transmission ISUP Analogue transmission R2 Analogue transmission tkgcom AC3 Exch C

6 5 4 Exch A
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tkgcom AC1 trunkgroups 3 tkgcom AC2 tkgcom AB2 tkgcom AB3

2 1 trunkgroup Characteristics 1 2 3 ISUP Digital transmission TUP Analogue transmission R2 Analogue transmission

Exch B

tkgcom AB1

Routingblock to Exchange B : BC Speech , Audio Digital Speech , Audio Digital Speech , Audio Digital Speech , Audio Digital Sign. System any any digital signalling digital signalling ISUP preferred ISUP preferred ISUP mandatory ISUP mandatory subrouteblock subroutingblock 3 subroutingblock1 subroutingblock 2 subroutingblock 1 subroutingblock 2 subroutingblock 1 subroutingblock 4 subroutingblock 1 Route AB tkgcom AB3 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AB2 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AB2 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AB1 Route AC tkgcom AC3 tkgcom AC1 tkgcom AC2 tkgcom AC1 tkgcom AC2 tkgcom AC1 tkgcom AC2 tkgcom AC1

In the route AB there are three trunkgroups: trunkgroup 1 (ISUP signalling); trunkgroup 2 (TUP signalling);

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trunkgroup 3 (R2 signalling). Suppose that you need a trunk from exchange A to exchange B. If a bearer capability of digital and a signalling dependency of ISUP mandatory is requested, then only a trunk of trunkgroup 1 can be selected. If however a bearer capability of speech and a signalling dependency of ISDN preferred is requested, then both trunkgroups 1 and 2 comply. So based on the required bearer capability and signalling dependency, a subset of the trunkgroups from a route can be declared. This subset is called a trunkgroup combination.
Note : Let us abbreviate trunkgroup combination to TKGCOM.

e. Subroutingblock In figure 205 you can see three exchanges. For a particular call from exchange A it may be possible that both a trunk via exchange B or a trunk via exchange C can be selected. The collection of trunkgroup combinations that lead to the correct destination is called a subroutingblock. The definition of a subroutingblock is important for the routing of a call, since it only contains trunks that (eventually) lead to the correct destination. The definition of a subroutingblock also guarantees that it only contains trunks that comply with a particular bearer capability and a signalling dependency.
Note : Let us abbreviate subroutingblock to SRTGBL.

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f. Routingblock The collection of all the trunkgroups that (possibly) lead to the correct destination, is called a routingblock. This destination does not have to be an adjacent exchange.
Note : Remark that the definition of a routingblock does not indicate any dependency. It only indicates the routing of a call.

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Figure 205 : Routingblock Route

Exch C

Route AC Exch A Exch D

Route AB

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Exch B

In Exchange A :

RoutingBlock 1 2 3

Destination Exch B Exch C Exch D

Routes Route AB + Route AC + Route AB + Route AC Route AB Route AC

The table in figure 205 gives an overview of all the routingblocks, defined in exchange A. We see that exchange A is not connected to exchange D, yet we define a routingblock to that exchange D (routingblock 3). If we want to set up a call to exchange D, we can select route AB or route AC, because exchange D is reachable through exchange B or exchange C. A routingblock is identified with a routingcode. For outgoing calls, PATED translates the dialled digits into a routingcode, which is used to select a free trunk to reach the correct exchange. When PATED gives a routingcode, the restrictions for bearer capability and signalling dependency have to be built in. We call this the routingcode modulation. The result is a subroutingblock.
Note : Let us abbreviate routingblock to RTGBL.

g. Trunkgroup combination list In the previous chapters we collected the trunkgroup combinations that lead to the same destination into a subroutingblock. If you require traffic distribution over the trunkgroup combinations is required, or if you require overflow possibilities, you can

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define a step in between the subroutingblock and the trunkgroup combinations: the trunkgroup combination list. Observe the following example: Figure 206 : Example of trunkgroup combination lists Exch B

50% Exch C 30% 20% Exch D overflow choice 50% Exch E 50% Exch F first choice

Exch A

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The first choice is via exchanges B, C or D, with a respective traffic distribution of 50%, 30% and 20%. The overflow choice is via exchanges E or F, with a traffic distribution of 50% and 50%. The result is the following hierarchy:
Note : Let us abbreviate trunkgroup combination list to TKGCOML.

Figure 207 : Routing hierarchy with trunkgroup combination lists SRTGBL first choice overflow choice TKGCOML_1 50% TKGCOM_1 30% TKGCOM_2 20% TKGCOM_3 TKGCOML_2 50% TKGCOM_4 50% TKGCOM_5

Trunkgroup combination lists are optional in the routing hierarchy ! h. Distribution group If in a country several carriers operate the telephone network, it is possible that to reach a certain destination, the traffic has to be distributed between these carriers. These carriers have defined complete subroutingblocks. As a result the traffic

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distribution has to be defined between the routingblock (indication of the destination) and the subroutingblocks. Therefore distribution groups have been defined. A distribution group contains a number of subroutingblocks, each corresponding with a particular carrier, and indicates the traffic distribution values between them. Distribution groups are optional in the routing hierarchy !
Note : Let us abbreviate distribution group to DISTRG

i. Routing hierarchy Figure 208 : Routing hierarchy RTGBL

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distrg needed? N SUBRTGBL

Y DISTRG

tkgcoml needed? ROUTE N

Y TKGCOML

TKGCOM

TKG

TK j. FMMs involved There are three FMMs involved in the selection of a trunk. Trunk Request Coordinator (TRC) : responsible for the routingcode modulation, the selection of a trunkgroup combination and the selection of a trunkgroup within that trunkgroup combination. The selected trunkgroup identity is sent to the next FMM,

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the Trunk Resource Allocator (TRA). The TRC is located in the same CE as CFCS, i.e. in each SCALSV. Trunk Resource Allocator (TRA) : selects a DTM with free trunks belonging to the requested trunkgroup. The LCEIdentity of the selected DTM is sent back to CFCS. Also the Device Interworking Data is retrieved here (see figure 209). All TRAs in an online exchange are located in dedicated CEs called SACETRA. The Trunk Circuit Device Handler (TC DH FMM) : selects a free trunk belonging to the requested trunkgroup and establishes a UCP towards the DH of the incoming side (SMD FMM or TC DH FMM) Figure 209 : Trunk selection Prefix BC

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PATED
Routingcode

CFCS
Sign.Type

TRC
Trunkgroupcombination Trunk group

TRA

DTMid DIDdata

REMARK: The inputs indicate information, so these arrows are no messages.

3.4.11 Device Interworking Data


Apart from the selection of a free and compatible trunk, another very important task remains . to be done : retrieval of the Device Interworking Data (DID) The DID is a task map describing all necessary tasks to connect the originating device (calling subscriber or incoming trunk) to the selected terminating device (outgoing trunk or terminating subscriber).

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The originating device is identified by the subscriber group identity in the case of an originating subscriber or by the trunkgroup number in the case of an incoming call. The data is retrieved by the TRA FMM and sent back to CFCS. The Device Interworking Data are subdivided into:
-

incoming tasks: these tasks are executed by the incoming signalling. Examples: new value for interdigit timeout; send a callinprogress tone to the incoming device.

outgoing tasks: these tasks are executed by the outgoing signalling. Examples: digit forward sending point; digit preparation;

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calling line identification restriction; moment of through connection (upon address complete, upon answer,...).
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common tasks: these comprise additional tasks or call control. Examples: perform charging or not.

3.4.12 Private Access Resource Management (PARM)


So far, we have discussed two types of called devices :
-

Subscriber lines : In this case LSIF is called to translate the called DN into the EN of the called subscriber. Outgoing trunks : Here, we call the Trunk Search FMMs is called to select an outgoing trunk to the correct destination.

In this chapter we will discuss a third type of called device : The Private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX). A PABX is a switching network, located on the customers premises, serving a number of extensions. It is connected to the public exchange by means of a number of lines (Analogue or BA) and/or a number of trunk connections (Analogue trunks, Digital CAStrunks or PRAs). Figure 210 gives an overview of a few PABX types.
-

PABX without indialling : The PABX is identified by means of the General Directory Number (GDN) . For a call to this GDN, we have to select a free access towards the

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PABX. The process of selecting a free access is called hunting. Inside the PABX, the call is routed to an attendant . This person is responsible for routing assistance. The attendant can establish a further through connection between the incoming call and the . The extensions are invisible to the public exchange. desired PABX extension
-

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PABX with indialling : In such a PABX, the extensions can be reached immediately from the public exchange. Apart from the GDN, we assign a DDI range (Direct Dialling In range) to the PABX. In the figure the DDI range is from 00 to 99. Each number inside this DDI range corresponds to one extension. To identify an extension in the public network, we take a Prefix value, assigned to the PABX, in combination with the extension number. In the example the PABX prefix is 24037. To reach extension 69, the DN = 2403769 has to be dialled. The signalling towards the PABX must contain at least the dialled extension number. This is used to establish a connection inside the PABX towards the correct extension. In the public exchange, hunting is based on the dialled prefix, not on the GDN. In such a case the GDN is only needed to uniquely identify the PABX. Hunt group : We can also group a number of individual lines into a hunt group. This hunt group is also identified via a GDN. A call towards this GDN will give a hunting over the lines. Each line is also assigned an individual DN (IDN) . A call towards this individual DN is also possible, but in this case no hunting is involved.

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Figure 210 : PABX types

PABX without indialling :

Attendant

Call routed to attendant

PABX
(GDN = 2403600)

. . .

Hunting on GDN
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PABX with indialling :

00 Attendant 01 Call routed to extension 02

PABX
(GDN = 2403700)

. . .
99

Hunting on prefix 24037

Huntgroup :
IDN1 = 2403801 IDN2 = 2404523 IDN3 = 240 2534

Hunting on GDN = 2403800

In System 12, the Private Access Resource Manager (PARM) is responsible for the hunting process and the class provision of PABXs or hunt groups. PARM is located in a dedicated System ACE, working in Active/Standby mode. Following tasks have to be executed :

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a. Class provision All classes (originating as well as terminating) of PABXs, hunt groups or citylines are stored in the system ACE where PARM is located. PARM is responsible for the retrieval of these classes for originating and terminating calls. Figure 213 shows the retrieval of classes. Figure 211 : Class provision A. Originating calls.

TN

OLCOS

DNET,DNEU

LSIF

PABXId

PARM

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Originating classes B. Terminating Calls.

Remaining digits PABXId

Prefix digits

PATED

DNET

LSIF

PARM

Terminating classes Restriction match b. Hunting In the case of a terminating call towards a PABX or hunt group, PARM selects a free access towards the PABX. Figure 214 gives an overview.

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Figure 212 : Hunting Hunt Id. (Derived from PABXId)

Signalling System BC Hunt group Modulation Reduced Hunting

Hunting Subgroup block

Hunting Subgroup block

Hunting Subgroup block

LineGroup
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TrunkGroup

EN

EN

DTMId

DTMId

First of all, the Hunt Identity has to be defined. This hunt identity is derived from the PABX identity. It can be compared with a RouteCode identity in the case of trunk search (see TRCTRA). The hunt identity defines a HuntGroupBlock. Each Hunt group block is further subdivided into Hunting Subgroup blocks. The selection of a subgroup block depends on : The Hunt Identity The required Bearer Capability The required signalling system A Reduced Hunting indication. In the case of reduced hunting, we will only select free accesses from a subset of all available accesses. This can be useful during low traffic periods, when only a few lines of a hunt group are being served. This selection process is almost identical to the Route code Modulation used in Trunk Search. Each hunting subgroup block consists of a number of line groups and/or trunkgroups. A line group consists of a number of individual lines (analogue or BA) having the same characteristics. A trunkgroup was already been defined in the chapter on trunk search. In the case of a line group, the hunting procedure will select a free line belonging to that group. This line is identified by its EN.

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In the case of a trunkgroup, PARM selects a DTM with free trunks belonging to the selected trunkgroup. The selection of a free trunk within this DTM is left to the TC DH FMM. c. Queue service If all accesses towards a PABX or hunt group are busy, it is possible exists to queue a call until an access becomes free. This process of queuing is done by the PARM FMM. Whenever a line or trunk towards a PABX/hunt group becomes free, the DH informs PARM. Here, the queue is checked. If there is a call on the queue, it will be offered to this access.

3.4.13 Physical mapping of the software onto control elements


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Figure 213 : Physical mapping of the software onto control elements

SCALSV
PATED TRC ARTA TRA CFCS

SACETRA

ASSS_ASIG

... _ASIG

LSIF

PARM

SACELSIF

SACEPBX

ASSS_TSIG

ISSS

... _TSIG

RSIG

SMD FMM

SMD FMM

TC DH FMM

SC DH FMM


HARDWARE HARDWARE HARDWARE HARDWARE

LCRC DH SSM

LCRC DH SSM

TC DH SSM

SC DH SSM

ASM

ISM

DTM

SCM

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4. 1000 S12 EXCHANGE CONFIGURATION


4.1 Input/Output exchange devices
From the administrator point of view, access to Alcatel 1000 S12 is provided by a set of I/O interfaces which provide a set of tools to maintain and operate the exchange. This administration device can be split into the following two groups: ManMachine Communication and Mass Storage. The ManMachine communication (MMC) devices are basically VDUs and printers. The VDUs can be system specific VDUs or PCs on which VDU simulation programs are executed. Their main objective is to control the whole exchange by entering the proper orders (Operator Request Jobs). Both VDUs and printers are used to dump autonomous system reports and ORJ reply reports.
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These devices are connected to the P&L modules by serial channels 1200 b/s using the DMCA PBA or, 9600 b/s using the MMCA PBA. After the activation procedure, each of these connections is named MMC channel. Figure 214 : Man Machine Communication devices
VDU & PCs

Serial Lines EXCHANGE

PRINTERS

On the other hand, there are also mass storage devices. These devices are used to store the software and the data of the exchange as well as statistical and charging data which are very useful for the administration of the exchange. It is important to note that the size of the exchange is sometimes small and the quantity of required data large. In such cases, the new data is transmitted to a remote center (NSC, EDPC..), where it is processed.

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The mass storage devices are mainly the Magnetic Tape Unit, the Magnetic Disk and the Optical Disk. The Magnetic Tape is the most commonly used device with large capacity and sequential access. The digital recording is carried out by using a plastic tape covered with a layer of magnetic liquid. This magnetic tape is moved by two reels and the data is read/written by a R/W head. On the other hand, magnetic disk memories are large capacity memories with a lower cost than random access memories. A disk is made of metal coated with a ferromagnetic material, and rotating under one or more read/write heads. The reading and writing principle is the same as for magnetic tape. These hard disks have an embedded controller that performs all address calculating and address translating functions, as well as driving functions of the hard disk. To the outside world, the hard disk looks like a SCSI device. The hard disks support reselection, which means that they can act as an initiator in an SCSI environment.
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The rewritable optical disk combines the advantages of two capacity worlds: the medium and the high. It ranges in the order of 600 MB. The information carrying medium of an optical disk is a 5.25 cassette that contains a compact disk (CD). This CD consists of an alloy of transition and rareearth materials. The alloy can be magnetized only when it is hot, but it keeps its magnetic field when it is cool. Therefore, the writing principle of the optical disk consists of a laser heating up the spot to be written just before the head of the optical disk writes the information in a magnetic way. The reading is based on the laser scanning the disks surface and detecting any difference in the angle of reflection caused by upward or downward pointing magnetic fields. So the read write principle of the optical disk is in fact a magnetooptical principle. The optical disk used in A100S12 is equipped with an embedded SCSI controller. This controller handles all the driving functions for the optical disk, and makes it look like an ordinary SCSI device to the outside world. The most common specifications of optical disk are 652 MB of capacity and 1.4 MB per seconds as transfer rate (at SCSI interface). This optical disk might be used as system disk instead of the magnetic disk, but it presents two problems at the moment: first, the writing/reading operations are performed in a sequential way, therefore the data access time is slower than for the magnetic disk, and second, the writing towards the optical disk is limited. There are other special I/O devices such as MPTMON (Multiprocessor Test Monitor). This terminal is mainly used for integration tests, although it is also useful for other purposes such as installation and maintenance. It may be a specific VDU or one PC running the suitable simulation program. In any case, the terminal is connected to the associated CE via a serial line. The CE is called PTCE (Permanent Test Control Element). This CE contains the software necessary to carry out its functions (e.g. access to target CEs, debugging of programs, message traces, etc...). The

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results are displayed on the screen for further analysis. The software located in this CE provides access to the target CE memory as well. Figure 215 : MPTMON architecture ACE

LTCE

TTCE DSN PLTCE

PTCE

MPTMON VDU OR PC

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4.2 Control Elements

4.2.1 Control element configurations


As seen in the previous chapters, the A1000 S12 control is distributed among the exchange processors. These processors are located in different modules, each of them performing a specific function in the system. The function of a particular module may be critical to the whole system operation, therefore it must be replaced immediately after a malfunction. On the other hand, the replacement of CEs that perform non critical functions may be delayed. Taking this fact into account, the system modules will work in different modes: a. Simplex For CEs with non critical functions. Only one module is equipped to control a cluster. b. Active/Hot standby The module function is critical to the system operation and one pair of modules must be equipped. The two modules work in parallel and provide exactly the same output. A specific device must at all times select one of the two outputs. c. Active/standby The module function is critical, but the pair of modules do not work in parallel. The standby module collects the output information from the active one in order to update its own data so that it is ready to take over in case of failure of the active one. The updating refers only to the data, since the complete set of programs are stored in its memory.

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d. Load sharing The functions will be shared among several modules that form a group. When requested, one of the modules in the group performs the function. This way, the failure of one of the modules simply increases the work load of the others. e. Spare If another CE goes off line, then a spare CE can be loaded with the correct GLS, DLS and PLS to take over from the malfunctioning CE. The take over should be defined in database (per CE). f. Crossover In this case, two CEs are able to reach two different clusters via hardware links. Each CE is assigned to control one of the two clusters but, in case of failure of one of them, the other CE takes the control of both clusters. This CE simply increases its work load. The cluster data is updated in both CEs, but only the software functions that are in a stable phase can be taken over when the control switch is produced (i.e. only calls in a stable state are maintained).

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4.2.2 Terminal Control Elements (TCEs)


The TCEs are CEs which control a cluster (lines, trunks, etc.). The main TCE names and functions are described below: a. Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM) The associated TCE is named JLTCE. This TCE can handle up to 128 analogue subscribers having an average traffic flow of 0,275 E per line. These modules work in Crossover. b. ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM) The associated TCE is named ISMTCE. This CE can handle up to 64 basic accesses, having a total traffic flow of 35,2 E, or an average flow of 0,275 E per B channel. These modules work in Crossover. The equipped OBC is known as ISMOBC. c. IRSU Interface Module (IRSUIM) The associated TCE is named IRSUIMTCE and, connected to a set of IRSUs in multidrop, handles up to 8 mixed analog/ISDN subscriber IRSUs. These TCEs work in Crossover mode. The maximum number of subscribers to be handled by a pair of IRSUIMTCEs is 1024 analogue lines, 512 digital or a combination. The equipped OBC is known as IRSUOBC. d. Digital Trunk Module Low (DTML) The name of the TCEs associated with these modules depends on the kind of signalling to be handled. For example:

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. DCASTCE: For CAS signalling. . DISUPTCE: For N7ISUP (the N7 ISUP user is handled by this module, but the signalling link is handled by the DTM High modules). These modules work in Simplex mode. e. Improved Service Circuit Module (ISCM) The associated TCE name depends on the MF signalling system to be handled and on the supported simplified conference bridge. Two common types of modules are: . ISVCEA: To control 32 MFC R2 or DTMF. . ISVCEB: To control 16 MFC R2 or DTMF, and 6 SCB. In case of handling 32 MF signalling inputs, the overall maximum traffic flow supported is 22,8 E; however, if only 16 inputs are handled, the traffic flow becomes 9,5 E. These CEs work in Load sharing mode, having one CE group for each signalling type. The equipped OBC is known as ISVOBC. f. Digital Announcement Module (DIAM) The associated TCE is named DIAMTCE and provides up to 58 simultaneous announcements that are distributed through the DSN or the tone PCM link. These modules work in Load sharing mode. The associated OBC is known as DIAMOBC. g. Digital Trunk Module High (DTMH) This module performs, among others, the analysis of the digital signalling protocols, up to four inputs in parallel (i.e. N7 MTP part, X.25, etc.) and, sometimes, the typical functions of the DTM Low. The module is also called IPTM (Integrated Packet Trunk Module). The associated TCE name depends on the protocol to be handled: . IPTMN7 . IPTMU . IPTMN . IPTMX25 : : : : For N7 signalling (with IPTMN7OBC). For Primary Rate Access (with IPTMUOBC). As Protocol Handler Interface ETSI PSN access Case A or B (with IPTMNOBC). To act as a X.25 DTE in the exchange connection to a EDPC (with IPTMX25OBC).

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The analysis capacity of this module is 400500 messages/s and 300400 frames/s. These modules work in Load sharing mode.

4.2.3 System Control Elements


The System Control Elements are CEs always equipped in every exchange. These are:

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a. Peripheral and Load (P&L) These modules cover the main functions related to the system initialisation, the CEs and OBCs downloading, backup data, etc.. They handle the rack alarms and the master panel for alarms. The associated processor is named PLADMCE. Two PLADMCEs, working in Active/Stand by mode, are always equipped in every exchange. b. Clock and Tones (C&T) It generates and distributes the master clock towards every exchange CE and Switch in the DSN. It also generates and distributes the tones towards every TI. The processor is named CTCE. Two CTCEs, working in Active/Hot Stand by mode, are always implemented in every exchange.
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c. Monitor Module (MONI) It provides a set of features in order to perform different management and test functions. The associated CE is named MONI (or PTCE). Usually, one MONI working in Simplex mode is equipped per exchange. d. Improved Trunk Testing Module (ITTM) It provides trunk testing facilities. The associated processor is known as ITTMTCE, and its OBC as ITTMOBC. Usually, one ITTMTCE, working in Simplex mode, is equipped per exchange.

4.2.4 Auxiliary Control Elements


The ACEs contain centralized software and data, and perform support functions for the TCEs. Actually, all the ACEs are implemented with a 80386 or a compatible processor and 8 MB RAMs. The main functions performed by the ACEs are: Call Services, PBX and Charging data storage, Exchange Defense, Operation & Maintenance remote software, N7 management, Data Collection and Trunk Resource Management, Intelligent Network and OSI Stack handling. Each group of functions are stored on several ACEs named as follows: a. Defense ACE (DFCE) These ACEs work in Active/StandBy mode. There is one pair per exchange. The pair performs the following function: Exchange defense (failure gathering, report analysis and defense procedure triggering)

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b. System ACE for Call Services (SCALSV) These ACEs work in load sharing and perform the following functions related to Call Handling: Prefix Analysis and Task Element Definition (PATED) Call and Facility Control System (CFCS) Charging analysis (CHAN and CGC) Trunk request coordination (TRC). Auxiliary Resource Allocation (ARTA) Figure 216 : SCALSV configuration

loadsharing
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LSSG_1

SCALSV1

SCALSV2

SCALSV3

SCALSV4

c. System ACE for Subscriber Analysis (SACELSIF) The SACELSIF handles the subscriber analysis function. It contains the static and dynamic subscriber data. The SACELSIF works in active/standby pairs. There may be a number of these pairs per exchange, depending on the number of subscribers. The SACELSIF pair is determined by the DNET of the subscriber that has to be analysed. Figure 217 : SACELSIF configuration active standby

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LSSG_2

SCALSV5

SCALSV6

SCALSV7

LSSG_3

SCALSV8

SCALSV9

SCALSV10

DNET

active

standby

active

standby

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d. System ACE for PABX Resource Management (SACEPBX) The SACEBPX handles the PABX resource management. It contains the PABX data, which is managed by the PARM FMM. The ACE works in active/standby configuration. Since there could be a large number of PABXs, there may be a number of ACE pairs. The correct pair is determined by the PABX identity. Figure 218 : SACEPBX configuration active standby

PABX_id

active

standby

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active

standby

e. System ACE for Administration (SACEADM) The SACEADM handles the administrative function of the exchange. Amongst others it receives the measurements data from the LDCs. There is one SACEADM pair per exchange, working in active/standby configuration. f. System ACE for Charging (SACECHRG) The SACECHRG handles: meter count collection (MCC): the bulk counters are stored and updated in the memory of this ACE and saved on disk at fixed intervals automatic message accounting (AMA): the detailed billing information is kept in memory and saved on disk at fixed intervals local tax layouting (LTL). The SACECHRG works in active/standby pairs. Each pair serves a dedicated number of lines. g. System ACE for Local Data Collection (SACELDC) The SACELDC handles the local data collection (LDC). This implies the collection of all call handling events, such as a seizure, a call release and prefix analysis. With these events local counters are updated. h. System ACE for Trunk Resource Allocation (SACETRA) The SACETRA handles the trunk resource allocation (TRA) function. This ACE works in a very special and unique configuration: if traffic measurements indicate that N ACEs

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are needed, then one extra ACE is equipped. We therefore call this an N+1 configuration. The spare SACETRA is a hotspare ACE: it already contains the correct software; it only has to initialise its data when it has to take over from one of the other SACETRAs. i. System ACE for Intelligent Network (SACEIN) These ACEs work in load sharing mode. They perform the SSP functions in the IN. j. System ACE for OSI Stack (SACEOSI) These ACEs work in load sharing mode. They provide the OSI Stack interface for the CEs that need to transfer data to the EDPC via X.25. k. System ACE for CCS N7 (and OMUP) (SACEN7 and SACEN7O) The SACEN7 handles the CCS N7 network functions. If also the Operations and Maintenance User Part (OMUP) is equipped, the ACE is called the SACEN7O. There is one pair of these ACEs (if required). The pair works in active/standby mode. l. Spare On the other hand, some ACEs that have no specific function assigned, are equipped in every exchange. These ACEs are named SPARE. Their main function is to take over the functions of any other ACE in case of failure. m. Special configurations Depending on the size of the exchange and the type of traffic it handles, a number of ACE functions can be combined into one ACE, or can be unbundled. Some examples: the SCALSV can be unbundled into a specific SCALSV for lines (SCALSVL) and a specific SCALSV for trunks (SCALSVT); the IN function (SACEIN) and the OSI function (SACEOSI) can be bundled into the SINOSI; the defense function (DFCE) and the CCS N7 function (SACEN7O) can be bundled into the DFN7OCE; the PARM function (SACEPBX) and the charging function (SACECHRG) can be combined into the SACEPBCH.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4.3 Software principles and organisation


In the previous chapters we have seen that the system software is composed of application programs, called FMMs or SSMs, and of support software, such as the Operating System and the Data Base Management System software. These programs are classified into

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resident programs, memory resident because they are frequently run; and overlay programs, which are loaded into memory from disk when required. On the other hand, we can find different kinds of data: the data related to the program code (data segment) and the data belonging to the actual database. In summary, the complete system software can be said to consist of programs and data.

4.3.1 Programs and data on mass storage media


When the SW is produced, the final result is a system magnetic tape or a system optical disk. At system initialization, all the information (programs and data) must be transferred to the system from this tape or optical disk. In order to organize the system SW on this mass storage devices, it will be necessary to define a set of files according to the system structure. There is a set of files that form the so called GENERIC LOAD SEGMENT (GLS) which contain the resident programs (code and data segment) for a certain CE. Other files contain pieces of database data that are related to a certain microprocessor and form the DATA LOAD SEGMENT (DLS). On the other hand, the PLS (PATCH LOAD SEGMENT) is a code file containing a set of patches to be loaded into a CE, together with the GLS. This set of patches is produced to improve or correct the original software included in the GLS, once this GLS has been produced. As said before, a GLS contains the set of programs that are associated to a CE. Therefore, all the CEs that have the same function will have the same set of programs, i.e., the same GLS. For example, let us think about the JLTCEs (Jrack Line TCEs). All the line TCEs will have the same GLS and therefore, only one JLTCE GLS will be stored on disk. The same reasoning applies to the PLS. Regarding the DLS, the situation is different. A certain CE will only have in storage those pieces of database data that it uses. In the previous example, one given JLTCE will have in storage the data specific to the subscriber lines that it controls (directory numbers, telephone set types, etc.). There is one more set of files that contain the overlay programs. These files are named GENERIC OVERLAY SEGMENT (GOS) . Each GOS contains the code and its patches, together with the associated code data, for a specific overlay program.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4.3.2 Memory organization


Every CE memory is organized by splitting it up into several functional areas. This is done by assigning different addresses and sizes for different memory contents, i.e., by mapping the memory. The memory map is then provided to the Operating System allowing it to optimally manage the CE memory resources.

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The resident programs (resident related FMMs, all related SSMs, required part of the Operating System and of the Data Base Management System) are contained in the GLS, together with their associated data segments. These programs are permanently loaded into a fixed area of the CE memory assigned to them. As said before, there is a set of patches (the CE PLS) associated with the resident programs. These patches are also loaded into a fixed memory area. The pieces of database data related to a CE make up the its own DLS. The DLS varies for the different system CEs, since they all contain different data, however, the DLS size and structure is identical for all the CEs of the same type. This data is permanently stored in a fixed memory area reserved for this purpose. Another memory area is reserved for loading the overlay programs when required. The size of this area is defined as a function of the overlay programs that must be concurrently executed in the CE in question.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Furthermore, there are other memory mapped areas that are reserved for different purposes. For example, one area will contain the message buffers, another one the user buffers and process stack segments, a third one the TI PRAM, etc. Figure 219 : Simplified memory layout
PATCHES AREA DATABASE AREA OVERLAY RESERVED AREA DATA SEGMENT AREA

CODE SEGMENT AREA

USER BUFFER AND STACK AREA BUFFER MESSAGE AREA ROM AREA

4.3.3 CE logical and physical identities


The complete set of functions to be performed by the system are distributed among all the CEs. Using the TREX example seen in the previous chapter, we can see that the analogue subscriber connections are performed by twelve JLTCEs, the call control service functions by two SCALSVs, the defence functions by two DFN7OCEs, the MF analysis and generation by four ISVCEs, etc. Moreover, within every functional set of CEs, each CE has a specific function: each JLTCE supports 128 particular subscribers, one of the two DFN7OCE is active while the other one

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is in standby, etc. According each function is identified by a number called Logical Identity. A particular Logical Identity is related to a particular function and, therefore, associated with the exchange CE that performs this function. On the other hand, every system CE is connected to a particular point of the DSN, i.e., every CE is at a permanent location defined by the coordinates W, X, Y, and Z. This set of coordinates is called CE Network Address or Physical Identity. The relationships between the logical and physical identities of the CEs are defined by the configuration data. At system initialization, a basic configuration data set (provided for every exchange in the system tape or optical disk) drives both P&Ls to download the CEs, and thus, assign the logical and physical identities for every CE. These relationships between both identities must be stored in all CEs, and updated when necessary since they will change throughout service life of the exchange. Let us see two examples. First, when a SCALSV fails it can be substituted by the SPARE one. In this situation, the logical identity of the first ACE will be linked to the physical identity of the SPARE, once the latter has been loaded with the SCALSV GLS, DLS, and PLS from disk. Secondly, lets take two JLTCEs connected in Xover. If one of these two JLTCEs fails, its logical identity will be assigned to its mate which will then have two logical identities : its own plus that of the faulty JLTCE.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4.4 JRack family


In the A1000 S12 system exchange implementation, up to seven different rack types are used: the JFamily Rackset. Each of these rack types can contain a fixed number of modules with their related PBAs. However there is no relation between the rack type and the type of modules inserted in it. A variable module means that different type of modules can be inserted in the same position within the rack. Each rack layout is flexible, allowing different rack contents to be defined for different exchanges. To cope with all this, four variable modules are defined: the V01M, V02M, V03M, and V04M . In the rack documents the PBA positions are indicated as follows: VnnMCxx or VnnMTxx nn = variant type (01, .., 04) xx = numbering within the rack C = CE position (MCUA,...) T = Terminal position (ALCN, DTRI, ...) The V01M module type defines all modules composed of only one PBA (i. e. the ACEs MCUB PBA). The V02M module type includes all modules composed of two PBAs (i.e. the IPTM MCUB+DTRI PBAs). The V03M includes those modules that have up to eight cluster PBAs (i.e. the ASM MCUA/E+ 8 ALCN PBAs).

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On the other hand, the DIAM module is a special case, that can be only equipped into defined locations in some of the racks. Thus, a fourth variable module type is defined, the V04M one, which covers all the twoPBA modules as well as the DIAM one. Inside a rack, when an slot is defined to equipped a V02 module, also any V01 module may be equipped into that slot. The following table shows some of the major module groups. Figure 220 : Variable modules Module Auxiliary Control Element (ACE) Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM) High Digital Trunk Module (DTMH) Low Digital Trunk Module (DTML) ISDN RSU Interface Module (IRIM) Improve Service Circuit Module (ISCM) ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM) Control MCUB MCUA/E MCUB DTUA/E MCUB MCUA/E MCUB Cluster ALCN DTRI DTRF/H DSPA ISTA/B/C V01 V02 V03 x x x x x x x x x x x x x V04 x

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

An exception to the previous grouping are the system modules: the PLADMCE, the CTCE, the DFN7OCE, the MONI, and the ITTMTCE, which are always equipped in fixed positions in the JF00 rack. The following table shows the different rack types in the JFamily, and the corresponding module type provisioning and switch PBAs included in it (Access Switch and Group Switch stages 1, 2, and 3). The full rack capacity is considered. Figure 221 : Rack Types
Rack V01 Type JF00 JA00 JB00 JH00 JH01 JJ00 JJ01 4 6 80 20 54 40 2 12 8 18 48 18 10 6 8 10 9 1 2 2 1 2 6 10 10 32 22 22 16 V02 V03 V04 ACE PTCE C&T P&L TTM DEF AS DSN GS 1/2 32 32 GS 3

32 64

As an example, the JF00 rack type can be taken. The following figure shows its simplified rack layout. Notice the fixed PBA locations for the DFN70CE?, PLADMCE, CTCE, MONI, and ITTMTCE.

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PBAs in black represent the SWITCH PBAs. MCUB slots have to be equipped with the system ACEs (no V01M modules), and MCUX slots identifies the slot for a MCUA or MCUB PBA. MDS represents the Magnetic Disk System.

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Figure 222 : JF00 simplified rack layout

JF00

16 SWITCH PBAs

16 SWITCH PBAs

MCUB V02

V02 V01

V02 MCUB V01 V02 MCUB MCUB

control PBA

control PBA

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

V03 cluster

V03 cluster

DEF PLCE MONI MCUB

V02 PLCE

DEF MCUX MCUB

V02

MCUB CTCE VO1 CTCE VO1

MCUB

MDS

MDS

ITTMTCE

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4.5 Training Exchange (TREX)


At this point, it is useful to have a look at the equipment of a real exchange and its implementation in different racks. This exchange will be called Training Exchange (TREX). The exchange has to provide services in the following environment:
-

1536 analogue subscriber lines 512 ISDN Basic Accesses 2 ISDN Primary Rate Accesses 1 multidrop IRSU link 180 CASR2 Trunks (Route1) to exchange A 60 CASR2 Trunks (Route2) to exchange B 120 ISUP Trunks (Route3) to exchange C X.25 PSN 2 Mb/s digital link (via Protocol Handler Interface) Figure 223 : Training Exchange environment
LOCAL CONNECTIONS IPBAX 1 PRA 180 Trunks EXCHANGE A REMOTE CONNECTIONS

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1 ALCATEL1000 S12 1 IRSU 2 60 Trunks EXCHANGE ROUTE1 CAS R2 EXCH. B

PCM

ROUTE2 CAS R2

EXCHANGE C 120 Trunks

512

BAs

ROUTE3 N7ISUP PSNNODE PHI

ANALOG 1

1536

According to the dimensioning rules, the types and the number of the different modules required for the exchange are:

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12 analogue line modules ( 12 modules * 128 lines/module = 1536 lines) 8 ISDN line modules ( 8 modules * 64 lines/module = 512 lines) 8 DCASTCER2 modules ( 8 modules * 30 trunks = 240 trunks). To handle MF signalling, 4 ISVCE modules are equipped. 2 DISUP plus 2 IPTMN7 modules ( 4 modules * 30 trunks/module = 120 trunks). The N7 signalling is handled by both IPTMN7. 1 IPTMX25 to perform the DTE functions 1 IPTMN to link with the PSN using Case A or B ETSI scenarios 2 IPTMU (one module per PRA link) 2 IRSUIM (two PCM links towards one multidrop) 2 P&L, 2 C&T (system modules) Requried System ACEs Other modules. Figure 224 : TREX spider diagram
2 DIAM 4 ISVCE 1 1 MONI SPARE SACEs 10 SLDCTRA (2) SACEPBCH (2) SINOSI (2) DFN70CE(2) SCALSV (2) 12

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2 IPTMN7 DSN DISUPTCE

JLTCE

ISMTCE 1 ITTM

2 DCASTCE 2 8 IPTMU IPTMN 1 IPTM X.25 1 2 IRSUIMTCE 2 CTCE 2 PLADMCE

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As we will see later on, all these modules are distributed into 10 TSUs, which are connected to the planes using 3 Group Switches in the first stage. Therefore, three TUs and thus, one section must be implemented. Regarding the dimensioning rules, only six switches, in the second stage, and four planes are needed to achieve the traffic goals. Physically, all these modules grouped as TSUs, and the DSN are located in three racks: the JF, the JB, and the JA. Figure 225 : TREX rack contents

JF

JB

JA

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PLANE 0 PLANE 1

PLANE 2 PLANE 3

3 TSUs Analogue lines CAS Trunks


ISUP Trunks

Services P&L C&T ACEs

4 TSUs Analogue lines CAS Trunks ISDN Lines Services Trunk PHI Link X.25 Link PRA IRSU int. iSUP Trunks

3 TSUs ISDN Lines Analogue LInes CAS Trunks

The connection between the multiports for this twostage and fourplane DSN is shown below:

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Figure 226 : DSN architecture


STAGE 1 STAGE 2

0 1 0

8 13

0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1

8 9

15

15 8 9

4 TSUs

0 1

8 1 13 15

15 8 2 9

0 1

8 2 13

7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 3

15 8 9

7 2 TSUs 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

15

15 8 9

PLANE 3

PLANE 2 15 8 9 PLANE 0 15 PLANE 1

4 TSUs

The complete list of TREX CEs is given is the following table. It also includes the CE Network Addresses, the rack type, and the subrack and slot numbers where they are located. The list is sorted by the Network Addresses.

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Figure 227 : TREX CEs (a) NA 0000 0001 0002 0003 0006 0007 000C 000D 000E 0010 0011 0012 0013 0016 0017 001C 001D 001F 0020 0021 0022 0023 0027 002C 002D 002E 002F 0030 0031 0032 0033 0034 0035 003E CE JLTCE JLTCE DIAM DIAM MONI ITTM PLADMCE PLADMCE SCALSV IPTMN7 IPTMU DISUPTCE DISUPTCE SACEPBCH SINOSI CTCE CTCE SCALSV ISVCE ISVCE DCASTCE DCASTCE SPARE DEFN7OCE DEFN7OCE SINOSI SACEPBCH ISMTCE ISMTCE JLTCE JLTCE DCASTCE DCASTCE SLDCTRA RACK TYPE SUBRACK JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JF JB JB JB JB JB JB JB 04 04 06 06 06 08 06 06 06 03 03 07 07 03 03 07 07 07 03 03 03 03 06 06 06 03 03 08 08 07 07 03 03 03 SLOT 01 33 31 63 23 55 13 4 25 11 43 23 55 31 63 17 49 57 25 57 29 61 25 21 53 01 33 13 33 01 45 29 63 01

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Figure 228 : TREX CEs (b) NA 003F 0100 0101 0102 0103 0110 0111 0112 0113 0200 0201 0202 0203 0210 0211 0212 0213 0220 0221 0222 0223 0224 0225 0230 0231 0232 0233 CE SLDCTRA ISMTCE ISMTCE ISMTCE ISMTCE ISMTCE ISMTCE DCASTCE DCASTCE IRSUIM IRSUIM IPTMU IPTMN7 IPTMX25 IPTMN DCASTCE DCASTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE ISVCE ISVCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE RACK TYPE SUBRACK JB JA JA JA JA JA JA JA JA JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JB JA JA JA JA 03 06 06 04 04 03 03 04 04 06 06 04 04 08 07 03 03 06 06 04 04 03 03 08 08 07 07 SLOT 33 19 51 19 51 13 45 31 63 31 63 31 63 03 35 11 43 19 51 19 51 25 57 13 33 01 45

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Next, the structures of the 3 TUs are shown:

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Figure 229 : TU 0 structure


Module 0 1 2 3 6 7 CE

JLTCE JLTCE DIAMTCE DIAMTCE MONI ITTMTCE

Module 0 1 2 3 6 7

CE

IPTMN7 IPTMU DISUPTCE DISUPTCE SACEPBCH SINOSI

JF

Module 0 1 2 3 7

CE

ISVCE ISVCE DCASTCE DCASTCE SPARE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Module 0 1

CE

ISMTCE ISMTCE JLTCE JLTCE DCASTCE DCASTCE

JB

2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 6
0

TU 0 0 1 2
Module 12 13 14 Module 12 13 15 Module 12 13 14 15 CE

PLANES 0 5 0 12 3

PLADMCE PLADMCE SCALSV CE CTCE CTCE SCALSV CE DFN7OCE DFN7OCE SINOSI SACEPBCH

JF

Module 14 15

CE SLDCTRA SLDCTRA

JB

ACCESS SWICTHES

Figure 230 : TU 1 structure


Module 0 1 2 3 CE

TU 1
0

PLANES

ISMTCE ISMTCE ISMTCE ISMTCE

0 1 2

0 2 3 1 0

JA
Module 0 1 2 3 CE

ISMTCE ISMTCE DCASTCE DCASTCE

4 5
ACCESS SWICTHES

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Figure 231 : TU 2 structure


Module 0 1 2 3 CE

TU 2

PLANES 0 1 2 0 5 0 1 2 3

IRSUIMTCE IRSUIMTCE IPTMU IPTMN7

Module 0

CE

IPTMX25 IPTMN DCASTCE DCASTCE

JB

1 2 3

Module 0 1 2

CE

JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE ISVCE ISVCE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

3 4 5

Module 0

CE

JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE

JA

1 2 3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ACCESS SWICTHES

Finally, a simplified rack layout of the exchange is given on the next three figures. Only main PBAs are shown. The Access Switch PBAs are drawn in black.

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Figure 232 : JF rack simplified layout

JF00

SWITCH

SWITCH

13 002E 0010

15

17 0020 ISVCE DCAS 0022

31 0016

33

35 002F 0011

47

49 0021 ISVCE 0023

63 0017

SINOSI

S.PBCH DCAS IPTMU S.PBCH SINOSI 33 29 31 0001 mcua 43 57 61 63 3

IPTMN7

11

25

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

0000 mcua

JLTCE

JLTCE

alcn 1 33

alcn

000C

002C

0006

000E

0002

000D

002D

0027

0003

mcub

DFN70CE MONI

DIAM

DFN70CE mcub SPARE PLADMCE

DIAM 6

PLADMCE

SCALSV 31

13 001C ccla rccb mcub

21

23 0012

25

45 001D ccla rccb mcub

53

55 0013

63 001F

SCALSV 7 DISUP

CTCE

DISUP

CTCE

17

23

49

55 0007 mcua

57

8 MDS MDS ITTMTCE

55

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Figure 233 : JB rack simplified layout

JB00

SWITCH

SWITCH

1 3 003E 0212

17 0224 ISVCE 0034

33 003F 0213

49 0225 ISVCE DCAS DCAS 0035

SLDCTRA DCAS DCAS

SLDCTRA

11 mcua

25 0222

29 0202

33

43

57 0223 mcua

63 0203

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IPTMU JLTCE JLTCE

IPTMN7 4

alcn

alcn

19

31

51

63

0220 mcua

0200 mcua IRSUIM

0221

0201

IRSUIM JLTCE 6

JLTCE

alcn

alcn

19 0032 mcua

31 0211 IPTMN 0033 mcua JLTCE

51

63

JLTCE

alcn 1 0210 IPTMX25 0030 mcub ISMTCE 0031 mcub ISMTCE 45

alcn 35

ista

ista

13

33

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Figure 234 : JA rack simplified layout

JA00

0110

0111

mcub ISMTCE

mcub ISMTCE

ista
13 45 0102 0112

ista

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0103

0113

mcub DCAS ISMTCE

mcub DCAS ISMTCE

ista
19 31

ista
51 63

0100

0101

mcub ISMTCE

mcub ISMTCE

6
ista
19 51 0233

ista

0203

mcua JLTCE

mcua JLTCE

7
alcn

alcn
1 45 0230 0231

mcua JLTCE

mcua JLTCE

8
alcn
13 33

alcn

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4.5.1 Rack alarm gathering


In every rack there are some events, not directly controlled by the Control Elements included in it, which have to be reported to the maintenance software. These events are, for instance, malfunctions in the DC/DC converters, the fuses and the clock and tones distribution. In order to gather all these events from the rack circuitry, a new PBA is provided: the RLMC (Rack aLarM version C). Two of these PBAs are equipped in every rack, and they are associated to two Control Elements. These CE are responsible for managing the reports generated in the RLMC. This alarm board is composed of a group of alarm inputs which are connected to a memory register that stores the occurred events. A DPTC circuit is responsible for the protocol communication with the associated CE, in a similar way as used for the ALCN board of the ASM.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Figure 235 : Simplified RLMC board INPUT ALARMS

REGISTER

RLMC

DPTC

PCM Links

Taking the TREX as example, two RLMC PBAs are equipped in each of the three racks. In the JF00 rack, both PBAs are associated with the PLADMCEs, and in the JB00 and the JA00, the boards are associated with the line modules, as the following figure shows:

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Figure 236 : The RLMC boards in the TREX

JF00
2

JB00
2

JA00
2

4
air baffle

air baffle

air baffle

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JLTCE ISMTCE RLMC PLADMCE RLMC RLMC JLTCE

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5. CALL HANDLING OVERVIEW


5.1 Possible accesses to an exchange
Figure 237 : Incoming/Outgoing accesses

ASM
BA PRA
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ASM ISM DSN IPTM DTM DTM DTM


Nr7 BA PRA
PABX

ISM IPTM DTM DTM DTM

PABX

CAS CAS

CAS CAS Nr7

CALL ORIGINATION
-

CALL TERMINATION

An analogue subscriber telephone set is connected to an exchange via the a and bwire. In chapter 2.3.1 we saw that analogue lines are connected to A1000 S12 via an Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM). An ISDN subscriber is connected via a Basic Access (BA) which is a digital access using two Bchannels and one Dchannel. The BAs are connected to an ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM) An IPABX is connected via 1 or more PRAs which consist of 30 Bchannels and 1 Dchannel. An IPTM (Integrated Packet Trunk Module) can handle a PRA when loaded with the correct software. In general, accesses used for traffic towards PBXs can be of the following types : analogue line basic access PRA channel

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Trunk channel
-

Connections to other exchanges are via trunks (PCM) which can use different signalling systems like No7, R2/CAS, R1, Nr5, ... The drawing below shows a DTM (Digital Trunk Module) as access module. From chapter 2, we know that this can be an DTUA/E for CAS, and an IPTM/DTUB or DTUA/E + IPTM/DTUB/HCCM for No7. Definitions: When both the originating access and the terminating access are subscribers, the call is named a local call. The switching is done within the exchange. When the origination is a subscriber and the dialled digits result in a trunk channel selection, the call is named an outgoing call. When the call enters the exchange via a trunk channel and terminates towards a subscriber, it is named an incoming call. When the call enters via a trunk channel and leaves the exchange towards the next exchange, it is named a transit call.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

5.2 Overview of the call types


During a call setup it is possible that different accesses are combined. Figure 238 gives the overview and can be used for all call types:
-

[1] + [2] in the same exchange = Outgoing Call Examples: Analogue to No7 or MF/R2 trunk. ISDN to No7 or MF/R2 trunk.

[3] + [4] in the same exchange = Incoming Call Examples: No7 or MF/R2 trunk to analogue No7 or MF/R2 trunk to ISDN.

[1] + [4] in the same exchange = Local Call Examples: Analogue to analogue subscriber Analogue to ISDN subscriber and vice versa.

[3] + [2] in the same exchange = Transit Call Examples: No7 to No7 trunk

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MF/R2 to MF/R2 trunk No7 trunk to MF/R2 trunk or vice versa. However in all these cases the scenarios are similar. Most of the differences are related to signalling differences. Figure 238 gives some call possibilities for analogue subscribers and N7 trunks. Figure 238 : Overview Call Types

ACE SCM
1
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IPTM
2

No7

ASM

DSN

IPTM

Originating Exchange Destination Exchange


ACE ASM
4 3

(No7)

STP

IPTM
No7

DSN
The modules perform the following functions :
-

IPTM

ASM This is the Analogue Subscriber Module

SCM If the subscriber is allowed to have a PBR telephone set, we need a SCM to detect the DTMF. This is of course only necessary in the originating exchange.

IPTM The IPTM (Integrated Packet Trunk Module) is used for two purposes: (1) Speech connection (via a trunk channel)

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(2) Inter exchange signalling (No7) The drawing shows two IPTMs per exchange to indicate that the speech connection and the signalling path are independent of each other. It is possible that the No7 messages are transmitted via the same IPTM as the speech connection, but they may also be transmitted via another link, possibly via a Signalling Transfer Point (STP). It is also possible to use a DTUA/E + HCCM for the No7 link, or HCCM + IPTM, or DTUA + IPTM, or .... For more information see also PART I.
-

ACE This function is necessary for software support such as, call control, prefix analysis, trunk search, subscriber identification. The call is an example for Belgium. This means :

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Closed numbering; Zone with Directory Number (DN) Number of prefix digits = 3. = 7 digits, represented by D1......D7;

5.3 Call handling blocks


Figure 239 shows the possible accesses for CALL ORIGINATION and CALL TERMINATION which were discussed in the previous chapters. The figure will be used to briefly explain the call flow. CFCS is drawn over the links between the different blocks, because we know from the previous chapter that CFCS is used during the call setup.
-

Prefix Analysis

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Figure 239 : Prefix analysis CFCS Analogue Line Subscriber Identif. Analogue Line

ISDN BA

ISDN BA

ISDN PRA

Prefix Analysis

PARM

ISDN PRA

Trunk(CAS)

Trunk Search

Trunk(CAS)

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Trunk(No7) CALL ORIGINATION DEFINE CALLED DEVICE

Trunk(No7) CALL TERMINATION

This block will receive the digits coming from the Call Origination. During call setup the necessary number of prefix digits is retrieved from database. Prefix analysis checks these digits and can ask for more digits if necessary. The result can be LOCAL or OUTGOING.

In case the result is OUTGOING CALL, the trunk search building block is accessed. In case the result is LOCAL, the subscriber identification building block is accessed. This results in three cases, which are explained in the following paragraphs.

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5.3.1 Terminating or Local Call


Figure 240 : Terminating or Local Call CFCS Analogue Line Subscriber Identif. Analogue Line

ISDN BA

ISDN BA

ISDN PRA

Prefix Analysis

PARM

ISDN PRA

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Trunk(CAS)

Trunk Search

Trunk(CAS)

Trunk(No7) CALL ORIGINATION


-

Trunk(No7) DEFINE CALLED DEVICE CALL TERMINATION

Subscriber Identification In this case prefix analysis found that the call is LOCAL. However, from the point of view of the exchange the call is LOCAL if the call originates in this exchange, and the call is TERMINATING if the call origination is a trunk. In both cases it is up to the subscriber identification to identify the call termination, which is an analogue line or a Basic Access.

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5.3.2 Transit or Outgoing Call

Analogue Line

ISDN BA

ISDN PRA
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Trunk(CAS)

Trunk(No7)

CALL ORIGINATION
-


Figure 241 : Transit or Outgoing Call CFCS Subscriber Identif. Prefix Analysis PARM Trunk Search DEFINE CALLED DEVICE

Analogue Line

ISDN BA

ISDN PRA

Trunk(CAS)

Trunk(No7)

CALL TERMINATION

Trunk Search In this case prefix analysis found that the call is OUTGOING. However from the point of view of the exchange the call is OUTGOING if the call originates in this exchange, and the call is a TRANSIT if the call origination is a trunk. In both cases it is up to the Trunk Search mechanism to define a module to switch to the next exchange (=Trunk module No7 or CAS)

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5.3.3 Hunting to lines/trunks

Analogue Line

ISDN BA

ISDN PRA

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Trunk(CAS)

Trunk(No7)

CALL ORIGINATION
-


Figure 242 : Hunting to lines/trunks CFCS Subscriber Identif. Prefix Analysis PARM Trunk Search DEFINE CALLED DEVICE

Analogue Line

ISDN BA

ISDN PRA

Trunk(CAS)

Trunk(No7)

CALL TERMINATION

Private Access Resource Manager (PARM) In this case prefix analysis found that the call is LOCAL. As in chapter 5.3.1 the call can be local or terminating. Therefore the subscriber identification is accessed. The result of subscriber identification is a PABX identity which is passed towards PARM. PARM executes line hunting in case the destination is BA or an analogue line. In the case of an (I)PABX connected to a PRA or CAS trunks, trunk hunting is executed to find an outgoing trunk or PRA. This function is similar to the trunk search the previous chapter.

5.4 Overview of the call phases

5.4.1 Originating exchange


Figure 243 is the flowchart for the originating (local or outgoing) exchange. The call origination is an analogue subscriber using a PBR telephone set. After prefix analysis the call is LOCAL or OUTGOING. The end of dialling and the release of the receiver are still common, but the subsequent actions are different for the local and

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the outgoing call. However many actions are similar and are therefore printed on the same horizontal level. The flowchart is read from top to bottom. Every time the flow is interrupted, this means that the exchange is waiting for an external action, which is a subscriber action or a No7 message. With this flowchart it is possible to handle two call types: the left branch is the LOCAL CALL and the right branch is the OUTGOING CALL.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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Figure 243 : Originating Exchange SUBSCRIBER

SEIZURE PREPARE & SEND DIAL TONE DETECTION OF PREFIX DIGITS PREFIX ANALYSIS

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LOCAL

OUTGOING

END OF DIALLING RELEASE RECEIVER

SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION TERMINATING SEIZURE

OUTGOING TK SELECTION

IAM
OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

ACM
PASS TO STABLE PHASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE

ANC
ANSWER ANSWER

CONVERSATION CLF
FORWARD RELEASE FORWARD RELEASE

RLG
CLEAR

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5.4.2 Incoming exchange


In the incoming exchange the origination is a trunk (see figure 244). In this example a No7 trunk is used, so the incoming seizure is a Nr7 IAM (Initial Address Message) coming from another exchange. After the prefix analysis there are again two possibilities:
-

The call is local and terminates in this exchange (an analogue subscriber in our example) This is an INCOMING CALL. The call is outgoing and will leave the exchange via a trunk (No7 trunk in this example). This is called a TRANSIT CALL. Figure 244 : Incoming Exchange

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TRUNK IAM
SEIZURE PREFIX ANALYSIS

LOCAL SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION

OUTGOING OUTGOING TK SELECTION

ACM
TERMINATING SEIZURE OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

IAM

ACM
PASS TO STABLE PHASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE

ACM

ANC
ANSWER

ANC
ANSWER

ANC

CONVERSATION CLF
FORWARD RELEASE

CLF
FORWARD RELEASE

CLF

RLG

RLG
CLEAR

RLG

These two flowcharts will be used in the description of the different call types.

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5.5 Generic call scenario


The previous chapter discussed the various possible accesses. Depending upon the combination, a call can be local, outgoing, incoming or transit. This chapter outlines a common scenario which is independent of the access and can be used for all types of call. The discussion of the scenarios includes the prefix analysis, subscriber identification and trunk search items. In the paragraphs following the scenarios, these items are explained in greater detail because of their importance. As shown in figure 245, these software blocks are called Call Services.

5.5.1 Call Setup


This scenario shows the interface between call services, CFCS, signalling and device handling.
-

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1 : SETUP or Origination message After reception of the offhook event for an analogue subscriber or the SETUP message for an ISDN subscriber or the IAM for No7 trunks or the Seizure on a CAS trunk, the call is activated in Signalling. Signalling stores a reference for this call, which is used during the call handling to identify the call. In other words, a transaction is created for each call request from a user (the information is stored in a Transaction Control Block which is a unique number). A transaction is also created whenever a situation occurs where extra resources are needed that cannot be catered for within the existing transaction. A transaction can contain references to three paths : a main path (=speech path in stable phase) a temporary path (=intermediate for 3 party service, ...) a system path (=towards SCM,...)

If these three paths are not sufficient, another transaction is created.


-

2 : SELECT CHANNEL The device handler (DH) selects a free cluster path for the duration of this call. This is a channel on the cluster side of the terminal interface. The seized device is also put available busy by the DH. The message also contains join information. Later in the setup phase a path is established between the SCM and the analogue subscriber for DTMF. So, for an

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analogue subscriber this join information means a connection between the cluster path and the SCMpath. This is not true for an ISDN subscriber. For the latter the join information means a connection between the cluster path and the path leading to the call termination, when it is defined later.
-

3 : CHANNEL INFORMATION This message also indicates a positive acknowledgement that the cluster channel is available.

At this point CFCS can be activated. However, in parallel with the CFCS activation, it is possible to request an auxiliary device (e.g: SCM receiver, if needed for DTMF or MF). This means that [4] and [4] are transmitted in parallel.
-

4 : SELECT AUXILIARY DEVICE The device can be a DTMF receiver (for an analogue subscriber) or an MF sender/receiver (for CAS trunks). The selection of a SCM is executed by a separate FMM (ARTA : Auxiliary Resource TCE Allocator). The selection mechanism is explained in chapter 6. The selected SCM establishes a path towards the origination module where it is joined to the cluster path. Via this path the SCM receives the DTMF tones coming from the subscriber or the MF signalling between the two exchanges. In the case of a DTMF receiver, dial tone is already transmitted towards the subscriber and the SCM is ready to detect DTMF tones.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4 : ACTIVATE CFCS CFCS is activated for this call using the call reference (identity) mentioned earlier.

5 : ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Acknowledgement towards Signalling of the successful activation of CFCS.

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Figure 245 : Call Setup

CALL SERVICES
Subscriber Identification /PARM Prefix Analysis Trunk Search

14,6

7,15

10

11

14

15

CFCS

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13,9,4

5,8,12,16,23 4

22

24

Signalling

18

Signalling

17,2

19

21

Device Handler

20

Device Handler

CALL ORIGINATION
-

CALL TERMINATION

6 : GET CLASSES The data profile of the calling subscriber is retrieved from Subscriber Identification. Also the dial tone type and the required amount of prefix digits can be indicated here depending on the facilities of the subscriber.

7 : CLASSES RESULT The results are sent back towards signalling. Based upon the facilities the number of digits required for prefix analysis can change. This is also retrieved here.

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8 : DIGIT REQUEST Signalling receives the number of digits (=prefix digits) needed and passes them to the SCM.

9 : DIGITS Signalling sends the digits towards CFCS. For analogue subscribers, e.g., the digits were received from the SCM. Signalling sends all the digits it has received up to then, but the minimum is the number of digits required. For ISDN subscriber and for No7 all the digits were received enblock (if applicable).

10 : PREFIX ANALYSIS The digits are transmitted to Prefix Analysis to be analysed. More details on the prefix analysis will be given later in this chapter.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

11 : PREFIX ANALYSIS RESULT As explained before, the result can be LOCAL or OUTGOING. Prefix Analysis also detects the remaining number of digits required.

12 : DIGIT REQUEST Request to signalling for the remaining number of digits. Again for an analogue subscriber, the request is further transmitted towards the SCM. The latter will send the digits to signalling after reception. The SCM is then released because it is no longer needed.

13 : DIGITS Signalling sends the remaining digits towards CFCS. Remember that there were two possibilities : LOCAL or OUTGOING. LOCAL : Subscriber Identification is accessed (see [14] and [15]) OUTGOING : Trunk Search is accessed (see [14] and [15]).

14 : SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION Here, the prefix analysis result and the remaining digits are used to fetch the profile of the called party and define the call termination module.

15 : RESULT The result is passed to CFCS

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14 : TRUNK SEARCH The prefix analysis result and some other information is sent to trunk search.

15 : RESULT Trunk search has retrieved the identity of the terminating trunk module (for more details on the trunk search mechanism, see later in this chapter).

16 : INFORM SIGNALLING Signalling is informed about the termination identity. After analysis is complete, determination of the destination of the call, and selection of the terminating resource (see above), a seizure is sent.

17 : JOIN INFO This message is sent only for analogue subscribers, because the previously mentioned join information for analogue subscribers indicated a path coming from the SCM. Now an indication is given that the main path, coming from the termination device is being established.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

18 : TERMINATING SEIZURE This message is sent from signalling A to signalling B. In the termination module a reference is created for this call.

19 : SELECT CHANNEL On the termination side, signalling requests a channel to the device handler. This means a cluster path and a network path, and the join information. The ringing current and tone are started (if requested).

20 : SETUP SPATA PATH The result of this message between the device handlers is the creation of a UCP (User Controlled Path). The device handler on the A side will join this path towards the cluster path.

21 : CHANNEL INFORMATION This message is also a positive acknowledgement indicating that the connections have been allocated.

22 : ACKNOWLEDGE This message is the acknowledgement towards CFCS, because it is the latter which has started the terminating seizure with message [16]. It is also an indication that the alerting phase has started.

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Depending on the signalling system, this message can be split into two messages. E.g: for ISDN signalling, message 22 indicates an acknowledge and an indication to wait for alerting. The signalling scenario is as follows. The called terminal is activated with a Q931 SETUP message. One or more terminals will send a CALL PROCEED and an ALERTING message backwards. When this alerting message from the terminating side is received, a second message is transmitted towards CFCS. At this moment CFCS activates charging. Charging is not further explained here because it is handled in PART IV.
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23 + 24 : PASS TO STABLE PHASE CFCS sends the stable call data to signalling A and signalling B and terminates. The answer and release is handled by the signalling (protocol) planes. Customer dependent a wait for answer timer is running in signalling B.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

5.5.2 Answer
When the called subscriber answers, an event is received. Depending on the termination device, the event can enter via the ASM hardware reporting mechanism,or via a Q931 message, ... See figure 246:
-

1 : ANSWER The answer event enters the signalling (protocol) plane. Customer dependent, the wait for answer timer is cancelled.

2 : JOIN Signalling dependent, the ringing tone and/or ringing current are removed. The cluster path is joined to the network path.

3 : PASS EVENT The answer message is passed to signalling A because signalling A will start the taxation.

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Figure 246 : Answer

Signalling

Signalling

Device Handler

Device Handler

CALL ORIGINATION
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CALL TERMINATION

5.5.3 Release (Local Call only)


The following scenario describes an autonomous release of the calling subscriber. Like the previous scenarios, this scenario is access type independent. See figure 247 :
-

1 : RELEASE The onhook condition enters the signalling (protocol) plane. Signalling will inform charging to stop the taxation for this call.

2 : INFORM DEVICE HANDLER The DH will release the network path and the cluster path and put the line or trunk available free (for a new call).

3 : INFORM BSIDE Signalling B is informed about the forward release.

4 : ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is the acknowledgement for the release trigger. On receiving this message the originating signalling knows that the release event was received.

5 : INFORM DEVICE HANDLERB The release event is passed to the DH. The Bside is put in parking. The cluster path is deallocated.

6 : ONHOOK BSIDE

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7 : RELEASE The Bsubscriber is put available free. Figure 247 : Release

Signalling

Signalling

5,7

Device Handler
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Device Handler

CALL ORIGINATION

CALL TERMINATION

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6. CALL HANDLING EXAMPLES


In this chapter many figures use numbers to indicate a sequence. In the text you can find a reference to these numbers. This is done by repeating the number in the text between square brackets, [number].

6.1 Local call with analogue subscribers


Figure 248 summarises the hardware which is used during the local call. Figure 248 : Local Call

ACE
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SCM
1 4

ASM

DSN

ASM

Figure 249 sketches the major steps in the treatment of a local call. Every block in the figure corresponds with a chapter. To work out a complete example, we will have to make a number of assumptions during the call. Some of these assumptions are listed here:
-

closed numbering seven digit number for the subscribers neither the Aparty, nor the Bparty have any facilities active the number of prefix digits is three.

In the figures that indicate a sequence of actions in the software:


-

a full line represents a S12 message; a dotted line (with indented text) represents a procedure call.

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Figure 249 : Local call overview

Aparty
hook off

A1000 S12
seize Aparty start scanning for digits

Bparty

dial tone

send dial tone to Aparty activate call control perform Aparty analysis

dial digits

receive prefix digits perform prefix analysis

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receive remaining digits release receiver perform Bparty analysis request DID seize Bparty start ringing phase prepare charging ringing tone pass to stable state detect ring trip activate charging conversation hook on stop charging release Aparty release Bparty conversation ringing current hook off

hook on

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6.1.1 Seize Aparty


a. Actions in the hardware and operating system Figure 250 : Hook off . .

ALCN 7
2 3

MCUA
PRAM 4

ALCN 0 L O G I C A

0
. . .

DSN

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15

. . To crossover OS DH 5 SIG

[1] When the subscriber lifts the handset, the loop resistance is low and the current through the subscribers line increases. [2] This increase in current is detected by the hardware of the subscriber line. This detection is translated into the setting of a bit. The digital logic of the subscriber sends this information towards the common logic of the PBA. [3] This common logic is the communication link towards the control element processor. The processor can send commands to the logic (via CH16 = drive) and the logic can send the results back in CH16 (=scan). If there is an event in the hardware (hookoff, hookon, HW fault, ...) then the logic sends a CH0 alarm towards the processor. In our case (hookoff) the logic sends a CH0 alarm towards the terminal interface PRAM. [4] The CH0 alarm is received and detected by the OS which periodically scans the Packet RAM with a clocked procedure. Then a command is sent to the logic to ask what has happened in the hardware. The result is again received in the PRAM via CH16 and is read by the OS.

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The received information explains what happened (subscriber hookoff) and gives the subscribers identity. It consists of two words: one word indicates hookoff and the second word is the identity. The latter is called the PTN = Physical Terminal Number. All this information is passed to the LCRC DH SSM as follows. The OS places the information in a queue which belongs to the LCRC DH SSM. The latter reads this queue periodically (clocked procedure) and detects the creation of a new entry. [5] The LCRC DH SSM then sends the first A1000 S12 message towards the signalling subsystem (ASSS_TSIG). Since the message indicates the start of a new call, it is called the origination message. At this point the software is activated. The scenario is summarised in figure 251. This figure starts with step 5 out of the previous figure, where the LCRC DH SSM sends the first message of the call to ASSS_TSIG. b. Actions in the software Figure 251 : Seize Aparty ASSS_TSIG A 2 3 LCHG 5 SMD FMM 4 LCRC DH SSM 1

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ASM (orig)

Note: Because of the crossover connections, this hook off event is also received in the crossover module. However, in a normal situation the software detects that the subscriber is handled by its own module. This is detected after the PTN to TN translation. In this case the message to ASSS_TSIG is only sent in the own module. In a crossover situation the active module takes care of all the subscribers.

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When a subscriber hooks off, the software has to mark the subscriber as busy. Furthermore, since there are only a limited number of cluster paths, one has to be allocated to the new call.

TN = 1...128 TN = 129...256

EVEN MODULE SUBSCRIBERS ODD MODULE SUBSCRIBERS.

[1] origination When ASSS_TSIG receives the origination message, it allocates a transaction control block (TACB) for this call, further on labeled as ASSS_TSIG_A. During call setup, this reference is passed from one software block to the other in the messages. So this reference identifies this call.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

[2] ASSS_TSIG_A calls an interface procedure within the LCRC DH SSM to remove the terminal from origination scanning list. Next ASSS_TSIG_A checks whether the subscriber has priority during overload. This priority is only important if the CE has an overload condition. The priority level is part of the Class Of Line (COL) data. This data is stored in a relation. There is one tuple per subscriber in the relation. The key to the relation is the TN. [3] select channel The actions of the SMD FMM are combined in figure 252.

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Figure 252 : Actions of the SMD FMM


INITIALISATION ACTIONS

STATE

FREE

MSG_WAIT

STATE:FREE

STATE:BUSY

SELECT CHAN
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POWER ON

. . .

. . .

. . .

GET CLUSTER PATH

STATE

BUSY

GET COL

CHAN INFO

[4] SMD FMM calls an interface procedure to request a cluster path. Some of the subactions include: power on the the ESLIC and DSP chips on the ALCN board: To limit power dissipation in the module, the speech path only receives power when it is needed. This is when the subscribers line becomes busy. The LCRC DH SSM therefore sends a packet over channel 16 to the ALCN logic. allocate a cluster path (see figure 253): The allocation of a cluster path is done via an OS primitive. This primitive allocates a free Rx / Tx channel pair. Then OS sends a packet to the ALCN logic to indicate that

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subscriber X is connected to Rx/Tx channel pair Y. In this way the hardware knows in which channel the samples are going to be transmitted and received. Figure 253 : Cluster path allocation

MCUA ALCN 0 0
. . .

1 R T 3 R T

2 R T 4 R T DSN

L O G I C

15
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Cluster Channel pair e.g: CH 7

OS DH SIG

SMD FMM changes the state of the subscriber from available_free to available_busy. Also SMD FMM checks some COL data. The data needed by the device handler are transmission parameters: the receive and the transmit gain; the settings of the hybrid on the ALCN board. [5] channel information The SMD FMM sends the result to ASSS_TSIG_A. This message includes the channel identity and the COL information. ASSS_TSIG_A checks some additional COL data: the type of set: this can be dial pulse set (also called rotary set), push button set (or DTMF set), or combined set. Let us assume that the subscriber has a combined set. In other words: the software doesnt know whether a dial pulse set or a push button set will be used. In this case both types of scanning have to be triggered. As soon as the first digit is detected, the redundant scanning type can be switched off.

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the priority during catastrophic condition: an exchange can be put in a catastrophic condition, for example if there is an earthquake, to avoid originating traffic from an exchange; the presence of a hardware key is checked. A hardware key can be used to switch on or off a particular Outgoing Call Barring (OCB) level. Also some Originating Line Class Of Service (OLCOS) data is checked. This data is stored in a relation. The most important information is the dial tone type. A subscriber who hasnt activated any facility, may receive normal dial tone, whereas a subscriber who has activated a Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU) facility, may receive a special dial tone.
Note: The OLCOS relation mentioned only contains part of the COS data. This data is the absolute minimum COS data that is necessary to start the call. It contains the dial tone type to send the dial tone as quickly as possible. The more advanced COS data is stored at LSIF level. Refer to chapter 3.4.9.

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6.1.2 Start scanning for digits / Send dial tone to Aparty


Figure 254 : Start scanning for digits and send dial tone to Aparty

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS 4 ASSS_ASIG A 2 3 5 ARTA 6


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A 1 ASSS_TSIG

SC DH FMM 8

LCHG 10 RSIG 9 LCRC DH SSM SC DH SSM

SMD FMM

ASM (orig)

SCM

Signalling starts dial pulse scanning, finds a DTMF receiver and starts DTMF scanning.

Note: Timeout handling: During the register phase, several timeouts are used: waitforfirstdigit timeout; overalldialling timeout; interdigit timeout. These timeouts are started in the signalling software block. Depending on the dialling type, the timeouts are running in different CEs. The table below gives an overview.

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PB set only overalldialling timeout waitforfirstdigit timeout interdigit timeout dial tone ASSS_ASIG_A RSIG RSIG SCM

dial pulse set only ASSS ASIG_A ASSS TSIG_A ASSS TSIG_A ASM

combined set ASSS ASIG_A ASSS TSIG_A ASSS TSIG_A or RSIG SCM

[1] ASSS_TSIG_A calls an interface procedure within the LCRC DH FMM to start dial pulse scanning. Because we assumed that the dial type is combined, we are not sure at this moment if our subscriber is using a PBR set or a dial pulse set. In case of dial pulse scanning the digit value is determined by the number of pulses coming in. The pulses are created by changing the loop status from high to low and vice versa. This generates events in the subscriber line hardware in the same way as was the case for lifting the handset. These events are reported to the LCRC DH SSM. The SSM checks the making and the breaking times to verify whether they are within the limit. If the interdigit time is exceeded, then the number of pulses gives the digit value. In figure 255 the detected digit is two. Figure 255 : Dial pulse scanning interdigit timeout OPEN LOOP CLOSED LOOP 66 ms

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33 ms digit detected

[2] loadsharing intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_A now has to link with ASSS_ASIG. ASSS_ASIG is stored in the SCALSVs. To obtain an equal distribution of originating traffic over the SCALSVs, the message to trigger ASSS_ASIG is sent in loadsharing. The message contains the information that ASSS_TSIG_A has collected so far:
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the COL data dial set type; priority level during overload;

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priority level during catastrophic condition; presence of a hardware key.


-

the OLCOS data: primarily the dial tone type.

To check whether the linking was successful, ASSS_TSIG_A starts a timeout for the acknowledgement from ASSS_ASIG. The first action of ASSS_ASIG is to allocate a TACB of its own, further on labeled as ASSS_ASIG_A. The information received from ASSS_TSIG_A is then copied into the TACB. [3] intra signalling ASSS_ASIG_A sends an acknowledgement to ASSS_TSIG_A. The latter then stops the time out.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

[4] activate CFCS The actions that are performed by CFCS and the subsequent steps are explained in the next chapter. [5] select device To detect DTMF digits, a DTMF receiver has to be allocated in a SCM. This allocation is performed in two steps: 1. a SCM has to be found that first of all has receivers of the correct type and that is available maintenancewise; 2. the chosen SCM has to be contacted, to check whether it still has a free receiver. To find an available SCM with the correct device type, a message is sent to the Auxiliary Resources TCE Allocator (ARTA) FMM. ARTA uses a procedural relation to find a SCM. Please refer to chapter 3.4.7 for more information on how the procedural relation works. In the meantime a timeout is running in ASSS_ASIG_A. Three possibilities exist: The SCM selects a free receiver and replies to ASSS_ASIG_A via SMD FMM; The SCM replies with a message to indicate that no receiver is available. In this case ASSS_ASIG_A starts a new timeout and sends a new request to ARTA, until maximum number of retries is reached; The timeout in signalling expires. ASSS_ASIG_A sends a retry to ARTA and the latter puts the SCM unavailable for 30 s.
Note: Queuing is also possible but is not further discussed here.

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[6] select device Now, ARTA sends a message to the selected SCM to continue the search for a free DTMF receiver within the SCM. Because of the distribution of the traffic (via this cyclic search mechanism) the possibility of finding an SCM with a free DTMF receiver is very high. The SC DH FMM selects a free receiver and changes its state to available busy. [7] seized MF register The SC DH FMM sets up UCP to the ASM. It is a duplex path that is held until one of the DHs (SMD FMM or SC DH FMM) asks to disconnect it. This path will be used in the direction from SCM to subscriber to send dial tone, and in the direction from subscriber to SCM to send the DTMF digits, if at least the subscriber has a push button set. To set up the UCP the following steps are performed:
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1. the DH asks a SPATA channel via an OS primitive. The NA of the ASM (destination CE) is given as an input parameter. The identity of the allocated path is returned as an output parameter, so that it can be used by the process to send the message. 2. when control is returned to the SC DH FMM, the BASIC message can be sent VIA that UCP. (get a message buffer, fill in the message buffer and send the message ) 3. OS finds out that the message is sent via a UCP, so it starts a 3 packet sequence (refer to figure 256):

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Figure 256 : Setup of a UCP


1 R T 3 R T

a 2

ASM

R T 4 R T

2 R a T 4 R T

DSN

1 R T 3 R T

SCM

1 R T
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3 R T

2 R b T 4 R T

2 b R T 4 R T

DSN

1 R T 3 R T

ASM

SCM

1 R T 3 R T

c 2

R T 4 R T

2 R c T 4 R T

DSN

1 R T 3 R T

ASM

SCM

[a] Contains information to set up and hold a simplex path through the DSN from the SCM towards the ASM (selects and EOP hold). The OS in the ASM is informed to establish a return path. [b] Contains information to set up and hold a simplex path through the DSN from the ASM towards the SCM (selects and EOP hold). The OS in the SCM is informed to send the actual message via the existing path towards the SMD FMM. [c] This packet does not contain select words because the path already exists. It is the only packet which contains data (message data) to be delivered to the SMD FMM.

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When the BASIC VIA message is received in the SMD FMM, it will connect the UCP path to the cluster path pair. This is done by calling an OS primitive which executes the join. The join is a duplex cutthrough connection. For the result see figure 257. Figure 257 : Join the Aparty Cluster channels
1 R T 3 R T 2 R T 4 R T

DSN

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ASM
[8] start receiving The dial tone type was retrieved from OLCOS and the dial tone should be connected as soon as possible. Also the receiver is connected to the UCP: [9] start scanning RSIG triggers a procedure in SC DH SSM to start scanning for DTMF digits. To connect the receiver, the Rx channel of the UCP is PUT TO RAM, so the samples are received in the PRAM. Then a FETCH is created to connect the PRAM location towards the channel of the receiver. The dial tone is available in one of the channels of the tone port. At initialisation the tone channels are PUT TO RAM to adjacent PRAM locations. Therefore, to send the dial tone to the subscriber, it is sufficient to FETCH from the correct PRAM location towards the UCP Tx channel. For the result see figure 258.

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Figure 258 : Connect receiver and send dial tone Receiver


2 R T 1 R T 3 R T 5 R

DSN

4 R T

DT

SCM
[ 10 ] seized register The ASSS_TSIG_A is informed about the successful DTMF receiver selection. Now ASSS_TSIG_A can cancel the timeout which has been running since the selection started via ARTA. Figure 259 gives an overview of the connections made so far in the hardware. Figure 259 : Subscriber connections DT

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1 R T 3 R T

2 R T 4 R T

2 R T

DSN

4 R T


SCM

1 R T 3 R T R Receivers

ASM

At this moment the subscriber receives dial tone and the exchange is waiting for the digits coming from the subscriber. The overall dialling timeout and waitforfirstdigit timeout are running. To continue the call, let us assume that the subscriber has a push button set.

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6.1.3 Activate call control / Perform Aparty analysis


Figure 260 : Activate call control and perform Aparty analysis

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

SACELSIF
2 CFCS 1 A ASSS_ASIG ARTA 3 LSIF

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

An application process is created to control the call and the Apartys profile is retrieved.

[1] call control to signalling This message is merely an acknowledgement to ASSS_ASIG_A. [2] data request CFCS requests the Apartys profile. Remember that the DNET of the Aparty is used to find the correct SACELSIF. The profile contains: the Originating Line Class Of Service (OLCOS) data. One of the most important parameters at this moment is the amount of prefix digits. This represents the minimum amount of digits that have to be collected before CFCS submits them to PATED. Let us assume that the number of prefix digits is set to three.
Note: In chapter 6.1.1 ASSS_TSIG already collected the basic OLCOS data from a relation in the TCE. Here the more advanced OLCOS data is retrieved from a number of relations.

the facility data. [3] data result LSIF returns the results from analysis. Let us assume that the subscriber does not have any particular facility active.

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6.1.4 Receive prefix digits

Figure 261 : Receive prefix digits

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS 1 17 2 A
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ARTA

ASSS_ASIG 3 8

A ASSS_TSIG

SC DH FMM

LCHG 16 7 SMD FMM 4,10,13 LCRC DH SSM 5 6 RSIG 9,11,12,14,15

SC DH SSM

ASM (orig)

SCM

When the first digit is received the dial tone is removed and the redundant scanning type is stopped. The first three digits are sent to call control.

[1] call control to signalling CFCS passes the Aparty profile to ASSS_ASIG_A. The message also contains a digit request. The number of prefix digits was found in chapter 6.1.3. We assumed that three digits are requested.

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[2] digit request ASSS_ASIG_A forwards the digit request to SC DH FMM. [3] intra signalling ASSS_ASIG_A forwards the digit request to ASSS_TSIG_A. ASSS_TSIG_A starts the wait_for_first_digit timeout. [4] signal The digit detection principle was explained in the chapter about the SCM. The first digit is detected by the hardware and delivered to the SC DH FMM. The digit is passed to the RSIG. RSIG analyses the received DTMF code. Digits with code 0..9 and * or # are accepted. Other codes are considered as a bad digit. The digits are stored in a local digit buffer. They are collected there until all three prefix digits have been received. [5] first PBR digit Because the subscriber is using a PBR set, the ASM has to be informed to stop the timeouts and to stop the dial pulse scanning. SC DH SSM therefore reports the event to SMD FMM. [6] disconnect tone RSIG reports the event to SC DH FMM to disconnect dial tone. [7] event SMD FMM reports the event to ASSS_TSIG_A. ASSS_TSIG_A cancels the waitforfirstdigit time out and the overalldialling timeout. The overall timeout in the SCM, however, is still running. [8] switch off dial pulse scanning ASSS_TSIG_A stops the dial pulse scanning and puts the terminal in the busy scan list. [9] start timeout RSIG starts an interdigit timeout. [ 10 ] [ 13 ] signal The next digits are detected. The actions are similar to those executed after the reception of the first digit.

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cancel the interdigit timeout [ 11 ] [ 14 ]; start a new one [ 12 ] [ 15 ]; check the MF code for a bad digit; increment the number of received digits and store the digit in the buffer; check if the required number of digits have been received (e.g: 3). [ 16 ] address in bunch The first three digits are sent in bunch to ASSS_ASIG_A. [ 17 ] signalling to call control The first three digits are sent in bunch to CFCS.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

6.1.5 Perform prefix analysis


Figure 262 : Perform prefix analysis

SCALSV
PATED 1 2 CFCS TRC CHAN CGC

ASSS_ASIG A

ARTA

The first three digits that were dialled, are analysed.

[1] call control to PATED CFCS sends the first three digits to PATED. For our example, the message to PATED contains the following information:
-

digits D1, D2 and D3 received from the subscriber. Type of Call (TOC), retrieved from the COS data, where it is called Calling Party Category (CPC). E.g: Normal call.

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Numbering Plan Indicator (NPI). For originating analogue subscribers CFCS fills in E164. Nature of Address (NATADDR) source code, which consists of: an indication of the source code type: here it is set to subscriber; a value that depends on the type. For subscribers the value is the subscriber group. . For our analogue subscriber it is set to unknown.

the time of day (TOD) is retrieved from the tone port (CH1 and CH2). Figure 263 : Input for PATED

Prefix Analysis Received digits


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Task Element Definition Request more digits CPX CAUSE

D1,D2,D3

Digit preparation & Digit Analysis

Type of call
CPC (OLCOS) (Normal Call)

Category Analysis

Task Element Definition


Tasks

LOCAL DNET tasks ...

Origin NPI (E164) NATADDR (unknown) SOURCECODE Type (Subscriber) Subgrp (OLCOS) Time
TOD

Origin Analysis

Time Analysis

[2] PATED to call control The results of the analysis are sent back to CFCS. The result from PATED is: Request for more digits. This is passed to CFCS which sends the request to ASSS_TSIG_A. From there the SCM is requested for one more digit and upon receipt the RSIG transmits it to ASSS_TSIG_A and further to CFCS. This intermediate scenario is not shown in the figures because the principle remains the same. CFCS accesses PATED for a second time. Now four digits are presented to PATED. PATED now finds that the call is LOCAL. In that case also a DNET is retrieved from database and all this is sent to CFCS.

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PATED also delivers some tasks: destination allowance check: according to the originating and destination restrictions, it is checked whether the destination may be accessed or not; start selection point: indicates the number of digits which should be received before trunk selection starts (not for our local call); charging information (=input for charging); priority check: if the call has priority or not; numbering type check: indicates open or closed numbering. For closed numbering the number of digits of the DN is given. For open numbering a minimum and maximum is given. Let us assume closed numbering with seven digits.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

6.1.6 Receive remaining digits / Release receiver


Figure 264 : Receive remaining digits and release receiver

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS 1 9 2 A ASSS_ASIG ARTA

SC DH FMM 3

8 7 RSIG 4 5,6 repeated

SC DH SSM

SCM

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The remaining digits are requested by call control. Signalling supplies them. [1] digit request Since we assumed closed numbering with seven digits, and we have already received four digits, CFCS requests three more digits. In addition CFCS indicates that this will be the last request. This makes an autonomous release of the receiver possible (see later). In case of open numbering, the SCM will pass every received digit to the ASM. This will continue until the called DN is complete. In other words, when the called device is defined. Only then will CFCS trigger the release of the SCM. [2] digit request ASSS_ASIG_A requests three more digits.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

[3] digit request SC DH FMM indicates the next amount of digits to RSIG. [4] signal The next digit is detected. [5] stop timeout RSIG stops the running interdigit timeout. [6] start timeout RSIG starts a new interdigit timeout. Actions 4,5 and 6 are repeated for every next digit, except for the last digit: then RSIG stops the running interdigit timeout and the overalldialling timeout and stops the scanning as well. This is an example of autonomous release. [7] address in bunch The remaining digits are sent in bunch to ASSS_ASIG. [8] disconnect RSIG sends a request to SC DH FMM to release the UCP. This happens in three steps: 1. Join a null pattern to the receiver: Remember that during the operation the receiver was connected from the PRAM towards a cluster transmit channel (FETCH). Now a null pattern is sent to the receiver.

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This is done by changing the FETCH from a new PRAM location. This new location contains the null pattern for the receiver. In this way the receiver is released. 2. Release the UCP: Figure 265 : Release UCP
1 c R T 3 R T

b 2

R T 4 R T

2 R T 4 R T

DSN

1 R T 3 R T R Receivers

ASM
This is done by calling an OS primitive.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SCM

[a] On command of the OS, the IDLE pattern is sent via the Transmit channel of the terminal interface to the DSN. After reception of the IDLE pattern during 2 consecutive frames, the connection is broken by the DSEs. The idles enter the TERI in the ASM. The hardware reports this to the OS. [b] Because of the idle pattern received by the receive channel at the network side, the cutthrough to the transmit channel at the cluster side is broken automatically. Also this event is reported to the OS. [c] Processing of the events: The event in the transmit channel at the cluster side is detected by the OS which breaks the other cutthrough connection between the corresponding receive channel at the cluster side and the transmit channel at the network side. [d] The event in the receive channel at the network side is also processed and the OS detects that the path that was released, belongs to a duplex connection. It takes actions to release the other part of the UCP. This is also done by sending the IDLE protocol over the network. The path is released and the same type of event is created in the receive channel of the SCM. [e] The PUT TO RAM between the receive channel and a PACKET RAM location is disconnected automatically. From this moment on there is no longer a relation between our subscriber and the DTMF receiver.

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When the release of the path was successful, both DHs (in the ASM as well as in the SCM) are informed. OS sends a message to both device handlers (not shown in the overview figure !). 3. Set the receiver idle: The receiver is brought to the idle state. [9] signalling to call control The three digits are sent to CFCS.

6.1.7 Perform Bparty analysis / Request DID


Figure 266 : Perform Bparty analysis and request DID

SCALSV
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PATED

TRC

CHAN

CGC 3

TRA 4 2

SACETRA SACELSIF

CFCS 1 ASSS_ASIG A ARTA

LSIF

The Bpartys profile and the DID are retrieved. [1] data request CFCS requests Bparty analysis. The message towards LSIF contains: DNET: this code was retrieved from PATED; the remaining digits: D5, D6 and D7 in our example. [2] data results In chapter 3.4.9 we explained how LSIF uses this information to determine the destination. Via a conversion to DNEH an index is found, and together with the last two digits the correct tuple can be identified. LSIF finds:

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Equipment Number (EN); This includes the LCEidentity and the TN of the destination subscriber. The EN uniquely identifies the subscriber within this exchange.

Terminating Line Class Of Service (TLCOS) This is the data of the Bparty. It contains amongst others: Facility indications and allowance flags (Call transfer, ...)

Access status: Normal line, coinbox, operator, priority line, ... Allowed Basic Services and Bearer Capabilities (see also ISDN calls)
-

Restriction Match As explained in the chapter or LSIF, the restriction match checks the Calling Party Category (CPC) against the access status (normal line, operator, dataline, coinbox, ...) The result indicates if the call can continue or results in a CAUSE. With this CAUSE PATED is accessed to define what to do next (see CAUSE analysis). In our example the call will continue.

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[3] DID request CFCS requests the Device Interworking Data (DID). The DID is handled by the Trunk Resource Allocator (TRA). Refer to chapter 3.4.11 for more details on the DID. [4] DID data TRA returns the DID results to CFCS.

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6.1.8 Seize Bparty / Start ringing phase


Figure 267 : Seize Bparty and start ringing phase

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS 1 13 ASSS_ASIG 2 A 15 3 B ASSS_TSIG


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ARTA

4 14

A ASSS_TSIG

11 5,12 6

B ASSS_TSIG

LCHG 10 SMD FMM 8

LCHG

SMD FMM 7,9

LCRC DH SSM

LCRC DH SSM

ASM (orig)

ASM (term)

The Bpartys profile and the DID are retrieved.

[1] call control to signalling CFCS sends the Bpartys profile to ASSS_ASIG_A. [2] join For analogue calls the new join information is transmitted to the device handler because very soon the UCP between both subscribers will to be connected.

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REMARK: It is possible that the information is queued if the SCM is not yet released. [3] signalling to signalling To setup the terminating call ASSS_ASIG_A allocates new TACB, which will be labeled from now on as ASSS_ASIG_B.

[4] intra signalling The ASSS_TSIG of the terminating side is triggered, resulting in the creation of a new TACB, from now on labeled as ASSS_TSIG_B. Depending on the crossover state, the message is received in the own ASM or in the mate ASM of the destination subscriber. However in both cases the actions in software remain the same. The message also contains the destination TN to identify the Bparty in ASM_B.
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Note: If the destination subscriber is busy, a message is returned to ASM_A. There (PA)TED is accessed with a CAUSE to define how to terminate this call. The result indicates that a busy tone should be transmitted to the Aparty. This tone is retrieved from the tone port (see dial tone) but this time the connections are established in the terminal interface of the ASM instead of the SCM.

[5] remove terminal from the origination scanning list. [6] select channel ASSS_TSIG_B sends a request to the device handler to: indicate the device state busy; [7] get cluster handler path send a command to the hardware to power on the subscriber line; select a cluster channel towards the ALCN. The identity is also transmitted to the ALCN logic (compare with Aparty); set up a UCP towards ASM_A; send ringing tone to the originating subscriber; request for ringing current to the Bparty; relink with CFCS . In the message also the channel identity is returned. CDE dependent a wait for answer is started in ASSS_TSIG_B. Some of these actions are discussed in more detail below.

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[8] set up spata path The setup of a UCP was also discussed in chapter 3.3.3. The DH_B transmits a BASIC VIA to the DH_A after requesting a spata channel to the OS. Upon receipt of this message in the SMD FMM_A, the latter makes a duplex cutthrough between the UCP and the cluster path. SMD FMM_B connects ringing tone to UCP towards Aparty. The RT is connected to the UCP via a FETCH command. First, immediate ringing tone is sent to the subscriber (500 ms) The samples for this tone are available in a fixed PRAM location. Second, after the 500 ms timeout the interrupted ringing tone is sent (e.g: 1 second tone and 3 seconds silence, ...)
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[9] request ringing active SMD FMM_B requests ringing current towards the Bparty. The hardware situation at this moment (except for the ringing current) is shown in figure 268. Figure 268 : Ringing phase
1 R T 3 R T 2 R T 4 R T 2 R T 1 R T 3 R T R

DSN

4 R T


ASM

ASM

Ring.Gen.

Request ringing current To provide the subscribers with ringing current (=RC), there is one RNGF PBA for every ASM. The main function of the RNGF PBA is to generate a stabilised AC ringing signal in addition to the DC voltage of the a and b wire. One RNGF contains two identical ring circuits and provides a RC source for up to 128 subscribers. It can provide asymmetric (the 2 buses serve 64 subscribers each) as well as symmetric ringing current (the 2 buses are combined to serve 128 subscribers). a. Hardware The RNGF PBA

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The ringing PBA is connected to the cluster link of the own terminal interface and the crossover terminal interface (in case of crossover, the mate processor must access the ring PBA). The processors can send commands to the PBA (via CH16) to activate or deactivate the circuit. When the circuit is activated, it generates a continuous AC signal. This signal is received on all subscriber circuits of all ALCNs, but it is not connected. To connect the signal (so that the telephone starts ringing), the processor must transmit a command to the appropriate ALCN to close the switch (relay). The cadence of the RC (e.g: 1 second ringing and 3 seconds silence, ...) is done by opening and closing (activating and deactivating) the relays. This is clarified in figure 269. Figure 269 : Switching of RC RC To own TERI
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ALCN

CH16 Commands

...

To other ALCNs RNGF Ringbus

CH16 Commands

Ringing Generator

To crossover TERI

Ring phases Let us consider the example of 1 second RC and 3 seconds silence. It is possible for the RNGF PBA to send RC to maximum 8 subscribers. This means that maximum 8 different subscriber relays are activated. During the silent phase, however, the relays are deactivated and nobody is receiving RC. During this phase it is possible to send RC to other subscribers, etc.

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This can be done for 4 phases and the result is shown in figure 270. In this way it is possible to send RC to maximum 32 subscribers. Figure 270 : Ringing Phases on RC off on RC off on RC off
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Phase 1

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 2

Phase 3

on RC off b. Software Ring phases The switching of the phases is implemented in the software. The DH receives a time out message every 200 ms. In this way it can count the 4 phases with a 200 ms resolution. Each time a phase change occurs, the DH opens all the relays of the subscribers receiving RC and closes the relays of the subscribers belonging to the next phase. If all 4 phases are empty (no subscribers assigned), then a command is sent towards the RNGF PBA to switch off the ringing generator.
Note: The switching of the relays is called dry switching. This means that the ringing generator is switched off before the relays are opened and switched on again when the other relays are closed.

Phase 4

Ringing current request When the DH wants to send RC to a subscriber, it must assign a phase to the subscriber. Then the subscriber receives RC according to the phase switching mechanism explained above. The phase selection is done according to the flowchart below.

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Figure 271 : Phase selection Ringing Request

Time left in current phase <400ms

Y NEXT PHASE

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Nbr of assigned subscribers = 8

Assign to the selected phase

All phases checked ?

Connect immediate RC (Activate switches)

CAUSE

In the above flowchart, one of the actions is: Connect immediate RC. This is when a subscriber is assigned to a phase which is not the current one. In this case the subscriber switches are closed at any rate, and the normal cadence starts when the subscribers phase is reached. [ 10 ] channel info SMD FMM_B replies with the channel information. [ 11 ] intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_B acknowledges the terminating seizure.

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[ 12 ] transmission parameters ASSS_TSIB_B initialises receive and transmit values. [ 13 ] signalling to call control The final acknowledgement: linking of the terminating side is complete. [ 14 ] signalling to signalling Acknowledgement of the seizure of the Bparty. [ 15 ] intra signaling Acknowledgement of the seizure of the Bparty.

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6.1.9 Activate charging


Figure 272 : Activate charging 3 PATED TRC CHAN 2 1 CFCS ASSS_ASIG A B ARTA 4 CGC

SCALSV

ASSS_TSIG A 5 LCHG

SMD FMM

LCRC DH SSM

ASM (orig)

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The charging information is picked up and a taxation cell is allocated. In most countries charging is activated at this moment. For more details refer to chapter 8. In this chapter only an overview is given. [ 1 ] charging request Charging is activated via a message from CFCS. It is up to the charging FMMs to define the charging for our subscriber (method, number of pulses, rate, ...). The charging FMMs also allocate a taxation cell for the call (1 or more depending on the supplementary services of the subscriber). Then the result is sent back to CFCS. The most important information received from charging is the identity of the taxation cell(s). [ 2 ] request charging information
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[ 3 ] send charging information [ 4 ] request allocation of charging cell [ 5 ] charging startup acknowledge

6.1.10 Pass to stable state


Figure 273 : Pass to stable state

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS 1 A B ARTA 2

ASSS_ASIG

Once the Bparty has been seized and the ringing phase has started, the only task left to do is to wait until the Bparty answers. Therefore there is no need for highlevel software to be active. Remember that CFCS controlled the whole call and kept all the data about the call in a datazone. At this moment the CFCS passes part of its information to the signalling in ASM_A, and part of its information to signalling in ASM_B. The application process may then terminate.

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[ 1 ] [ 2 ] pass to stable state The stable call data is passed to signalling. ASSS_ASIG_A stops the overalldialling timeout. ASSS_ASIG_A also received the taxation cell identity because it is ASSS_ASIG_A that warns the charging FMM about the ongoing events, like Bparty answer and Aparty or Bparty hookon. These events can then be used by the charging FMM to start or stop the charging. At this moment we are in stable state which means that the Aparty is receiving ringing tone and the destination set is ringing. The Aparty and the exchange are both waiting for answer.

6.1.11 Detect ring trip


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Figure 274 : Detect ring trip

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS

ASSS_ASIG A B 6 A ASSS_TSIG 4 7

ARTA

3 2 LCHG

B ASSS_TSIG

LCHG

SMD FMM 1 LCRC DH SSM

SMD FMM 5 LCRC DH SSM

ASM (orig)

ASM (term)

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When the Bparty answers the signalling has to be informed and the charging has to start.

[ 1 ] ring trip The detection of answer is the same as the hookoff detection. The hardware reports towards OS which triggers the LCRC DH SSM_B. LCRC DH SSM must remove the ringing current as soon as possible. If the subscriber is in the silent period, the SSM removes the subscriber from the ringing queue. However, if the subscriber receives ringing current at this moment, the SSM first deactivates the relay before removing the subscriber from the queue. LCRC DH SSM then reports the ring trip to ASSS_TSIG_B. [ 2 ] put terminal in busy scan with recall.
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[ 3 ] intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_B reports the answer to ASSS_ASIG_B. [ 4 ] join SMD FMM_B removes the ringing tone and joins the Bparty to the UCP. [ 5 ] request ring idle. [ 6 ] signalling to signalling ASSS_ASIG_B reports the answer to ASSS_ASIG_A. [ 7 ] charging event ASSS_ASIG_A indicates the answer to charging (e.g. to start the collection of charging pulses) ASSS_ASIG_A also cancels the answer timeout.

6.1.12 Stop charging / Release Aparty


a. Clear forward (forward release) If the release of the call is initiated by the Aparty we call this a clear forward or a forward release.

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Figure 275 : Stop charging and release Aparty

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS

ASSS_ASIG A B 3,10 2,7


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ARTA

4,11 5 A B ASSS_TSIG

ASSS_TSIG 8 6 LCHG

LCHG

SMD FMM 9 LCRC DH SSM

SMD FMM

LCRC DH SSM

ASM (orig)

ASM (term)

When the Aparty hooks on, the subscriber has to be released and the charging has to be stopped.

[ 1 ] hook on LCRC DH SSM_A indicates to ASSS_TSIG_A that the Aparty hooked on. [ 2 ] put terminal in busy scan list [ 3 ] intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_A reports the hookon to ASSS_ASIG_A. [ 4 ] signalling to signalling ASSS_ASIG_A reports the hookon to ASSS_ASIG_B and starts a timeout for delayed congestion tone (e.g. 12 s).

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[ 5 ] intra signalling ASSS_ASIG_A indicates the necessary actions to ASSS_TSIG_A: release the Aparty; report the charging event. [ 6 ] charging event ASSS_TSIG_A reports the hookon to charging (e.g. to stop the charging). [ 7 ] remove terminal from busy scan list [ 8 ] release SMD FMM_A executes the release of the UCP and the cluster path. [ 9 ] return cluster path
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(the principles of UCP release were explained in the chapter on the DTMF receiver release) put terminal in origination scanning list The terminal can originate a new call and is powered down. Also the subscriber state is changed to available free. When the UCP is released, OS sends this event to both DH FMMs (not indicated in the overview figure !). [ 10 ] intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_A acknowledges the release. [ 11 ] signalling to signalling ASSS_ASIG_A indicates the release to ASSS_ASIG_B. From the COL the software retrieved the information whether or not the subscriber should receive a parking tone (see retrieval of COL before). Depending on this information, two cases are possible:
-

Silent parking ASSS_TSIG_B sends the clear forward to the DH. The latter puts the subscriber in the parking state. The cluster path is released and the line is put in power down. When the Bparty replaces the handset, the event is sent to the DH and the subscriber is put available free.

Parking with tone The ASSS_TSIG_B starts a timeout and sends a request to the DH to connect this tone and to enter the parking state. If the subscriber replaces the handset within this timeout, then the timeout is stopped and the DH is triggered to disconnect the tone and put the subscriber available free.

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If the timeout expires, then ASSS_TSIG checks in database if a second tone has to be connected. If not, the silent parking actions are started. b. Clear backward If the release of the call is initiated by the Bparty we call this a clear backward or a backward release. Because of the similarity of the scenario (same principle as clear forward), no scenario is given here. Upon receipt of the called hookon, ASM_B informs ASM_A. There, charging is informed because CDE dependent charging can continue, change or be temporarily stopped. Moreover, a reanswer timeout is started to give the Bparty the chance to lift the handset of the same or another set connected to the same line. Three possibilities exist: Aparty hooks on:
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The hookon results in the same actions as the clear forward. Only this time the Bparty is available free instead of being put in the parking state. Reanswer timeout expires: ASSS_TSIG_B receives the timeout message. Actions are taken to put the Bparty available free and release all the connections and the cluster path. The originating ASM is informed to stop charging and to put the Aparty in the parking state until hookon. Bparty hooks off again: The event is translated to REANSWER and the reanswer timeout is stopped. Also the originating ASM is informed to send the event to charging (if the charging was modified or stopped, it will resume with the previous charging) The conversation can continue.

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6.1.13 Release Bparty


Figure 276 : Release Bparty

SCALSV
PATED TRC CHAN CGC

CFCS

ASSS_ASIG B

ARTA

3
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2,5

B ASSS_TSIG 4 LCHG

SMD FMM 1

LCRC DH SSM

ASM (term)
The Bpartys telephonic state is changed to available free. [ 1 ] hookon LCRC DH SSM detects that the Bparty hooked on. [ 2 ] intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_B reports the hookon to ASSS_ASIG_B. [ 3 ] intra signalling ASSS_ASIG_B indicates the necessary action to ASSS_TSIG_B: release Bparty. [ 4 ] release SMD FMM releases the Bparty: the cluster path is released and the telephonic state is changed to available free.

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[ 5 ] intra signalling ASSS_TSIG_B acknowledges the release.

6.2 Local call with ISDN subscribers

6.2.1 Example of an ISDN


Figure 277 : Example of an ISDN

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subscribers premises

Sinterface NT1 Uinterface ISM

A1000 A12


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ISDN
PRA IPTM

PABX

IRSU

2 Mb/s PCM

IRIM

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a. The S interface The Sinterface has a four wire configuration. It allows to connect up to eight ISDN terminals. The terminals are simply connected in daisy chain. b. The basic rate access interface The basic rate access interface is an interface with many names: basic rate access (BRA); basic access (BA); 2B+D interface. Technically the more interesting name is 2B+D interface, because it sheds some light on the capacity of the interface: the interface contains two B channels and a D channel. The B channels are used for any type of circuit switched communication, such as: speech; circuit switched data transmission; video transmission. The B channels are allocated for the duration of a call. They have a bit rate of 64 kb/s each. The D channel is used for: signalling, for example to set up and release a call; packet switched data transmission; telemetry. The signalling information and possibly the data packets are all multiplexed into the same channel. The D channel has a bit rate of 16 kb/s. The total bit rate on a BRA interface is thus 2*64 kb/s + 16 kb/s = 144 kb/s. The line coding on the BRA interface is either 4B3T or 2B1Q. With 4B3T 4 binary digits (bits) are converted into 3 ternary digits. As a result the signalling rate on a BRA is 120 kBaud (144 *3 /4 + control signals). With 2B1Q line coding 2 bits are converted into 1 quaternary digit. As a result the signalling rate on a BRA is 80 kBaud (144 /2 + control signals).

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The BRA interface has a two wire configuration. To provide a full duplex transmission, echo cancellation is used. c. The primary rate access interface A primary rate access (PRA) has 30 speech channels (B) and one signalling channel (D). It is therefore called a 30B+D interface. Each channel operates at a bit rate of 64 kb/s.
Note: The D channel of a PRA has a bit rate of 64 kb/s, as opposed to the bit rate of the D channel of a BRA, which has a bit rate of 16 kb/s

The bit rate on a PRA is 2.048 Mb/s. The PRA uses a frame of 32 channels, numbered from 0 till 31. The channels have the following functions: channel 0 channel 16
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

synchronisation conveys the D channel information contain the 30 B channels

channels 115 and 1731

A PRA is typically used to connect an ISDN PABX to an exchange. The distance between the user and the network is unlimited, provided that regenerators are used.

6.2.2 Overview of the ISDN protocols


Figure 278 : The OSI model for a BRA speech / video / data data (circuit switched) signalling (packet switched)

telemetry

layer three

B1 entity

B2 entity

S entity

P entity

T entity

layer two

B1 entity

B2 entity

LAPD entity

layer one

physical entity

The ISDN standards are compatible with the bottom three layers of the open systems interconnection (OSI) reference model. Figure 278 demonstrates this for a BRA. In layer three, the network layer, you find the entities that represent the two B channels and three entities for the D channel: the signalling entity, the packet switching entity and the telemetry entity.

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In layer two, the data link layer, the D channel follows a data link protocol of the highlevel data link control (HDLC) type. That protocol is called link access protocol on the D channel (LAPD). In layer one, the physical layer, a frame structure has been defined to convey the bits on a BRA or a PRA. It is only on this level that a distinction between BRA and PRA is made ! The following table compares the OSI definitions with the ITUT standards. layer 3 2 1 OSI model network layer data link layer physical layer ITUT standard Q.931 Q.921 I.430 / I.431

6.2.3 Layer three: the network layer


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The network layer performs the routing functions and handles the signalling messages and signalling procedures. The signalling at layer three is referred to as digital subscriber signalling one (DSS1). Figure 279 : Generic layout of a DSS1 message 1 byte protocol discriminator 0 0 0 0 length of call reference

call reference message type information element optional and repeatable

Figure 279 gives the generic layout of a DSS1 message. It contains the following components:
-

Protocol discriminator

The protocol discriminator indicates the layer three protocol. The most important value here is H08 indicating Q.931 usernetwork call control messages.
-

Call reference

The call reference uniquely identifies a call within a logical link connection on a usernetwork interface. It has no endtoend significance. This means that the call

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reference value that identifies a call between the Aparty and the exchange and the call reference value that identifies the same call between the exchange and the Bparty can be totally different. The call reference is a layer three parameter. It has a length of one byte for a BA and one or two bytes for a PRA. The following figure gives possible layouts of the call reference. The call reference value is allocated by the originator on the usernetwork interface. Typically this would be the Apartys telephone set on the first usernetwork interface and the exchange on the second usernetwork interface.
-

Message type

The message type is a 7 bit value that indicates the type of DSS1 message, such as setup message, connect message and so on.
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Information element

The real information is carried in a number of information elements.

6.2.4 Layer two: the data link layer


The data link layer performs the error control functions and the flow control functions. a. Layer two packet layout Figure 280 : Layer two packet layout layer three information

layer two

flag 8b

address 16 b

control 16 b N*8 b

frame check sequence 16 b

flag 8b

The packet contains the following fields: flag: The flag is used to separate two messages. It has a fixed layout: B0111 1110. address: Since there can be up to eight terminals on a BA, each terminal has to be addressable in a unique way. This is achieved with two layer two parameters: the terminal endpoint identifier (TEI) and the service access point identifier (SAPI). The terminal endpoint identifier (TEI) identifies the physical terminal on a BA. It is a number from 0 to 127. The values have the following purpose:

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TEI 0 63 64 126 127

purpose nonautomatic TEI assignment automatic TEI assignment broadcasting

The values for nonautomatic TEI assignment have to be programmed into the ISDN equipment by the user. The values for automatic TEI assignment are dynamically allocated when the first call is started from a newly connected terminal. The service access point identifier (SAPI) identifies the type of call. It is a value from 0 to 63 with the following assignment: SAPI
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purpose call control part (circuit switched call) packet switched call management call

0 16 63

The combination of the TEI and the SAPI uniquely identifies a data link. With a SAPI value of 16 the packet switching network can be accessed. This requires interworking between the Dchannel and the PS network. The System12 module that takes care of this is the IPTMN. control: The control field contains a sequence number and flow control information. It is used to acknowledge messages or to request retransmission. information: The information is passed by layer three. frame check sequence: The frame check sequence (FCS) is calculated by the sending side and transferred together with the message. The receiving side recalculates the FCS and compares the found value with the FCS value from the message. If they are equal, the message is assumed to be received correctly. If the two values are different, the message is discarded. b. Layer two packet carrying a layer three packet If a terminal sends a layer three packet, it first passes the packet to layer two. Layer two then adds a number of fields, as explained in the previous chapter. Eventually the

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packet arrives in the ISM. The packet is passed to the ISS FMM in the form of a System12 message. The data part contains the terminal number (TN) and the TEI. The actual layer two packet, including the layer three cargo, is attached as a user buffer. c. Layer two packet sequences Figure 281 : Layer two packet sequences

TE
UI TEI assignment UI

NT

SABME data link setup


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UA

receiver ready

RR RR

TEI assignment When a terminal requests a TEI, it broadcasts the request to the host. The host allocates a TEI and sends the TEI value over the broadcast data link to the terminal. Since it is possible that several terminals request a TEI simultaneously, the requesting terminal includes a random number with its request. When the host replies, it includes that number as well. This way each terminal knows which reply it has to use. data link setup To set up a data link a set asynchronous balanced mode extended (SABME) message is sent. The response is an unnumbered acknowledgement (UA). receiver ready This layer two message is sent every 10 seconds if a data link is established.

6.2.5 Layer one: the physical layer


The physical layer is described by three types of recommendations: electrical recommendations; mechanical recommendations;

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functional recommendations. According to these recommendations the S interface has a four wire configuration; two wires in either direction. The wires are connected via an RJ45 plug (8pins).

6.2.6 Terms and definitions


a. High layer compatibility The high layer compatibility (HLC) is a value that is used by the terminating side to perform compatibility checks. It represents the type of equipment that is used. The purpose is to connect a telephone set to an other telephone set, a facsimile machine to an other facsimile machine and so on. Typical values include: telephony;
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facsimile group 2/3; facsimile group 4, class I; facsimile group 4 class II/III; teletex services; message handling systems (MHS); OSI applications. b. Low layer compatibility The low layer compatibility (LLC) is a value that is used by the terminating side to perform compatibility checks. It contains data that describes the lower level of the equipment that is used, such as the information transfer rate, the transfer mode, the number of stop bits and data bits, and so on. If provided by the call originator, the LLC is passed to the termination transparently through the ISDN. c. Bearer capability The bearer capability indicates the requested bearer service to be provided by the network. Typical possibilities are: UNR_DIG SPEECH AUD_3_1K

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d. Basic service The basic service (BS) represents the meaningful combinations of a bearer capability and a high layer compatibility. The purpose is to allow certain facilities to be defined per basic service. If all the combinations of BC and HLC were defined, too much data would be required. e. Multisubscriber number The multisubscriber number (MSN) allows an operator to assign multiple directory numbers to the same ISDN subscriber. The subscriber would then program his terminals with different numbers. The purpose can be diverse: an A party can dial one of these numbers to arrive at one terminal in particular; the ISDN subscriber can request different facilities for the different MSNs;
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the B party will see this MSN as the originator (providing CLIP for B party and no CLIR for A party); the MSN can be used for charging to indicate the A party. For call handling one of the MSNs is declared as the default. This is amongst others important for the location of the subscriber data, which depends on the DNET. All the data associated with that ISDN subscriber will be stored in the same SACELSIF, even if he has MSNs with different DNET values ! f. Subaddress The subaddress is a number additional to the directory number of a subscriber. The directory number identifies an S interface, whereas a subaddress allows to distinguish between different terminals on the same S interface. The subaddress is passed transparently through the ISDN. If a subscriber wishes to use subaddresses, he has to program the value on his equipment. If an originator passes a subaddress in a setup message, then at the termination only the terminal that has that subaddress will react to the setup message.
Note: Also the terminals that do not have a subaddress programmed will react !!

g. Interworking directory number An interworking directory number (IWDN) allows an operator to assign different DNs to an ISDN subscriber. The numbers can only be used in calls terminating at one of those numbers. The terminating exchange translates the IWDN into the real DN of the terminating ISDN subscriber and a subaddress and a HLC. This is the only way an analogue subscriber can reach a particular type of equipment, represented by the HLC, at the terminating subscriber (except for the default HLC).

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It can also be used, in addition to the MSN, to allow an analogue subscriber to reach one of the terminals in particular at the terminating side. h. Usertouser signalling Usertouser signalling (UUS) allows an ISDN subscriber to send information (typically text or numbers) via the D channel to an other ISDN subscriber. This information can then be displayed on the telephone set, or used by the B partys PC. There are four types of UUS: UUS1: UUS during the call setup and clearing; UUS2: UUS during the alerting; UUS3: UUS during the active phase of the call; UUS4: UUS without allocating a B channel.
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6.2.7 Handling of a Q.931 message in S12


Figure 282 : Q931 messages

ISM
DCH

...
BA
DCH

L1

...
ILC L2

DSN

MEM

PROC L2 DH SIG PROC L3

L3 L2 L1 D

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Figure 282 shows which elements in S12 handle the different layers of the D channel.
-

The Q931 is received via the Dchannel of the BA. The Dchannel is read by the ILC (ISDN Link Controller). This LSI executes the hardware L2 functions: Flag insertion and detection, bit(de)stuffing, FCS (Frame Check Sequence) generation and checking, generate Tx fillers and delete Rx fillers (flags or all ones). The ILC writes the message in the memory and informs the processor (interrupt). The processor can check the FCS result from the ILC and executes the remaining layer 2 functions (handling the sequence numbers, TEI and SAPI, flow control, ...) The processor then transmits the message (layer 3 information only!) to the control element. Because of the limited size of the PRAM buffers, the processor partitions the Q931 message into several parts (if necessary) and transmits them one by one. Again to provide error free transmission, the packets are labelled and a sequence check (with acknowledge) is used (similar to CCS N7 using FIB,BIB). This principle is not shown in figure 282. The packets are received one by one in the DH and transmitted as a whole (A1000 S12 message) to the ISS. ISS is responsible for the layer 3 actions.

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The principle of message sending is the same in the other direction and is therefore not repeated here.

6.2.8 Local ISDN call overview


The following figure sketches a local call scenario, displaying only the DSS1 messages exchanged between the subscribers and the exchange. The figure indicates the scenario in case the B party has two terminals (of the requested type).

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Figure 283 : ISDN local call scenario A party A dials Bs DN setup call proceed setup call proceed call proceed alert alert alert ringing ringing term_1 answers connect connect acknowledge release release complete conversation disconnect term_1 hooks on release release complete Bparty term_1 term_2

A1000 S12

ringing connect
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connect acknowledge

conversation A hooks on disconnect release release complete

A couple of remarks:
-

if the Bparty hooks on first, the release of the call is the same as above with the bottom 6 messages mirrored; the scenario assumes enbloc sending, where the setup message contains the full Bparty number (DN and possibly SA). An alternative is overlap sending, where the setup message contains either only a part of the Bparty number or no number at all. The further digits are then sent in information messages; the scenario excludes the data link setup and release. a. Scenario from Aparty towards S12 This scenario is given for a BA. When a call is generated in an ISDN set, the called DN is entered manually or from the sets database and a key (or multiple keys) is pressed to start the call setup.

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At this moment the set wants to send a Q931 SETUP message but a BA is normally powered down. Therefore the subscribers equipment (NT1) activates layer 1 (power up) by sending a fixed pattern. Then layer 2 is activated via the SABME and UA sequence. Then the set can transmit the layer 3 Q931 SETUP message. This message contains the following layer 3 information: Call reference; Bearer Capability: This was explained before, in our example it is speech. Channel identification:
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Identity of the Bchannel on the BA (B1 or B2). From the subscriber to the ISM this field is optional because the host is responsible for the channel assignment (SMD FMM). Bparty Number (DN) and Subaddress; Aparty Number (DN) and Subaddress; LLC and HLC; User to User Signalling (UUS). The host responds by sending the CALL PROCEEDING backwards. This message contains the channel identity (B1 or B2) to be used for this call. The ALERTING message indicates that the Bparty is reached and that the call has entered the stable phase (ringing). When the CONNECT is received from the called party the set will acknowledge with a CONNECTACK. The connect message can indicate the connected address which can be displayed on the display. From now on we are in conversation phase. For an ISDN subscriber the clear forward and clear backward are treated in the same way because the reanswer possibility does not exist in ISDN. This is because an ISDN subscriber can use the SUSPEND and RESUME messages to switch to another set or temporarily suspend a call. When the subscriber finishes the call, a DISCONNECT is transmitted to the exchange. This is a request to release the call.

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If the request is accepted, the exchange transmits a RELEASE backward, which is also acknowledged with RELEASE COMPLETE. The final actions are the termination of layer 2. This is done by sending the DISC and UA frames. b. Scenario from S12 towards Bparty This scenario is different compared to the originating scenario because here we use Call Offering. This means that the call is offered to all compatible terminals and one terminal can connect the call. This is done by sending a Q931 SETUP Broadcast message (after activating L1 and L2). This message contains the channel identity (B1 or B2). Broadcast means that the message contains the TEI = 127. In this case the message is accepted by all the terminals. When the terminals check the information (HLC) only the compatible terminals will respond. When a subaddress is available only that terminal will respond. In our example, 2 terminals will respond (two telephone sets). Terminal 1 responds by activating its layer 2 (SABME and UA) and sending the CALL PROCEED. Then the set starts ringing and indicates this via the ALERTING message. The same procedure is repeated by terminal 2. Both telephone sets use the same call reference but the difference between the message for terminal 1 or terminal 2 is made by the TEI values. Each set connected to the same BA uses a different TEI. In our example, terminal 1 answers by sending the CONNECT message. The host responds by sending the CONNECT ACK back to terminal 1. However, the second terminal is still in the alerting phase. Therefore the host sends the RELEASE to this terminal which responds with a RELEASE COMPLETE. Also the L2 of terminal 2 is disconnected (DISC and UA). We are now in conversation phase. The call release scenario is the same as for the originating call and is therefore not repeated.

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6.2.9 Local ISDN call in detail


Figure 284 gives the call phases for an ISDN local call. The principles for an outgoing or incoming call are the same as explained before (see case study). That is why only the local call is indicated. The Q931 messages are also indicated in this figure. Their meaning and contents were already discussed in the previous paragraphs, so they are not repeated here. Only some differences with the analogue local call are explained in the following paragraphs.

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The phases are more or less the same, except that for an ISDN subscriber some phases are omitted. This is because of the powerful Q931 signalling system (compatible with CCS N7) which doesnt need a receiver. These phases are deleted from the scenario (see crosses) but are still visible to clearly indicate the differences with analogue scenarios.
Remark: the Aparty Q931 messages are on the left side of the pages and the Bparty messages are printed on the right side.

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Figure 284 : Local Exchange

SUBSCRIBER

SETUP SEIZURE CALL PROC PREPARE & SEND DIAL TONE

DETECTION OF PREFIX DIGITS PREFIX ANALYSIS

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LOCAL

OUTGOING

END OF DIALLING RELEASE RECEIVER

SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION SETUP TERMINATING SEIZURE ALERT PASS TO STABLE STATE CON ACK ANSWER CON CALL PROC ALERT

OUTGOING TK SELECTION

IAM
OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

ACM
PASS TO STABLE PHASE

ANC
ACK ANSWER

CONVERSATION DISC REL


FORWARD RELEASE

DISC REL REL_C


CLEAR FORWARD RELEASE

CLF

REL_C

RLG

a. Seizure

SETUP

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The setup contains all the necessary information to start the call. Because all the information in the message is digital, there is no need for a receiver to detect the digits. The dial tone is generated locally in the set. Signalling creates a transaction for this call and allocates a transaction control block (see local call). SCREENING (figure 285) Screening applies to ISDN subscribers and to analogue subscribers in case they are connected to a Mixed Subscriber Module (MSM), MixedRSU or ISDN Concentrator (ICON). Figure 285 : Screening

Screening
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Aparty DN Translate Scrn_grp

DK

&
Scrn_grp TN Translate

OK/NOK (Default DN/DK)

The TN (only 1 TN / BA) and the Aparty DN are translated into a screening group number (scrn_grp). Both numbers must be equal to have an OK condition. At the same time the DN is translated into the DataKey (DK). This key was mentioned before. Each data key (read: Directory Number) can have a different data profile. There is a one to one relation between the DK and the DN, but the DK is easier to use to access database (index instead of the binary search using the DN). If the Aparty DN is not found (E164, PBX number or Private Number [see facilities]), then the call is REJECTED. In case the Aparty DN is not provided or the screening procedure is not used (depends upon the administration), the TN can be translated into the default Aparty DN and DK which will be used during the further call setup. A cluster path is allocated and connected to the Bchannel ISS gets the OLCOS from the database using the DK as input. DNET: used to define the LSSG for this subscriber to access the LSIF data (done later by CFCS) Subscriber group

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Calling Party Category = CPC (normal subscriber, coinbox, data line, test call,...) Charging information Number of prefix digits required Facility allowance (abbreviated dialling, hotline, ...) Indication if CFCS must access the data at ACE level ... CFCS is activated. The global scenario can be compared with figure 254, but the access to ARTA is not included. CFCS sends a request to LSIF to retrieve the data (the DNET and the digits are used to define the index in the LSIF relations): Facility related data: abbreviated dialling, full three party service, hotline information, password for subscriber control (SC), .... Changed number (can be used to send announcement) Selective scanning list. This is a list of DNs of which the calls can be rejected, different ringing or forward their incoming calls. Specific ISDN information: CUG information (Closed User Group), UUS (User to User Signalling), Advice of Charge (AOC), DNs presentation (restrictions and override), ... Basic Service dependent facilities: Call forwarding, Incoming and Outgoing Barring, ... (remember BS=0 for analogue subscribers)

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Call Proceed
b. Prefix Analysis All the digits were received enbloc. So all the digits are transmitted towards PATED. For the input and output of PATED see the case study. For an outgoing call the actions were discussed detailed in the case study. For the local call we terminate towards an ISDN subscriber. Because this is new, we consider a local call. Reception of the remaining digits and release of the receiver are not needed for an ISDN call. c. Subscriber identification and terminating seizure The terminating seizure scenario is similar to that of the analogue call (see also figure 249).

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For the terminating seizure some messages are transferred to the terminating equipment (in our example only one set responds to the broadcast)

SETUP Call Proceed


d. Pass to stable state Chapter 5.5.1, message [22] mentioned the fact that signalling waits for the ALERTING coming from the Bpartys equipment, before sending this alerting event to CFCS. It is only then that CFCS activates charging and goes stable.

Alerting
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Alerting

At this moment the called terminal is ringing and the calling terminal receives RT from the exchange. e. Answer Upon answer (CONNECT msg) the RT is disconnected, the through connection is established and taxation is started.

Connect Connect Ack


f. Forward release

Connect Connect Ack

Disconnect Release Release Com

Start release actions Stop taxation Bch free Bch free

Disconnect Release Release Com

All connections are cleared and the subscriber is free again.

6.3 Outgoing / incoming call with CCS N7 signalling

6.3.1 Introduction
Figure 286 shows the situation for an outgoing / incoming call using N7 signalling.

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Figure 286 : Overview Outgoing / Incoming Call

Origination Exchange
ACE SCM
1 2

IPTM
N7

ASM

DSN

IPTM

(N7)

STP

ACE
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ASM
4 3

IPTM
N7

DSN

IPTM

Destination Exchange
Figures 287 and 288 show the different phases in the outgoing and the incoming exchange. It is left up to the reader to go through the flowcharts. In the subsequent chapters these phases are discussed in more detail while references will be made to the local call because many actions are the same or similar.

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Figure 287 : Originating Exchange SUBSCRIBER

SEIZURE PREPARE & SEND DIAL TONE DETECTION OF PREFIX DIGITS PREFIX ANALYSIS

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LOCAL

OUTGOING

END OF DIALLING RELEASE RECEIVER

SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION TERMINATING SEIZURE

OUTGOING TK SELECTION

IAM
OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

ACM
PASS TO STABLE PHASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE

ANC
ANSWER ANSWER

CONVERSATION CLF
FORWARD RELEASE FORWARD RELEASE

RLG
CLEAR

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Figure 288 : Incoming Exchange TRUNK IAM


SEIZURE PREFIX ANALYSIS

LOCAL SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION

OUTGOING OUTGOING TK SELECTION

ACM
TERMINATING SEIZURE
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IAM
OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

ACM
PASS TO STABLE PHASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE

ACM

ANC
ANSWER

ANC
ANSWER

ANC

CONVERSATION CLF
FORWARD RELEASE

CLF
FORWARD RELEASE

CLF

RLG

RLG
CLEAR

RLG

6.3.2 CCS N7 overview


Before we continue with the call discussion, some information is given concerning the N7 signalling in A1000 S12. For more details we refer to document 770 00438 0590VHBE. a. CCS N7 network It is possible that the N7 signalling messages are sent directly from the outgoing towards the incoming exchange without an intermediate STP (Signalling Transfer Part). However, to make the call as generic as possible, we will discuss the situation WITH an STP (see figure 289). OP = Origination Point, the exchange where the N7 message originates. STP = Signalling Transfer Point, the exchange where the N7 message passes. DP = Destination Point, the exchange where the N7 message terminates.

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Figure 289 : Outgoing / Incoming Call with N7 (STP)

STP

N7

N7

Speech
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OP
b. CCS N7 message layout

DP

The CCS N7 system is a message oriented signalling system, which means that all the user information is placed in one or more N7 messages. A N7 message is called a signal unit. The CCS N7 system can be divided into two distinct parts (figure 290).

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Figure 290 : CCS N7 structure

USER PART

MTP
SIGNALLING NETWORK FUNCTIONS DISCRIMINATION DPC = own PC ? Y

layer 3

DISTRIBUTION

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ROUTING

layer 2

SIGNALLING LINK FUNCTIONS

layer 1

SIGNALLING DATA LINK FUNCTIONS

To / From remote exchange


The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is capable of transporting information without errors between two end points. This part is common to all N7 users. It is subdivided into three functional levels (levels 1, 2 and 3). A number of different User Parts, which are situated on level 4. Each User Part takes care of a specific function. E.g: the Telephonic User Part (TUP) is responsible for the signalling handling. It uses the MTP to pass the signalling information to the other exchange. Other examples are the ISDN User Part (ISUP), the Taxation User Part (TAXUP), ... Besides the User information, the signal unit contains some information to execute layer 2 functions (error detection and correction) and layer 3 functions (routing). The

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message layout is shown in figure 291. Some of the fields will be used in the following explanation of how A1000 S12 handles the N7 messages. Figure 291 : MTP structure user part message header first bit transmitted

layer three

CIC OPC DPC SSF SI

layer two

flag CRC

LI FIB FSN BIB BSN flag

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layer one

flag CRC message header CIC OPC DPC SSF SI LI FIB FSN BIB BSN flag 8b 16b N*8b 8b 12b 14b 14b 4b 4b 6b 1b 7b 1b 7b 8b

Circuit identification code (CIC) Since in a N7 environment speech can follow a different path from the signalling, there is a need to be able to indicate the speech trunks unambiguously. This is done by numbering them. The exchanges at either end of a trunk have to indicate that trunk with the same number. This number is the circuit identification code (CIC). Point Code Every N7 exchange has a unique 14 bit number: the point code. Whenever an exchange sends a N7 message to an other exchange, it includes its point code as the Originating Point Code (OPC) and the point code of the other exchange as the Destination Point Code (DPC). An exchange can have one point code per network level. Sub Service Field (SSF) The SSF indicates the network level. It is a 4 bit field, therefor giving 16 possibilities. The two least significant bits are not used however, so that only two bits are used effectively. This gives four possibilities: Sub Service Field 00XX 01XX 10XX 11XX network level international 1 international 2 national 1 national 2

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In practice only international layer 1 and the national level are used. In Belgium the local level is used as the network to transport the charging messages (TAXUP). Service Indicator (SI) The SI indicates the type of user part, such as TUP, ISUP, SCCP, and so on. Length Indicator (LI) Per definition the length indicator indicates the number of bytes between the LI field and the CRC field. However the following possibilities exist: length indicator 0 12
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purpose empty message link status real length of the user part user part > 62 B

name of the signal unit fill in signal unit (FISU) link status signal unit (LSSU) message signal unit (MSU) message signal unit (MSU)

3 62 63

Forward Indicator Bit (FIB) The FIB is toggled by the sending exchange to indicate start of retransmission. Forward Sequence Number (FSN) The FSN indicates the sequence number of the message. It is allocated by the sending exchange and is used by the receiving exchange to detect missing messages. The FSN ranges from 0 till 127. Only the messages that contain a layer three message get a new FSN. The other messages repeat the last FSN. Backward Indicator Bit (BIB) The BIB is toggled by the receiving exchange to request retransmission. Backward Sequence Number (BSN) The BSN contains the number of the last message that was received correctly. It is used by the sending side to know which messages it may deallocate from the retransmission buffer. The BSN ranges from 0 till 127. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) The CRC is calculated by the sending side and transferred together with the message. The receiving side recalculates the CRC and compares the found value with the CRC value from the message. If they are equal the message is assumed to be received correctly. If the two values are different, the message is discarded. Flag

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The flag is used to separate two messages. It has a fixed layout: B0111 1110. Header The header indicates the type of message. The header consists of two 4bit fields: H1 and H0. Figure 292 gives an overview of the working of the N7 system. A user part in exchange A wants to send some information to a user part in exchange B. There is no direct signalling connection between exchange A and exchange B. Therefore, the information will be routed via exchange C. The originating exchange (A) is called the Origination Point. The destination exchange (B) is called the Destination Point and the intermediate exchange (C) is called the Signalling Transfer Point. It is left up to the reader to understand the flow.

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Figure 292 : Signal Unit flow


exchange C
USER PART

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MTP

layer 3
DPC = own PC ?

DISCRIMINATION Y

DISTRIBUTION

ROUTING

layer 2 layer 1

OP

STP

DP


MTP

exchange A

USER PART

layer 3

DISCRIMINATION DPC = own PC ? Y

DISTRIBUTION

ROUTING

layer 2 layer 1


MTP

exchange B

USER PART

layer 3

DISCRIMINATION DPC = own PC ? Y

DISTRIBUTION

ROUTING

layer 2 layer 1

6.3.3 Outgoing / incoming N7 call overview


The example below considers only an OP exchange and a DP exchange (figure 293). It is left up to the reader to extend the example to include an STP, although some information about STP N7 handling will be given at the end of the chapter. The exchanges are shown in more detailed in figure 294 (OP) and figure 296 (DP). The Call Handling software, via the TRC, has selected a speech DTM which uses N7 signalling

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(=bottom DTM in the drawings). The selection of such a trunk was based on the requirements of the calling subscriber (he could have asked for a minimum signalling dependency), and based on the content of the routing tables, as tey are populated by the administration. The OP will send a message to the DP. To do this, an IPTM/HCCM is selected to transmit the message via a N7 link.
Note: The connection between the two circuits of the IPTM/HCCM is called a Signalling link. The part of this link between the DTMs (CH16) is called the Data link.

Figure 293 : Outgoing / incoming N7 call N7 Speech

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OP

DP

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a. Actions in the Origination Point Figure 294 : Sending a N7 message (OP) SCALSV

routing L3 USER PART (ASIG)


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DTM IPP

CICid
speech

L1

USER PART (TSIG)

DH

DSN

IPTM/HCCM
(L3) L1 L2

UCP

DTM
CH16

L1 SLS=xxx0

The user part decides to send a message. In our example the user part is TUP. It is situated at the signalling level. The TUP signalling system consists of TUP_ASIG

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(situated in the SCALSV) and TUP_TSIG (situated in the trunk module with the speech trunk). The TC DH FMM has selected a trunk channel within this module. TUP_ASIG delivers the message to the block TR/ROUT. TR stands for TRanslate, which means translating the message from A1000 S12 (Chill modes) into TUP modes. ROUT stands for ROUTing, because we have to find out which signalling link will be used. This function can find the signalling link (LCEid + TN) for every TN (trunk). Figure 295 : Message sending

USER PART
TN (Speech Trunk)
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ROUTING (L3)

TN key

IDX

CIC

DPC

SSF

0 IDX

. ....

SLS . . .....

15

LCEid (IPTM/HCCM) TN (N7 link) To IPTM/HCCM using LCEid

L2
FLAGS FCS FSN/FIB BSN/BIB

To N7 CH16 using TN

Note: Please note that the representation in this figure is a simplified representation !! It in no way reflects the relations that are used to store this information.

Using the TN of the trunk speech channel, the DPC, CIC, SSF are found to include them in the N7 message (figure 291). Also the own OPC is filled in. Then also the

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LCEid of the HCCM or IPTM which handles the link, is found together with the TN of the link within the module. For the LCEid and TN of the signalling, loadsharing is applied using the 4bit SLS field as parameter. Using the retrieved LCEid, the N7 message is sent towards the HCCM or IPTM. There the correct link is selected using the TN. Layer 2 adds the FSN, FIB, BSN, BIB, FCS and the FLAGS before the message is put on the signalling link towards the next exchange (L1). b. Actions in the Destination Point The message is received via L1 in the HCCM or IPTM of the destination exchange. L2 checks if the frame is without errors and if the sequence number is correct. If the frame is accepted, L2 delivers it towards L3 discrimination. L2 also delivers the real message length. Remember that if the LI = 63, it means that the real length is > 63. In this case L2 receives the real number of bytes from the hardware reception logic. It is up to the discrimination part to find out if this exchange is DP or STP. This is done by comparing the own OPC with the received DPC code from the message (also the SSF is used, which indicates whether the type is NAT or INTAL) In our example the exchange is DP (own OPC=DPC) so the message is delivered towards distribution.

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Figure 296 : Receiving a N7 message (DP) SCALSV

USER PART (ASIG)

CICid
speech
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DTM

L1

DH

USER PART (TSIG)

IPP IPTM/HCCM
distribution discrimination L2 L1

DSN

UCP

DTM
CH16

L1 SLS=xxx0

The distribution part uses the OPC, SSF and bits 5...11 of the CIC to define the LCEid of the user part DTM. The speech channel is retrieved from bits 0...4 of the CIC code. The SI field indicates the correct user part (TUP in our example).

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Note: The way that the distribution is described is a simplified way. Further it only applies to a normal CIC distribution. If random CICs are used, the distribution function is more complex.

Using the retrieved LCEid the message is sent to the TUP_TSIG of the destination speech DTM. In the DTM the translation part translates the TUP modes into A1000 S12 modes. Figure 297 : Message receiving USER PART
To DTM using LCEid DISTRIB. (L3) SI = TUP

LCEid (DTM) TN of trunk (=CIC bits 0...4)

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OPC

SSF

CIC(bit 5...11) key

DPC=own OPC DISCRIM. (L3) CHECK DPC/SSF WITH OWN OPC/SSF ROUTING (L3)

DPC<>own OPC

L2

FLAGS FCS FSN/FIB BSN/BIB From N7 CH16

c. Actions in a Signalling Transfer Point In the above example, there was no STP. However, in the case of an STP the HCCM or IPTM L3 will access the L3 routing (see also figure 298 ) This routing is different from the routing in the speech DTM, because in an STP it is not possible to use the TN of the trunk speech channel to define the outgoing N7 link. In this case, the DPC and the SSF of the message are used to define the HCCM or IPTM LCEid and the TN of the N7 link. Also loadsharing is used based upon the SLS.

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The selection mechanism is shown in the figure below. REMARK: The newly selected HCCM/IPTM can be the same (or different) but it is obvious that the outgoing N7 link (CH16) is different from the incoming link. Figure 298 : Routing in STP
ROUTING (L3) key DPC key 0 IDX . .... . SLS . . ..... 15 SSF IDX

LCEid (IPTM/HCCM) TN (N7 link)


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To IPTM/HCCM using LCEid

DPC<>own OPC

DISCRIM. (L3) CHECK DPC/SSF WITH OWN OPC

DISTRIB. (L3)

DPC=own OPC

L2

FLAGS FCS FSN/FIB BSN/BIB From N7 CH16

To No7 CH16 using TN

6.3.4 Outgoing / incoming N7 call in detail


In the next chapters, the call phases are discussed for the outgoing and the incoming exchange. The phases were shown in figures 287 and 288. The call is discussed in sequential order, which means that after transmitting the IAM, the discussion continues in the destination exchange. With the ACM the call continues in the originating exchange. Thus, it may be confusing for the reader to know at all times in which exchange the actions are taking place. To solve this problem, the title of each chapter indicates whether the actions happen in the originating exchange (O), or in the destination exchange (D). a. Prefix analysis (O) All actions from the moment of hookoff until the start of the prefix analysis are of course exactly the same for a local call and an outgoing call because until the prefix

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analysis result is known it is not yet clear whether the call is local or outgoing. Therefore these actions are not repeated here and we start with the prefix analysis. For a refresh of the actions we refer to the local call. After the required number of prefix digits have been received, they are transmitted towards PATED. The input parameters are the same as in the local call (see figure 262). The results from PATED are different: PATED finds that the call is OUTGOING. A ROUTECODE is found, which is used later to define the outgoing direction (see TRC and TRA) Start selection point: indicates the number of digits to be received before trunk selection starts (in our example this is 7, which means that the entire DN is received before the trunk selection starts).
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Signalling information (second dial tone, ...) ... (see local call) These results are transmitted back to CFCS which informs signalling of the remaining digits to be received. The outgoing exchange and the software blocks involved are shown in the figure below.

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Figure 299 : Outgoing exchange


ACE TRC PATED TRA LSIF ARTA

SCM
DTMF Rec.

CFCS

TUP_ASIG ASSS_ASIG IPTM MTP

SIG DH
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DTM
N7 Lk

DSN

DTM HW

ASM
ASM HW

DTM
DTM HW
Speech

ASSS_TSIG DH

TUP_TSIG DH ROUT

Note: The ACE in the figure in fact represents a number of ACEs, such as the SCALSV, the SACELSIF and the SACETRA. Note: It is up to the teacher and/or the reader to use the exchange drawings. This means, try to know at any moment in which module the actions are taking place and also try to indicate the connections in all the modules and to clear them when necessary (UCPs, tones, cluster connections, ...).

b. End of dialling (O) The result 4 more digits required is sent to the SCM. When all the requested digits have been received they are transmitted towards CFCS. c. Release receiver (O) The actions to release the receiver are exactly the same as for the local call.

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d. Outgoing trunk selection (O) CFCS sends the necessary information towards the TRM (Trunk Resource Management). As explained before, it is up to TRM (=TRC + TRA) to define a DTM with at least one trunk speech channel free. The following information is sent to TRC: ROUTECODE. This routing code was retrieved in PATED and depends upon: Origin (subscriber or trunk, for trunk the same outgoing signalling type could be requested); Destination (routing depends upon the dialled prefix); TOC (priority calls or operators can be routed via high quality trunks); Time (e.g: different routing during night time);
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Circuit or Packet switched call. BC (Bearer Capability). A subscriber can request on a per call basis a certain BC for his call (e.g: bandwidth and quality of the connection) The request for a certain BC results in release of the call if the request cannot be fulfilled. Signalling type: certain services (e.g: for ISDN) can only be provided via a fully digital signalling (ISUP). For our example the three parameters are: Routecode X BC = speech, default retrieved from DB for analogue subscriber who cannot provide this information. Signalling type = any, because BC=speech and no facilities are used. The selection mechanism was explained in chapter 3.4.10 and is therefore not repeated here. The result coming back from the TRM is the following: Identity of the outgoing DTM which will be used for the speech. DID data for the outgoing trunk (timeout values, signalling information (N7, R2, ...), hardware parameters, ...). All this information is received in CFCS. e. Outgoing trunk seizure (O) The outgoing trunk seizure can be compared with the terminating seizure in the case of an analogue local call (see before). The selected module is contacted and a UCP is

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established between the selected module and the originating module. Also the connections in the terminal interface are established. The scenario is the same as in figure 267. The differences are: destination ASM should be replaced by DTM and the actions [1] and [2] are access to TRM instead of LSIF. Also RC and RT are not connected here. However, for an outgoing call an additional action is required. It is up to the outgoing exchange to inform the remote exchange about the trunk seizure. This is done by sending a seizure. In our example we are using N7, so the seizure means sending an IAM (Initial Address Message). The sending of N7 messages has been explained before. The IAM contains more information than the seizure indication: Entire Called DN ( enbloc )
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Calling Party Category (normal call) Aparty DN (optional) ...

IAM
f. Seizure (D) The IAM message is received in the destination exchange. However, it is only after the prefix analysis that the software knows if this is the terminating exchange or a transit. In our example it will be terminating, so the situation is shown in figure 300. In the chapter on N7 it was explained that the incoming exchange can retrieve the speech channel from the N7 message (bits 0...4 of the CIC). In the incoming DTM a cluster path is allocated and connected to the speech trunk channel. For bothway trunks (N7 always), the TRA FMM is informed that the incoming trunk is involved in an incoming call and may not be selected for an outgoing call. CFCS is activated. This FMM has the same functionality as the CFCS for originating subscriber calls.

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Figure 300 : Incoming exchange


ACE TRC PATED IPTM MTP CFCS TRA LSIF TUP_ASIG ASSS_ASIG

DTM
N7 Lk

DTM HW

DSN

DTM
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ASM
ASM HW

Speech

DTM HW

TUP_TSIG DH ROUT

ASSS_TSIG DH

Note: The ACE in the figure in fact represents a number of ACEs, such as the SCALSV, the SACELSIF and the SACETRA.

g. Prefix analysis (D) The prefix digits are sent to PATED. In this case all digits are sent to PATED, because they were all received enbloc. The input parameters for PATED are: Digits received in IAM. TOC (Calling Party Category: Normal Call received in IAM) NPI and NATADDR: E164 and National, received from IAM or filled in by CFCS. Sourcecode: Type = trunk and trunk group number retrieved from DB. TOD The result coming from PATED indicates a local call. The parameters provided in this case were already discussed in the Local Call chapter and are not repeated here.

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h. Subscriber identification (D) LSIF is accessed to define the terminating subscriber. The input and the results are the same as for a local call. i. Terminating seizure (D) Here the terminating subscriber module is informed about the call. If the subscriber is free, all connections are established and the ringing phase is started. CFCS sends a request to TRM to retrieve the incoming DID. The scenario starting with the subscriber identification and ending with a positive acknowledgement towards CFCS is the same as for the local call in figure 267, replacing CFCS by CFCS and the incoming ASM by the DTM. Now it is also possible to inform the originating exchange about the successful call setup. This is done by sending the ACM to the originating exchange.
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There exist ACM messages with different meanings. The ACM which is sent in our example is of the AFC type. In this case the ACM contains the following information: Address complete (no more digits required). The Bparty is Free. Charging has to be applied. At this moment RC is sent to the Bparty and RT is sent from the called ASM to the Aparty via the connections. We are now in the ringing phase.

ACM
j. Pass to stable (D) CFCS passes all the stable data to ASSS_ASIG and TUP_ASIG and terminates. k. Pass to stable (O) The ACM message is received in TUP_ASIG in the originating exchange. CFCS is informed and activates the charging. Then CFCS passes all the stable data to ASSS_ASIG and TUP_ASIG. At this moment both exchanges are waiting for answer of the Bparty. l. Answer (D) As soon as the Bparty lifts the handset, the RC and RT are removed and the through connection is established. It is up to the destination exchange to inform the originating exchange of this event to start the taxation.

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To do so, ASSS_ASIG sends the answer signal to TUP_ASIG which transmits the N7 ANC (ANSWER) message. The message content indicates: ANswer with Charge.

ANC
m. Answer (O) The N7 answer message is received in TUP.SIG which forwards the event to ASSS_TSIG. The latter will actually start the taxation. Both subscribers are now in conversation.
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CONVERSATION
n. Forward release (O) When the Aparty finishes the call, it is called a Clear Forward and this means that the call will be released. ASSS_ASIG stops the taxation for this call. Via the DHs all the connections are released and the DTM will send the Clear Forward event to the destination exchange. This is done via the message CLF.

CLF
o. Forward release (D) The CLF is received in the destination exchange, where actions are taken to release all the connections and make the trunk free again. The fact that the trunk has become free, is sent towards TRA. The clear forward message is acknowledged with another N7 message, called RLG (Release Guard).

RLG

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p. Clear (O) Upon receipt of the RLG the trunk is indicated free again, and TRA is informed. REMARK: For ISUP some of the messages have different abbreviations but the main principles remain the same (in some messages also different (more) parameters are used): ANC becomes ANM (Answer Message) CLF and CBK become REL (Release) RLG becomes RLC (Release Complete)

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6.4 Transit N7 call

Figure 301 shows the situation for a transit call using N7 signalling. Figure 301 : Transit Call

Transit Exchange
ACE
N7 N7

IPTM
3 2

IPTM
speech

speech

IPTM

DSN

IPTM

Figure 302 gives the different call phases. The actions are all similar to or the same as those explained in the previous chapters (see local and outgoing/incoming call). Because there is nothing new to explain, it is up to the trainee to make the transit scenario. Note that a transit exchange is transparent for the signalling when the incoming and outgoing connections have been established. REMARK: A transit exchange should never be confused with a signalling transfer point (STP). A transit exchange is for speech and an STP is for signalling.

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Figure 302 : Transit Exchange TRUNK IAM


SEIZURE PREFIX ANALYSIS

LOCAL SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION

OUTGOING OUTGOING TK SELECTION

ACM
TERMINATING SEIZURE
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IAM
OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

ACM
PASS TO STABLE PHASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE

ACM

ANC
ANSWER

ANC
ANSWER

ANC

CONVERSATION CLF
FORWARD RELEASE

CLF
FORWARD RELEASE

CLF

RLG

RLG
CLEAR

RLG

6.5 Outgoing / incoming call with CAS/R2 signalling

6.5.1 CAS line signalling


CAS stands for Channel Associated Signalling. In this chapter a brief explanation is given of the CAS handling in A1000 S12. However for more details we refer to the corresponding Signalling courses. CAS is used to transmit and receive line events, in other words line signalling. The changes in line states are transmitted in CH16 of a digital PCM connection. For every speech trunk a nibble is reserved so a change in line state results in the change of the bit pattern (nibble). To know which nibble belongs to which speech channel, a multiframe structure is used. In

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this way it is possible to send for every speech channel (one speech channel is used for one call) the line events in the nibble of the dedicated CH16. Figure 303 shows a PCM channel structure with the CH0 frame alignment pattern. Also notice the CRC4 + Ebit which was introduced in the CCITT Blue Books. However the CRC4 multiframe structure (not shown here) may not be confused with the CAS multiframe structure. The CAS multiframe structure is shown in figure 304. The first CH16 contains the multiframe alignment pattern and the remaining fifteen CH16s each contain the CAS bits for two speech channels. Figure 303 : PCM frame alignment.

MULTIFRAME (2ms)
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10

11

12

13

14 15

FRAME (125 s)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Channel TS (3.9 s)
C 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

(EVEN frames)

Frame alignment pattern CRC4 + synchronisation National use + Ebit

Y N N N N N

(ODD frames)

Remote Junction Alarm (RJA)

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Figure 304 : CAS multiframe structure


MULTIFRAME (2ms)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Multiframe Alignment Pattern CH16


0 0 0 0 1 Y 1 1

Multiframe align. alarm CH16


a b c d a b c d

for CH1
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for CH17 CH16

for CH2 . . . .

for CH18

a,b,c,d = CAS information

CH16
a b c d a b c d

for CH15
-

for CH31

Working principle The CAS line signalling is sent and received by the trunk hardware. Figure 305 shows the principle. [a] The processor in the DTM wants to send a CAS line event to a remote exchange. The new bit values (abcd) are transmitted towards the processor of the trunk hardware. REMARK: This does not apply to the DTUA, because it uses only one processor. [b] The processor copies the abcd bit values into the CAS memory. The layout of this

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memory is easy to understand. It contains 16 adjacent memory locations (words), each location being the CH16 content for transmission in the multiframe (=16 frames). [c] If the hardware is initialised for CAS, it will fetch the correct word (=CH16 content) into the correct frame. This is repeated for as long as CAS is applicable. REMARK: If the DTM is not initialised for CAS, it will not execute the above mentioned procedure. In this case CH16 can be used for speech or CCS (Common Channel Signalling). As long as the CAS bits are not changed by the software, the hardware keeps sending the same bit values in CH16 of each multiframe. [d] This is the reception of a CAS line signalling event. Every CH16 is written in a receive buffer(in memory) on 16 consecutive locations (one specific CH16 in the multiframe structure will overwrite the same location, multiframe after multiframe). If the received bits have changed, the hardware takes no action. [e] It is up to the processor to check the received CAS bits with the previous value (therefore the processor checks and copies the CAS buffer on a regular basis). [f] If a mismatch is encountered, the processor sends the CAS line event towards the CE processor. Figure 306 shows the relevant software blocks in the DTM control element. The CAS events are transmitted to and received from the hardware by means of the Device Handler (DTM.DH). The events were triggered by or reported to the Signalling level, which is responsible for the line signalling (=R2.SIG).

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Figure 305 : CAS handling

DTM
CH16 CH16

c d

CAS MEM DSN

b,e a

PROC
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SIG DH PROC Figure 306 : CAS software

DTM.CE
SIG

=R2.SIG

=DTM.DH CAS Line Events

DH

To/From DTM HW trunk processor

6.5.2 R2 register signalling


The MFR2 register signalling system sends MF codes during the register phase. To transmit the digits to a remote exchange, a combination of 2 frequencies out of 6 is used. This frequency combination is sent in the speech channel from a sender towards the receiver in the next exchange and vice versa. There are 2 groups of 6 frequencies. One group is used for the Forward direction, the other for the Backward direction (see figure 307).

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Figure 307 : R2 signalling f1...f6 2 freq. out of 6

Forward MF/R2

Backward MF/R2 Outgoing Exchange 2 freq. out of 6


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Incoming Exchange

f1...f6 Forward: signals sent from the outgoing to the incoming exchange. Backward: signals sent from the incoming to the outgoing exchange. Two frequencies out of six makes a total of 15 combinations. This is multiplied by two because of the two groups (see figure 308).

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Figure 308 : R2 registers signals FORWARD


SIGNAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
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GROUP I (In response to A1) MEANING DIGIT 1 DIGIT 2 DIGIT 3 DIGIT 4 DIGIT 5 DIGIT 6 DIGIT 7 DIGIT 8 DIGIT 9 DIGIT 10 ACCESS TO OPERATOR ACCESS TO DELAY OPERATOR ACCESS TO MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT INSERT HALF ECHO SUPPRESSOR (Only for very long lines) END OF PULSING

GROUP II (In response to A3/A5) MEANING NORMAL SUBSCRIBER PRIORITY CALL MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT CALL SPARE OPERATOR CALL DATA TRANSMISSION CALL SUBSCRIBER CALL SPARE SPARE OPERATOR CALL SPARE SPARE SPARE SPARE SPARE
INTERNAT. USE

NAT. USE

15

BACKWARD
SIGNAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 GROUP A MEANING SEND NEXT DIGIT (n+1) SEND LAST BUT 1 DIGIT (n1) CHANGE OVER TO B SERIES CONGESTION SEND NATURE OF ORIGINATOR SETUP SPEECH CONDITIONS SEND DIGIT (n2) SEND DIGIT (n3) SPARE SPARE SEND INTERNATIONAL TRANSIT INDICATION SPARE SEND LANGUAGE OR DISCRIMINATING DIGIT SEND CODE OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSIT EXCHANGE SPARE (ECHO SUPPRESSOR) CONGESTION GROUP B MEANING SPARE TRANSFERRED SUBSCRIBER SUBSCRIBER BUSY CONGESTION UNALLOCATED SUBSCRIBER/ SWITCHING STAGE NOT WIRED SUBSCRIBER FREE WITH CALL CHARGING SUBSCRIBER FREE WITHOUT CALL CHARGING SUBSCRIBER LINE OUT OF ORDER SPARE SPARE NAT. USE SPARE SPARE SPARE SPARE
INTERNAT. USE

The MFR2 signalling system is compelled. Compelled means that every action (appearance and disappearance of the MF frequency code) is acknowledged by the remote exchange in the following way:

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Exchange A starts sending the MF code (Forward) Exchange B detects this MF code. Exchange B starts sending the MF code (Backward) Exchange A detects this MF code. Exchange A stops sending the MF code (Forward) Exchange B detects the MF code disappearance. Exchange B stops sending the MF code (Backward) Exchange A detects the MF code disappearance.

Implementation in A1000 S12

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The MFR2 senders / receivers are implemented in the A1000 S12 SCM. The hardware part of the SCM generates 15 forward and 15 backward register signals. Each signal is sent in a fixed channel and enters the terminal interface receive port. From there the channels are in a PUT TO RAM status to 30 consecutive PRAM locations (all this is done at initialisation of the SCM). If a register signal has to be transmitted, a connection is made between the corresponding PRAM location and the transmit channel of the UCP (the UCP is further connected to the outgoing speech channel in the DTM) If the MF code is disconnected, then the connection (FETCH) is moved from an MF code PRAM location towards a location which contains the quiet pattern, otherwise rubbish is sent to the remote receiver. All this is illustrated in figures 309 and 310. The latter shows also the connection of the receiver. This principle was already explained for the local call, because it is the same for a MF receiver and a DTMF receiver, although in both cases the hardware will use different filters.

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Figure 309 : Outgoing / Incoming exchange for R2 MF Rx/Tx. MF Rx/Tx.

SIG DH D S N

SCM

SCM

SIG DH D S N

ACEs

ACEs

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Speech

DTM HW

MF MF

DTM HW

SIG DH

DTM

DTM

SIG DH

outgoing exchange

incoming exchange

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Figure 310 : R2 sender receiver

MF SENDER RECEIVER

R2 FORWARD SIGNALS

R2 BACKWARD SIGNALS
Quiet pattern
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SIG DH

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Figure 311 : Register signalling

RSIG

RSIG

SC DH
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SC DH

Forward

g Backward

Figure 311 describes the MF sending mechanism in A1000 S12. The software involved is the DH and SIG of the SCM. [a] The RSIG calls the DH to make a connection between the transmit channel of the UCP and the PRAM location corresponding to the forward register signal. The register signal is then transmitted to the destination receiver. [b] In the destination exchange the signal is detected by the DH and reported to the RSIG (e.g: the first digit). [c] RSIG stores the digit and calls the DH to start sending the backward signal: Send Next Digit. [d] The backward signal is detected and reported to RSIG. [e] Now the RSIG calls the DH to disconnect the MF code (FETCH quiet pattern).

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[f] The disappearance of the forward signal is detected in the next exchange and reported to RSIG. [g] The backward signal is also disconnected. [h] The disappearance of the backward signal is detected, so RSIG can order the next forward signal to be transmitted (start again at (a) ).

6.5.3 Outgoing / incoming R2 call overview


Figures 312 and 313 give an overview of the call phases for an outgoing / incoming call using R2 signalling. If you compare these drawings with these of the N7 call, you will notice the similarity between them. They differ only with respect to the limitation of the R2 signalling compared to the N7 signalling. The additional new blocks are indicated in the following pattern:

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In the following paragraphs, only some remarks and differences are given for some of the call phases, because all the other necessary information to understand the call was already given in the case study.

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Figure 312 : Outgoing / Incoming Call using R2 (A)

SUBSCRIBER

SEIZURE PREPARE & SEND DIAL TONE DETECTION OF PREFIX DIGITS PREFIX ANALYSIS
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OUTGOING END OF DIALLING RELEASE RECEIVER

TRUNK
OUTGOING TK SELECTION

SEIZURE


REGISTER PHASE REGISTER PHASE
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OUTGOING TK SEIZURE

SEIZ. ACK D1 NEXT D2 NEXT D3 NEXT


REGISTER PHASE PREFIX ANALYSIS LOCAL

SEIZURE

D4 NEXT D5 NEXT

. . .

D7


REGISTER PHASE
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Figure 313 : Outgoing / Incoming Call using R2 (B)

SUBSC. IDENTIFICATION


RELEASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE ANSWER
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CHANGE TO B NORMAL SUB. SUB.FREE


RELEASE PASS TO STABLE PHASE ANSWER

TERMINATING SEIZURE

ANSWER

CONVERSATION

CLF
FORWARD RELEASE CLEAR

RLG

FORWARD RELEASE

6.5.4 Outgoing / incoming R2 call in detail


Note: The title of each chapter indicates whether the actions happen in the originating exchange (O), or in the destination exchange (D). Note: The line signalling (CAS) events are printed in dotted lines and the register signalling (MFR2) is printed in normal lines.

a. Prefix analysis (O) PATED finds out that the call is outgoing and also retrieves the requested number of digits before the trunk selection. It is possible that after the outgoing trunk selection more digits are needed from the incoming side to obtain the complete number. However, the digits collected thus far can be sent out. b. End of dialling + Release receiver (O) c. Outgoing trunk selection (O) CFCS receives the identity of a DTM which uses R2 signalling.

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d. Outgoing trunk seizure (O) Because the selected DTM uses R2 signalling, the DTM will access ARTA (cf. local call) for the selection of an MF sender receiver. In the Tx direction a quiet pattern is connected. In the DTM a duplex connection is established. Then the outgoing seizure (CAS) is transmitted from the R2.SIG.

Seizure
e. Seizure (D) The incoming DTM knows the identity of the incoming speech channel. For N7 the identity is indicated in the CIC and for CAS indicated by the CH16 number within the multiframe). The specified trunk channel is indicated busy and the seizure is acknowledged.
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Seizure acknowledge
Also in the destination exchange an MF sender / receiver is selected and connected to the speech trunk. The sender also transmits quiet pattern and the receiver is waiting for the first digit. f. Register phase (O) This part is different compared to the N7 call. This is because N7 transmits the seizure and the digits in one message. Here we still have to transmit the dialled digits. The principle of MF sending receiving was explained in chapter 6.5.2. The receiver is connected to receive the backward signals. The digits were transmitted to the RSIG from where they are transmitted one by one.

Digit 1
g. Register phase (D) Upon receipt the RSIG sends the MF signal: SEND NEXT DIGIT until the requested number of prefix digits have been received.

Next Digit 2 Next Digit 3

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h. Prefix Analysis (D) The result is local call

Next Digit 4 Next


. .

Digit 7
i. Subscriber identification (D)
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j. Terminating seizure (D) The called ASM is contacted to check if the Bparty is free and to connect the ASM (UCP + cluster path) k. Release receiver (D) CFCS can always request additional information. For example: Aparty number for malicious call (A9) Calling Party Category (A5) ... Also the address complete message must be transmitted as does the signal indicating that the Bparty is free. However this is a signal of the second group (II) of MF signals. This is done by first sending the signal CHANGE TO B SERIES (A3). Now the originating exchange must answer with a forward signal. Usually this will be the Calling Party Category signal. The register phase is closed by the backward signal SUBSCRIBER FREE WITH CHARGING.

Change to B Normal Sub. Sub. Free


When the receiver is released actions are taken to connect the DTM trunk to the subscriber UCP and in the ASM RT and RC is activated.

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According to the DID information, the full joining can be delayed until answer or address complete. l. Release receiver (O) Also in this exchange the subscriber is connected to the trunk channel. m. Pass to stable phase (O) n. Pass to stable phase (D) o. Answer (D) Disconnect RT and RC and send ANSWER to the originating exchange to start taxation.

Answer
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p. Answer (O) Start taxation.

CONVERSATION
q. Forward release (O) The actions are the same as for the No7 call. Also Clear Forward (CLF) and Release Guard (RLG) are transmitted. However, these messages are CAS line signalling and therefore transmitted in the CH16 multiframe.

CLF
r. Forward release (D)

RLG
s. Clear (O) (D) All connections are cleared and the trunk is free again. ASSIGNMENT: Try to map all the CAS/R2 signals onto the No7 messages (IAM = ?, ...).

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7. FACILITY HANDLING
7.1 Overview of some of the supplementary services
Supplementary services exist in a wide variety. The list below gives an overview of the most important supplementary services. Some of the services are only available for analogue subscribers while others are only available for ISDN subscribers and some are available for both. It is beyond the scope of this document to give a detailed explanation of these services and their availability. In the next chapters some of the services are used to explain the implementation in A1000 S12.
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Abbreviated Address (AA) Allows a user to make a call by sending a short code instead of the complete number.

AddOn Conference (CONF) Provides a user with the ability to set up a multiconnection call, i.e. a simultaneous communication between more than two parties.

Advice of Charge (AOC) The possibility for a user to receive information about the charging rates at call setup time and possible change of charging rates during the call.

Alarm Call (AC) This supplementary service allows the served user to order alarm calls to be made to his line at times specified in advance by the user.

Call Deflection (CD) Allows the called user to respond to an incoming call offered by the network by requesting redirection of that call to another address specified in the response. This is possible before or after the alerting starts.

Call Forwarding Busy (CFB) Permits a served user to have the network send all incoming calls, or just those associated with a specified basic service, which meet busy and are addressed to the served users ISDN number, to another number. The served users originating service is unaffected. The busy condition can be detected by the network or indicated by the subscriber. This classification is called:

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NDUB = Network Defined User Busy UDUB = User Defined User Busy
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Call Forwarding to Fixed Announcements (CFFA) Permits a served user to have the network send all incoming calls carrying speech information addressed to the served users ISDN number to a fixed announcement. The served users originating service is unaffected. If this service is activated, calls carrying speech information are forwarded no matter what the condition of the termination is.

Call Forwarding No Reply (CFNR) Permits a served user to have the network send all incoming calls or just those associated with a specified basic service, which meet No Reply and are addressed to the served users ISDN number, to another number. The served users originating service is unaffected.

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Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU) Permits a served user to have the network send all incoming calls or just those associated with a specified basic service, addressed to the served users ISDN number, to another number. The served users originating service is unaffected. If Call Forwarding Unconditional is activated, calls are forwarded no matter what the state of the termination is. It can be fixed (operator command) or variable (programmed by the subscriber).

Call Hold (HOLD) Allows a user to interrupt communications on an existing call and then subsequently, if desired: reestablish communications make an additional call to another user, switch from one call to another as required (privacy being provided between the two calls), and/or release one call and return to the other.

Call Pickup (CPU) Enables the served user to pick up a call alerting at another terminal within a predefined group, eg. Centrex. The user may subscribe to Group Call Pickup or both.

Call Transfer (CT) Enables a user to transfer an established (i.e. active) call to another user. The served user must be the called user of at least one of the calls. (i.e. at least one of the calls must be incoming). For users within a BC network, this service differs from the Call

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Diversion supplementary services in that the Call Diversion services deal only with incoming calls that have not yet reached the fully established state, whereas in the case of Call Transfer an established endtoend connection exists.
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Call Waiting (CW) Permits a subscriber to be notified of an incoming call with an indication that no interface information channel is available. The user then has the choice of accepting, rejecting or ignoring the waiting call.

Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) Makes it possible for the called party to receive identification of the calling party.

Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR) Enables the calling party to restrict presentation of its number to the called party.

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Closed User Group (CUG) Enables users to form groups, to and from which access is restricted. A specific user may be a member of one or more CUGs. Members of a specific CUG can communicate among themselves but not with users outside the group. Specific CUG members can have additional capabilities that allow them to originate calls outside the group, and/or to receive calls from outside the group.

Coinbox (CB) Allows charging information related to outgoing calls to be transmitted to a terminal (coin box) for the purpose of immediate charging fee payment.

Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) Enables a calling user A, encountering a busy destination B, to have the call completed when the busy destination B becomes not busy, without having to make a new call attempt.

Completion of Calls on No Reply (CCNR) Enables a calling user A, encountering a busy destination B, to be notified when the destination B becomes not busy after having terminated an active call and to have the service provider reinitiate the call to the specified destination B.

Connected Line Identification Presentation (COLP) Provides the ability to indicate the ISDN number of the connected line with possible additional address information to the calling party when the call is established.

Connected Line Identification Restriction (COLR) Offered to the connected party to restrict presentation of the connected partys ISDNnumber and subaddress information (if any), to the calling party.

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Credit Card Calling (CRED) Credit Calling IN service Allows the automatic charging of a call to a particular account not associated with the subscriber line on which the call originates. The use of an Account Number (AN), in combination with a confidential code, permits the Served User to charge calls to an account, which may either be associated with a particular connection to the network (ISDN number) or independent of any physical network termination.

Credit Card Validation (CCV) IN service Validates Credit Cards issued by Credit Card companies and Bank Cards issued by Banks. The validation must be based on an agreement between the Administration and Credit Card companies and Banks.

Direct Dialling In (DDI) Enables a user to call directly another user on an ISPBX or other private system without attendant intervention.

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Emergency Call Service (EMERG) Enables the termination of emergency calls in predetermined installations all over the country. Any customer who calls an emergency number will be connected to a predetermined installation. Different numbers will be allocated for different purposes, e.g. police, fire department or medical personnel.

Fixed Destination Call (FDC) Allows a user to make a call to a number, nominated by the user, without sending address information to the network.

General Deactivation (GD) Allows the user to deactivate certain supplementary services which he has subscribed to.

Green Numbers (GN) IN service Allows the Served User having one or several installations to be reached from all parts of the country with a Green Number and to be charged for these calls.

Group Call Pickup (GCPU) Invoking this service allows, the served user to pickup any call alerting at one of the terminals in the group.

Home Meter (HM) Call charge units being added to the served users meter in the network are also registered on a call charge meter at the subscribers premises.

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Incoming Call Barring (ICB) Makes it possible for a subscriber to prevent all incoming calls to his access/line or just those associated with a specific basic service. The ability of the served user to originate calls remains unaffected.

Individual Call Pickup (ICPU) To pick up a call using ICPU, the served user must specify the ISDN number (E.164 or PNP number) of the terminal at which the call is alerting.

Interception of Calls (INTCP) When call attempts or supplementary service manipulations for some reason do not give the expected response, the calling or served user is given information on the reason for the unsuccessful outcome.

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Line Hunting (LH) Enables the automatic selection of a free information channel on an access from a group of accesses servicing a subscriber, on receipt of a call to that subscribers Line Hunting number (LHnumber) or Universal Access Number (UAN).

Malicious Call Identification (MCI) Enables a user to request that the source of an incoming call be identified and registered in the network.

MeetMe Conference (MMC) Provides a user with the ability to arrange for a call between more than two participants with all participants accessing conference bridge.

Multiple Subscriber Number (MSN) Allows multiple ISDN numbers to be assigned to a single interface. Each number can be given a different data profile.

Outgoing Call Barring (OCB) Makes it possible for a subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls or just those associated with a specific basic service, which are intended to be originated from his access. The ability of the served user to receive calls remains unaffected. The ability of the served user to set up emergency calls also remains unaffected.

Priority (PRI) Provision is made to give preferential treatment to calls originating from and/or addressed to certain numbers for call establishment.

Private Numbering Plan (PNP)

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Allows a Private Telecommunication Network (PTN) Operator to define a Private Numbering Plan (PNP) with a different structure than the public numbering plan; to identify extensions in the PTN, the Operator may give each extension in the PTN an individual private number. Calls between different extensions in the PTN can be established over the public ISDN by using PNP.
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Queue Service (QS) Enables the called party to have incoming calls placed in a queue when the called partys capability is in a busy state.

Reverse Charging (REV) A service allowing the served (called) user to be charged for some or all calls. Only usagebased charging may be charged to the called party.

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Subaddressing (SUB) Allows the called (served) user to expand his addressing capacity beyond the one given by the ISDN number.

Televoting (TVOT) IN service A supplementary service that makes it possible for the subscriber to record the number of calls to one or more specific TVOTnumbers. It is possible to forward some or all calls to a voice response system or an operator.

Terminal Portability (TP) Allows an ISDN user to move a terminal from one socket to another or to move a call from one terminal to another within one basic access, during the active state of a call.

Three Party Service (3 PTY) Enables a user to establish a ThreeParty Conversation i.e. a simultaneous communication between the served user and two other parties.

Universal Access Number (UAN) IN service A served user with several installations in different parts of the country can be reached from anywhere in the country by a calling user dialling one given number. Calls from subscribers in a predetermined area will be routed to installations chosen (with certain restrictions) for that area by the Served User.

User to User Signalling (UUS) Allows an ISDN user to send/receive information to/from another ISDN user over the signalling channel in association with a call to the other ISDN user.

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7.2 Facility handling model.

7.2.1 General structure


Supplementary services exist in a wide variety. From an implementation point of view it is appropriate and even necessary to split the set of supplementary services into a number of groups:
-

Services which can be handled within the context of the call, during the call setup phase and requiring no complex additional logic. The required logic for this type of services will be handled by the existing common call handling software.

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Services which can be handled within the context of the call, but outside the call setup phase or requiring complex additional logic. Since the actions required by the service have to be executed outside the call setup phase, or because they require too complex scenarios to be implemented in the existing common call handling software, either additional functionalities are needed within the call handling software, or the service has to be handled by the signalling modules (when those services are closely related to the protocol).

Services which include multiple parties (three or more) These services will be handled by some dedicated functionalities of the existing call handling software.

User profile manipulation The manipulation of the user profile by the user himself (user control) can be defined either as an inidividual supplementary service or as an option of another supplementary service. Since user profile update is a very specific call type which does not fit in with the two party call concept, again the treatment has to be done by some dedicated functionalities of the call handling software.

The handling of supplementary services can be handled on two locations in A1000S12: a. Signalling Some supplementary services are treated by SIG. When a user invokes such a service, it has to be checked whether the user has subscribed to the service. The class marks belong to the subscribers profile data. E.g: Call Hold, Call Waiting, ...

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b. Call Control In chapter 3.4.6 you learned that CFCS is a multiprocess FMM. When we talk about supplementary services it is interesting to know a little bit more about the CFCS environment. In CFCS more and more functions have to be performed which are project specific. The most important features of this kind are abbreviated dialling, call diversion, keypad facilities, signalling requirements and allowance checks.

7.2.2 Call and Facility Control System (CFCS) architecture


CFCS can execute: All classes that can be executed by CFCS.
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Call Deflection (CD), after Alert. CFNR ... CFCS FMM is implemented as a multiprocess FMM with a number of linked procedures (CDE). Whenever the supervisory process of the CFCS FMM receives an activation message, an application process is created. The CDE nature of supplementary services implies that the CFCS has to be a Shell Based System (SBS) (see chapter 3.2.1.e.). The linked procedures are also called SW entities. Each entity has its specified task to perform. This task is only a part of the complete scenario. It is not the intention to have an entity that handles a specific supplementary service. Not all the entities are linked to the FMM. Some of them can be accommodated in one or more CDE SSM(s). Functions of some of the entities :
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When a service is requested, one of the entities will decide at any moment what to do next. It will link all the necessary entities (by calling them one by one) together to complete the service. To determine which services can be invoked by a served and how this can be done. Execute the call completion of a 2 party call setup as part of a supplementary service. This function depends on the required service and is therefore CDE. CDE charging

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To handle the CDE part of the stable data. A lock function to prevent concurrent data changes To allocate a conference bridge by sending a request to ARTA. ...

The functions of some of the common entities are:


-

To retrieve data of a user. Interface towards signalling to request digits,... Interface towards PATED. Terminating seizure: to treat terminating line or trunk seizure, to set up a path. Common charging interface To handle the common part of the stable call data To handle the release of all resources in a basic call To handle the connection of a tone or announcement Interface towards the Dynamic Data Manager (DDM, see later) ...

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The above list of functions makes it clear that the common entities can also be used for other purposes than call setup. E.g: Interface towards PATED to analyse the stimuli for the invocation of a service. The condition is that they are all common.

7.3 Supplementary service data structures.


Remember from chapter 3.4.9 Subscriber analysis that most of the subscriber data is stored at LSIF level. This subscriber data can be subdivided into semi permanent data and dynamic data. The following chapters expand on these two types of data.

7.3.1 Semi permanent data


The semi permanent data, also called Low Penetration Data, is the part of the subscriber profile that has a long lifespan. It gives a description of all services, applicable to this subscriber. For each service a subscriber is allowed to use, we find here all necessary parameters in order to handle the service.

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For example: if a subscriber has a call forwarding facility, then the semi permanent data indicates what kind of call forwarding it is and possibly to which DN a call is forwarded. a. Location of the semi permanent data Figure 314 : Location of the semi permanent data SCALSV PATED TCE ISSS CFCS PABX_id DNET LSIF DDM SACELSIF PABX_id PARM DDM SACEPBX
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ASSS TSIG

ASSS ASIG

BCG_id

PABX_id

PNP_XL

DDM SACEBCG

Figure 314 gives an overview of the semi permanent data of normal subscribers, PABX lines and BCG users. semi permanent data of normal subscribers The semi permanent data of normal subscribers is stored in the SACELSIF. This ACE works in an active / standby configuration. Since the semi permanent data is fairly important, both ACEs, active and standby, contain that data. The semi permanent data is therefore replicated over the two ACEs. Since in an exchange you can have a number of SACELSIF pairs, it is important to find the correct one. Correct means, the SACELSIF that handles the data of the subscriber that is analysed. The choice of SACELSIF is made with the DNET of the subscriber. This applies to both originating and terminating subcribers. As in any active / standby configuration, the active ACE will normally be accessed. The subscriber data is retrieved by the Local Subscriber Identification (LSIF) FMM. semi permanent data of PABX lines If the DN that is analysed belongs to a PABX, then at some point the PABX identity is retrieved. This can happen in the TCE, where the PABX identity may be indicated in the OLCOS data, or in LSIF. The PABX data is stored in a specific ACE: the SACEPBX. Also this ACE works in active / standby pairs. And again, depending on the number of PABXs, you can have

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a number of theses pairs in an exchange. So to retrieve the data of a particular PABX, you have to access the correct SACEPBX pair. The pair is chosen with the PABX identity. All the data that describes a PABX is stored in the same ACE pair. The PABX data is retrieved by the PABX Resource Manager (PARM). semi permanent data of BCG users The semi permanent data of BCG users is stored in the SACEBCG. The ACE configuration is similar to the previous cases. The correct SACEBCG pair is determined by the BCG identity.

7.3.2 Dynamic data


a. Definition
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Dynamic data is defined as data which only lasts during a call or the time it takes to execute a facility. This can be from a few seconds to a few minutes. Here is an example. Remember from the previous chapter that if a subscriber has a call forwarding facility, then the semi permanent data indicates the type of call forwarding and possibly the DN that the call is forwarded to. If a call is made to this subscriber, then the call is clearly forwarded, but temporarily (this means during this call), a counter is kept to count the number of calls that are forwarded simultaneously. This data is the dynamic data. Dynamic data is created by the service handling software and has to be stored for the time it takes to execute the service. The data is stored in memory only relations. The dynamic data is also stored in the SACELSIF, just like the semi permanent data. However the approach for the static (replication over the two SACELSIFs of a pair) can not be used for the dynamic data. If the dynamic data were replicated over the two ACEs of one pair as well, this would cause a big overhead (the number of updates on dynamic relations is rather high). The dynamic data is only stored in the active ACE of a SACELSIF pair ! The SACELSIF pair that is mentioned here is the same pair that also holds the semi permanent data of that subscriber. The correct ACE is again determined by the DNET of the subsciber. To store and access the data, a separate FMM is designed. This FMM is called the Dynamic Data Manager (DDM). This FMM is a multiprocess FMM. However it is not a normal multiprocess because the tasks are executed by the supervisory process. The applications are created to perform time supervision on the services (audit function). b. Dynamic data users Normal users

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For normal users the dynamic data is stored in the SACELSIF as explained in the previous chapters, and it is handled by the normal DDM. The data is fully distributed which means that the data is available as long as the CE is on line. The data survives a restart but is cleared after a reload. If the active ACE is down, the standby ACE takes over and becomes the active ACE. MSN users The dynamic data for the MSN users is stored in the same ACEs as for the normal users and is handled by the normal DDM. REMARK: if a subscriber uses multiple MSNs then the semi permanent data could be stored in different ACEs because each MSN is connected to a DNET and the DNET can be different for each MSN. However to make data updates easier (for operator commands), the semi permanent data for all the MSNs that belong to the same subscriber is stored in one ACE. This is the ACE of the default MSN and if a data request is sent to another ACE (for the other MSNs) then the DNET of the default MSN is retrieved and the request is forwarded to the default MSN ACE. This ACE also contains the dynamic data. PBX users The dynamic data for PBX users is stored in the SACEPBX (active/standby). Unlike the PABX data which is replicated over an active/standby pair, the dynamic data is not replicated. Since the dynamic data is only updated in the active CE, it is lost when the standby takes over (e.g. after a restart). To avoid old (=wrong) data being used, the relations are updated after a restart. Trunks (remote users) The dynamic data of trunks is stored in the SCALSVT, together with the DDM. The data survives a restart but is lost after a reload. c. Overview of dynamic data functions Call forwarding This function stores information on how many simultaneous CFs exist for the same user (per basic service). When the maximum is reached, an additional CF will not be allowed and the call is released. CCBS & CCNR This function stores information necessary to set up a call to the busy or noanswering party when he becomes free.

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Queue service The DDM manipulates the FIFO queue of priority and nonpriority waiting calls and ensures that the maximum number of queue cells is not exceeded. Simultaneous access inhibition for Subscriber Control The service maintains a busy indication for updating subscriber data, so that only one process can have access at a time. If simultaneous access were allowed, data inconsistency could occur. Malicious call identification The service provides for the intermediate storage of MCI data to give the subscriber the opportunity to request the data output. ....
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7.4 Triggers to activate supplementary services.


There are different triggers for the activation of a supplementary service. Let us have a look at the different possibilities.

7.4.1 Trigger from the Originating profile.


The trigger for some services comes from information retrieved from the originating profile. Figure 315 shows a part of the Common Call scenario up to the retrieval of the originating profile (message 7). By analysing this profile, CFCS knows that a service has to be executed and from this moment on a deviation from the standard scenario can occur.

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Figure 315 : Trigger from the originating profile Subscriber analysis 6 7 1: SETUP or origination message 2: Select Channel 3: Channel Information 4: Activate Call Control 5 5: Acknowledgement 6: Get Originating Classes 7: Classes Result 3

CFCS

4 1

Signalling 2

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Device Handler Examples :


-

Fixed Destination Call : In this case we do not need to collect digits from the originating subscriber. The semi permanent data contains the DN to where we have to setup a call. This DN can now be passed to PATED for digit analysis. From here on, we follow the normal Call Handling scenario. Call Completion allowed : If the originating subscriber is allowed to use Call Completion, we have to store all information about this call in the dynamic data (upon request of the subscriber, see later). This information can be retrieved when the destination subscriber becomes free.

7.4.2 Trigger from the Prefix Analysis result.


The trigger for a service may also come from the Prefix Analysis result.

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Figure 316 : Trigger from Prefix Analysis Subscriber analysis 6 7 10 CFCS 11 4,9 1 5,8 Prefix Analysis 1: SETUP or origination message 2: Select Channel 3: Channel Information 4: Activate Call Control 5: Acknowledgement 6: Get Classes 7: Classes Result 8: Digit Request 2
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Signalling 3

9: Digits 10: Prefix Analysis

Device Handler

11: Prefix Analysis result

Example : If a subscriber uses Subscriber Control to change his profile, he dials subscriber control codes (*SC*...#) instead of a normal DN. The received digits are sent to PATED for prefix analysis. The PATED result indicates a facility call. From this moment on, the CFCS passes control to the facility handling software to deal with the service.

7.4.3 Trigger from the terminating profile.


In the case of a terminating call, we pass the DNET value (retrieved by PATED) together with the last three digits to LSIF. Here, we determine the physical location of the called subscriber (Terminal Number) and we retrieve the terminating profile. This profile can hold information about terminating services (like call forwarding). So this is yet another possible trigger to leave the standard call flow in order to execute a service.

7.4.4 Recall pulse from the subscriber received.


A Recall pulse is a signal, generated by an analogue subscriber during the stable state of the call. It is used to activate a service. Depending on the subscribed services, different actions can be taken. Examples
-

If a subscriber is subscribed to Malicious Call Identification, the recall pulse is a signal to the exchange to register the terminating call. As a result, a printout of the call is made.

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If a subscriber is subscribed to Three Party Service, the recall pulse is used to set up a call to a third party. In the exchange, a receiver is joined to the subscriber and dial tone is sent.

The following figure gives a brief overview of the scenario in the case of a recall pulse. Figure 317 : Recall pulse received Subscriber Identification 4 5 CFCS 1: Recall pulse 2: Activate CFCS 3: Acknowledgement 4: Get classes
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

5: Classes result

Signalling

Whenever a recall pulse is received in signalling, the Call and Facility Control System will be activated (actions 1 to 3). Here, the classes of the subscriber are retrieved. (actions 4 and 5). Depending on these classes, different actions can be taken. (connect receiver and send dial tone, register the malicious call, book Call Completion, ...)

7.4.5 Trigger from received signalling events (Event monitoring).


a. Definition The purpose is to have a general, service independent mechanism for SIG for its event treatment, so as to avoid that the SIG modules have to do service specific checks to find out whether an event can be treated autonomously or has to be passed to the call control level. At Call Control level, modules that may be interested in an event include: CFCS DDM PARM BCGRM Call Control function for intelligent networks.

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When there is interworking between some services (e.g: supplementary service and an IN service), more than one of the above mentioned modules may be interested in an event. To cope with all this, a data driven mechanism is created inside SIG. b. Working principle Figure 318 shows that there exists a pool of tables. One such table contains events received by SIG for which the treatment may vary. E.g: a release event can be handled by SIG autonomously , while in some cases another module has to be activated to treat the event. Events for which the treatment is fixed are not indicated in the table. E.g: Register recall events are always passed to CFCS. Figure 318 : Event monitoring
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TACB
SIG

POOL Treat Local Answer Release On hook ... . . . Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N Report CFCS Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N Link to CFCS Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N Send to SIG B Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N

The meaning of the different options in the table is as follows: Treat local This indication specifies whether Signalling Actions can be performed by SIG receiving the event at its side. Report to Call Control Indication whether a call control module has to be informed about the event or not. Signalling will not receive a reply. The module where the event has to be reported to is also specified.

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Link to Call Control Indication whether a call control module has to be activated and linked to SIG. SIG will receive a reply message containing the process identity of the call control module. In this case too, the destination module is specified. Send to remote Signalling Indication whether the event has to be reported to the remote SIG at the other side. Each TACB is linked to a table, because for a basic call without any service involved, one table is necessary per TACB. As mentioned before it is possible that multiple destinations have to be informed. Therefore there may be more than one link in the TACB. In case of interworking it is sometimes necessary to combine the tables, e.g: perform an AND function to determine if local treatment is possible.
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Note : Only one link can exist for an unstable call because SIG then reports to the destination where it is linked to.

Some of the tables (like normal call and specific services) are fixed and only the link to these tables has to be inserted in the TACB. Other tables are created at CFCS level and downloaded to SIG (e.g: result of an IN access)

7.4.6 Busy/free changes of a subscriber line (Monitor Access).


a. Definition The LCEid of the DDM is stored in the DH. This data is overwritten whenever it becomes obsolete. In addition, several call services (e.g: CCBS, CCNR, QS, ...) require a supervision mechanism based upon the identity of the physical access of a subscriber (LCEid & TN). This mechanism is used only for lines (analogue or ISDN) and not for trunks. To cope with all this, a feature Monitor ACcess (MAC) is defined. This is a mechanism which uses data stored in the DH. b. Working principle Figure 319 shows the working principle.

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Figure 319 : Monitor Access

Request MAC Report reservation busy free Timer1 Timer2 free

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(1) One or more channels of the access are free but there is no reply (e.g: CCNR) As a consequence, the service can request to supervise the access .
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(2) Access is occupied (e.g: CCBS) Also in this case a service can request to supervise the access. (3) When the line becomes free (on hook), the DH is informed (=release). Timer 1 is started (e.g: 5s) during which period the subscriber can originate a new call. Any terminating call is refused. When the subscriber originates a new call, the timer is stopped, the access becomes busy again but the MAC request remains booked. (4) At this moment the MAC requestor is informed. At the same time a timer 2 (e.g: 10s) is started during which period the subscriber can start a new call or terminating calls are accepted if they are initiated by the MAC requestor (DDM, PARM). Therefore the call setup must contain a MAC indicator to distinguish this set up from another normal setup. (5) Access free. Any incoming or terminating call is accepted. The required functionality can be summarized as follows: When a subscriber cannot be seized (e.g: busy or no reply) some services may want to reserve one of the channels and request to report its availability whenever it becomes free. When a subscriber releases the call, he is given some time to originate a new call (timer1) After this time out, the requesting facility should be given precedence on this access for terminating calls for a limited time (timer2) Also the DDM LCEid is stored in this datastructure.

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c. Interfaces Storage of the DDM LCEid. The DH stores the LCE of the DDM per subscriber. During the set up of a call, this information is passed to SIG and further to CFCS. Request to supervise a subscriber access. It is possible to check a subscriber access to verify when it becomes free and to pass this information towards the monitor access requestor. A requestor can be: DDM, PARM, CFCS, BCGRM (=Business Communication Group Resource Manager), ... Figure 320 gives an example of this principle:
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Figure 320 : Monitor Access request SCALSV 1 2 3

CFCS

DDM
1 ASM B 3

3 ON HOOK 3

SIG B
1 2

DH

(1) CFCS received the information that the B subscriber is busy and queue service is applicable. In this case a request is sent to the DDM which in turn requests monitor access to the DH via SIG. (2) The necessary acknowledgements are sent backwards and the CFCS terminates. All the necessary information (dynamic data) is stored and the subscriber line is in monitoring. (3) When the subscriber goes onhook the DH is informed (release). Timer 1 is started (see before) to give the Bsubscriber the opportunity to start a new call. When the timer expires the DDM is informed, which retrieves the necessary information to start the call. The call setup is started by activating the CFCS.

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For lines belonging to a hunt group PARM is always informed when a line becomes free. Individual DNs (IDN) can have also timer 1 running (see above). However, GDNs cannot have this timer as the access is seized immediately when it becomes free.

7.5 Facility handling examples

7.5.1 Subscriber Control (SC)


a. Facility description. Subscriber Control allows a subscriber to activate, deactivate, register and invoke certain supplementary services. There are different procedures for analogue and ISDN subscribers. We will here discuss the case of an analogue subscriber. Figure 321 : Subscriber Control Procedure Subscriber
OFF_HOOK DialTone SCDigits Confirmation Tone

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Exchange

In case of registration, activation or invocation, the SC Digits are : *SC[*PW][*SD]# In case of cancellation or deactivation, the SC Digits are : #SC[*PW][*SD]# SC: Service Code : Identifies the service to be manipulated. PW: Password : This is a secret code, assigned on an individual basis. The assignment, changing and deleting of a password is done by the administration. For some services the use of a password is mandatory. SD: Service Data : This is a set of parameters, necessary for the manipulation of the corresponding service. The layout of this service data is different for each service.

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b. Implementation. The following scenario shows how the subscriber control is handled in the Call Handling. The scenario starts from the moment the prefix digits are received in Signalling. In case that the number of prefix digits is 3, the first digits that will be received are : *SC or #SC. These digits are passed to PATED for analysis. The result from PATED indicates that we have a Subscriber Control procedure and from here on a deviation from the general Call Scenario. Figure 322 : Subscriber Control Scenario 8 PATED 3 2
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LSIF

DDM 9 4 6 CFCS 5

SDM 10 7

6 11 1 SIGA

(1) The received prefix digits from the subscriber (*SC or #SC) are passed to CFCS. (2) From CFCS, they are passed to PATED for prefix analysis. (3) PATED analyses the prefix digits and returns as result : Type of call = Facility Call The type of facility that is being manipulated. This is derived from the analysis of the SC. The Facility action (activation, deactivation, invocation, ...) This is derived from the leading * or #. The layout of the expected parameters. For each type of facility, PATED can find in a database relation a list of expected parameters, with their layout and an indication whether the parameter is optional or mandatory. All this information is sent back to CFCS. Now CFCS has to perform the following tasks:

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(4) Pick up the profile of the calling subscriber to check if this subscriber is allowed to invoke Subscriber Control for this service. This is done by sending a request to LSIF to retrieve the Originating Classes of the subscriber. (5) Send a request to the Dynamic Data Manager (DDM) to make sure that no other process is updating the profile for this subscriber. At this moment, a busy indication for the CFCS is set, so that from now on CFCS has exclusive access to the subscriber data. (6) Perform the combinability check. Again a request is sent to LSIF to collect all necessary information to check if the service that is being manipulated can be combined with the already active services. (7) Now the updating of the subscribers profile can be initiated. The update itself is performed by a dedicated FMM, called the Subscriber Data Manager (SDM). Therefore, CFCS sends a command to SDM to start the updates. (8) First, the SDM will pass its process identity to the DDM. The exclusive access that was assigned in DDM (see message 8) is now associated to the SDM process. At this stage the SDM will perform all required Database updates. (9) At the end of the updates, the exclusive access in DDM has to be released. SDM sends a message to DDM, where the busy indication is reset. (10) SDM finally sends an acknowledgement to CFCS. (11) CFCS gives a command to SIGA to send a confirmation tone to the subscriber and terminates.

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7.5.2 Call Completion to Busy Subscriber (CCBS)


a. Facility Description This facility allows a calling user A, encountering a busy destination B, to have the call completed when the destination B becomes free, without having to make a new call attempt. When user A encounters a busy destination, user A can activate the supplementary service. The service monitors the destination on becoming free. When the destination becomes free a connection is first set up towards A and when A answers, a connection is setup towards B.

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Figure 323 : CCBS Procedure Subscr. A Setup call to B Check state of B : Busy Busy Tone Recall Connect Receiver Dial Tone Digits : *SC# Start monitoring B Confirmation tone
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Exchange

Subscr. B

On_hook On_hook Set up connection to A Ringing Current Answer Set up connection to B Ringing tone Answer Conversation Ringing Current

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b. Implementation Figure 324 : A sets up na call to B DDMA

CFCS 1 6

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4 2 SIGA SIGB

DHB

The scenario starts with the setup of the terminating call. LSIF has already found the profile of the called subscriber and has performed the restriction match. Remark : The profile of the calling subscriber contains a flag indicating that CCBS booking is allowed. The profile of the called subscriber contains a flag indicating that CCBS can be booked against B. (1) CFCS sends an indication to SIGA to set up a terminating call towards B. (2) SIGA sets up a terminating call towards SIGB. (3) SIGB sends a request to the DHB to allocate a channel towards B. Now the DH returns with an indication that subscriber B is busy. (4) The Busy indication is sent to CFCS. (5) Since CCBS is allowed (see remark above) and B is busy, the possibility exists that subscriber A will book a CCBS. Therefore a request is sent to the DDMA to store all

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necessary information to handle the booking. In the DDM, the following information is stored : Calling DN Called DN Terminal Number of A Indication that this is an originating CCBS booking. Indication that this is only a temporary tuple. The Asubscriber has to activate CCBS booking within a predefined time period. After this period is passed, the tuple will be removed.
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... (6) Now CFCS will send a command to SIGA to return Busy tone to the calling subscriber. Then CFCS terminates. Figure 325 : A books CCBS LSIF PATED DDMA DDMB

8 3 CFCS

15

9 10

14 4 7 16 13 11

2 1 6 17 5

SIGA

SIGB

12

DHB

This scenario shows what happens if subscriber A books CCBS.

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(1) Subscriber A hits the Recall button. This event is reported to SIGA (2) Whenever Recall is received, SIGA activates CFCS. (3) CFCS sends a request to LSIF to pickup the profile of the calling subscriber. This is necessary to check if the subscriber is allowed to use the Recall pulse and to decide what to do when recall is received. For CCBS booking, the subscriber must dial the Service Code (*SC#). Therefore, (4) an indication is sent to SIGA to allocate a receiver and to send dial tone (5) to the calling subscriber. Also the number of expected digits is passed to SIGA. At this point, SIGA will send a message to ARTA to start the selection of a DTMFreceiver. This action is not shown in the scenario. We continue the scenario when the expected number of digits has been received (6). (7) The received digits are delivered to CFCS.
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(8) CFCS sends the digits to PATED for analysis. The result from PATED indicates that this is a CCBS booking. (9) First a request is sent to DDMA to check if the previously stored information (see figure 324, (5)) is still stored. It is possible that subscriber A waited too long for the booking and that the tuple has already been deleted. (10) Now a request is sent to DDMB to store also all necessary information on behalf of the called subscriber. This is necessary, because if later B becomes free, the call has to be set up again from that side. Stored information : Calling DN Called DN Terminal Number of B Indication that this is a terminating CCBS booking. ... (11)..(13) DDMB requests to start monitoring the access of subscriber B. (14) A confirmation is returned to the CFCS. (15) CFCS sends a message to DDMA to indicate that the CCBS is now really active. The tuple at Aside which was marked as temporary, is now changed to active, so it will not be removed. (16) CFCS sends a command to SIGA to send confirmation tone to the Asubscriber and terminates.

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(17) Sending of the confirmation tone. Figure 326 : B becomes free LSIF 6 15 16 DDMA DDMB

23

24

CFCS 7 13 17 21 18

8 12
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20 22

11 SIGA 10 9 14 SIGB 2

19 DHB

DHA

Actions when B ends his previous call and the CCBS is triggered. (1) On_hook of the Bsubscriber. (2) The RLS event is passed to the device handler. Here, a timer is started, giving B the time to originate a new call. (3) When this timer expires. the DDMB is informed. (4) DDMB reads the CCBS data and activates the CFCS. (5) In CFCS, first the Dynamic data of the Asubscriber is picked up. (6) Access to LSIF to get the terminating classes of A. This is necessary because the exchange first sets up a terminating call to the A subscriber. (7) Command to set up a terminating call to A (8) Acknowledgement (9) Allocation of a channel to A.

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(10) Send ringing current to the A subscriber. This is a special ringing current to indicate to A that this is the recall from the exchange. (11) A answers the call (12) The answer event is reported to CFCS. (13), (14) CFCS gives the command to send a special tone to A to indicate that a call to B is going to be set up. (15) LSIF access to pick up the originating profile of A. (16) LSIF access to pick up the terminating profile of B. (17), (18) Terminating Call set up to B (19) Select a channel to the Bsubscriber.
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(20) Acknowledgement of the terminating call set up. (21), (22) CFCS passes the stable call data to SIGA and SIGB (23), (24) CFCS sends a command to DDMA and DDMB to remove the dynamic data for this CCBS. CFCS terminates.

7.5.3 Malicious Call Identification (MCI)


a. Facility Description This supplementary service enables a user to request that the source of an incoming call be identified and registered in the network. The following items are registered : Time and date of the request. Called party number. Calling party number (and possibly subaddress). Depending on the subscription option, the supplementary service may be invoked during or after the active phase of the call, but in any case before expiration of the MCI invocation request timer. b. Implementation Malicious call identification is a terminating service. Therefore the scenario starts when the terminating call is set up.

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Figure 327 : MCI call setup scenario LSIF DDMB

1 CFCS 3

2 9

10

11

8
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SIGA

SIGB 5 7 6

DHA

DHB

(1) Access to LSIF to pick up the profile of the terminating subscriber. (2) Profile of B is returned. This profile includes an indication that MCI is allowed. (3), (4) Terminating call setup, via SIGA to SIGB (5) Request to select a channel towards the called subscriber (6) Set up a connection between called subscribers module and calling subscribers module. (7) Identity of selected channel is returned to SIGB (8) Acknowledgement to CFCS (9) Since MCI is allowed, CFCS sends a request to DDMB to create a tuple, holding Calling and Called DN and the current time and date. (10) CFCS passes stable call data to SIGA. (11) CFCS passes stable data to SIGB. This stable data will hold a monitor table, used by SIGA to report events to DDMB and a monitor table, used to activate CFCS. The layout of this monitor table is shown in the next figure.

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Figure 328 : MCI monitor tables


Monitor table towards CFCS Treat Local Answer Release OnHook Info Remote answer Remote release ... Y N Y Y Y N ... Report CFCS N N N N N N ... Link to CFCS N Y N Y N Y ... Send to SIGA Y Y Y Y N N ...

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Monitor table towards DDMB Treat Local Answer Release OnHook Info Remote answer Remote release ... Y Y Y Y Y Y ... Report CFCS Y Y N N Y Y ... Link to CFCS N N N N N N ... Send to SIGA Y Y Y Y N N ...

According to the Monitor table towards CFCS, SIGB will start up CFCS whenever : Subscriber B releases. In this case the CFCS will send a request to DDMB to update the tuple. Subscriber A releases. Here, too, a request is sent to DDMB to update the tuple. Subscriber B sends an INFO message (ISDN only). This is the request from B to generate a report about this call. Now CFCS will send a request to DDMB to retrieve the recorded information. Then this information is sent to a dedicated FMM for subsequent printing. An analogue subscriber indicates a malicious call by generating a Recall pulse. In the case of a Recall, SIGB will always activate CFCS. From this point onwards, the actions are the same as for an ISDN subscriber generating an INFO message. The monitor table towards DDMB is used by SIGB to know which events should be reported to DDMB for logging. According to the table, SIGB will inform DDMB

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about : a local answer, a remote answer, a local release and a remote release. The DDMB will update the information. The following scenario shows what happens if B answers the call. Figure 329 : MCI, B answers DDMB

3 4 SIGA SIGB 2
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DHA

DHB

(1) B answers (2) SIGB sends a request to the device handler to connect the calling and called party. This is the result of the column Local Treatment in both monitor tables. This column indicates two times YES. (3) Send a report to DDMB. This is the result of the second monitor table (towards DDMB). Here the column Report CFCS states YES. No reply is expected. (4) Send the answer event to the SIGA. This is the result of the columns Send to SIGA of both monitor tables. Both columns have the indication YES. The following scenario shows the actions when a Recall is received. This is the case of an analogue subscriber. For the ISDN subscriber, this corresponds to the reception of an INFO message.

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Figure 330 : MCI, Recall from B received Alarm Call FMM LSIF DDMB

3 5 CFCS 4

2 1 SIGA
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SIGB

(1) Recall event received. (2) Whenever a Recall is received, CFCS is activated. When activated, CFCS returns its process id to SIGB. (3) CFCS accesses LSIF to retrieve the profile of the Bsubscriber. This is necessary because we have to check if no other services requiring a Recall, are active. In that case, we will have to connect a receiver and send dial tone to B. Then B can pass the Service Code, corresponding to MCI request. We consider the case where no other services are active. This implies that the Recall must be an MCI request. So no receiver will be connected. (4) Request to DDMB to retrieve the information from dynamic data and to delete the allocated tuple. The data is passed back to CFCS. (5) CFCS sends the data to a dedicated FMM where the necessary actions are taken to print out the report. These actions are not shown in the scenario.

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8. CHARGING
8.1 Charging functions
Figure 331 : Charging functions charging analysis charging generation charging collection charging output

N7 call handling
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X25

NSC

taxation centre X25 billing centre chg acc

S S

S S
The different functions of charging:
-

BILL 2S

chg = charging acc = accounting

charging analysis; charging generation; charging collection; charging output; accounting.

These components can be situated in the same exchange as the call handling, but each of them individually can be located in a different node. As an example consider a situation where the charging generation is done in the own exchange, whereas the charging analysis is performed in an other exchange.

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Figure 332 : Charging analysis in an other exchange own exchange Aparty DN other exchange Bparty DN tariff code charging generation The other exchange can be a higherorder exchange, a transit exchange or any other type of exchange. The own exchange supplies the other exchange with the Aparty DN and the Bparty DN. The other exchange then checks which tariff is applicable to this call. To allow charging generation in the own exchange, the information about the tariff, in the form of a tariff code, is returned to the local exchange. The tariff code is translated in the local exchange into a tariff group and a tariff identity (see chapter 8.4.2).
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charging analysis

8.2 Different ways to charge calls...

8.2.1 Bulk billing


During the conversation a counter is incremented. After the call the counter value is added to the subscribers bulk counter.

8.2.2 Detailed billing


Every call is charged in such a way that a detailed billing record is provided at the end of the call. The contents of this record is very administration dependent, but it may contain amongst others:
-

the Aparty number; the Bparty number; the start and end time of the call; the amount of pulses accumulated during the call; certain facilities that were triggered during the call.

8.2.3 Detailed billing observation


Detailed billing observation is similar to detailed billing. The difference is that detailed billing observation is a facility that is assigned to a subscriber, for example if he complains about

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his bills. The purpose of detailed billing observation is only to obtain a detailed record of the call. The standard charging is still applicable as well to charge the call.

8.2.4 Toll ticketing


Toll ticketing should be considered as a combination of detailed billing and bulk billing : only for calls to specific directions the detailed billing will be used, while for other directions the bulk billing method should be used.

8.2.5 Automatic Message Accounting (AMA)


AMA is an other name for any type of detailed billing.

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8.2.6 Division of revenue (accounting)


The purpose of Division Of Revenue is to split the collected revenues between different administrations, in case more than one administration is envolved for setting up calls between two subscribers. The reason why the DOR function exists, is the fact that the calling subscriber will only receive a bill from the administration he is connected to, while the revenue for that call should be divided over the two administrations. In order to know how much of the money collected by the administration should be paid to the other administration, the S12 keeps track of : the number of calls the number of pulses the total conversation time the amount of seizures the amount of seizure seconds as a function of the destination and time.

8.2.7 Charging statistics


The purpose of the charging statistics is to investigate on which calls the most money is earned. Its implementation is based on the DOR implementation, whereby some extra accounting classes are defined to which only the number of calls and the number of pulses are associated.

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8.2.8 Limit of credit


Limit of credit is assigned to a separate counter per subscriber. When this counter reaches a certain limit of tariff pulses within a predefined time limit, some types of outgoing calls will be barred.

8.2.9 Advice of charge (AOC)


Advice of charge is a facility of an ISDNsubscriber, allowing him to receive charging information on an individual call basis (requested at seizure), or permanently for all calls the subscriber makes. The charging information is sent to his telephone set or to the PC connected to his basic access. Three variants of this facility are defined :
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AOC at call setup; AOC during the call; AOC at the end of the call.

8.2.10 Facility charging


Whenever a subscriber activates, deactivates, invokes or interrogates a facility, he may be charged for it. The charging type in this case is facility charging.

8.3 Charging methods

8.3.1 Unit charging


Unit charging is understood as a charging method whereby a number of pulses is defined per time interval. Each of these pulses represents a certain cost, which is the same for all pulses charged during the call. Pulses are charged to the subscriber at the beginning of every time interval, or at the end of every time interval, depending on the charging method. a. Unit Fee The charging counter associated with the call is incremented only once with a certain number of pulses at the moment charging needs to be started, e.g. upon answer of the called subscriber.

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b. Periodic metering The charging counter is incremented periodically with a number of pulses after each elapsed time interval. The time interval between two increments is called the rate. Different methods use a different starting point for the periodic pulses. Figure 333 : Unit Charging Methods start of charging end of charging

Unit Fee

rate

Periodic
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b a: unit fee pulses b: periodic pulses

8.3.2 Continuous charging


Continuous charging is understood as a charging method whereby a price is determined per time interval. If the length of the call is not a multiple of this time interval, the price is calculated, up to a certain granularity, taking into account the exact call duration. Total cost = call setup cost + SUM taken over all tariff periods (price per time unit * call duration) E.g. : price = 500 centimes per 6 min call duration = 230 sec call set up price = 300 centimes granularity = 1 sec cost of the call = 300 + ( (500/(6*60)) * 230) = 619 centimes (see figure 334).

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Figure 334 : Continuous charging


COST (centimes) unit

1500

1000

continuous

619
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500 call setup . price

230

360

720

1080

TIME (seconds)

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8.4 Charging analysis 8.4.1 Charging analysis with MMC commands


Figure 335 : Charging analysis with MMC commands
charging details ORCHG charging modulators TZ DISPLAY CHARGING tariff modulators TG/TI DISPLAY TG/TI TARIFF MODULAT TG DATE
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DESTCH

DISPLAY TARIFF ZONE

DISPLAY RATE CHARGING TARIFF

DISPLAY CHARGING DAYCAT CALENDAR: HOCAL DISPLAY CHARGING DAYCAT CALENDAR: WEEKCAL

RATESEQ holiday DISPLAY CHARGING SCALE not holiday TIME TZ = tariff zone TG = tariff group TI = tariff identity

DAY OF WEEK

This overview is used in the following chapter to explain the different charging parameters.

8.4.2 Charging parameters


a. origin for charging Each subscriber line or incoming trunk connected to the exchange is, for charging purposes, identified by an origination code. This code has been created to group the geographical origins that are considered by the charging system as unique origins. This code is called the origin for charging, abbreviated to ORCHG in figure 335. It is derived from the source code which in turn defines the originator of the call (subscriber group, incoming trunkgroup). E.g. see figure 336: subscriber 1 (belonging to an RSU) and subscriber 2 are connected to the same exchange. Because they have a different origin for charging, they can be charged at a different rate for the same destination. b. destination for charging This parameter is used to group destinations that are considered by the charging system as unique destinations. This code is derived from the dialled prefix. Refer to DESTCH in figure 335.

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c. tariff zone The tariff zone defines a measure of distance between the charging origin and the charging destination. Refer to figure 336: if a subscriber with origin for charging A makes a call with destination for charging 1, then the tariff zone is A1. If an other subscriber, with origin for charging B, makes the same call, with the same destination for charging 1, then the tariff zone is B1. Figure 336 : Charging Overview AREA 1 Subscr 1 RSU Exch 1 Exch 2 Exch 3 AREA 2

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orig chg A tariff zone A1

dest chg 1

dest chg 2 tariff zone A2 Subscr 2

orig chg B

dest chg 1 dest chg 2

tariff zone B1 tariff zone B2

The following MMC command demonstrates how the destination for charging that was obtained from prefix analysis (DESTCH = 2), is translated in a tariff zone, depending on the origin for charging (ORGCH 0 3 give TARZONE 3, ORGCH 4 gives TARZONE 4).

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DISPLAYTARIFFZONE:DESTCH=2.

DISPLAYTARIFFZONE

SUCCESSFUL

TARIFF ZONE

ORGCH ORGUSE DESTCH UNIQUE TARZONE BCGTARZONE 0 1 2 4


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IN IN IN IN

USE USE USE USE

2 2 2 2

NUNI NUNI NUNI NUNI

3 3 3 4

NO NO NO NO

d. modulators Modulators are extra parameters that may influence the final result of the charging analysis. Modulators can operate on two levels: charging modulators can change the charging task that was found in a completely new charging task; tariff modulators can only change the tariff group and tariff identity that were found to new values. The following parameters can be used as modulators: type of call; This parameter defines the calling party category (CPC) , eg. normal subscriber, priority subscriber, coinbox, and so on. This code is retrieved from the class of service. bearer capability; For ISDNcalls the charging may also depend on the bearer capability requested for the call. This parameter is received from the calling ISDN subscriber in the SETUP message. It allows the administration to charge a subscriber in relation to the minimum quality of the connection requested by the subscriber. high layer compatibility; tariff type indicator (TTI), used in IN; BCG indication;

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analogue/ISDN indication.
Note : A parameter can be used as either a charging modulator, or a tariff modulator.

The tariff modulators can be displayed with a specific MMC command:

DISPLAYTARIFFMODULAT:TARGRPID=1&1,TYPE=INT.
DISPLAYTARIFFMODULAT SUCCESSFUL TARIFF MODULATOR

TYPE
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: INT 1 & 1 MOD4 = ANALISDN

TARGRPID :

MOD1 = BCG MOD2 = HLC MOD3 = FAXSTR MOD5 = IIBERCOM MOD6 = FULLHALF

MOD1

MOD2

MOD3

MOD4

MOD5

MOD6

TARMOD GRP ID

0 1 FALSE ANLOG FALSE HALF 2 1 0 0 FALSE ANLOG FALSE HALF 34 1

e. charging details (or charging task) The above mentioned parameters define a unique charging task. This task includes: charging pattern: when to start and stop the charging; charging type: bulk billing, toll ticketing; charging analysis point: own exchange, higher order exchange; charging generation point: own exchange, not own exchange; recording point for bulk billing: own exchange, not own exchange; class of meter: to which subscribers meter are the pulses added; tariff group and tariff identity : they indicate which charging method, rate, number of pulses will be used. An example is given with the following MMC command and the resulting output. From the prefix analysis we received a destination for charging (= 5) and an origin for charging (=0), which is used as input in the operator command.

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DISPLAYCHARGING:TARZONE=3

DISPLAYCHARGING SUCCESSFUL TARZONE ======= 3 TARIFF GP & ID ======= 1 5 TARIFF CLASS ====== 5 CHPAT START STOP LNGCOMSI ================== ======== CHSUBASW ANNMSTOP 0

ANALP ===== CHOWN


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RECPFBK ======= SCP RECIND COMB

KIND

PARTY TYPTRAF

CHSEL ====== SINGLE

INC

CHANRES OUTG

CHGENPT

=================== ======= NOIND COSPR CG INT

================= ======= CHINCNON CHOGNONE CHOWN LINEMTR 1 2 ======== 0 0

TOTCHSTA ======== 0 AMADCR ======== DBLNG

CHSTAALW ======== FALSE

NOAOCH ====== FALSE

NOPLSTAR ======== FALSE

RSEQSND ======= FALSE

The output gives us tariff group 1 and tariff identity 5. We also find that charging has to start at answer and stop at an announcement. f. Tariff group In every exchange, we can define 8 calendar types, consisting of a week calendar and a holiday calendar. This calendar type will give each day a day category : a workday, a weekend day, a holiday and a special day. The function of the calendar type is to allow administrations to charge international calls according the local calendar of the destination. Since in the USA Saturday is considered to be a workday, a call to the USA on a Saturday will be charged against a normal tariff, and on a Sunday against a reduced tariff. A call on a Saturday to a Nordic country, however, will be charged against a reduced tariff. To determine the day category, first the holiday calendar has to be checked:

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DISPLAYCHARGINGCALENDAR:HOCAL,YEAR=1996.

DISPLAYCHARGINGCALENDAR SUCCESSFUL OPTION = BASIC HOLIDAY CALENDAR

CALENTYP YEAR MONTH DAY > DAYCAT DAY OF WEEK 1 1996 JAN 1 HOLIDAY MO 1 1996 APR 8 HOLIDAY MO
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996

MAY MAY MAY JUL AUG NOV NOV DEC

1 16 27 21 15 1 11 25

HOLIDAY HOLIDAY HOLIDAY HOLIDAY HOLIDAY HOLIDAY HOLIDAY HOLIDAY

WE TH MO SU TH FR MO WE

If a particular date is not a holiday, then the week calendar has to be checked with the weekday.

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DISPLAYCHARGINGCALENDAR:WEEKCAL.

DISPLAYCHARGINGCALENDAR SUCCESSFUL OPTION = BASIC WEEK CALENDAR CALENTYP SU MO TU WE TH FR SA TABLE

1 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 2 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA ACTIVE 3 WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA ACTIVE
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4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKB WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDA

ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE

A tariff group corresponds with one calendar type and one charging scale. A charging scale specifies for each day category (workday, holiday, weekend, ...) and for each switchover time in that day category, the corresponding rate sequence number (normal, reduced) to be used. This is shown in the next example :

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DISPLAYCHARGINGSCALE:TARGRP=1.

DISPLAYCHARGINGSCALE SUCCESSFUL OPTION = BASIC SCALE TABLE = BOTH TABLE WITH A ACTIVE

ACTIVE TABLE SCALE GROUP CALENTYP DAYCAT HOUR : MIN RATESEQ 1 1 WD A 0: 0 RATESEQ1A 1 1 WD A 8: 0 RATESEQ2A
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

WD A WD A WD A WD WD WK HO A A A A

9: 0 12: 0 13: 30 17: 0 18: 30 0: 0 0: 0 0: 0

RATESEQ3A RATESEQ2A RATESEQ3A RATESEQ2A RATESEQ1A RATESEQ4A RATESEQ4A RATESEQ5A

SP A

PASSIVE TABLE SCALE GROUP CALENTYP DAYCAT HOUR : MIN RATESEQ 1 1 WD B 0: 0 RATESEQ1B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 WD WD WD WD B B B B 8: 0 9: 0 12: 0 13: 30 17: 0 18: 30 0: 0 0: 0: 0 0 RATESEQ2B RATESEQ3B RATESEQ2B RATESEQ3B RATESEQ2B RATESEQ1B RATESEQ4B RATESEQ4B RATESEQ5B

WD B WD B WK B HO B SP B

On workdays the following rate sequences apply: from midnight till 8 Hr: rate sequence 1A from 8 Hr till 9 Hr: rate sequence 2A from 9 Hr till 12 Hr: rate sequence 3A from 12 Hr till 13.30 Hr: rate sequence 2A

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from 13.30 Hr till 17 Hr: rate sequence 3A from 17 Hr till 18.30 Hr: rate sequence 2A from 18.30 Hr till midnight: rate sequence 1A. You also find the rate sequences for weekend days, holidays and special days.
Note : Although the parameter rate sequence usually only takes the values rates1and rates2 (normal and reduced), other values may be applied. If the administration decides to employ a special tariff for calls made during the busy hour, then the parameter rate sequence can be assigned the value rates3. This new rate sequence will result in a different charging method, different pulses, different period. Note : In the database some data is stored in an active table and in a passive table. This allows the operator to first implement new data changes in the passive tariff plan. After having checked all his inputs, he can then switch over from passive to active table via an operator command.
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g. Tariff identity A tariff identity defines the content of the different rate sequences. There may be different tariff identities for the same charging scale (= same tariff group).

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DISPLAYCHARGINGTARIFF:TARGRPID=1&2,TABLE=ACTIVE.

DISPLAYCHARGINGTARIFF SUCCESSFUL TABLE TARGRPID TARCLS TARKIND TARCLSGP BCGIND SUBTKDTO : ACTIVE TABLE A : 1 & 2 : 2 : FIX : 0 : OFF : OFF MINTIME LINEMTR CHMETH RATE RATETYPE CHGTYPE TAX NRC UNFSYN 0 DECISEC CHSTRMEX 15 15

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RATESEQ RATESEQ1

: :

PHASE TIMES PULSES RATE RATETYPE NEXTPHASE 0 1 1 ENDCALL 1 1 3600 3600 DECISEC DECISEC 1 1

RATESEQ RATESEQ2

MINTIME LINEMTR CHMETH RATE RATETYPE CHGTYPE TAX NRC : UNFSYN 0 DECISEC CHSTRMEX 15 15 : PHASE TIMES PULSES RATE RATETYPE NEXTPHASE 0 1 1 1800 DECISEC 1 1 ENDCALL 1 MINTIME RATETYPE 1800 DECISEC LINEMTR TAX NRC 1

RATESEQ RATESEQ3

: :

CHMETH

RATE

CHGTYPE

UNFSYN 0 DECISEC CHSTRMEX 15 15 PHASE TIMES PULSES RATE RATETYPE NEXTPHASE

0 1 1 1500 DECISEC 1 1 ENDCALL 1 1500 DECISEC 1

The examples show that for tariff group 1 and tariff identity 2 the charging method is unit fee synchronised, with one unit fee pulse and one periodic pulse. The period is: 3600 deciseconds (=360 seconds = 6 minutes) for rate sequence 1 and 4;

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1800 deciseconds (=180 seconds = 3 minutes) for rate sequence 2; 1500 deciseconds (=150 seconds = 2.5 minutes) for rate sequence 3. The tariff identity thus specifies which rate will be used at a specific time. A tariff group covers tariff identities for which the same charging scale and calendar type are used. Up to 64 tariff groups each comprising maximum 32 tariff identities are allowed.

8.4.3 Software involved with charging analysis


This paragraph describes a general call charging scenario. The charged call can be one of the following : an analogue subscriber, an ISDN subscriber, a trunk call. Depending on the case, the charging is handled in different modules : ASM, ISM, DTM, ITM, SCM. Depending on the requirements of the administration, charging of an analogue call will be activated : when the calling subscriber goes offhook; after indialling the prefix; after indialling the complete number. For an ISDN call there is no indialling because all the digits are received at once. Nevertheless the moment of activation can also be after prefix analysis, ... Figure 337 gives an overview of the software actions on activation of the charging subsystem.

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Figure 337 : Activation of charging 1 2

CFCS

CGC

CHAN

TCAS SSM
4 5

MCCA SSM SCALSV

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LCG TCE
[1] Request from CFCS sent to Charge Generation Control (CGC) to activate the charging together with the parameters charging needs (origin for charging, destination for charging, type of call, bearer capability ..). CGC allocates a temporary buffer in which all charging information for this call is stored. [2] CGC needs the following information: charging method; rate; number of pulses (unit fee and periodic); facilities; division of revenue; detailed billing. To receive it, CGC sends a message to Charging Analysis (CHAN) with the necessary parameters retrieved from CFCS. [3] CHAN completes the charging analysis and sends the data back to CGC in one or more messages. CGC copies this data to the already seized buffer.

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[4] CGC translates the taxation directory number received from CFCS into a so called charging key. This key determines in a unique way the location where the subscriber meter is stored. This function is performed by the Meter Counts Collection Access (MCCA) SSM. CGC passes all this information to the Local Charge generation FMM, situated at TCE level. Then CGC releases its own buffer. LCG in turn allocates one or more taxation cells (e.g. in case of facilities). The cells that belong to the same call are linked together. The cells contain the charging data from CHAN, a counter to add the pulses and space to store the time stamps needed for detailed billing.
Note : In case both the Aparty and the Bparty have to be charged (for example for a split charging facility call), then CGC sends a message to both the TCE of the Aparty and the TCE of the Bparty.

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[5] Finally LCG sends a report message to CGC. This message contains the taxation cell identity and the task that CGC has to perform. The task here is to inform CFCS. Now LCG waits for the start charging event. [6] CGC sends the acknowledgement to CFCS.

8.5 Charging generation


Figure 338 : Charging generation

SIG

1 events

LCG

Metering SSM

TCAS SSM

AOC SSM TCE

[1] Each call event detected by Signalling (SIG) is reported to the LCG FMM (e.g. answer, clear back, clear forward, forced release...). These events are compared with the start and stop charging events.

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In case of the start charging event (e.g. at answer), the charging meter in the taxation cell is stepped up depending on the charging method used. For periodic charging a timer is started. In case of the stop charging event (e.g. clear forward), LCG stops accumulating the subscriber meter and cancels the periodic timeout. LCG uses three SSMs:
-

Metering SSM: this SSM increments at the correct time the subscribers counter in the tax cell; Advice Of Charge (AOC) SSM: this SSM calculates the charging amount the subscriber has to pay up to now and informs signalling at the time that was requested by the subscriber [ 2 ] . Signalling sends the AOC information to the subscribers ISDN set. Taxation cell access SSM (TCAS): access to the taxation cell is performed via a common interface: the TCAS SSM. This SSM is also present in the SACE, because some of the LCG functions are now handled in the SACE.

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8.6 Charge scale changeover


This function allows to change from one set of charging parameters (charging method, number of pulses, periodic rate ...) to another one as a function of the day of the year and the time of day. This function is handled by an FMM situated in an Active/standby pair ACE, called Charge Scale Change Over FMM (CSCO). Via database relations, the FMM knows for each tariff group the current and the next rate sequence (normal, reduced..) to be used. It informs (see figure 339): all CHAN FMMs to ensure that all new calls apply this new rate sequence. all LCG FMMs to ensure that all calls in conversation are switched over to the new tariff corresponding to this rate sequence. maintenance to set/reset the day/night indicator on the master alarm panel (MAP), if required by the customer. At switchover time, CHAN is informed of the current and new rate sequence number for each tariff group via the normal message routing principle. This principle is not used to update all the LCGs in the line and trunk modules because this would take too much time. Instead the broadcast principle is used. The messages are sent to an FMM in the CTM modules where they are inserted in the tone link in a specific channel and thus sent to all the TERIs port 5. So, at switchover time, all LCGs receive via the broadcast mechanism all data they need for both well the current and the next switchover time (rate sequence number, tariff group

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and identity, tariff method, number of pulses ...). This data is stored in the LCG. The LCG then starts a timeout for the next switchover time. When this timer runs out, LCG already has the charging data applicable at that moment from the previous broadcast message of CSCO. If there are cells with a difference between the current charging and the new one, a switchover action is done. Figure 339 : Charge scale changeover

MASTER ALARM PANEL MAINTENANCE SW


Switch ON/OFF DAY/NIGHT tariff

SYSTEM 12

LOCAL CHARGE GENERATION


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CHARGE SCALE CHANGE OVER

OPERATING SYSTEM

Trigger LCG Switchover


Actual Rate Next Rate

: : :
BROADCAST SW
New Tariff Info
Actual Rate

: : :
Next Rate

Switch over to next tariff

CHARGE ANALYSIS

8.7 Charging collection


In this chapter different possibilities are shown for handling the charging results after a call. The results can be stored locally in the exchange on disk or sent directly to a taxation centre via a N7 link. Another possibility is immediate billing to an external device : e.g. to a printer in a hotel.

8.7.1 Bulk billing collection


The collector FMM for bulk billing is the Meter Counts Collection (MCC) FMM . MCC is stored in the SACECHRG, an active/standby ACE. There can be a number of ACE pairs in

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an exchange (minimum two) according to the size of the exchange (number of equipped subscribers) and administration requirements. The bulk billing data is sent to the MCC on a per call basis. The bulk billing data is sent either at the end of the call or at some intermediate points during the call, reaching thresholds of pulses and/or chargeable duration in time. To secure the transport between the TCE where the charging data is generated and the centralised collection function, a sequence numbering is used. The collection function will then accept messages carrying these sequence numbers in a window, allowing it to detect missing and retransmitted messages. The sending of bulk billing data towards MMC is shown in figure 340. Figure 340 : Scenario bulk billing collection
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Local Charge Generation tax cell TCE 1

Meter Counts Collection

checksum charging key counters

SACECHRG (standby)

2 Meter Counts Collection

checksum charging key counters

SACECHRG(active) LCG sends the charging data to the active MCC. The active MCC forwards the data to the standby MCC. The standby MCC finally sends an acknowledgement to LCG. Periodically all the counters are stored on disk (always duplicated ). The time interval is a CDE parameter. The transfer from memory to disk is done in blocks of 2K Bytes.

8.7.2 Detailed billing collection


The detailed billing records can be handled in two ways, depending on whether local storage or central storage is used:
-

local storage The records are kept in a buffer and stored on a disk file when this buffer is full .

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central storage The detailed billing records are stored in a temporary buffer and sent online to a remote taxation centre for further processing. a. local storage of detailed billing records There are a number of ways to sort the detailed billing records: sorting per day Records are written in 31 files, depending on the day of the month. Only records that satisfy the selection criteria are written to disk. sorting of charging observation This function is called time period detailed billing observation (TPDBO). The purpose is to record all calls generated by specified subscribers, meeting certain criteria. The selection criteria determines to which files selected records are written. An example is to store the records per subscriber. chronological sequential output Here a file, or a group of files are used per charging record type. The records are written to disk in the same order as they appear. Figure 341 sketches the chronological collection. Figure 341 : Chronological collection SACECHRG master CHRONO 3 TXCS 4 SACECHRG slave CHRONO 5 TXCS

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TDFM

TDFM

2 TCE LCG 1 TL SSM 6

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The following software is involved: Chronological collector (CHRONO) FMM: The CHRONO FMM receives the charging records from LCG. CHRONO then checks the sequence and the checksum. Taxation Collector (TXCS) SSM: The SSM is responsible for the memory storage of the records, the interface with the mate processor and the determination of the master / slave state. Tax layouter (TL) SSM: This SSM performs the layouting of the charging records. Taxation Disk File Manager (TDFM) FMM:
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TDFM handles the interface with the input/output system. It also selects a file or a file group. TDFM transfers the records to disk when either the relation where the records are stored in memory, is full, or when a timer expires. b. central storage of detailed billing records After generating and collecting the detailed billing records of a subscriber, the records can be transferred to a centralised point in real time. This point is called a taxation centre. A taxation centre can be a standalone system, or it can be collocated in an exchange. The detailed billing records are stored on disk or tape for later transfer to a billing centre. Here finally the records are processed, resulting in the bills that are presented to the subscribers. There are two FMMs for the specific central storage actions: Taxation Collector (TAXCOL) FMM; Originating Taxation User Part (OTAXUP) FMM. The beginning of the central storage is identical to the local storage. Please refer to figure 341. Then the following happens: TXCS triggers the TAXCOL FMM when the relation where the records are stored, is full, or when a timer expires. TAXCOL then stores the records in a taxation buffer. at fixed intervals OTAXUP checks whether the taxation buffer is full. If the buffer is full, the records are sent to the Destination Taxation User Part (DTAXUP) in the taxation centre via the N7 network. When TAXUP receives an acknowledgement from DTAXUP, it deletes the records from the taxation buffer.

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For security reasons OTAXUP can send the records to two taxation centres: the normal or the alternate taxation centre.

8.7.3 Division of revenue collection


a. Accounting principle Division of revenue (DOR) is used when the fee for a certain outgoing call has to be divided between different administrations. This is done by gathering the number of pulses, call duration, number of calls, seizure duration and number of seizures in counters as a function of the destination and time period. DOR makes no reference to individual calls or to the individual subscribers. The pulses are accumulated in counters defined by an accounting class.
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For the purpose of DOR between administrations, 6000 accounting classes are provided. Each accounting class provides 5 counters : number of conversation minutes (time between answer and release) number of pulses number of calls number of seizure seconds (time between seizure and release) number of seizures. b. Method of Collecting Division of Revenue The Division of Revenue Collection is distributed over: CHRONO and TXCS; an Intermediate Division of Revenue Collector (IDRC) in the SACECHRG; several Division of Revenue Collectors (DORC) in SACECHRGs. After a call, where DOR is required, the following happens (see figure 342):

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Figure 342 : Division of revenue collection 4 IDRC

3 TXCS CHRONO 2 Buffer

DORC

checksum accounting class number of seizures seizure duration number of calls call duration number of pulses . . .

5 6
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SACECHRG (active) SACECHRG(standby)

1
checksum accounting class number of seizures seizure duration number of calls call duration number of pulses . . .

DORC LCG

TCE

[1] At the end of the call, LCG sends the charging cell to CHRONO in a loadsharing way. [2] CHRONO stores the information in temporary buffers. [3] When a buffer is full, TXCS informs IDRC. [4] IDRC finds out which DORC is used for a specific accounting class. [5] DORC passes the updated information to its mate. [6] The standby DORC sends an acknowledgement to the IDRC, which can release the cell.

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[7] At regular intervals all counters are stored to disk. To save the counters on disk two alternatives are provided: read before write; write only.

8.8 Charging output


The collected charging results can be treated in different, customer dependent ways :
-

transfer data to magnetic tape, optical disk or system printer. transfer charging data to a Network Service Centre (NSC). transfer charging data via an X25 link to a billing centre.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The master program of all charging output activities is the Charge Recording Manager (CRM). All charging requests, both manual and automatic, are passed via the CRM to the different FMMs depending on the charging data type. The activation of the charging output can be done :
-

manually via an operator command in the exchange; automatically as populated in database; requested by TDFM when a file is full; requested by the NSC : scheduled or via an operator command; requested by the billing centre.

8.8.1 Bulk billing output


The bulk billing data was collected at ACE level by the MCC FMM . This data is further processed for output by the Output Meter Block (OMB) FMM . OMB performs the formatting required by the administration. Here, 2 possibilities exist :
-

transfer the formatted data to magnetic tape, optical disk or system printer. transfer the formatted data to a disk file. Disk files can be used as an intermediate storage for formatted files , before this information is sent to the Network Service Centre.

The CRM is the controller for the OMB. All requests are routed through and verified by the CRM. A request originating in the NSC is passed to the CRM via the Exchange OMUP

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(Operations and Maintenance User Part) Subuser(EOS). Local operator commands are routed via Man machine to the CRM. The function of the OMB is: (see also figure 343):
-

fetch the unformatted data OMB sends a request to the active MCC FMM(s). Receiving data from the MCC gives us the possibility of getting recent data taken from memory or data already stored on disk (chosen via a flag in database). The data is sent in blocks of 2 kB to the OMB.

format the data OMB sorts the meters per DN and omits the nonequipped DNs. The data is formatted into codes required by the administration (ASCII, EBCDIC, BCD) and by the output device (tape,disk, printer, binary devices). This is completely data driven.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

transfer the data to a specified output device Via the Input/Output SW, OMB requests a file on disk or tape (or optical disk) to copy the formatted data or it sends the data to a printer or binary device. Figure 343 : Output of bulk billing
TO/FROM NSC

operator request

CHARGE RECORDING MANAGER

EXCHANGE OMUP SUBUSER

Output to NSC via EOS

METER COUNTS COLLECTION


BUFFER

unformatted data

OUTPUT METER BLOCK

formatted data

Tape or OD

unformatted data

I/O SOFTWARE I/O SOFTWARE

8.8.2 Detailed billing output


Via the TDFM the AMA records were written on twin disk files. When a big amount of detailed billing records are generated in an exchange, one collector or one disk pair may not

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satisfy. In that case several collectors (TDFM) and disk pairs may exist. So besides the PLCE module, one or more Peripheral and Backup Database CE (PBDCE) pairs can be equipped. An interface is required between the CRM and the collectors (TDFMs): the Collector Controller (COLC). This FMM determines which input file of which collector needs to be formatted next for output. The COLC FMM is a multiprocess FMM because it must handle requests for different AMA call types, different disks and different collectors at the same time. It is located in the same ACE as the CRM: the SACE Command handler and Output (SACECP). a. Detailed billing output to tape, optical disk or NSC All output requests, whether they are automatic requests because of a threshold that is reached, or whether the request is triggered by an operator or by an NSC, are passed to the CRM. The input for CRM is an unformatted file. CRM then formats the file into a suitable layout for tape. The output file is called the formatted file. Via database the CRM defines the identity of the output file. In case of transfer to an NSC, the requestor of the dump is always the NSC. The output file is formatted and transferred to an intermediate disk file, waiting to be copied by the NSC. For the output of the AMA files, we need two FMMs: the AMA File Formatter (AFF) FMM; The AFF formats and transfers the files. The formatting is completely datadriven. The AFF FMMs are distributed over all CEs that contain output devices. This includes the P&L and the PBDCE. the AMA File Formatter Controller (AFFC) FMM. The AFFC controls the AFFs. The AFFC is located in the same active/standby ACE as the CRM and the COLC: the SACECP. The CRM passes the request to dump the file(s) to the AFFC. The AFFC needs information about the input files, like the file identity, the start read pointer, the end read pointer. This information is retrieved by the Taxation Disk File Manager (TDFM) FMM, via COLC. The information is then passed to the involved AFFs. The FMMs involved and a scenario are shown in figure 344.

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Figure 344 : Detailed billing output to tape, optical disk or NSC PBDCE or PLCE AFF SSM TDFM AFF SACECHRG

standby SACECP active SACECP AFFC


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

COLC

CRM

b. Detailed billing output to a billing centre If the detailed billing records have to be transferred to a billing centre, the File Transfer, Access and Management (FTAM) protocol is used over X.25 links. FTAM allows to: request files. This includes open, transfer and close a file; deallocate files. Every file that has to be transferred has a unique virtual file name. FTAM supports several virtual file stores. the Virtual File Store (VFS) FMM is located in the IPTMOX25. This module also handles the X.25 link to the billing centre. The output to a billing centre is handled by two FMMs: the Massive Charging Provider (MCP) FMM: MCP formats the files and transfers them to the billing centre. MCP is located in the IPTMOX25. the Massive Charging Reader (MCR) FMM: MCR reads the files from disk and transfers them to MCP. MCR is located in the PBDCE or the PLCE. In addition also a Q3 interface can be used to transfer the detailed billing records to a billing centre. In this case a dialogue is possible between the billing centre and the local exchange.

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8.8.3 Division of revenue output


The Division Of Revenue Collector Output FMM (DORO) is responsible for the formatting and transmission of the accounting results, collected by DORC. The counters can be sent to tape, NSC or/and printer. The DORCfiles are reformatted by DORO into DORO files. DORO gets the data to format from DORC via 2K buffers, while the backup process keeps running in DORC. These actions of DORO are scheduled in time :
-

every 24 H: DORO stores the counters for output in a daily file. For security also the last two daily files are kept. every of month: the monthly accumulated files are adapted. Two files are kept for the last 2 months.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

On the same times, also a printout is generated of the same data. This can also be requested immediately by the operator. At the request of the CRM (via NSC or Man Machine), DORO can be asked to output its daily and monthly files to tape or NSC. In case the operator requests current counter values, DORO sends a request to DORC.

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9. MAINTAINING AN A1000 S12


9.1 System and microprocessor initialization
Before the system is started, it is necessary to transfer the software from the disks to all system microprocessors (CEs and OBCs). This operation is called System Initialization. Furthermore, during the operational life of the exchange, certain CEs and/or OBCs may have to be downloaded again from disk due to failures. Each individual load is known as Reload. However, some failure situations will be solved by simply starting up the software already contained in the memory of the faulty CE. This software start is also performed after a CE load (at system initialization), as well as after a reload. This procedure is known as Restart.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

9.1.1 CE initialization
The CE download consists of the transfer of the software packets (GLS, PLS and DLS) from disk into the microprocessor memory due to poweron, the detection of certain types of CE failures (eg. when there is strong evidence that the writeprotected memory has been mutilated), following a forced request from the maintenance software or an operator command. Every microprocessor has a program called Bootstrap stored in ROM. This program, which allows for the download and the initialization of the control element, is identical for all the Control Elements. First, the Bootstrap decides, based on the reason for its triggering and/or on the data in the request message, whether or not it is necessary to perform a series of fast tests to verify the correct operation of the CE elements (TI, memory and CPU). When the tests are finished or when the Bootstrap has decided that they are not necessary (reload operation), the Bootstrap program continues by trying to obtain its load packet. Since the PLADMCEs are the only CEs able to access to the system tape and disks, they are responsible for sending the load packets to the requesting CEs through the DSN. Their download process is therefore different from the other. Thus, first of all, the Bootstrap program must check if it is located inside a PLADMCE or in another CE. To do so, the program tries to reach the DMCA board, an operation that will only be successful if the CE requesting the load is a PLADMCE.

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Figure 345 : Bootstrap triggering

Poweron Forced Error detection Triggering reason

ANY MODULE CE ROM

Bootstrap program

BOOTSTRAP Fast Test


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

RELOAD

Not OK

OK

DMCA access attempt OK ? Not OK Any other CE

CE failure

PLADMCE

If the CE is not a PLADMCE, the Bootstrap program continues by requesting the download from the P&L modules. The Bootstrap program needs to establish a path through the network in order to send a message requesting the load. Although it knows the message destination address because the PLADMCEs are located at the same addresses in all the exchanges, it does not know its own, the origin address. Because of this, the Bootstrap applies a special algorithm to be able to send the request message to both PLADMCEs from any CE address and any DSN equipment. The algorithm involves of the sending of a set of sequential messages as follows: First attempt: Three stage message to PLADMCE1 Three stage message to PLADMCE0 Second attempt: Two stage message to PLADMCE1 Two stage message to PLADMCE0 and so on. Whatever the number of DSN stages equipped, one of these attempts will reach the PLADMCEs successfully.

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Let us take the TREX example again, where the JLTCE (NA=0220) tries to reach the PLADMCEs (NA=000C and NA=000D) . The first attempt consists of two messages with seven SELECT commands. The sequence is: A. Switching towards any low port of the AS B. Switching towards any port of the first stage GS C. Attempt to switch towards any port of the second stage GS D. Since there are only two stages, this last command is not acknowledged, and the whole attempt becomes unsuccessful. Figure 346 : Unsuccessful JLTCEtoPLADMCE connection
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

STAGE 1

STAGE 2 8 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 8 9 15

12 13

12 13


PLADMCE 1 A 0

13 15

0 1 7

13 15 8 D

8 9 15 8 9 15 8 9 15

2
6

13 15

2
JLTCE 0

0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7

8 9 15 8 9 15

After a timeout, the JLTCE Bootstrap program again tries sending two more messages with five SELECTs commands. These are: A. Select low port B. Select any port C. Select port 0 D. Select port 0 E. Select port C (in one case) or D (in the other one).

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As we can see in the figure below, the attempt is successful with this set of commands. Figure 347 : Successful JLTCEtoPLADMCE connection
E

12 13

STAGE 1
0 8 4

STAGE 2
D 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7

12 13


PLADMCE 1 A 0

13 15

8 9 15

0 1 7

13 15 8

8 9 15 8 9 15 8 9 15

0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7

2 6

13 15

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2
JLTCE 0

0 1 2

8 9 15 8 9 15

7 0 1 2 7

In order to provide the PLADMCE with the requesting CE Network Address, the DSN supports a special kind of ESCAPE protocol called ESCAPE INTERROGATE which is characterized by an Interrogate Flag set to True. This command includes three fields containing a pointer, a port number and a channel number. A set of these commands, with decreasing pointer values, are stored at the end of the load request message. When this command is switched at a multiport, the pointer value is decreased by one. If the new pointer value is not equal to zero, the command is simply passed to the output port. If, on the contrary, the pointer value is equal to zero, the multiport writes the input port and channel numbers into the corresponding fields and sets the pointer to seven. In this way a trace of the path already covered by the message is kept. The figure shows how this method works in the first multiport of the established path for reasons of simplicity the channel number field is not shown.

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Figure 348 : Escape Interrogate example


0
12

STAGE 1
0 8

STAGE 2
0 1 2 7 8 9

13 POINTER1 =3

12 13


2 PLADMCE 1 0

4 0 POINTER1 =13 4 15 0 1 8

0
15

1
7 15 8 2

0 8 1 9 1 2 POINTER1 = 5 7 15 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 7 0 1 2 8 9

2
15 8 9

2
6 POINTER1 =6 15

2
POINTER1 = 0 JLTCE 0 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ESCAPE INT. FLAG INPUT PORT NUMBER = 0

3
15 8 9 POINTER =7 4 15 8 9

5
15

ESCAPE

INT. FLAG

INPUT PORT NUMBER FIELD

POINTER = 1

The complete load request message will therefore have the same structure as shown on the figure below: Figure 349 : Structure of the load request message

UP TO 7 SELECT COMMANDS TO REACH A PLADMCE

LOAD BIT PACKET

DATA

7 ESCAPE INTERROGATE

Once the request is accepted and the address of the requesting CE known by the P&L modules, the associated load packets are split up into blocks and sent through a held path to

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the requesting CE. The Bootstrap program collects all the blocks received and stores them into memory. On completion of the CE load, the Bootstrap function terminates and a new RAM module takes control of the CPU to drive the initialization of the CE. This initialization, called Restart, consists mainly of cleaning all the Operating System data (queues, pointer, etc.) and creating all the FMM supervisory processes. If the CE reload is requested through an operator command, it is possible to indicate whether the reload should be complete or partial. In the case of a partial reload, the request could e.g. inidcate to reload only the GLS and PLS packets, or only the DLS packet. The Bootstrap sequence for PLADMCE is quite different. First, it tries to get the load packet from its mate P&L module through the network (as seen for any other CE) (step A on the figure below). However, if this operation fails for some reason (eg. the other PLADMCE is not online) the Bootstrap starts the QueryVDU procedure.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

This procedure starts by placing a question mark on the VDU screen connected to a MMC channel (step B1). Then, if the operator answers O to the question, the packet is loaded from Optical Disk (OD) or if the operator answers Y, the packet is loaded from tape (step B2); if, on the other hand, the answer is a negative or there is no answer before a timeout, the packet will be loaded from its own disk (step C). Figure 350 : PLADMCE download sources

Poweron Forced Error detection Triggering reason C

PLADMCE 1 CE ROM Bootstrap A B2

B1

PLADMCE 2

In the first case, when the operator replies Y or O to the query after placing the System Load Tape on the Magnetic Tape Unit or the System Load Disk in the OD (steps 1 and 2 on

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the figure below), the software is loaded into the P&L module (GLS, DLS and PLS, step 3). This procedure is called the diskbuild, which is necessary to copy all the software from tape (OD) towards the system disk. As soon as the diskbuild procedure is completed (step 4), the PLADMCE will reboot (step 5). Figure 351 : Disk Build

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4
5 4 2B 3

PLADMCE 1

4 PLADMCE 2

2A

YES
Once the download is completed, a request is sent from this CE to its mate to solve the Active/StandBy status. If there is an answer to this request, the mate CE takes the Active status and the justloaded CE the StandBy one. If, on the contrary, there is no answer, the CE considers its mate to be offline and takes the Active role.

9.1.2 System initialization


a. Network Loading The System Initialization or System StartUp consists of loading the system microprocessors (CEs and OBCs) from disk and their startup. This procedure is triggered by the operator, and driven by a set of configuration and load data on disk.

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The System StartUp may be performed as part of the system installation or when the operator judges that only a full system initialization will recover the system from a catastrophic failure (Emergency StartUp). When both PLADMCEs are online and at least one disk is mounted, it is possible to carry out the System Init. To startup the system, the operator uses a MMC command, which triggers the P&L software responsible for this task. First, the software asks the operator for the system startup confirmation. If it is confirmed, the initialization software inhibits, in both P&L, the triggering of the load software in order to avoid individual CE download requests. The download of all CEs in the system is shared between the active and the standby P&L modules. The software of each P&L module collects the download information that contains the list of the CEs to be loaded from the Database. The Active module sees to the CEs included in that list and the StandBy one takes care of the remaining CEs.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Since the GLS and PLS are the same for all CEs of the same type, the initialization software follows the cascade procedure. This procedure is as follows: 1. In order to place all CEs in a download request state, the initialization software forces all of them to trigger the Bootstrap program (forced bootstrap). 2. A handshaking overlay module is distributed from the PLADMCEs to all CEs. 3. Once this particular module is loaded in all CEs, the PLADMCE selects one processor of each type to act as the source CE. Then, using the handshaking module, the PLADMCE loads it with the common part (GLS and PLS) and a task list indicating which other CEs have to be loaded.

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Figure 352 : Distribution of the handshaking module ACEs PLADMCE 1

CE list

JLTCEs

HANDSHAKING MODULE DCASTCE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PLADMCE 2

CE list ISVTCE HANDSHAKING MODULE

IPTMN7

Figure 353 : Load of the Common Part files into the source CEs
SCALSV PLADMCE 1 DFN7OCE JLTCE

CE list CE COMMON PART FILES

DCASTCE PLADMCE 2 IPTMN7 CE list ISVCE CE COMMON PART FILES

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Steps 2 and 3, as described above, are then repeated by the source CEs according to their task lists. This process is chained until all CEs of the same type are loaded. Figure 354 : Download in Cascade SCALSV DFN7OCE JLTCE JLTCE SCALSV DFN7OCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DCASTCE

DCASTCE DCASTCE JLTCE

ISVTCE

IPTMN7

DCASTCE JLTCE JLTCE IPTMN7

ISVTCE ISVTCE ISVTCE

IPTMN7

As for the load of the DLSs, the P&L module will not follow the previous process since the they are different for each CE. Instead, it will send the DLSs one by one to each CE. Since the PLADMCE memory is used as interface between the disk and the CEs during the system load, it must be cleaned at the end of the process. Therefore, a bootstrap operation will be carried out in both PLADMCEs. Where only a partial system initialization is required a parameter in the SYSTEMSTARTUP command will be used. This parameter allows either the reload of a certain set of CEs through the definition of a list of CE types, or the load of only the new ones (in the case of an exchange extension). In this partial system init, only a PLADMCE working in simplex mode is used to perform the load. b. Tonebus System Loader The tonebus system loader software is a recently developed system which utilizes the tone bus for downloading, from system disk : the GLSs which are common to a large number of CE/OBC processor types

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the replicated data (i.e. any part of a DLS which is replicated in a large number of CEs) The Tone Bus System Loader software, however, still uses the Digital Switching Network (DSN), for downloading from systemdisk : the GLSs which are common only to a small number of CE/OBC processor types the DLSs By using the tone bus, the GLSs and replicated data that are common to a large number of CE/OBC processors, can be distributed in parallel, without any switching involvement from the DSN. Prior to the distribution of this information itself, first the Tone Bus System Loader software must be loaded in all CEs of the exchange. The Tone Bus System Loader software consists of three parts :
-

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

the Master software runs on the P&L, and controls the entire loading operation, which involves the following items : loading the load sources with the Load Source Master software, load tables , nontone bus GLSs and DLSs loading of the Tone Bus Slave Loader software into the target CEs loading, via the tone bus, the common GLSs and replicated data into the target CEs

the Load Source Master software runs on the load sources, and is responsible for the loading of the nontone bus GLSs/DLSs into their respective CEs. the Tone Bus Slave Loader software is loaded into the target CEs and into the Clock and Tones Module (CTM); this software is necessary in the target CEs for the correct reception of the load packets via the tone bus, and in the CTM for preparing these packets for sending over the tone bus.

Figure 355 shows the distribution of the Tone Bus System Loader software within the CEs and also the data paths that are used during the loading process. The Master software is activated by an operator command to begin the loading process. When activated, the Master software accesses the hardware configuration files on the system disk to obtain the identities of all equipped CEs with their network addresses. The Master software then enters the standalone operating mode by gaining control of the P&L and stopping all software running in it.

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Figure 355 : Tone Bus System Loader


Standby

P&L CE
MASTER

Active

Spare CE
Load Source Master

Load Sources

System Disk

CTM TCE
Tone Port 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Standby Active

CE
Tone Bus Slave Loader (See note 4)
Tone Port

Tone Bus Slave Loader

Target CEs

Tone Bus Note : 1. 2. 3. 4.


= Bulk Data Paths = User Controlled Path CE = Control Element, CTM = Clock & Tone Module The channels of the tone bus por are routed via the DSN Access Switch to the network ports of the CE

After activation and entering the standalone working mode, the Master software performs some preparation functions, such as : arranging the data into sorted tables, where the information is assembled regarding CEs/OBCs which require the same GLSs initialising the load sources by sending a bootrequest message setting up a bulkdata path to each load source, and send to each of them the Load Source Master software, and the actual GLSs and DLSs which are to be loaded over the DSN into the target CEs initialising the target CEs by sending a bootrequest message Before the target CEs can receive their load packets via the tone bus, they first must load the Tone Bus Slave Loader software : this loading is shared by both the Master software and the Load Source Master software : the Load Source Master software first loads via the DSN, a first part of the Tone Bus Slave Loader software, enabling these CEs to accept packets from the tone bus the Master software then sends over the tone bus the second part of the Tone Bus Slave Loader software, which comprises the OBC Slave Loader software, and the Debug software.

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Once the target CEs are loaded with the Tone Bus Slave Loader software, the real loading can start : the common GLSs and replicated data via the DSN to the Clock and Tone Module for distribution over the tone bus the load sources, loaded with the DLSs and GLSs which are common only to a small number of CE/OBC processor types, now begin loading each of their associated target CEs via a DSN bulk data path the OBC GLSs are loaded by the OBC Slave Loader software After the loading phase, each target CE reports the success, or failure of the loading to the Master software, which then : sends a tone bus broadcast message to all target CEs, instructing them to run the newlyloaded software presents the report of the loading process on the system printer returns control of the P&L to its operational software by rebooting it c. Warm StartUp A strategy different from the complete system startup is the Warm StartUp. The Warm Start Up provides a fast reload for package replacements in online exchanges. This procedure keeps most of the exchange CEs online during most of the time spent on the package replacement. This kind of system startup, WarmStartUp, is triggered by an operator command. One of the disks will hold the old SW (current package), while the other disk is built from the new System Load Tape or optical disk. The PLADMCE associated with this magnetic disk is loaded with the new package (following the abovedescribed PLADMCE download procedure) and isolated from the rest of the system. The following figure shows how this strategy works.

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Figure 356 : Warm Start Up triggering

only one disk with new SW version

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


PLADMCE 1 2 2 2 3 3 WARM START UP

PLADMCE 2

New SW version package

The procedure to be followed by the initialization software in this case, is very similar to the previous one (known as Cold StartUp). In order to keep the system CEs online, only a limited set of selected source CEs (which will start the dumping of the common part in cascade) are booted (driven offline) and loaded with a GLS or different DLSs, together with a task list. The selection of the source CEs is made in such a way that the normal operation of the exchange is not significantly disturbed (i.e. SPARE, MONI, ITTMTCE, etc.). In case of an exchange extension, the new CEs are used as source CEs. Once this process is finished, the other CEs are booted and loaded from the different load sources. At the end of a Warm System StartUp, all the source CEs must be reloaded with their own load packets. During an online replacement, whereby the message and data interfaces are changed, the initialization software must make sure that the two packages do not communicate with each other. The following figures show the Warm StartUp cascade process.

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Figure 357 : Download of some of the source CEs in the TREX

PLADMCE 1 JLTCE FILES CE list MONI

COMMON PART FILES

DCASTCE FILES

SPARE

PLADMCE 2

IPTMN7 FILES ITTMTCE

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Figure 358 : Download from the source CEs in cascade JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE MONI JLTCE JLTCE DCASTCE DCASTCE ITTMTCE DCASTCE JLTCE JLTCE IPTMN7 IPTMN7 JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE JLTCE

SPARE

JLTCE

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9.1.3 OBC initialization


All the TCEs that contain loadable OBCs, contain some resident modules to carry out the OBC load control. These modules manage the OBC status and are able to drive an OBC restart or a reload triggered by an operator command or by failure conditions. In the case of an OBC reload, these modules send a request message to the PLADMCEs in order to get the OBC load files and send them to the requesting module. These OBC management modules collect the load packets and send them, through the OBCI, towards the OBC memory. Finally, an OBC restart is forced. Figure 359 : OBC download PLADMCE 1 CE GLS + PLS IPTMN7
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CE Load Source

CE GLS + PLS CE DLS IPTMN7

TI

CE


CE memory

OBCI

OBC

OBC GLS + PLS

OBC memory

On the other hand, the system startup (Cold or Warm) includes the OBC initialization. The OBC packet is a GLS and optionally a PLS. The packet is loaded from the PLADMCE into the TCE memory, using a reusable area such as, for example, the overlay zone or another free zone if enough memory is available. When the exchange is started, the SW of the corresponding TCE transfers the OBC file from that memory into its own OBC (or OBCs), in the same way as seen above. This task is part of the TCE initialization. The OBC doesnt receive a DLS. The necessary data is retrieved from relations included in the DLS of the CE. This data is extracted and transmitted towards the OBC(s) by FMM(s).

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9.2 Introduction to maintenance


The maintenance function of an ALCATEL 1000 S12 exchange deals with the task of maintaining the system at the highest possible grade of service level. The maintenance functions can be divided into two main categories:
-

Preventive maintenance Corrective maintenance

Preventive maintenance includes those tasks that identify potential faults before they occur. Corrective maintenance includes those tasks that isolate and correct fault conditions An ALCATEL 1000 S12 exchange has extensive selfmonitoring and fault handling facilities which ensure that a hardware or a software fault has a minimum effect on the exchange operations. The objectives of the ALCATEL 1000 S12 maintenance strategy are to ensure that the system effectiveness is met. System effectiveness is defined as a measure of an exchanges ability to function normally and to cope with internal hardware and software failures or other events that could disturb normal operations. The ALCATEL 1000 S12 exchange maintenance is designed around selfsupervisory and selfdiagnostic procedures. The strategy calls for the performance of maintenance tasks with a minimum interruption of normal traffic. The necessary maintenance tasks include rapid detection, analysis, identification, alarm signalling and detailed fault reporting. The fault reporting includes internal software notation and a printed report to the exchange personnel for these tasks. The functional maintenance software is called the MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM and the hardware is arranged in functional units called SECURITY BLOCKS. Whenever the analysis by the maintenance subsystem determines that a hardware fault exists, the functional unit which carries the fault will be put out of service. The maintenance strategy reduces to a minimum the effect of a fault on the exchanges call carrying capacity.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

9.3 Hardware and software used in maintenance


The functions of the maintenance subsystem are divided into a socalled centralized part and a decentralized part. The centralized functions are located in a special SystemACE, which is called DFCE (Defence Control Element) and the P&L (Alarm system), the decentralized functions are located in every CE:
-

Centralized functions Coordination of all maintenance functions and central control of decentralized maintenance functions Frequent access to maintenance data Interface to mass memory devices and I/Odevices

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Central fault analysis Treatment of alarms Fault localization (tests)


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Decentralized maintenance functions direct access to the supervised module fast local error handling, fault detection Alarm detection

The corresponding Hardware is shown in the following picture: Figure 360 : Hardware configuration
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

VDU

P&L CLMA RLMC

CE
MCUB

CE
MCUB
TAUC

PTR

MTU

MAP
MD ODK

switch

Alarm Inputs
DSN CE

switch

Clock & Tones


DTM PCM

CE
switch

MCUB

Clock & Tones distribution

CTM
TSA

CE
MCUB

CE

TTM

Test Equipment

CE
MCUB

CE

CE

PTCE

MPTMON Terminal

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Figure 361 : Maintenance SW distribution

LEA DHFMM/SSM Alarm handling I/O treatment Alarm reporting

P&L

ASM
LEA DHFMM/SSM Rack alarm DH

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LEA DHFMM/SSM Reconfiguration Test (Fault localisation) Operator Maint. cmds System Defense

DFCE

DTM
LEA DHFMM/SSM Rack alarm DH

CTM
LEA DHFMM/SSM Test Resources (TSA)

TTM

DSN

LEA DHFMM/SSM

CE
LEA DHFMM/SSM

CE
LEA DHFMM/SSM LEA DHFMM/SSM

PTCE

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9.4 Maintenance concepts

9.4.1 Definitions
a. Security block Until now, errors in functional units usually led to their failure. Many errors, however, only affect a few circuits with limited subfunctions of a unit, so it can be wise to isolate these circuits and allow the remaining functions of the unit to continue to work. In order to do this, it is necessary to define clearly delimited areas whose operational status can be controlled under security aspects. Such an area is called Security block (SBL)
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A security block (SBL) consists of a limited number of circuits in the hardware which perform certain related functions. Should one function fail then all other functions within the affected SBL also fail. Therefore it is possible to remove the entire security block from operation by software without further affecting total system operation. Security blocks thus represent the smallest subunits in the system which, if necessary, can be reconfigured by software. The sum of all SBLs covers the whole system. b. Replaceable item (RIT) is the smallest identifiable unit which can be replaced for maintenance purposes (PBAs, power supply units, cables, I/ODevices ...). Each security block thus consists of one or more replaceable items. Use: As part of automatic error correction (error localization) a diagnostic program has the task of identifying the replaceable items (RIT) suspected of being faulty within a failing security block (SBL). When finished, the following information is given: the SBL type (with address) the RITs the RIT location coordinates (suite, rack, subrack, location).

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c. Repair block (RBL) Before replacing a replaceable item, it is necessary to remove from exchange traffic all security blocks contained in the appropriate repair block. These security blocks are then switched off. Because this action represents a reduction of redundancy, repair has to be done as quickly as possible in order to reestablish full redundancy. Example: The power supply must sometimes be switched off in order to replace a faulty RIT. All SBLs which belong to the RBL being fed by the corresponding converter must first be switched off by use of special MMCCommands. d. Device The system can also be split up into functional units or socalled devices. This concept is only used by the device handlers and maintenance has knowledge about it when interworking with device handlers. The device type specifies the type of the device and is different from the SBL type, so it is possible to have different hardware devices hidden behind the same SBL type (realization of different interface conditions, signalling procedures,...).

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9.4.2 Relationship
a. SBL RIT A RIT can contain different SBLs, e.g. a line RIT can contain 6 or 8 line SBLs. An SBL can also consist of more than one RIT, e.g. the SBL CTLE can consist of a processor RIT and a converter RIT.

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Figure 362 : SBLRIT Assignment

SBL/RIT Assignment SBL=TASL

1 3

2 4

0 1

5 PROC
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SBL=TOPT

7 SWITCH PBA SBL=ACSW

CE PBA SBL=CTLE Converter

Functional Units which can be handled by the maintenance subsystem

b. SBL RBL A repair block can but usually will not coincide with the SBL. A RIT can contain several SBLs. There are hierarchical dependencies among SBLs, that a lower level SBL cannot be in service if a repair is being done on a higher level SBL, and the repair block will also contain the lower level SBLs. When the PBA to be replaced is not hot insertable the power unit has to be switched off before the repair. That power unit can be common to other SBLs (e.g. common converter for different modules), so the repair block will also contain the other SBLs fed by the same power unit.

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Figure 363 : Repair Block Repair Block (example)

Converter

CE1

CE2

CE3

CE4

CE5

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CTLE

CTLE

CTLE

CTLE

CTLE

c. SBL device The mapping of SBL type to device type is not always one to one. The device types are necessary, because a special SBL type can map onto different device types! For example: SBL Type ASST Device Type Printer VDU (ASST = asynchronous shared terminal) d. Security block hierarchy The SBL hierarchy shows the dependencies between different SBLs with respect to the accessibility seen from the DSN. So when a higher level SBL is out of service, the SBLs which are lower in hierarchy are not accessible any more. This will be reflected in their maintenance states. Therefore in case an SBL has to be taken out of service, all its lower level SBLs will also be taken out of service. The SBL hierarchy of a control element, which is the SBLType with the highest level, comprises maximum five levels. If a security block is removed from operation, all its subordinate security blocks are generally also (automatically) taken out of operation since they would not be functional alone.

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Information about the hierarchy of SBLs is given in the Support Information SI05. Figure 364 : SBLdependencies SBL IN TRAFFIC

SBL Hierarchy High

ERROR

As a result of error analysis this SBL is switched off in order to isolate the error.

FAILING
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SBL

SBL SWITCHED OFF

SUBORDINATE SBLs ARE SWITCHED OFF AUTOMATICALLY

SBL SWITCHED OFF

Low

e. Security block categories Although all SBLs are treated more or less in the same way. Some differences exist. Also some SBLs require a similar kind of treatment. Therefore the whole number of SBLs are grouped in five categories. Control element (CE) All control elements Network (NET) comprises all SBLs within the Digital switching network such as Switch elements, Links between Switch elements... Telephonic (TEL) groups all SBLs related to lines, trunks, receivers.... Peripherals (PERI) includes disks, tapes, printers...

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System (SYS) all SBLs related to the clock and tone system,...

9.4.3 Security block states and state transitions


Security blocks can be in different states whereby each state specifies in which manner the security block is part of the operation or isolated from the operation. An overview of these states is given below:
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IT In Traffic: An SBL in service is able to carry traffic, it is in full operation. EF External Fault: The SBL cannot carry traffic if the fault on the SBL is external to the exchange. FIT Faulty, but in Traffic: If a small error is detected during a diagnostic test, the SBL keeps on handling traffic, but maintenance is informed of the error FLT Faulty: (error detected by the system) Due to the function in the SBL itself, more than a predetermined number of serviceaffecting faults have been encountered and the maintenance subsystem has confirmed these faults. The derived state is FLT. The SBL is initialized automatically by the maintenance subsystem when the fault has been corrected. FOS Faulty out of Service: Similar state to FLT, but the SBL is not initialized automatically by the system after the fault has been corrected. The SBL initialisation in this case is a task of the operator. OPR Operator out of Service: Following the request of an operator to take a particular SBL out of service. These SBLs can only be restored to service when the operator allows it. SOS Software out of Service: Due to a failure of another SBL, the SBL itself is not faulty but a higher level SBL in the same control chain has been taken out of service, or the repair block to which this SBL belongs has been taken out of service. The SBLs out of service for this reason can be returned into service as soon as the system allows it. This is done automatically by the system. The following states are not accessible for maintenance: NEQ Not Equipped: The SBL is not equipped hardwarewise and no data is foreseen softwarewise. The SBL is not declared in the configuration.

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PEQ Partially Equipped: This state is only used for Network Link SBLs EQAWL Equip allowed: The SBL is declared in the configuration, but not physically present. a. SBL state transitions An ALCATEL 1000 S12 Exchange in top condition consists of SBLs in traffic only. The SBL states NEQ, PEQ and EQAWL are not taken into account because the corresponding hardware is physically not present in the exchange. The maintenance state of an SBL can change due to maintenance actions requested by the operator, or autonomous actions supported by the Maintenance Subsystem. Three basic maintenance actions on SBL are possible:
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DISABLE The SBL will be put out of service. TEST A diagnostic test will be started on the SBL. INITIALIZE The SBL will be put into service. These three actions can be started internally by the Maintenance Subsystem or by the operator via the corresponding MMCCommands. The combinations of two or more basic actions are called combined actions: VERIFY This command consists of three basic actions, first the SBL will be disabled, then it will be tested, and if the test is successful, it will be initialized. REQUALIFY This command consists of two basic actions, first the SBL will be tested, and if the

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test is successful, it will be initialized. SBLstate transitions Maintenance action Internal disable after external fault Internal put faulty Internal disabled/Verify Internal/Operator Maintenance action disable on higher level SBL Operator disable Operator disable Internal initialize
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Begin state IT

End state EF FIT FLT/FOS SOS OPR

EF

OPR IT OPR OPR IT OPR FLT IT OPR FLT

Operator disable Operator disable Operator requalify (Test o.k.) Operator test (test o.k.) (test not o.k.) Operator initialize Operator Requalify (test o.k.) (test n.o.k.) Internal/operator maintenance action Initialize on higher level SBL

FIT FOS/FLT

OPR

OPR

SOS

IT

9.4.4 SBL management on CE Level (SBL=CTLE)


SBL Management on CTLE, e.g. disabling or initialising, is the same as the handling of all other SBLs. There is an extended number of commands for this SBLType that affect the SBL states involved and their hierarchical organisation. Redundancy (modes of operation)
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Duplication of critical modules having a great failure impact, e.g.: Peripheral and load module (P&L) Defence module Clock and Tone Module

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Auxiliary control element (ACE) for collecting charging information (CSAC)


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SPARE redundancy for less critical modules having a lower failure impact, e.g.: Auxiliary control element for traffic measurement tasks (MSAC) Auxiliary control element for administrative tasks (ASAC)

Modules having a low failure impact do not have redundancy for economical reasons (e.g. Spare ACE). Low failure impact along with expected reliability means that it is unjustified to provide additional redundance (redundance becomes more expensive the closer it must be implemented to the line (HW) which itself is not redundant!) Spare replacement is applicable to CEs with spare redundancy. Spare replacement can be triggered on different conditions.
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When internal or operator requested actions decide to replace a certain CE by a spare or to interchange two TCEs, the initial configuration is disturbed. The return to the initial configuration consists of the replacement of faulty ACEs by spare CEs and interchanging TCEs which are not in their initial configuration. The ALCATEL 1000 S12 exchange is in its initial configuration after a SystemStartUp or when a special MMCCommand is successfully executed. In the meantime the configuration can be changed by the operator or by autonomous maintenance actions. Initial configuration means that the function of each CE, fixed to a socalled logical CE identity, is stored at a predetermined network address, the physical CEidentity. Due to spare replacement, the logical CE identity and thus the function of a CE can move to another network address within the same exchange. The initial configuration is then changed.

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Figure 365 : Operational modes of control elements. Standby concept/characteristics Duplication /Active/Standby) (A/S) Each duplicated control element is loaded with the corresponding user software and constantly updated (with data). In case of faults, a fast switchover is possible. A spare control element (spare CE) is NOT yet loaded with the corresponding application software. In case of an error it must first be assigned to the failing exchange control element type (reconfiguration/reloading is necessary) This is called takeover No redundancy Duplication, both active (e.g: module for clock signals and tones), quickest switchover. The load is divided between several equivalent control elements (with the same or even different data). If one unit fails, the spare CE takes over. Several equivalent control elements share the load, each being protected by a standby CE. Duplication of TCEs especially for subscriber connections. Normal operation: both modules are simplex. In case of failure (failure of a control element, CE): takeover of the connection traffic by the remaining CE.

Spare pool

Simplex (SI)
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2 X Simplex (Act/Act) Loadsharing/Spare Lo/Sp Loadsharing/ Active/Standby Lo/A/s Crossover

9.4.5 Automatic error handling


With regard to:
-

Rapid detection of the occurrence of a fault Analysis of the detected fault Isolation of the fault Alarm signalling about the fault

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Detailed fault reporting

A fault can be either a software or a hardware fault. For software faults we assume the correctness of the own program, so a check must be done on the data used . The program denotes the software package running in the control element where the fault occurs. The data used denotes the data stored in the local database DLS or the data retrieved from incoming messages.
-

Faults will be identified by ERROR TYPE i.e. every failure gets a number and is attached to an Error Class

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ERROR CLASS more detailed description of the kind of fault, e.g.:

HW fault SW fault (OSN, application program) Notify only to operator


-

Rapid detection of the occurrence of a fault. The rapid detection of the occurrence of a fault is necessary to avoid the degeneration of the exchange call carrying capacity. Fault conditions on hardware can be detected by monitoring the hardware devices, periodic scanning, performing read after write checks when giving commands to the device, or checking completion codes, or interpreting the interrupts received from the device. These checks are performed by the responsible Device handlers. Analysis of the detected fault. The fault analysis will be done on different levels. The lower level is in the control element where the fault occurs. This is part of the decentralized maintenance functions, the responsible modules are called ERROR HANDLER (Part of the OSN) and the LOCAL ERROR ANALYZER (LEA). On this level some recovery actions can also be done. The higher level of error analysis takes place in the DFCE control element (centralized part of maintenance functions), which has to decide on the action to be taken (e.g Internal Disable, Internal Verify,...) The following autonomous recovery actions (recovery level) are possible: 1. No recovery (autonomous) 2. Abortion of process that causes the problem 3. Takeover to active (RAM Restart) 4. Restart (ROM Restart) 5. Reload (Bootstrap)

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Transfer of information to centralized maintenance SW No recovery action or process abortion CE restart or CE bootstrap

Anomaly report to centralized Restart/bootstrap buffer to centralized maintenance SW for further errormaintenance SW (after restart/bootstrap is handling executed and endofrestart message is sent to centralized maintenance SW)

The choice is determined by the error class and the fault origin In each case the central maintenance part in the DFCE will be informed. Overflows between the recovery levels are possible (by using timers, threshold values)

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Isolation of the fault For hardware faults, the fault has to be verified, the faulty equipment has to be isolated so it will not be used any more by the call handling actions of the exchange and the operator must be warned because the faulty equipment must be repaired and replaced by properly functioning equipment. Alarm signalling about the fault Alarm signalling is necessary to warn the operator of the occurrence of a fault, which will be done by an audible tone and a visual indication on the master alarm panel. Detailed fault reporting A report with all details of the fault will be printed on the system printer to give the operator all the parameters needed for the action to be taken.

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Figure 366 : Main functions of maintenance

MAINTENANCE
Preventive Maintenance Corrective Maintenance

Scheduled RT by the system Calendar scheduler in the system

Manual RT by the operator Schedule plan

Autonomous actions

Manual actions by the operator error treatment

Self monitoring automatic error handling

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RT on devices (different device types)

Maintenance actions on SBLs, except CTLE on SBLtype CTLE

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9.4.6 Corrective maintenance


Figure 367 : Corrective maintenance
PERMANENT SELFMONITORING ERROR ERROR DETECTION Error reporting to Local Error Analyzer ERROR ANALYSIS (LEA) After Analysis DFCE will be informed
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SELF MONITORING

AUTOMATIC ERROR HANDLING

SYSTEM DEFENCE DFCE decides which action has to be performed ERROR LOCALIZATION (DT) After completion of the autonomous action the operator will be informed by a detailed system report SYSTEM REPORTS TO THE OPERATOR A specific task has to be performed by the operator REPAIR ACTION

SYSTEM REPORT

OPERATOR TASK

a. Corrective maintenance by maintenance personnel Repair of an exchange is necessary in the following cases: for errors detected during preventive maintenance of input/ output devices or other operator actions (Error correction due to malfunctions) Error indications after routine tests automatically generated error reports (alarms) Error indicators for connected exchanges/subscribers (Error handling due to external messages) The following tools are available for handling the errors:

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Diagnostic test protocols and/or TP/DP (Area: C = corrective maintenance) With the help of these it is almost always possible to replace the replaceable item suspected of error or to remove the error by readjusting mechanical items. Procedure upon receiving a corrective maintenance task Figure 368 : Corrective maintenance task

Repair Task

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Task List

O&M : TL(C)

Task Procedure

O&M : TP(C)

O&M : DP... USI Detailed task description Additional lists and tables O&M : Lists and Tables O&M : Report descriptions

Routine Tests. They run periodically under system control or upon operator request. Routine tests are intented to check the functions of devices in traffic (call handling is not affected). (No influence on traffic).

9.4.7 Alarm system


Objective: To make sure that in case of certain fault conditions the maintenance personnel will be informed.

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Such faults, leading to an alarm, are handled in a specific way by special HW and SW parts. ==> Alarm system a. Alarm type / Alarm groups In order to distinguish the variety of possible alarm conditions the following is defined: Alarm type: Identified by: Name or identification number (e.g. CONV/43) As certain alarm types will be treated by the alarm system in an identical way, several alarm types are organised in an Alarm group Main alarm groups (defined in the Support information):
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Module alarms (Converter failures) Rack alarms General alarms external alarms (e.g. rectifier alarm, power failure, Master Alarms Panel) internal alarms related to AC FMM (e.g. overflow of alarm category or alarm list) SW alarms (e.g. malicious call) Miscellaneous alarms SBL alarms CE concerning (CTLE) other SBL Alarms SBL alarm: SBL state = FLT/FOS alarm on SBL state = IT alarm SBL group alarm: If the number of SBLs of the same type (e.g. digital trunk channels, asynchr. I/Odevices) being in the state faulty exeeds a certain threshold value, a SBL group alarm of a higher category than the single SBL alarm is issued. b. Alarm class / categories Information about the urgency of an alarm : Disabled

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Print only Non urgent (not critical) Urgent (critical) Every alarm has two categories (Alarm Category (ALMCAT) and a reduced category (REDCAT)). The purpose is to implement an easy category switch at a certain time of the day. E.g. during low traffic hours some alarms are not as important as during high traffic hours, so the corresponding category could be set lower.

The appropriate maintenance action to be taken by the operator personnel depends on the urgency and the operational administration concept. c. Alarm indicators
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The most common alarm indicators are: Alarm panel System printer LED on PBAs (on CLMAPBA) Alarms sent to Network service centers (NSC) d. Components and functions The alarm system is part of the implemented exchange maintenance functions It can be attached to the following basic functions: Fault detection leading to alarms (alarm detection) Handling of alarm reports issued via alarm indicators Alarm causes can be HW or SW related. For implementation of the described tasks the alarm system consists of: Alarm HW Components (PBAs) Alarm SW Components (FMM / SSM) e. HWAlarmReporting Chain HWalarms are detected by two different DeviceHandler(DH)types, the RackalarmDH and the CentralalarmDH.

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The established alarm condition is signalled to the error handler by the DH by means of an ERROR_REPORT. The error handler sends a message to the DFCE via LEA. The information on the alarm condition detected by the DH is then supplied to the FMM Alarm Control (leads to an alarm output). There is an acknowledgement mechanism via a DB relation in order to inform the DH which detected the alarm condition that the message has reached Alarm Control and that corresponding maintenance actions will be carried out. To clarify this, the acknowledgement process for a HWalarm is described below. Figure 369 : Example: HWAlarm reporting chain
HW Alarm Inputs Alarm report to IO system

Indicators (e.g: Master Alarm Panel)

6
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4
DATABASE

Rack/Central Alarm device Handler SSM


8

ALARM CONTROL 7

R_ALRECE

List of active alarms


located in P&L

Indicator Drive Message 9 5 2 Error reported to the ERROR HANDLER (ERROR_REPORT)

Rack/Central Alarm device Handler FMM

5 Alarm report to alarm system 3

in every CE

ERROR HANDLER

LEA

Anomaly report to DFCE

DFCE
DFCE Maintenance FMMs

Example of alarm treatment: The general treatment of an alarm condition is described in the following scenario:

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Figure 370 : Scenario


RACK ALARM PBA ALARM DH SW DATA BASE SW EH/MAINT. SW ALARM CONTROL FMM

1. AlarmPBA is scanned for Alarm Inputs

1
2. Change of Alarm Bit State is reported to ERRORHANDLER

2
3. Maintenance Software sends Alarm Report

3
4. Alarm Control Software acknowledges Alarm Report and changes the indicator states.

4
5. Alarm DH Software is told to read DATA BASE
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

5
6. Alarm DH Software requests Indicator data from DATA BASE

6
7. Alarm PBA is told to activate Indicators

7
8. Alarm DH Software requests Alarm acknowledge data from DATA BASE

8
9. Alarm bits not acknowledged are reported again

Explanation of the individual processes: AlarmPBA is scanned on a cyclic basis for changes in the input states by the alarmDHsoftware (64 alarmbits). If a change in the input state is established, the alarmDHsoftware generates an alarm report (alarm=on, alarm=off), which informs the Error Handler (EH) about the change The EH sends an error report message to maintenance software. The latter in turn generates an alarm report, which is sent to alarm control software. Alarm control evaluates alarm reports, enters the alarm in the database and generates a new state pattern for alarm indication. ALC then informs the alarm DH software that a change in the alarm indication state has occured and that this is available from the database.

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Alarm DH software fetches the corresponding data from the database. Alarm DH software switches the alarm indicators on the alarm PBA in accordance with a new state pattern. The alarm DH SW checks whether alarm control has acknowledged the alarm report within six minutes after the error report was sent to the error handler (step 2). If there was no acknowledgement, the error report (step 2) is sent again. Device Handler for Module and Rack Alarms (Rack Alarm DH) Software is resident in the modules which have a corresponding RLMC PBA (2 per rack) Scanning of the connected HW signals (voltages, clocks ...)
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In case of alarm the respective error handler is initiated The error handler sends a message to the Defence Processor, whose alarm control initiates the further procedure. (Printout on printer, alarm indicators). Central Alarm Device Handler / Master Alarm DH (CALDH) Software is resident in P&L Driving the functions of the Central Alarm PBA (CLMA) Scanning for external alarms In case of alarm triggering of the Alarm Control FMM or the Error Handler (depends on the Alarm type) and triggering by the Alarm Control FMM for indicator driving Alarm Control FMM Central SW module within the Alarm system SW Software resident in P&L Analyses the alarm event in the arriving messages and alarm identification Controls the appropriate alarm treatment (datadriven) Generates commands to switch on alarm indicators On request, display of an active alarm at a specific time On request, removal of a redundant active alarm from the system

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On request, display and/or modification of an alarm category of a specific alarm type Alarm identification * Alarm identification by Alarm type Alarm group Alarm address Routing of alarm reports

It is possible to route special Alarm reports based on Network address, Alarm type and Alarm number to certain output sets. The operator is able to modify the normal Alarm routing .
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9.4.8 Preventive maintenance


Preventive maintenance for an exchange encompasses manual activities which must be carried out according to a fixed schedule to avoid failures in the hardware. Objects for scheduled maintenance Peripheral devices Exchange devices (telephonic devices, system devices,...) Tools Routine test programs (manual or automatically started) Built in HWself test (after power on) device manuals Directions proceeding according to operation and maintenance guide (O & MManual: Task area (S)) schedule: depends primarily on customer administration recording of the activities a. Routine test Method of fault detection for preventive maintenance Functional tests of devices, not related to SBLs

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Necessary: some Test recources Fault detection with test result restriction: GO/NOGO For functions not monitored by online or alarm supervision No operational disturbance as it runs only when devices are not under traffic (low priority level) Important: starting the routine test is only possible on SBLstate IT! Periodically scheduled automatically by the system itself or once called by operator. Execution with help of overlay test programs (TEXFMMs=TEST EXECUTION) and possibly some Test HW (TAU, TSA). Telephone exchanges require a minimum amount of test and preventive maintenance tasks, which have to be performed in definite time intervals (Scheduled Maintenance) b. Scheduling Information about scheduling intervals, given in tables, are recommended values and can be changed on the basis of operational experience gained during system operation. Possible time intervals (I/ODevices) yearly monthly weekly daily

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Recommendations about time intervals In appropriate preventive maintenance TP for the specified device (O & M Manual) > scheduling plan Scheduling Manually triggered by personnel when a fault is suspected. Automatically triggered (once, periodically) by system according to current scheduling plan (normally already on SLT!), mostly during low traffic period monthly, weekly, daily

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Change possibilities When required, change of the scheduling plan by operator commands (MMC) Manually triggerable of a routine test or premature abort by MMC For every routine test a total result is output

9.4.9 Summary report for all scheduled routine tests


It is possible to start a routine test (scheduled!) for the whole number of devices in the network (DeviceType: NETWORK). This test will run a very long time, (dependent on the number of devices in the network) and will produce a lot of system reports with the results of the test. Therefore a number of Commands have been created to make it easier for the operator to check those results by using a socalled test summary report. This summary report includes the Test number and device type number of devices to be tested number of devices witout fault number of faulty devices number of busy devices, untested number of untested devices for other reasons (for example: no test resources available)
-

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Preventive Maintenance for peripheral devices include manual activities by maintenance personnel tasks like functional checks, cleaning, adjustments etc.

Examples of peripherals: VDU VDU on PTCE Line printer Magnetic tape unit Master panel for alarms

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Preventive Maintenance Activities Kind of device checks: Visibility check Functional test Builtin self test Online check Kind of activities on the device: Cleaning (box etc.) Lubricating (moveable mechanic parts)
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Adjusting (write/read head etc.) Replacement of used up parts (filter etc.) Additional activities: Make a protocol Possibly repair the device* If during preventive maintenance a malfunction is detected whereby the device must be repaired, then a corrective maintenance action has to be performed, e.g. replacement procedure. Error correction due to malfunction Principle task procedure for preventive maintenance Prerequisites: Follow O&MManual (TL, TP, DP etc.) Preparation of aids Make a protocol (related to the device) Establish a definite SW state (SBL related) Establish a definite HW state (Device related) Important notes: Set the devices in or out of operation only in accordance with to the instructions Take notice of notes and precautions

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Figure 371 : Preventive maintenance

Preventive Maintenance Task

Task List

O&M : TL(S)...

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Task Procedure

O&M : TP(S)

Scheduled Maintenance Detailed Procedure Additional lists and tables Device Manuals O&M : DP USIManual O&M : Lists and Tables (Support Information) Manuals

Execution

Functional Error yes Error correction by maintenance personnel (Corrective Maintenance)

no, ok

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10.OPERATING AN A1000 S12


10.1 IOS overview

10.1.1 Introduction
The Input/Output System Software is a part of the Alcatel 1000 S12 Operating System and its evolution is specified by the so called System Kernel Release (S.K.R.). An example is shown in figure 372. It interfaces to the common Operating System modules, especially the Operating System Nucleus which always runs in the background for support of resources such as processor time, memory space and timer, and the internal communication interfaces such as the Message Handler, Network Handler, Cluster Handler, Message Interface, etc. For data access the IOS needs help from the Data Base Management System. With the above mentioned support the IOS acts as a SW interface for communication between the operator with his peripheral devices and Alcatel 1000 S12 application programs, to enable him to maintain and administer the exchange for fulfilling its task of connecting subscribers by phone calls. The IOS is the interface between the application programs and the peripheral devices for file access to get, store, modify, create or remove data if necessary, e.g. charging information.

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Figure 372 : SW specification for A1000 S12

System Kernel Release : S.K.R. 7.1 HWfamily (Jfamily) + Operating System HW+ Firmware
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Data Base

Evolutionary Call Handling (E.C.) Software Package

10.1.2 IOS functions


The main tasks of the IOS are to support the operator facilitaties for exchange administration jobs such as:
-

File Administration ORJ Control and Scheduled Job Administration

Command Administration Report Routing Password Administration Peripheral Device Administration Magnetic Tape and Optical Disk Handling Hard Disk Synchronization Device Anomaly Handling

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Time and Date Administration Backup Generation Logging

Besides these tasks the following functions are performed by the IOS:
-

Device Control Report and Command translation and queuing File synchronisation and recovery Translation between application programs, which have a logical view and the peripheral devices which have to be accessed physically Twin and Fallback Device Organization.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

For all these duties the IOS consists of some FMMs and SSMs (with specific communication interfaces (MSGs) and influencing several control relations.) The I/O System (IOS) connects the user software inside the exchange with the computer peripheral devices. There are mass storage media like optical and magnetic disks, and magnetic tapes. There are also the devices connecting the exchange with the outside world like the VDU, PC, printer or the modem for connection to remote devices. Input/OutputSystem tasks (see figure 373):
-

File

Oriented tasks,

Man Machine Communication (MMC) tasks

On the one hand, the user software inside the system requires access to data residing on mass storage devices and it also writes data to the printer or the VDU. Since the data is organized in files, these actions are called file oriented tasks. On the other hand, the MMC tasks handle all the communication between the supervising personnel (operators) and the exchange. Operator Requested Jobs (ORJs) are submitted via the IOS to the responsible command handler software, which performs the required jobs. The command handler software or any other user software module informs to the IOS. The IOS routes it to the desired the operators by submitting a report peripheral devices.

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Figure 373 : IOS functions

file oriented interface


logical : file, record device ID ...

MMC interface

application programs
report MSG

USER

CRN RRN JSQ ...

data transfer

request for file transfer

ORJ

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IOS
read, write, modify Physical: NA block name ... PSW, command report

PSW and syntax check, translation, report routing, device control,...

command syntax or form report layout input/output device

peripheral devices
mass storage media operator devices

10.1.3 Overall structure


The software for the Input/Output System is mainly located (see figure 23) in the Peripheral and Load Module (P&L). In addition, there may be another module, the Administration Support and Peripherals Module (A&P), which relieves the P&L and of which more than one

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pair may be fitted to an exchange, for a Network Service Center (NSC) or an additional Operator System). One main task of the Input/Output System software is to translate logical data into physical data and vice versa between application programs (users) and the peripheral devices. The users view of the IOS is a logical one. The user software must specify three attributes to get access to the data. Logical view :
-

Logical device Logical file Logical record.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A logical device is where logical files reside. It hides most of the properties related to the physical device which it represents. Logical devices may be one of two types:
-

Single device, which defines one primary and one additional fallback physical device Twin device, which maps two physical devices onto one logical device.

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Figure 374 : Logical and Physical View of the IOS

A&P standby A&P active P&L standby P&L active

IOS

IOSMMC interface

user
(application program)

general remote I/O interface

IOS_utilities IOSfile oriented interface

peripheral devices

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

log.device log.file log.record

device type network address device number phy.file phy.record

A logical file is a collection of logical records. It appears to the user as a contiguous information space in a linear arrangement (a string of adjacent records without gaps and branches). The logical record defines the minimum amount of data which can be transferred at a time. The I/O System maps the logical items onto their physical equivalents. For each logical device, one or more physical devices are defined in a device assignment relation (DASSIGN). On the physical devices, the logical files have their equivalent in physical files, as have the logical records with the physical blocks. This assignment is treated by the responsible file handler software.

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A physical device is identified by its type, the particular control element to which it is connected, and a device number by which distinguishes it from several devices of the same type connected to the same CE. Device types :
-

disks magnetic tapes printers VDUs binary devices virtual devices.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The logical view will be mapped step by step onto its physical representation (see figure 375). The user software must specify only the logical items. The general remote I/O interface maps the logical device to the network address to which it is assigned, the device type with the responsible file handler and the specific device number. The next step is performed by the responsible IOS interface which locates the physical file on the device and accesses the data in physical blocks.

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Figure 375 : Functional Block diagram of the IOS


job management

logging

MMC translation report routing

autorisation check

user (application program)

general remote I/Ointerface

Device Control

peripheral devices
file management
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

IOS utilities (support functions)

10.2 Hardware configuration


The hardware independent software (the I/O System software, will be considered in this document) run in the MCUB of the P&L or A&P. When an action must be performed to drive the peripherals, this hardware related action is ordered by the MCUB, which will pass the responsibility to the DMCA. The firmware of the DMCA executes the desired peripheral oriented job. The peripheral processor of the DMCA and the I/O processor of the MCUB communicate via the multimaster bus (see figure 376). The mass storage media are connected via the SCSI bus to the DMCA. The SCSI bus supports up to 8 device units:
-

4 disks (magnetic and optical) 2 DIL adapters with up to 16 magnetic tape units 1 streamer the DMCA itself

Two serial devices are connected to onboard channels 1 and 2 of the DMCA. Via the peripheral bus up to 4 MMCA boards can be connected to channel numbers 9....24).

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Figure 376 : IO HW configuration

64 ALARM INPUTS

RLMC MCUB
TO DSN FROM C&T ITF

4 rack alarm lamp driver outputs

TERI PART 80386

CLMA

16 EXTERNAL ALARM INPUTS 20 LAMP DRIVER OUTPUTS


2 remote lamp outputs

inter CLMA link

MULTIMASTERBUS

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. .

system printer

DMCA
system VDU MTUF 0 DIL 8844 02 DIL 8844 01
9

SCSI BUS

PERIPHERAL BUS

MTUF 1

SYSTEM DISK MAGNETIC


06

4x

MMCA0
12

13

MAGNETIC OR OPTICAL DISK


05

MMCA1
16

4x

17

MAGNETIC OR OPTICAL DISK


04

MMCA2
20

4x

21

MAGNETIC OR OPTICAL DISK


03

MMCA3
24

4x

STREAMER

00

The P&L and A&P modules are always duplicated and the pair works in active/standby mode. This means that when the active module fails, the standby module will take over without loss of service.

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It will, however, not be possible for a certain side of the P&L or A&P pair (active, standby) to reach a peripheral as long as it is not connected to that side. Using shared devices (see figure 377) solves this problem for MMC peripherals connected to the MMCA or DMCA boards. This means that one serial device is connected to both sides, to the active and standby side. So it is possible to reach this peripheral from both P&L modules. Only the active member of the P&L pair has the right to use the shared device. Each serial channel of the DMCA and MMCA boards may be of shared or private configuration.

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Figure 377 : Shared Devices

Optical Disk Magnetic Disk Tape


Printer O&M Terminal Printer O&M Terminal O&M Terminal Printer 2 1 ext. Alarms Multimasterbus 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DIL adapter SCSI bus Peripheral bus MMCA MMCA


16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

DMCA

CLMA MCUB RLMC

MAP
Printer

DSN
MCUB

Rack Alarms

RLMC

Formatter

O&M Terminal

CLMA
Multimasterbus

MAP
ext. Alarms

DMCA

1 2 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 O&M Printer Terminal Printer

MMCA MMCA

O&M Terminal O&M Printer Terminal

DIL adapter

Formatter

Tape Magnetic Disk

Optical Disk

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10.3 Fileoriented interface

10.3.1 Introduction
All manipulation of information via the IOS fileoriented interface is bound to the Logical File. Transfers (read, write) occur within boundaries of that file for which exclusive ownership is granted. Within a file, the subunits of information handled during data transfer are Logical Records. The IOS maps the logical items onto their physical equivalents:
-

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

For each Logical Device, one or more Physical Devices are defined in the IOS data. On the other hand, one or more logical devices may be assigned to the same combination of physical devices. On the Physical Devices, the Logical Files have their equivalent in Physical Files, as well as the Logical Records with the Physical Records. (Blocks)

The IOS has a remote part in each Control Element, which needs file access (to store, remove or modify data or for data requests), that means an application program resides in such a CE, which uses the fileoriented interface of the IOS via a general remote I/O interface. This remote interface is responsible for translating the logical device given by the user into a physical or logical device with the help of an assignment list. With the physical information the IOS can be accessed in the responsible P&L (or A&P). The next job for the IOS is to check the availability of the destination device and file to access the requested data in the correct way. This way the functions of device control and file management are covered by the IOS.

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Figure 378 : File oriented interface of the IOS

Which physical device(s) stand behind the given logical deviceID Log. Device List ... How is the requested physical device defined (type, protocol, configuration,...)

Is the physical device equipped, Device Status available, in traffic,... Device Characteristics ...

peripheral devices

user (application program)

general remote I/Ointerface

file access data transfer

device control

file management & recovery mechanism 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED file directory

file status file description Where is the logical file physically stored (blocks) ? Is the requested file available, uncorrupted,... How is the requested file defined (length, type, access,...)

10.3.2 Logical file


A Logical File in Alcatel 1000 S12 is a collection of Logical Records identified by the combination of a Logical File Identity (a number) and the identity of the Logical Device on which it resides. It appears to the user as a contiguous information space in a linear arrangement. A file is viewed as a sequence of consecutive logical records. The size of a Logical Record is defined in the File Descriptor Block (FDB) of the logical file and can range from 1 to 2048 bytes. The record is numbered inherently by its offset from the beginning of the Logical File, the record offset (see figure 379). For each Logical File to be used in the system, a logical and physical file description (record size, access type, data type, authorization, maximum length, etc.) has to be set up and maintained for on line use. This information is part of a File Descriptor Block (FDB). The FDBs of all files in the system (max. 5000) are combined to a common directory called the File Descriptor Table (FDT) which is itself a Logical File in the system.

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The FDT is produced off line and it knows about all files that are possible in the system (per definition). For all files an entry is available in the FDT. When a new file is introduced, this predefined entry is modified. For this purpose, a utility is provided to enter new items into the FDT. Similarly, file descriptors may be deleted or (in a restricted manner) modified. For each file access the relevant FDB must be read by the IOS to prevent the file from being misused. An important part of the file description is the time constraints put on to the access of the Logical File, which is supervised by the IOS. Figure 379 : Logical File

logical view of SW
file 1 0 1
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

file 2 0 1 2 3

file 3 0 1 2 3

file n 0

1 4 5 6 record length record offset

In addition to administering the file definitions in the file descriptor table, the file management of the IOS has to check the actual file status in the file status list to see if it is available on the given physical device or not. There is an entry for each file, which is either held by another user or intended for a recovery action or left in an abnormal condition by the last user. If the file access is not allowed, the IOS gives an error message back to the requesting user. The operator can display all entries of the file status list or just some statistics of it.

10.3.3 Logical device


The view of an Input/Output Device to the file oriented user is a Logical Device. This is where Logical Files (see before) reside, and it hides most of the properties related to the

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actual Physical Device which it represents. In Alcatel 1000 S12, a Logical Device may be either: a Single Device or a Twin Device. The Single Device defines a Physical Device for primary use (Primary Device) and, optionally, one or more Fallback Devices to be used when the Primary Device has failed. Also optionally, a Logical Device may have a default Logical File associated with it. As a result, the user can access a file with the specification of the Logical Device alone. The Twin Device (only for mass storage media, usually the disk) maps two Physical Devices onto one Logical Device to achieve secure information storage and/or transfer. This duplication is invisible to the user FMM. An exception to this is when one of the twin devices is not available. In this case the user receives a warning, indicating that the write operation is only performed on one device. The user does not need to take notice of this warning, because the IOS starts an automatic recovery action during which the write operation is performed on the second twin device. Such files, which reside with the same definition in the FDB and the same contents on two physical devices as one logical twin device are called Twin Files. Twin files are marked with a recovery flag in the FDB. The file management of the IOS is responsible for synchronising the twin files. Write, modify and remove operations for a twin file will be performed on both Physical Devices simultaneously. Even if one of the two is unavailable, the Input/Output System will allow the operation to continue (entry in the file status list). When the device becomes available again, a recovery action will be performed for the file by the file management of the IOS.
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SOFTINIT Synchronisation of files stored in the file status list by periodically scanning the list or by request.

HARDINIT The operator can trigger a Softinit for all twin files by a Hardinit and can display the actual status periodically.

Emergency Recovery To save twin files with an entry in the status list before taking one device out of service.

Sector Recovery To save twin files from physically destroyed sectors.

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Read operations from Twin Device will be performed on either of the physical devices.

10.3.4 Physical and virtual devices


From the users view, there is no difference between Physical and Virtual Devices. A Physical or Virtual Device is identified by its type, the particular Control Element (CE) to which it is connected, and a number which distinguishes from several devices of the same type connected to the same CE. The combination of device type, network address and device number is called the Physical Device Identity. The following list is an extract of the actually available physical and virtual device types: DEVICE TYPE DISK
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DEVICE TYPE NUMBER 1 2 4 5 7 130 (virtual device) 131 (virtual device) 135 (virtual device)

MAGTAPE UNIT PRINTER VDU BINARY DEVICE MPTMON REMOTE MMC DISK INIT COMM FACILITY

The term Physical Device refers to what is connected as a peripheral to a control element for communication with human beings (VDU, BINDEV, printer), for mass storage and/or transport of machine readable data (disk, magnetic tape), or for communication with systems outside the exchange environment (remote links to devices or EDP centres). A Virtual Device can be defined as a process (an application of an FMM) which looks as if it provides access to a real computer peripheral. A Virtual Device can be used for interprocessor communication (e.g. DICF or MPTMON). For each device access the device control of the IOS has to read the characteristics of the relevant physical device, which are defined in a list. The operator can display and change these characteristics for HW modifications. Device type, protocol, (baud rate, parities), configuration (with or without modem/shared or private), the whole interface peripheral device/device driver must be specified for each physical device. A second list permanently presents the actual device states. A device can be unequipped (no HW) unavailable (out of service)

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available (free, busy or passive) For operator devices automaticinserviceroutines exist, meaning that the IOS will periodically try to bring them in service again. For mass storage media with random access (disks) a file directory resides on it to translate the logical file into a physical file, i.e. to find the different parts of the file (records) on the correct blocks (sectors, tracks) distributed over the physical device. This directory administers the free space of the device.

10.4 The MMC interface

10.4.1 Introduction
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Man Machine Communication (MMC) software is a part of the I/O System and provides communication between supervising personnel (operators) and the exchange (see figure 380). It forms a component of the interface between the man machine terminals (Visual Display Units, printers, ...) and the software application programs. The application programs (users) perform the functions requested by operators and/or generate automatic reports. Communication between an exchange and the operators is divided into two parts:
-

dialogue Handling, or the command

interface:

ORJs are entered via the terminals to request the desired functions. Responses are generated by the MMC software to make the dialog. These responses are not the result of the functions being performed, but are related to the initial input data.
-

monologue Handling, or the report oriented interface: Output messages like reports and alarms are generated automatically, either as a result of a previously given ORJ (solicited report) or as an indication of events detected within an exchange (unsolicited report). Each report or alarm is identified by a unique number, the Report Reference Number (RRN).

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Figure 380 : Communication with A1000 S12

DIALOGUE

ACTION
FUNCTIONS

ALCATEL 1000 S!2

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

OPERATOR

REACTION
MONOLOGUE

EVENTS

LINE PRINTER
REPORT

ALARMS

SYSTEM 12

MASTER ALARM PANEL

10.4.2 MMCdialogueinterface
The operator initiates a dialogue session by sending a BREAK to the device control of the IOS. The device control identifies the input device and prompts the operator for a password. When entered the password is not displayed on the screen.

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The authorization check looks for the password in a password list. There are two possibilities for this list : the passwords are either stored as mnemonics (a password consists of up to 8 characters and is taken as it is entered) or encrypted. In the second case a password consists of at least 6 up to 12 characters and has to be encrypted before the list is accessed. The password must be unique in this list. The password list consists of 999 possible passwords. To each password a set of command areas is assigned. All acceptable commands are distributed to 128 different command areas. Further the authorisation check controls a second list, which assigns a set of command areas to all possible input devices. The combination of both gives the list of commands for which the operator with his password and input device is authorized. If the password is found in the password list the IOS sends a dialogue header, containing the exchange name, date, time, day of week, the physical address of the input device and a logical password identification (internal password index as a pseudouserID) back to the input device and prompts for a command input. Otherwise the dialogue session is terminated with an error message. Then the command input is checked to determine, whether the authorization is given for the actual session. A command list gives the responsible command area for all acceptable commands. For all other inputs the session terminates with an error message. To perform the syntax check and translation of the ASCII input into binary format, which is understandable for the system SW, the dialogue data is accessed. Each command area is handled in one disk file. A directory of all dialogue files is written in the prologue file. Each file access is performed by the IOS file oriented interface. The MMC translation sends a prompt for all missing mandatoryparameters to the input device. The response of each input is taken from a response list. A command can have up to 63 parameters and several arguments per parameter. After the correct command input is completed, the job management creates an ORJ by performing an entry in the actual joblist to administer the job. The entry consists of the job sequence number (job counter, which is incremented by one for each new job), date, input device, logical password, index and the process ID of the command handler process which is called to perform the task initiated by the given command. The job sequence number, date, command reference number and the job state JOB SUBMITTED are displayed to the operator. After the translated command string is launched to the responsible application process the semantic check is performed by the command handler (arguments valid). If no errors are detected, the new job state RESULT DELAYED is updated in the job list and displayed on the input device. Beside this single command input procedure the MMC dialogue interface can handle batch files. Files, stored on disk or externally, containing a list of commands. The compound dialogue works through the batch file by performing the requested tasks sequentially. The operator decides if the dialogue should be aborted or continue in case of an unsuccessful job and where the results should be stored.

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Figure 381 : MMC interface of the IOS

job status list ...

What is the actual state of all all running jobs

Device Status MMCtables & files Device Characteristics

job management

command

operator

user (e.g. command handler) 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

general remote I/Oitf

Logging

Logging tables and files

MMC translation

Authorisation Check

Device Control

report routing Password list ... report routing tables ... to which output devices should the given report be sent ?

Log. device list

is the operator with his input device authorised for the given command

10.4.3 MMCmonologueinterface
The MMCMonologueInterface of the IOS performs all functions concerning the output of to the desired devices. A report is a type of message launched in order to pass reports information given Alcatel 1000 S12 to a human being. There are three types of report.
-

Solicited reports are responses to operator requests. The report is defined by a certain Report Reference Number (RRN) depending on the triggering command and belongs to the created ORJ specified by the Job Sequence Number (JSQ). Unsolicited reports are messages without an external trigger. Their JSQ is set to 0, because they are not ORJ triggered. Alarm reports are special unsolicited reports. They are treated with a higher priority and signal the change of an alarm state (on/off) in the system.

All reports are routed via a general remote I/O interface in the control element of the sending user to the IOS in the standby PLCE. First report routing launches the binary report message to the MMC translation, which is responsible for translating data into ASCII and

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bringing it into a specific layout, depending on the RRN. All report layouts are stored in the MMC monologue file on disk. The report is sent back to report routing in an easily readable format for the operator. The user sends an Output Set Identification with the report message to report routing for individual distribution to several output devices, depending on the contents of the report. Each combination of an RRN and an Output Set ID is linked to a group (report group) of maximum 8 logical devices, which represent different output channels, with optional alternatives such as fallback as defined in the device assignment list. Additionally the report may, if specified in the routing tables, be sent back to the input device. Further, the operator can specify an individual output device for each command by means a special parameter. If a desired output device is not available, the report routing queues the reports for later output, depending on their priority.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A displayed report consists of a monologue header with the same contents as the dialogue header of the triggering command, the JSQ, the result (successful or not), a repetition of command and parameters, additional information about the result and the RRN. With the RRN the operator can find further information in the Manuals to interpret the report. The ORJ is deleted in the job status list, after the output of the final report to all desired devices.

10.4.4 Logging
The Logging subsystem provides a logbook of the MMC interface. All inputs and outputs of the system SW via the dialogue or monologue interface can be stored in special files on the disk. There are five different log types, which are handled separately: all inputs entered by the operator with his peripheral device; all commands accepted by the job management (with access rights and correct syntax); all solicited reports; all unsolicited reports; all alarms. For each type the Logging function can be switched on and the stored data can be controlled and saved. Several search parameters exist to display the subsets of the logged data. log type; time and data slice;

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input device; LPN; CRN or RRN; exchange identification. Any combination of the search parameters is allowed. The found subset of logged data for accept commands can be executed again. All commands which are selected by the operator are translated into ASCII and stored in a temporary file, which is handled as a batch file.

10.5 Exchange administration


The IOS provides several functions, called I/O utilities, for the operator to install his administration environment, and to support the application SW with help functions. A main task is to save the system SW periodically, so as to have an actual fallback in case of a crash. There are two possibilities supported and described in detail by task procedures in the Manuals depending on the destination backup media, which are optical disks or magnetic tapes. The amount of maximum 5000 files is divided into unchangeable files for the system load part, and changeable files for the data load part; referring to the file type stored in the file descriptor block. The two parts can be saved separately. The operator has to administrate the volumes of the changeable mass storage media (format, mount, etc.) for the backup generation. Further he can save logged data, charging or statistic data individually. For this purpose file handling features are available. Single files and the whole contents of mass storage media can be copied, and the file status and file definition can be controlled. Most of the commands can be submitted with a time schedule for later execution. Start date, time of job execution and time period for periodically executed jobs can be specified. The operator may control the job status and schedule. In addition he can influence the report routing tables to decide which output devices should display a certain report identified by its RRN and Output set ID. The logical device assignment and the physical device characteristics are changeable and the device status can be supervised by MMC commands. Another important task is to prevent the system from misuse. Therefore, commands are assigned to command areas, command areas to passwords and to input devices and passwords to users (operators). Each device and each operator has an individual authorization profile. Only commands belonging to specified tasks are accessible for the operator, depending on his duties.

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The IOS utilities treat the system SW in a common way without referring to its telephonic applications. They can be triggered by any program which needs help. General information about the SW version and all SW parts are available. Load and initialization procedures are supported, and recovery actions are performed.

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11.ADMINISTRATION
11.1 Introduction
The Administration subsystem is one of the nine subsystems into which the A1000 S12 software has been divided. It occupies the highest level in the A1000 S12 software where it is distributed within the different modules that make up the software. Figure 382 : Subsystem interface
ADMINISTRATION

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CALL HANDLING

MAINTENANCE

TELEPHONIC SUPPORT

OPERATING SYSTEM AND DATABASE

CONTROL ELEMENT HARDWARE

TELEPHONIC DEVICES

SWITCHING NETWORK (DSN)

PERIPHERAL DEVICES

This subsystem provides the software necessary for the exchange operation, that is, the execution and support of all operational functions. This software executes the exchange measurements and statistical functions including data collection and display and printout of the measurements taken. Furthermore, this administration software manages the storage of the measurements and other associated data on mass storage devices.

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This subsystem uses the other subsystems mentioned before to gather the data necessary to accomplish its task. The programs that make up the software of this subsystem are generally not critical in time. The majority of these programs are therefore stored on disk and copied into the overlay zones of the different CEs when required. The Administration software is divided into the following areas: traffic performance and measurement collection; exchange management; network management administration; HW and SW extensions.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

11.2 Traffic measurements collection and supervision


The A1000 S12 is capable of carrying out statistical and traffic measurements. All main statistical events are continuously collected by the exchange software and they are used to update a great amount of software counters. These counters are used to provide all the different types of measurements that can be requested. Measurements are intended primarily to determine the trend of carried traffic volume and the grade of service, to obtain warnings of abnormal conditions, to investigate temporary abnormal traffic situations, etc. The types of measurements performed by the administration software are related to the exchange type and customer requirements. These can be general statistics (e.g. number of incoming terminating calls, number of hookoff events during a certain period), occupancy monitoring, call sampling (e.g. call recording on one specific call in every N), observation for different types of calls, CE load and overload measurements, etc.

11.2.1 Measurements based on statistical counters


The statistical system is divided into two different levels in order to perform its functions:
-

Report generation level. This level is the interface with the operator and is active only when the operator so requires. Collection level. This level is always active. The data collected by this level is used by the control level.

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Figure 383 : System statistics structure

IO SUBYSTEM

ACTIVATION

PERIODICAL INFORMATION

OPERATIONS AND REPORTS

REPORT GENERATION LEVEL


DATA REQUEST

COLLECTION LEVEL
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

a. Collection level The A1000 S12 system is continuously collecting data and updating counters. Local Data Collectors (LDCs) are used to collect statistical data, and a Central Data Collector (CDC) groups the data distributed among all the LDCs. Local Data Collector (LDC). The statistical events are reported to the Local Data Collectors SW (LDCs) mainly by the Call Handling subsystem. The LDCs update and manage the counters associated a those events. This software LDC and the counters are located in the SLDCTRAs. Central Data Collector (CDC). Most LDC counters are periodically collected by the Central Data Collector SW (CDC) using a polling strategy. The Central Data Collector is located at a duplicated ADMCE or PLADMCE. These data are summed up and stored in a centralized database. The number of seizures per trunk, for example, is stored in the SLDCTRA related to the specific trunk, while the average number of seizures per trunk group is stored in the CDC. The counters are collected every five minutes for network management and trunk monitoring functions and every fifteen minutes for general measurement functions.

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Figure 384 : Collection Level

LINE TCEs

SCALSV_1

EVENTS TRUNK TCEs

SLDCTRA_1 POLLING

ADMCE or PLADMCE SLDCTRA_1 EVENTS LINE TCEs


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SCALSV_1 TRUNK TCEs

LOCAL DATA COLLECTOR

CENTRAL DATA COLLECTOR

b. Generation report level As previously mentioned, the generation report level SW acts as an interface with the operator and uses the collection level to provide statistical data. The interrogation of counters is performed by the Administration SW, which has the interface with the collection level, LDC or CDC, depending on the type of measurement. The exchange statistics can be requested by defining a complex time pattern (different days, different times, etc.). A schedule module is in charge of sending a message for the different analysis periods. This message will start or stop the measurement. It is possible for the operator to display the requested statistics at any time, obtaining detailed information about the measuring plans under way. This generation report level manages most of the system counters. It allows the indication of several entities and several objects for each entity, over which to take the measurements, in a single request. It is possible to indicate, the precise moment to start and stop the measurements, the period of the measurements, and the device on which the results will be output. There may be several active requests at any given moment. The collection method used the compatibility of each measurement. This is so because the method is always cumulative and the values are calculated from the difference between the value at the moment the measurement starts and at the moment it is given to the operator.

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Basically, this SW decodes the operator requests, it drives the starting and ending of the collection periods, collects the values of the corresponding counters from the collection level, and formats the monologues containing the requested counter values. Figure 385 : Report generation level

REPORT GENERATION LEVEL


SCHEDULER

LDC

IO SUBYSTEM
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ADMINISTRATION

DISPLAY MEASUREMENTS

CDC

Certain events are not collected by the usual statistical system because they have special characteristics. These are referred to the overload of the Control Elements. These events are handled directly by the Operating System. A special FMM is in charge of these events. This FMM belongs to both levels, the collection level and the report generation level, so it both updates counters it manages operator commands while being in charge of the corresponding output reports. Two main counters are provided: number of times an overload is encountered; duration of the overload.

11.2.2 Call observation


The Alcatel 1000 S12 SW contains an observation function to obtain an evaluation of the quality of service performed by the exchange itself and the peripheral exchanges. This function is started by an operator request. The results are supplied in the exchange in the form of reports (VDU or printer). Call observation in the Alcatel 1000 S12 involves three types of measurements:
-

Signalling register The measurements are performed on one selected trunk. Mainly, the signal interchange between both exchanges through the trunk, the trunk identity, the service circuit identity and the time are recorded.

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This function can be applied to any type of signalling CAS or CCS ISUP, TUP, etc...
-

Call sampling One out of every N calls of a certain type (national, international, etc.) is sampled. The sample provides an estimation of the traffic in the exchange, and determine the grade of service for the basic and the supplementary services.

Single Line Observation All events that occur on incoming calls from local subscribers or trunks are collected. The time at which each event occurs is also recorded.

The observation breaks down into three different phases: activation, collection, and output. In the Activation phase, the SW modules in charge of managing the call observation are activated by operator command. It is possible to start, modify or stop the call observation using a set of ORJs directed to these two modules. When indicated by the generation report SW, the Call Observation SW puts the lines or trunks in observation (or removes them from this state), notifying the Call Handling SW. This subsystem determines which call must be sampled and starts the transmission of the events to the collection level SW. In the event collection phase, the call handling events relating to the observation types are collected at the time at which they occur. Finally, in the output phase, the module in charge of this function receives a buffer containing a set of observation data of a call. It carries out the translation, using a specific format, to a binary file of the system. Upon operator request from a PC, the translation to ASCII is performed and this information is stored on a PC disc.

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Figure 386 : Observation data collection

OPERATOR

SLO

CS

SR

PHASE ACTIVATION

CALL HANDLING

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DATA COLLECTION

PHASE COLLECTION

UNPACK OUTPUT PHASE DISK PRINTER

11.2.3 Supervision
The main objective of this function is to provide a permanent surveillance of the exchange and the network performance. The objects under observation are mainly:
-

The exchange itself Control elements Single trunks Trunk groups Routes Service circuit types and modules

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Analog & ISDN lines X25 links etc.

The supervision is based on the measurement subsystem. In fact a set of statistics counters are interrogated, processed and compared to some threshold values (which can be modified by MMC). The counter values are provided in an Nx5 minutes period. Based on this action, it is possible to report that something may be wrong adding indicators or ratios and to activate or deactivate alarms. Sometimes automatic tests on some objects which are suspected of being faulty are triggered. If, after checking, the faulty condition is confirmed, the object is set to unavailable until the cause has disappeared. Some examples of analog line supervision are:
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Unavailability of lines. This function allows to supervise the relationship between the unavailable lines and the total lines. This feature can be activated for homogeneous groups and for a specified time. Dial tone delay. If the dial tone delay exceeds an administrable threshold, the call is considered as delayed. If at least one delayed call is found, a report with the percentage of delays calls and the average dial tone delay will be output. etc.

11.3 Exchange management


The Exchange Management software handles operator requests to change the Semi Permanent Data of the exchange. The SemiPermanent Data (SPD) define the configuration of the exchange in terms of features, facilities, and associated information, such as subscriber and trunk facilities, charging information, allocation of routes, etc. All these data are created in the software production phase and are held in the relation of the exchange database. When some of these data have to be updated, the operator can use a set of ORJs which are translated, by the Administration software, into data modification commands executed by the Data Base Management System. All these ORJs are organized into homogeneous groups, mainly Subscriber, Routing, Prefix, and Charging administration.

11.3.1 Analogue and ISDN subscriber line administration


Some of the ORJs enable the exchange personnel to manage the data associated with the subscriber (analogue and ISDN) lines. Allocation, changing and removing a subscribers

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class of service, class of line, as well as interrogation are possible. Also ORJs for management of the PABX SemiPermanent Data are provided. Introduction and removal of PABXs, updating and displaying of the PABX organization plan are available to the operator. A set of commands, known as Handle Line, have been developed to manage either analogue or ISDN individual lines. Both of them, subscribers connected directly to the A1000 S12 host exchange and subscribers connected remotely via a IRSU, are handled in a same way. The identity of the subscriber is indicated by the Equipment Number (EN) , Directory Number (DN) or even Multi Subscriber Number (MSN). The EN is commonly used when the DN has not yet been defined. This set provides the following commands :
-

Create allows the operator to introduce new subscribers into the system. No facilities can be introduced during the creation phase. Modify and Display allow to update or display the subscribers featuresand classes. Remove is used to remove or intercept the subscriber specified in the input.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Another set of commands, known as Handle PABX, is used to create and maintain PABX related software data. The PABX can be linked to the system by means of analogue or ISDN lines, by Primary Rate Access (PRA), by digital trunks, or other combinations. It is possible to create a new PABX plan in the system. The corresponding ORJ allows the administration to set up the PABX layout and to define the main PABX features. These features, e.g. : line/trunk group organization, search mechanism, etc., can be modified or displayed on the VDU. In addition part of the PABX or the whole PABX can be removed from the exchange. On the other hand, the so called Complex facilities are managed by a set of commands that allow the creation, modification, and removal of abbreviated dialling, Closed User Groups, ISDN Packet Switching, etc. An example of this command area is the command used to display a subscriber. To execute this command only the DN or the EN is needed: <DISPLAYSUBSCR:DN = K4995060; When the command is entered, the job is submitted:

SEQ=6807.920624 9002 COM=4296 JOB SUBMITTED 9000 RESULT FOLLOWS

This command causes all features and characteristics of the subscriber, both analogue or ISDN, to be displayed:

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OTES5_N4_1_213 19920624 001 0130/0006/0003 SEQ=6807.920624 04263 SUBSCRIBER ADMINISTRATION DISPLAY SUBSCR

15:03:04

WE

SUCCESSFUL

FINAL RESULT 1 EN PHYS (LOG)/ENICONC DN A/I MSNDFLT GDN H30 (H6C0 ) & 93 04995060 A

BCAUTH :
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SPEECH 0

AUD_3_1K

CHARGING METERS : SERVICES : SUBGRP SUBSIG SUBCTRL CFWD : COL : BLNGLEV MAXCFWD

: 1 : CBSET : CFWDBSUB CFWDFIXA CFWDNOR CFWDUVAR CFWDUVAR 04992345 ACTIVE NORMSUB : 0 : CFWDU 1 CFWDFIXA 1 CFWDBSUB 1 CFWDNOR 1 DEFLECT 1

LAST REPORT

NO = 04263

11.3.2 Routing administration


The purpose of routing administration is to maintain the routing info in an exchange by means of ORJs. The basic routing info in an exchange is:
-

Trunk: The necessary elements to branch one user channel between two exchanges. Trunkgroup:A number of trunks between two end points, sharing the same facilities (signalling, direction, etc). Route: All trunkgroups directly connecting two points.

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Routeblock: A number of routes which can be selected to reach an indicated destination (prefix). In each routeblock there is one preferred route which is called primary route. The other routes in the same routeblock are called alternative routes. These routes are chosen only in case of congestion or unavailability of the primary route.

The main SPD of the trunks are: the terminal number of the trunk the identity of the trunkgroup the trunk to which the control element identity the trunk state particular features (semipermanent connection, etc.)
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Figure 387 : Routing basic concepts Announcement Centre D TRKGR AD RouteBlock AE RouteBlock AB C TRKGR CE TRKGR BC A TRKGR AB1 TRKGR BE B TRKGR AB2 Subscriber Route AB Subscriber Subscriber E TRKGR DE

TRKGR AC

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Figure 388 : Relation between trunks

RouteBlock AB

Route AB

Route AC

TrkGrp AB1

TrkGrp AB2

TrkGrp AC

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Trunk 1

Trunk 2

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

A trunk has to be seized by the operator in order to update its associated data. When the operation is executed successfully, no more calls are allowed on the trunks. The trunks can be specified with their terminal control element identity and terminal number or with the identity of the trunkgroup they belong and the trunk sequence number within the trunkgroup. Once a trunk is seized, the modify and display commands can be used by the operator to change or/and display the call handling related data of this trunk. The trunk can then be released from operations. After this command is executed, only calls or trunk test calls are allowed and data manipulations are no longer possible. Another possibility is to move trunks. This command performs the reallocation of trunks from one trunkgroup to another. In other words, this command functionally performs a decrease in the call handling capability through a trunkgroup, followed by an increase on the extended trunkgroup. The operator has to change the GLS of the TCE involved, if the new signalling type of the trunks is not covered by the currently loaded GLS. The trunkgroups can be divided into two main groups: the incoming and the outgoing ones. For these trunkgroups some of the associated SemiPermanent Data are: the trunkgroup identity the list of the associated trunks the signalling type the identity of the route to which the trunkgroup belongs

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the reference trunkgroup for DID the preselection digits etc.. as well as the nature of address and destination point code for the N7 trunks. Taking into account all these parameters, it is possible to create or remove trunkgroup, or modify the data of an existing one. The data can also be displayed. Removal of a trunkgroup is only allowed if it is not allocated to a routeblock and does not contain trunks. The commands to reduce or extend trunkgroups are used to decrease or increase the number of trunks within a trunkgroup. The command creates the relationship between the trunk terminal control element identity and the terminal number at one side, and the trunkgroup identity, the trunk sequence number and the trunk terminal control element sequence number within the trunkgroup at the other side. It also copies the trunk related data defined at the trunkgroup level to the trunk level. The operator has to change the GLS of the TCE involved, if the new signalling type of the trunks is not covered by the currently loaded GLS. In addition, the route administration software provides a set of tools to handle all the data related to the routes and the routeblocks. The main commands are create, modify, remove, display, etc.. When a route is created, it is included in the DataBase. The route number will be generated by the ORJ for internal use. Once the route exists, a series of trunkgroup can be allocated to it, using the modify command. This command can also be used to change the status of the route (inservice, outofservice, etc.). Analogue features exist for the routeblocks. The create feature is used to introduce a new routeblock, and subsequently, a new node in the routingplan. This routeblock will later be used by the Prefix Administration ORJs to connect it to a prefix. The bearer and the signalling dependencies have to be specified by the introduced subrouteblock (a hierarchical set of subroutes). The trunkgroups are sorted into subroutes which are selected according to their priority: first the primary subroute, then the first alternative one, and so on.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

11.3.3 Prefix administration


In an exchange, a number of specific call handling tasks have to be performed during call setup and call release. These tasks can be charging, signalling and destination related (e.g. local or outgoing call, numbering type, signalling type). The decision on how to perform these tasks is based on three parameters: the originator of the call (subscriber or trunkgroup), the destination of the call (prefix), and the type of call (normal, coinbox, etc.). This information is used inside PATED. With these input parameters, PATED will be able to select the specific tasks for every call. If the call setup cannot proceed, the underlying

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cause is presented to the call service subsystem (=CAUSE) and a specific task will be performed to release the call setup in a defined way. Most of the information related to prefix analysis is in SemiPermanent Data form. Some of the data is administration dependent and a lot more data is exchange dependent. By means of man machine communication, the operator can get access to all of these data. The main key parameters used to handle the PATED data are:
-

The source code: A number reference to the type of originator of the call in the exchange. The nature of address: Only relevant for a call on an incoming trunk. It indicates where the call originated. The Prefix: Used in the exchange to route the call. Type of call: Indicates the calling party category (normal, coinbox, etc.).

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

With these input parameters it is possible to find a specific origin and destination of the different tasks. All this data can be retrieved by means of the display feature. For instance, it is possible to display, for a given prefix, an overview of the input parameters and next the information of every digit of the prefix. This result may be a CPX, a Cause, and the number of digits that are still required. It is, of course, also possible to create a new prefix. When you create a prefix you have to define all the necessary data for that prefix. You can also modify a prefix data profile.

11.3.4 Charging administration


The charging administration of the A1000 S12 exchange provides tools to change the charging calendar, the charging scale, the tariff, the charge accounting (revenue sharing between operating companies), etc. To define the charging information. such as method, rate, number of pulses, etc., the charging programs require four codes:
-

The originating code for charging: This code is derived form the source code and the nature of address. The destination code for charging: This parameter is used to group destinations that are considered as a unique destination by the charging system. It is derived from the dialled prefix. The type of call: This code is retrieved from the class of service. The calendar: Up to eight calendar types can be defined. This calendar gives a category for every day: workday, weekend day, holiday, and special day.

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The operator has some commands to handle charging data. It is possible to display the prefix tasks for charging to a destination or to a supplementary service, as well as to modify this data. Also, the different types of calendar, the charging tariff, the rate, the number of pulses and the charging method used for each tariff group and their corresponding switchover times, can be displayed or modified. Example : To display the charging calendar, with two possible parameters, either the week calendar or the year one, the execution of the command would be as follows:

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

<DISPLAYCHARGINGCALENDAR:WEEKCAL ,TABLE=2; SEQ=6817.920624 9002 COM=0752 JOB SUBMITTED 9000 RESULT FOLLOWS

Once the job is submitted, the charging assigned to every day in the week is shown:

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OTES5_N4_1_213 19920624 15:28:20 001 0130/0006/0003 SEQ=6817.920624 00766 AREA=CHARGING ADMINISTRATION

WE

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DISPLAY CHARGING CALENDAR SUCCESSFUL FINAL RESULT 1 OPTION = BASIC WEEK CALENDAR CALENTYP SU MO TU WE TH FR SA TABLE 1 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 2 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 3 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 4 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 5 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 6 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 7 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 8 WKA WDA WDA WDA WDA WDA WKA ACTIVE 1 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 2 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 3 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 4 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 5 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 6 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 7 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE 8 WKB WDB WDB WDB WDB WDB WKB PASSIVE

LAST REPORT

NO = 00766

11.4 Network management


The reason for implementing a Network Management system is to ensure to efficient operation and to maximize the traffic handling capacity of the network during periods of traffic overload. Overload occurs when there are insufficient traffic handling resources in the network to handle the incoming traffic. Causes of overload can be switching or transmission equipment failures, natural disasters, familyoriented holidays, underestimated growth in demand for services, etc. Overload has an undesirable effect on an uncontrolled network. When traffic is low and the available quantities of all the various types of resources needed to set up any call are sufficient to handle the traffic, all offered traffic is carried out. When traffic increases, the

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resources needed to complete some calls become unavailable and these calls are blocked. Since most of the calls are immediately (or soon) reattempted, further demands are placed on the networks resources. The result is that, due to deadlocks, above some higher level of offered traffic, a congested network without Network Management begins to carry less traffic than at lower traffic levels. Moreover, calls initiated at the (usually) less congested periphery of the network in general encounter congestion near the middle, after having already utilized several stages of intermediate resources which therefore cannot be utilized by other traffic. Under conditions of extreme overload, this congestion can result in the inability to complete any call in the network. The ideal action of the Network Management would to cause a reduction in the offered traffic to a point just below the critical level at which deadlocks begin to occur, thereby maximizing the traffic handling capacity of the overloaded network. This can be accomplished by several methods, e.g.: cancelling offered traffic at the periphery of the network, delaying or preventing reattempts on incomplete calls, minimizing the resources used to set up and complete the calls by restricting alternately routed call attempts, etc. The Network Management in the A1000 S12 provides the facilities necessary for the network managers to maintain the efficient operation of the network during periods of traffic overload. First, it provides tools which enable network managers to obtain timely network performance data. Second, it provides tools that can be used to modify the network traffic flow in order to reduce overload and thus increase the number of calls that can be completed by the network. Since overload conditions cannot be predicted and do not affect the different equipments within the network to the same extent, the Network Management system must be flexible, resilient, and for most of its actions rely on the timely application of the experience and wisdom of the network managers controlling it. The strategy for Network Management in the A1000 S12 is based on the use of centralized intelligence: the Network Service Centre or a particular administration dependent centre, which communicates with the depending exchanges. These exchanges give the necessary indicators to the NSC and react to the requests received from the NSC.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Conclusion: Network Management can be defined as the whole of operations intended to exploit an existing network with maximum efficiency, and to restore normal operation when the proper working has for some reason been disturbed. Network Management can also be used as a planning tool to avoid network problems in the future. The main objectives of the Network Management are to provide real time response to unexpected network conditions and preplanned actions to deal with regularly recurring and predictable conditions, as well as to work out methods to restore service after an overload. In order to carry out the above mentioned objectives some indicators have to be provided. These indicators are related to interesting phenomena from a network management point of

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view, e.g.: indicator of traffic that has a low probability to reach a destination, trunk occupancy indicators, exchange overload indicator (i.e. too many calls not accepted by the system), etc. Based on these indicators, certain actions can be initiated in the exchange:
-

actions which affect only the internal behaviour of the exchange: exchange load control; actions which have an influence in the network: network load control.

11.4.1 Destination controls


Destination controls are used to limit traffic which has a small probability of reaching a specified destination. Some of the implemented controls are: Code Blocking, HardToReach, Explosive Traffic Control and Call Gapping.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

a. Code blocking Code blocking control can be used to block traffic towards destination codes, which have a small chance of being completed. This capability is used to limit traffic surges to a destination. It can also be used to limit traffic early in the network to an office or code that is partially or completely outofservice, thereby conserving network resources and preventing local congestion from being propagated through the network. A code blocking destination can be defined as a dialled digit string from 2 to 12 digits in length. Calls can be restricted to certain areas, specific exchanges, or even individual subscribers, and these calls are directed to a specific announcement. The cancellation of calls is done on a percentage basis. Figure 389 : Code Blocking
CALLS ATTEMPTS TO A DESTINATION A1000 S12 HANDLE A PERCENTAGE OF CALLS (X%)

PSTN

YES Calling Subscribers CANCEL A PERCENTAGE OF CALLS (100X%) IS CODE BLOCKING CONTROL TRIGGERED? TELEPHONE AREA AN EXCHANGE INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBERS

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b. Hardtoreach Traffic which has a low probability of completion is named hardtoreach. Since certain destinations may become hardtoreach only at certain times, especially under high traffic conditions, it is desirable to block calls only during the time they are experiencing congestion. Hardtoreach analysis is used to determine when the relevant destinations are congested. The analysis also determines when the congestion has been relieved. Since the exchange does not automatically determine which destinations are involved (or are potentially hardtoreach), this control can be considered as semiautomatic. To determine whether a destination code is hardtoreach four thresholds are used, namely: the lower & the upper call attempts thresholds, and the lower & the upper answer/bid ratio thresholds. When the hardtoreach analysis is triggered, these thresholds are compared to the actual realtime call attempts and call completion measurement data counters. To establish the hardtoreach condition on a destination, the number of call attempts towards the destination during the previous datacollection period must exceed the upper call attempt threshold, and the collected answer/bid ratio towards the destination must be less than the lower answer/bid ratio threshold. The hardtoreach blocking is removed from the destination when one of the following conditions is met: the number of call attempts towards the destination during the previous data collection period falls below the lower call attempts threshold, or the call completion ratio towards the destination during the previous data collection period exceeds the upper answer/bid ratio threshold. A hardtoreach destination can be also defined as any dialled string from 2 to 12 digits in length. Calls can be restricted to certain areas, specific exchanges, or even individual subscribers.

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Figure 390 : Hardtoreach control


CALL ATTEMPTS TO A DESTINATION A1000 S12 HANDLE A PERCENTAGE OF CALLS (X%)

PSTN

YES Calling Subscribers


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TELEPHONE AREA HARDTOREACH FLAG SET? AN EXCHANGE INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBERS

CANCEL A PERCENTAGE OF CALLS (100X%)

c. Explosive traffic control Explosive traffic control is used to avoid that calls to certain prefixes seize all resources (trunks). The number of call attempts towards a certain prefix over a certain time period is compared with a threshold, namely the maximum allowed number of call attempts. If the maximum number of allowed call attempts determined to be towards a certain prefix is not reached then the actual number of call attempts is incremented and the call is handled. If, however, the actual number of call attempts towards that prefix is equal to the maximum allowed number of call attempts, then the call is cancelled and an announcement is returned. After a timeout, a value is subtracted from the actual number of call attempts. Because the PATED processors handle the traffic in load sharing, the maximum number of call attempts specified by the operator is proportionate part of the maximum value of the complete exchange. An Explosive Traffic Control destination can be defined as a dialled digit string from 2 to 12, so that calls can be restricted to certain areas, specific exchanges, or even individual subscribers.

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Figure 391 : Explosive Traffic control


CALLS ATTEMPT TO A DESTINATION A1000 S12

PSTN

YES Subscribers TELEPHONE AREA

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CANCEL THE CALL

IS THE NUMBER OF CALL ATTEMPTS GREATER THAN A THRESHOLD?

AN EXCHANGE INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBERS

d. Call gapping This control limits the number of call attempts routed to the specified destination over a particular period of time. The affected traffic will be routed to a special announcement. The call attempts are treated by different PATED processors (load sharing). Therefore, the Call Gapping control will be given to one processor at a time. This requires a scheduling of the PATED processors to accept the call attempts for destinations under Call Gapping control. During a defined period of time a PATED can be open or closed. The open period, also called Gap Time, is given by the operator. This Gap Time multiplied by the number of processors will be the Gap Cycle time. There are several possibilities for Call Gapping. The first defines that a call will only be accepted when it is the first call in an open period. The following call attempts in the same open period and the call attempts in a closed period will be rejected and routed to an announcement. Another possibility, which is used when traffic is low, defines that a call will be accepted when it is the first call in an open period and that a call attempt in a closed period will be accepted, when there was no call during the previous open period. In all other cases the call is rejected and routed to an announcement.

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Figure 392 : Call Gapping control


CALLS ATTEMPT TO A DESTINATION A1000 S12

PSTN

NO Subscribers TELEPHONE AREA

IS THE FIRST ATTEMPT IN AN OPEN PERIOD?


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

AN EXCHANGE INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBERS

CANCEL THE CALL

11.4.2 Routing controls


As explained before, in the Trunk Search chapter, the interconnections between exchanges are organized as routeblocks, routes, trunkgroups, and trunks. Some tables belong to the Trunk Resources Management software used to carry out the selection of a trunk for the outgoing calls. These data can be modified by Network Management tools to avoid overload or blocking of trunks, routes, or routeblocks. The following figure shows an environment of exchange interconnections which will be used as an example. The exchanges are A (local), B (local and transit), C (transit), D (transit and announcement centre), and E (local). The different trunkgroups among them can be seen on the figure. Trunkgroups AB1 and AB2 form route AB, trunkgroup AC forms route AC, and so on. Routes AB and AC form routeblock AB, route AD and route AC form routeblock AE, and so on.

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Figure 393 : Network environment Announcement Center D TRKGR AD RouteBlock AE RouteBlock AB C TRKGR CE TRKGR BC
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TRKGR DE

TRKGR AC A TRKGR AB1

TRKGR BE B TRKGR AB2 Subscriber Route AB Subscriber

Subscriber

The trunk search scheme to reach a subscriber from exchange A to B and to E, is as follows: Figure 394 : Routeblock AB

RouteBlock AB

Route AB

Route AC

TrkGrp AB1

TrkGrp AB2

TrkGrp AC

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

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Figure 395 : Routeblock AE

RouteBlock AE

Route AC

Route AD

TrkGrp AC

TrkGrp AD

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

Trunk 1

Trunk 2

Trunk 3

a. Routeblock controls This network management control is related to a routeblock. Two types of control are provided: Cancel Alternative Routing and Temporary Alternative Routing. The cancel alternative routing control prevents traffic towards a destination from overflowing from the high usage primary route to alternate routes after a fixed position in the sequential routing plan. It has a restrictive effect because it prevents the seizing of trunks from a certain point during the selection of a route in a routeblock. Taking the previous figure as example, route AC is both the primary route for routeblock AE and the alternative route for routeblock AB. If that route is congested by the overflow of calls coming from the route AB, it could be necessary to cancel all the calls coming from AB to increase the number of successful calls to exchange E. This is made possibile by the appropriate operator command. On the other hand, the temporary alternative routing redirects traffic from congested routes to other routes not normally available which have idle capacity at the time. A temporary alternative routing consists of a list of different route alternatives. In our example, although route AD is not included in routeblock AB, it may be necessary to modify the alternative routeblock list to provide an alternative temporary path to the calls from A to B: the ADEB path. In this particular scenario, loops would probably be created between exchange A and D.

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b. Route controls Route controls are used to limit traffic to a specified route or to expand routing within the normal inchain routes during congestion periods. Some types of manual route controls are implemented to regulate the maximum call rate to keep the network at peak performance during periods of overload: cancelto, cancelfrom, skip and announcement controls. Cancelto control is used to deny access to a route. Traffic is cancelled and directed to a specific announcement. Calls are cancelled on a percentage basis from 0% to 100%, in steps of 1%. Still following the figure example, when trunkgroups AB1 and AB2 are congested, the Cancelto operator command can be used to cancel a percentage of calls trying to reach route AB. Cancelfrom control is used to deny access from a route which would normally overflow to an alternate route. Overflow traffic is canceled and directed to a specific announcement, on a percentage basis. In our example, in case of congestion on alternative route AC of routeblock AB, the operator can deny the overflow of calls coming from route AB. The command Cancelfrom cancels a percentage of these calls. Skip control is used to force traffic to the next inchain route. Calls are skipped on a percentage basis. Announcement control is used on a final inchain route to alter the normal recorded announcement. This control may be used, for example, to advise callers to postpone reattempts (especially of noncritical calls), until a later time, rather than redialling immediately. c. Trunkgroup controls Trunkgroup controls are used to limit traffic to a specified trunkgroup to expand routing within the normal inchain trunkgroups during times of congestion. Several trunkgroup controls are implemented to regulate the maximum call rate to keep the network at peak performance during periods of overload. Cancelto control is used to deny access to a trunkgroup. Cancelfrom control is used to deny access from a trunkgroup which would normally overflow to an alternate one. Skip control is used to force traffic to the next inchain trunkgroup. Announcement control is used on a final inchain trunkgroup to alter the normal recorded announcement. Reservation control is used to regulate the traffic flow on trunkgroups by reserving a number of trunks for certain types of traffic. The affected traffic is skipped to the next available trunkgroup or cancelled if no alternate trunkgroups are available. The traffic category is defined as a function of the origin and the destination, the type of call, the hardtoreach status, the bearer capability, etc..

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11.4.3 Machine congestion analysis


In addition to network overloads due to unavailability of trunks, digital exchange overloads due to excess demands on internal resources (receivers, senders, processor time, memory, data bus capacity, etc.) can occur. The functions, collectively titled Machine Congestion Analysis, are performed in the A1000 S12 exchanges in order to implement dynamic overload control within the telephone network. Machine Congestion Analysis functionality requires cooperation with the network management centre to which this exchange is connected. A machine congestion report is sent to the network manager so that he can perform the necessary manual controls to solve the overload problem in a certain exchange. In a centralized point, the operator can better estimate the consequences of his actions on the network because he has a complete overview of the network in the NSC. For purposes of dynamic overload control, four levels of machine congestion are defined: no system overload, moderate system overload, severe system congestion, and complete inability of the exchange to handle incoming and transit traffic.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

11.5 Extensions
This part of the administration software controls all operator requests to perform equipment extensions in the existing online environment of the A1000 S12 exchange. The main extension objectives are to increase the traffic capacity of an exchange, to add new facilities, or to adapt the exchange to network extensions. Hardware extensions add more hardware modules to an exchange as well as the corresponding non CE hardware required as a result of their addition (e.g. DSN, clock & tone distribution, etc). The main steps to be followed are as follows : updating the database relations to describe the new hardware configuration, modifying of the hardware configuration by installing the new modules, testing this hardware, and starting up (online) those modules. Software extensions are used to add new features to an exchange, to enhance the existing features or to add a new software package (i.e. to support the above hardware extensions). This procedure involves the addition or the replacement of programs and data in some or all of the control elements. The system startup is developed as mentioned in the previous part of the document (System StartUp and WarmStartUp). The A1000 S12 extension strategy is subject to a number of requirements. Thus, there shall be no significant interference with normal exchange operation. This implies that call handling capability shall be maintained, that the loss of calls in the setup phase or conversation phase shall not exceed the number of calls lost during normal maintenance activities, and

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that the system availability requirements shall be met. In every step of the extension, however, the system must be able to roll back to the original configuration.

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ANNEX A : LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A


ABS AC ACE ACM AFF AFFC ALCN
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Alternate Billing Services Alarm Control Auxiliary Control Element Address Complete Message AMA File Formatter AMA File Formatter Control Analogue Line Circuit type N Analogue Line Circuit type P Automatic Message Accounting Additional Memory Board (DIAM) Answer with Charging Advice Of Charge Administration Support and Peripherals Module Auxiliary Resource TCE Allocator Automatic Recording Unit Administration System ACE American Standard Code of Information Interchange Analogue Subscriber Module

ALCP AMA AMEA ANC AOC A&P ARTA ARU ASAC ASCII ASM

B
BA BC BCG BCGRM BIDH BPA BS BSN BUT BUTG Basic Access Bearer Capability Business Communication Group Business Communication Group Resource Manager Binary Interface Device Handler Backpanel Basic Service Backward Sequence Number Backup Tape Backup Tape Generator

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C
CACO CAE CALC CAS CB CCBS CCITT CCLA CCLD CCNR CCS
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Call Control Customer Application Engineering Control and Alarm PBA type C Channel Associated Signalling Clear Backward Call Completion to Busy Subscriber International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Comittee Central Clock Advanced Central Clock Distribution Call Completion on No Reply Common Channel Signalling Call Deflection Central Data Collector Customer Design Engineering Compound Dialogue Manager Control Element Call Forwarding on Busy Call Forwarding to Fixed Announcement Call Forwarding on No Reply Call Forwarding Unconditional Charge Generation Control Cluster Handler Charging Analysis Charging Information Request Circuit Identification Code Clear Forward Calling Line Identification Presentation Calling Line Identification Restriction Central Alarm PBA type A Clock and Tones Distribution Class Of Line Connected Line Presentation Connected Line Restriction Calling Party Category Central Processing Unit

CD CDC CDE CDM CE CFB CFFA CFNR CFU CGC CH CHAN CHIR CIC CLF CLIP CLIR CLMA CLTD COL COLP COLR CPC CPU

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CPX CRC CRM CSAC CSCO CTCE CTLE CTM CUG CW

Condensed Prefix Cyclic Redundancy Check Charge Recording Manager Charging System ACE Charge Scale Change Over Clock and Tones CE Control Element SBL Clock and Tone Module Closed User Group Call Waiting

D
DAHU
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Device Anomaly Handling Utility Device Assignment relation Database DataBase Control System DataBase Security System Disk Backup Utility Dynamic Data Distribution Group Direct Dialling In Dynamic Data Manager Device Handler Digital Integrated Announcement PBA type A Digital Integrated Announcement Module Digital Interface Limited Data key DataLink Module Data Load Partition Data Load Segment Data Load Tape Direct Memory Controller type A Directory Number Directory Number Equivalent Directory Number Equivalent Hundred Directory Number Equivalent Thousand Division Of Revenue Division Of Revenue Collector

DASSIGN DB DBCS DBSS DBU DDDG DDI DDM DH DIAA DIAM DIL DK DLM DLP DLS DLT DMCA DN DNE DNEH DNET DOR DORC

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DORO DPC DPLF DPTC DSDR DSE DSGA DSN DSP DSPA DT DT DTCL
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Division Of Revenue Output Destination Point Code Defense Pair Load Failure Dual Processor Terminal Controller Device Status Disk Recovery Digital Switching Element Digital Signal Generator type A Digital Switching Network Digital Signal Processor Digital Signal Processor PBA type A Dial Tone Diagnostic Test Digital Trunk Common Logic Digital Trunk Module Dual Tone Multi Frequency Digital Trunk PBA type F Digital Trunk PBA type H Digital Trunk PBA type I Digital Trunk Unit PBA type A

DTM DTMF DTRF DTRH DTRI DTUA

E
EBCDIC ECMA 13 EDPC EF EOP ETSI EQAWL Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EUROPEAN Computer Manufactures Association Standard 13 Electronic Data Processing Centre External Fault End Of Packet Eurpean Telecommunications Standards Institute Equipment Allowed

F
FBK FCS FCU FD FDB FDBM Fallback Frame Check Sequence File Comparison Utility File Directory File Descriptor Block File Descriptor Block Maintenance Utility

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FDT FDTA FISU FIT FLT FMM FSM FSN FW

File Descriptor Table File Descriptor Table Administrator Fill In Signal Unit Faulty, but In Traffic Faulty Finite Message Machine Finite State Machine Forward Sequence Number Firmware

G
GD
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Ground Detection General Directory Number General I/O Remote General I/O Utility Generic Load Segment GLS code Generic Overlay Segment Generic Segment Module

GDN GIOR GIOUTY GLS GLSC GOS GSM

H
HCCM HDB3 HDLC HIAU HLC HM HSB HSCB HW High Performance Common Channel Module HighDensity Bipolar Excess 3 High Level Data Link Control Hardinit Audit Utility High Layer Compatibility Home Meter High Speed Bus High Speed Cluster Bus Hardware

I
IAM ICB ICLP ID Initial Address Message Interrupt Control Block Internal Connectionless Protocol Identification

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IDC IDN ILC I/O IOC IOS IPABX IPP IPTM IRIM IRSU ISDN ISM
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Intermediate Data Collector Individual Directory Number ISDN Link Controller Input/Output Input/Output Control Input/Output System ISDN Private Automatic Branch Exchange Internal Packet Protocol Integrated Packet Trunk Module ISDN RSU Interface Module ISDN Remote Subscriber Unit Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN Subscriber Module ISDN Subscriber Termination PBA A ISDN Subscriber Termination PBA B ISDN User Part In Traffic ISDN Trunk Module Interworking

ISTA ISTB ISUP IT ITM IW

J
JSQ Job Sequence Number

L
LAPB LAPD LCACO LCE LCEID LCG LCS LDC LED LH LI LLC LPFA Link Access Procedure Balanced Link Access Procedure in Dchannel Line Call Control Logical Control Element Logical Control Element Identity Local Charge Generator Local Charge Synchroniser Local Data Collector Light Emitting Diode Line Hunting Length Indicator Low Layer Compatibility Line Power Feed type A

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LSB LSI LSIF LSSG LTL

Low Speed Bus Large Scale Integration Local Subscriber Identification Load Sharing SubGroup Local Tax Layouter

M
MAC MCC MCI MCUA MCUB
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Monitor Access Metering Counts Collector Malicious Call Identification Module Control Unit type A Module Control Unit type B Main Distribution Frame Multi Frequency Message Handler Mobile Interworking Module Multidrop Information Octet Modem Interface and Rate Adaptation PBA type B Multi Master Bus Man Machine Communication Man Machine Controller type A MMC Channel MMC Maintenance Man Machine Translation MPTMON CE Master Panel for Alarms Maintenance and Peripheral Module Multi Processor Test Monitor Measurement System ACE Message Mixed Subscriber Module Multiple Subscriber Number Message Transfer Part Mean Time To Repair Magnetic Tape Unit Magnetic Tape Unit Formatter

MDF MF MH MIM MIO MIRB MMB MMC MMCA MMCH MMCM MMT MONI MPA MPM MPTMON MSAC MSG MSM MSN MTP MTTR MTU MTUF

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N
NDUB NEQ NMI NPI NSC Network Defined User Busy Not Equipped Non Maskable Interrupt Numbering Plan Indicator Network Service Center

O
OBC OBCI OCB OD
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On Board Controller On Board Controller Interface Overlay Control Block Optical Disk Optical Disk Originating Line Class Of Service Output Meter Block Operations and Maintenance User Part Originating Point Code Operator Out of Service Operator Requested Job Operating System Open Systems Interconnection Operating System Nucleus

ODK OLCOS OMB OMUP OPC OPR ORJ OS OSI OSN

P
PABX PARM PATED PB PBA PBR PBX PC PCM PD PERI PEQ Private Automatic Branch Exchange Private Access Resource Manager Prefix Analysis & Task Element Definition Push Button Printed Board Assembly Push Button Receiver Private Branche Exchange Personal Computer Pulse Code Modulation Peripheral Device Input/Output Device Partially Equipped

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P&L PLCE PLS PNP PRA PSM PSN PSTN PTCE PTN

Peripheral and Load Module Peripheral and Load Control Element Patch Load Segment Private Numbering Plan Primary Rate Access Packet Switching Module Private Switching Network Public Switched Telephone Network Peripheral Terminal CE Physical Terminal Number

Q
QRC
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Queue Ram Controller Queue Service

QS

R
RAL RBL RC RCCA RCLK RIT RLG RLMC RNGF ROM RRAM RRN RSU RT RTSH RTSU RUWA Rack Alarm RepairBlock Ringing Current Reference Clock Control type A Rack Clock Replaceable Item Release Guard Rack Alarm PBA type C Ring PBA type F Read Only Memory Remote Report and Alarm Module Report Reference Number Remote Subscriber Unit Ringing Tone Report and Task Supervision Handler Remote Terminal SubUnit Relation User Work Area

S
SABME SACE Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended System ACE

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SAPI SBL SCALSV SCB SCDH SCM SCSI SI SIG SKR SLP SLS SLT
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Service Access Point Identifier Security Block Subscriber Call Services ACE Simplified Conference Bridge Service Circuit Device Handler Service Circuit Module Small Computer System Interface Service Indicator Signalling System Kernel Release System Load Partition Signalling Link Selection System Load Tape Signalling Link Termination type A Software Out Of Service Speech & Data protocol Small Stand Alone Sub Service Field System Support Machine Service Switching Point Statistic data Signalling Transfer Point Software

SLTA SOS SPATA SSA SSF SSM SSP STAT STP SW

T
TA TACB TAU TAUC TAX TAXUP TCACO TCE TDM TED TEI TEL Terminal Adaptor Transaction Control Block Test Access Unit Test Access Unit type C Taxation data Taxation User Part Trunk Call Control Terminal Control Element Time Division Multiplexed Task Element Definition Terminal Endpoint Identifier Telephonic Devices

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TERA/I TI TKG TL TLCOS TMIA TOC TOD TP TRA TRAC TRC TREX
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Terminal Interface type A/I Terminal Interface Trunk Group Task List Terminating Line Class Of Service Transmission and Multidrop Interface type A Type Of Call Time Of Day Task Procedure Trunk Resource Allocator Trunk Access Circuit Trunk Request Coordinator Training Exchange Trunk Resource Manager Time Slot Test Signal Analyzer Test Signal Analyser type B Terminal Sub Unit Trunk Test Module Terminal Unit Telephonic User Part

TRM TS TSA TSAB TSU TTM TU TUP

U
UA UAN UCP UDUB UIC USI UUS UWA Unnumbered Acknowledge Universal Access Number User Controlled Path User Defined User Busy Uinterface Circuit User System Interface User to User Signalling User Work Area

V
VCIAU VDU VP VSSA Volume Control Information Access Utility Visual Display Unit Virtual Path Very Small Stand Alone

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ANNEX B : DEFINITION BOXES A


Access Status, 534 ACE = Auxiliary Control Element, 534 ALCN = Analogue Line Circuit, 534 Alignment Pattern, 534 Attendant, 535

B
Basic Service, 535 BC = Bearer Capability, 535
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

BCG = Business Communication Group, 536

C
CAE = Customer Application Engineering, 536 Cause, 536 Cave, 536 CDE = Customer Design Engineering, 537 CE = Control Element, 537 Centrex, 537 Cityline, 537 Command, 538 Common (Call Handling), 538 CPC = Calling Party Category, 538

D
DDI = Direct Dialling In, 539 DH = Device Handler, 539 DID = Device Interworking Data, 540 DLS = Data Load Segment, 540 DN = Directory Number, 541 DNEH = Directory Number Equivalent of Hundreds, 541 DNET = Directory Number Equivalent of Thousands, 542 DNEU = Directory Number Equivalent of Units, 542

E
EDPC = Electronic DataProcessing Centre, 542

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EN = Equipment Number, 543

F
File, 544 Finite Message Machine, 545

G
GDN = General Directory Number, 545 Generic, 545 Generic Load Segment, 545 GOS = Generic Overlay Segment, 546

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

H
HDLC = High level DataLink Controller, 546

L
LAPD = Link Access Procedure on Dchannel, 546 LCE = Logical Control Element Identity, 546 Low penetration data, 547

M
Man Machine Language, 547 MMC = Man Machine Communication, 547 MSN = Multiple Subscriber Number, 547

N
NATADDR = Nature of Address, 548

O
OLCOS = Originating Line Class Of Service, 548 ORJ = Operator Requested Job, 548

P
PABX = Private Automatic Branch eXchange, 549 PCE = Physical Control Element Address, 549

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Peripheral Device, 550 PLS = Patch Load Segment, 550 Profile, 550 PTN = Physical Terminal Number, 551

R
RBL = Repair Block, 551 Report, 551 RIT = Replacable Item, 551 Route Subroute, 552 Routeblock Subrouteblock, 553 RouteCode, 553
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

S
SBL = Security Block, 554 SCSI = Small Computer System Interface, 554 SDN = Search Directory Number, 554 SourceCode, 555 Subscriber Group, 555

T
TLCOS = Terminating Line Class Of Service, 555 TN = Terminal Number, 556 Transaction, 556 Trunkgroup, 556 TSU = Terminal SubUnit, 557 TU = Terminal Unit, 557

U
UCP = User COntrolled Path, 558 User Buffer, 557

V
Virtual Machine, 558 Virtual Path, 558

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Access Status (see LSIF)


The Access Status specifies the type of called device Possible values are : Normal Line Priority Line Coinbox Test equipment ...

ACE = AUXILIARY CONTROL ELEMENT


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ACE is the name given to the modules in the system that have no associated circuitry. Their only relation with the exchange HW is their connection to the network through the Terminal Interface. Therefore, these modules will perform support auxiliary functions for the rest of the system. Given their HW independence, the functions to perform are assigned to these Control Elements with more flexibility than to the others, and they may be replaced by others in case of failure.

ALCN = Analogue Line Circuit type N


This is the name of the subscriber line board that serves 16 analog lines.

ALIGNMENT PATTERN
Binary information that travels through channel 0 of the PCM links. This pattern is used to recognize each of the 32 PCM channels. This information is inserted on every second PCM link. The PCM link that does not contain the alignment pattern is used to send alarm information.

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Attendant
An attendant is a person responsible for traffic assistance. In case of a call towards a PABX without indialling, the call will be routed to the attendant of the PABX. The attendant can now establish a further through connection towards the desired extension.

Basic Service
The Basic Service is a compressed value of Bearer Capability (BC) and High Layer Compatibility (HLC).
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The BC is a value between 0 and 15 and the HLC is a value between 0 and 32. Not all combinations of BC + HLC are meaningful Therefore all meaningful combinations are compressed into the Basic Service (BS), a value between 0 and 63. Basic Service 0 corresponds to any BC and any HLC. This is the only valid value for Analogue subscribers. Some ISDN classes are Basic Service dependent. This implies that information about these classes has to be provided for each allowed BS.

BC = Bearer Capability
The BC is a parameter generated by the originating subscriber. The BC specifies what kind of connection the subscriber wants to establish. The BC is a value between 0 and 15 Most commonly used values are : Speech 3.1 kHz audio 64kBit/s digital 128 kBit/s digital ...

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BCG = BUSINESS COMMUNICATION GROUP


The BCG is a service that allows business users belonging to different exchanges to have a virtual private telecommunication network, supporting analog and ISDN subscribers as well as PBXs connected to the Public Switching Telephone Network.

CAE = Customer Application Engineering


Software / Data which is applied to customise each physical installation to meet its specific requirements. It comprises HW related information (LCEidentities, PCEidentities,...) and Call Handling related information (RouteCodes, DNET ranges,...)
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Cause
A Cause is used to identify each abnormal situation during the setup or release of a call. Examples : unassigned prefix dialled No free DTMF receiver could be found, signalling protocol error ... The cause value is sent to PATED for Cause analysis. PATED uses the cause value to retrieve a task map. This task map describes the actions to be taken to deal with the abnormal situation. Remark : Some signalling systems (TUP, ISUP, Q931,...)use also CAUSE values to define abnormal situations. It is up to the signalling handling software in System 12 to translate the System 12 CAUSE into a signalling specific CAUSE or vice versa.

CAVE
Tunnel with only one CE in an end.

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CDE = Customer Design Engineering


CDE is software which is applicable to one market only. E.g. Signalling, subscriber facilities, certain operator requested tasks,...

CE = CONTROL ELEMENT
The Control Element is the part of the module in charge of the communication with the other modules; the Control Element, also houses al the software assigned to the module. Two basic parts may be distinguished in the CE: The microprocessor with its main memory, where the main programs that control the module functions are executed. The Terminal Interface (TI), which allows for communication between the module and the other modules in the exchange through the switching network.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CENTREX
Centrex is an implementation of a private telecommunication network exchange located on the premises of the public local exchange.

Cityline
A cityline is an extension of a PABX, having a separate DN and a separate profile. A call towards the GDN of the PABX or a DDI extension will use the PABX profile, whereas a call towards the Cityline DN will use the Cityline profile.

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1.

Command
A command is a key sent by the operator to the system SW to initiate a specific action. To do the requested task for each key a certain Command Handler FMM exists as the destination FMM for the given command. The operator has different possibilities to send the command. Beside the different input devices he can specify the command by a certain keyword or a certain number, the Command Reference Number (CRN). A command may have different (optional and mandatory) parameters for detailed task specification with several arguments. All possible combinations of command, parameters and arguments with special separators build up the predefined syntax.
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Common (Call Handling)


Common software, sometimes called Common Call Handling (CCH) is software which can be kept common to several markets. E.g. Call Control, Call Services, Resource Management, ... The evolution of these items is defined in Common Call Handling releases (EC5, EC6, EC7.1, EC7.3, ...)

CPC = Calling Party Category


The CPC field is used to identify the Type of Call. Possible values are : Normal Subscriber Priority Subscriber National Operator International Operator Data Call Test Call Mobile subscriber, ...

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DDI = Direct Dialling In


Direct Dialling In or Indialling refers to a PABX where the extensions can be reached immediately from the public network. In the example (see below), extension 69 can be reached by dialling the PABX prefix = 24037, together with the desired extension = 69, so DN = 2403769 Remark : The extensions do not have an individual profile. So, for the call to DN= 2403769, the PABX profile (for GDN = 2403700) is used.

PABX with indialling :


1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

00 Call routed to extension 01

S12

IPABX

(GDN = 2403700)

. . .
99

Hunting on prefix 24037

DH = DEVICE HANDLER
A single software module that controls, directly, each of the different exchange circuits.
JLTCE_DH LINE CIRCUIT SVTCE_DH

SERVICE CIRCUIT

SENDER / RECEIVER

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DID = Device Interworking Data


The Device Interworking Data (DID) are a set of data in the exchange to enable the interworking between the originating device and the terminating device (device = Trunk or Subscriber)

S12
DID

Device

DSN

Device

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There are two types of DID: Incoming DID Outgoing DID E.g: Data concerning echo suppression, suppress backward answer, gain parameters, start sending point, preanswer timeout, ...

DLS = DATA LOAD SEGMENT DLS is a file on disk and on tape which contains all database data related to a particular CE. Since each CE in the system has a different set of database data, each specific CE has its own DLS on disk.

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DN = Directory Number
The Directory Number (DN), the number which appears in the telephone directory, is the subscribers logical identification. It is the number that is dialled when another subscriber is called. It is constructed according to the CCITT E.164 Specifications. Three cases have to be distinguished: A. International calls : Internat. Prefix Country Code National Destination Code Subscriber Number

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e.g. 00 32 3 240 3769 B. National calls : Trunk Prefix National Destination Code Subscriber Number

e.g. 0 3 240 3769 C. Zonal calls : Subscriber Number

e.g. 240 37 69

DNEH = Directory Number Equivalent of Hundreds


The DNEH value points to a block of 100 consecutive DNs. The last two digits of the DN are an index in this block. The DNEH value is calculated with the formula : DNEH = (DNET 1)*10 + C + 1, with C the third last digit of the DN

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DNET = Directory Number Equivalent of Thousands


The DNET points to a block of 1000 consecutive DNs. The last three digits of the DN are used as index in this block. For each block of 1000 DNs in an exchange, a DNET is assigned. Example : DN range 240 0 000 240 0 999 240 1 000 240 1 999 ... 240 9 000 240 9 999 253 0 000 253 0 999 253 1 000 253 1 999 ... 253 9 000 253 9 999 DNET 1 2 ... 10 11 12 ... 20

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DNEU = Directory Number Equivalent of Units


The DNEU value corresponds to the last three digits of the DN. Suppose the last three digits are C, X and I,, DNEU = 100*C + 10*X + I

EDPC = ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING CENTRE


An EDPC is a processing centre, made up of high capacity processors, which deals with specific data such as charging data in the telephone environment.

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EN = Equipment Number
The Equipment Number (EN) represents the physical identification of the subscriber line in the exchange. It consists of the physical or logical Control Element identity of the module and the terminal number (TN) within this module (E.G:TN = 1...256 for an ASM) EN = PCE + TN or EN = LCE + TN

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File
A file is a box or space reserved for different entries which belong logically together (e.g. charging data of a group of subscribers). In Alcatel 1000 S12 each file has an offline predefined meaning and characteristic (line size, format, structure, ...). From the logical point of view each file is subdivided into records like a register of a document is subdivided into chapters and chapters into paragraphs to build up small logical units which can be treated seperately (create, modify, write). Each file is identified by a logical file number and the records are specified by their start point, which is called offset (comparable to a line number in a document). There are different possibilities to organise a logical file physically, depending on the physical medium. We can put everything which logically belongs together into the same area, like a register or chapter of a document into one binder, or we can distribute parts of one file to different physical areas to organise them in another way (e.g. refering to the record size). The smallest physical unit where we can store different records is one block of 2 Kbyte size, like a fixed number of lines per page or characters per line; therefore the maximum size of one record is 2 Kbyte (miniumum size: 1 byte).

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

"filing"

1. File 1.1 Record 1.2 block File 1 File 2 File 3 O-T File 4 U-Z File Dir

A-E

F-P

006BC011.DRW

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FMM = FINITE MESSAGE MACHINE


An FMM is the basic software building functional block and has the following properties: It can communicate with other FMMs, but only through messages. From the outside, an FMM is a block box, i.e., its internal structure is not known to the rest of the system. Its functional behaviour is unambiguously determined by the set of mesages it sends and receives. It may be in one of several different states and the transactions between them are allowed. There is a limited set of messages defined for each state. After receiving a message, the FMM may generate and transmit output messages and its state may change.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

GDN = General Directory Number


The GDN of a PABX is used as a unique identity of the PABX in System 12. The profile of the PABX is stored on behalf of this GDN. Calls towards this GDN result in hunting all accesses towards the PABX.

Generic
Software which is fundamental to the system and is kept generally applicable to all markets. E.g. Operating System, Database, Input/Output mechanisms,... The evolution of such items is defined in System Kernel Releases (R5.2, R6, R7.1, R7.2,...)

GLS = GENERIC LOAD SEGMENT


File on disk or tape which contains the resident programs code and data segment for a particular CE in the system. One GLS is used to load every CE of the same type.

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GOS = GENERIC OVERLAY SEGMENT


File on disk or tape which contains the code and data segment, and the patches, for an overlay program.

HDLC = High level DataLink Controller


A general and universally accepted way of formatting the link level frames. The LAPB of X25 and the LAPD of ISDN belong to this family.

LAPD = Link Access Procedure on Dchannel


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This is the HDLC link level frame format, used in the subscriber link in the ISDN environment to protect the sending of the signalling messages by the D channel.

LCE = Logical Control Element Identity


Besides a PCE (Physical Control Element Address) every module receives also a Logical Control Element (LCE) identity. When FMMs send messages to other CEs, then usually the LCEid is used. Inside the Operating System this LCEid is translated into the PCEaddress so it is possible to calculate the selects and send the message. How is the LCE used? Originating ASM modules contact destination ASMs by means of the LCE id. Remember also that ASMs have a Xover partner. E.g: An ASM sends a message to ASM1 (LCEA). If the latter is out of service, the operating system knows about this and will route the message to the Xover partner ( LCEA is linked to PCEB), which is ASM2.
ASM (Normal Routing) LCEA LCEB PCEA (=ASM1) PCEB (=ASM2) ASM (Xover Routing) LCEA LCEB PCEA (=ASM1) PCEB (=ASM2)

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Low penetration data


The Low penetration data is the part of the subscriber data, describing the facilities of the subscriber. It consists of both originating and terminating data. The Low penetration data is always stored at LSIF level. Examples : Basic service dependent data (only for ISDN subscribers) Abbreviated dialling information Call forwarding data ...

MMC = MAN MACHINE COMMUNICATION


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By means of particular communication channels between several devices and terminals and the P&L modules, the operator can manage all the exchange functions. To do this, a multitude of commands are provided. Each of these commands starts a software module that performs the required function.

Man Machine Language


The Man Machine language is used by an operator (man) to give commands to and receive results from the System 12 exchange (machine). The Man Machine language is conform to the CCITT recommendation for manmachine language for telephonic exchanges (see CCITT Yellow Book, Volume VI Part II, Recommendations Z311Z317, and the contributions of Study Group XI).

MSN = Multiple Subscriber Number


A subscriber can subscribe to more than one Directory Number (DN).The different DNs are called MSN1 ... MSNx (x=8 maximum). Every MSN can have its own data profile with its own facilities. E.g: MSN1 is the normal subscriber number. MSN2 is given to business people who are transferred to the office in case of no answer.

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NATADDR = Nature of Address


The Nature of Address specifies the layout of the received digit stream. Possible values are : INTAL (international) NATIONAL ABD (Abbreviated Dialling) Unknown ...

OLCOS = Originating Line Class Of Service


The OLCOS data is that part of the subscriber profile that is needed to set up an originating call from that subscriber. Most important fields are : Dial Type (Rotary, PB receiver, Combined set) DNET and DNEU value of subscriber Subscriber Group identity Number of digits to be dialled before prefix analysis starts, ...

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ORJ = Operator Requested Job


An operator Requested Job is created by the IOS for each syntactically correct input of a command and identified by a Job Sequence Number (4 digits as a job counter) and date of the input, the address of the input device and the operator and exchange identification. A job exists till the final result is sent to all specified output devices.

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PABX = Private Automatic Branch eXchange


A PABX is a switching network, located on the customers premises, serving a number of extensions forming a single subscriber group. It is connected to the exchange by means of a number of single lines (Analogue or BA) and/or a number of trunks (Analogue, CAS digital or PRA). The PABX is identified by means of a General Directory Number (GDN). The extensions of the PABX are invisible to the public exchange. In the case of an indialling PABX (DDI), the extensions can be reached from the public network, but no individual profile is allocated to those extensions. For a call to/from an extension, the profile assigned to the GDN of the PABX is used.
00
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

01

S12

PABX
(GDN = 2403700)

. . .
99

Collection of single lines and/or trunks

PCE = Physical Control Element Address


This is the physical address of the module . Every module connected to the digital switching network has a unique Network Address, which is also called the DCBAAddress. The only way to change this address for a specific module is by changing its physical position in the racks so that it is conected to a different access switch and/or access switch port.

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Peripheral Device
In addition to telephonic devices (e.g. subscriber set) the peripheral devices (PC, printer, disk, magnetic tape, ...) are the operational tools connected to Alcatel 1000 S12 exchanges. Each device is physically defined by its HW configuration, that means what kind of HW is connected in which way to which HW of the exchange. This can be described by a mnemonic, which consists of an abbreviation for the type of the device, one character to specify the CE, which is responsible for controlling the device and a number to count the devices controlled by the same CE (e.g. a PC controlled by PLCE with NA HC may have the mnemonic VDUA1; VDU stands for visual display unit independent of the manufactures). Logically each peripheral device is defined by one or several numbers, the Logical Device Identities (LDEVID). The physical configuration which stands behind the LDEVID is data driven. Standard values are defined in the O&M Manuals (SI 69) with some general rules to translate logical devices into physical and vice versa.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PLS = Patch Load Segment


PLS is a file on disk and on tape, which contains the patches to the programs for a particular GLS. These patches are created to improve or to correct the programs designed for a CE.

Profile
A profile is the collection of all data of one subscriber. It consists of Originating Line Clas Of Service (OLCOS) Terminating Line Class Of Service (TLCOS) ISDN related data Low penetration data

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PTN = Physical Terminal Number


This is a word received from the hardware which uniquely identifies a subscriber. The layout is as follows: PTN = L1L00d dddd 0000 tttt

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* L1 = 1 if the subscriber PBA is connected to port pair 3 of the terminal interface. * L0 = 1 if the subscriber PBA is connected to port pair 1 of the terminal interface. * ddddd : indicates the PBA number of the subscriber (for ALCN = 00000 upto 00111) * tttt : indicates the subscriber number for the indicated PBA. (for ALCN = 0000 up to 1111) REMARK: The PTN is translated into the TN (see Terminal Number).

RBL = Repair Block


An RBL is the minimum group of SBLs which must be taken out of service to allow an RIT to be replaced. The SBLs must be taken out of service before the RIT can be removed.

Report
A report is the answer from the system SW to a certain command sent by the operator to display the result of an ORJ or a message of the system SW to the operator. Each reportlayout (independent of the contents) initiated by different commands or the system SW itself, is defined by a Report Reference Number (RRN) and described in the O&M Manual (System reports).

RIT = Replaceable Item


A Replaceable Item is the smallest item which can be replaced. E.g.: A printed board, a VDU, a DC/DC converter,.... From the exchange point of view, the RIT is the basic unit of hardware and can be a part of a SBL or consist of several SBLs, depending on its type.

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Route Subroute
A Route is the collection of all trunks between two adjacent exchanges.

Route

Subroutes

Trunkgroups

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A route can be subdivided into subroutes, depending on the requested BC and the required signalling system. Example : We can reserve some trunk groups for speech calls only and some for 64Kbit/s digital calls. In this case we define two subroutes. The selection of subroute within the route is in this case based upon the BC.

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Routeblock Subrouteblock
A Routeblock is the collection of all Routes to reach a certain destination. This destination does not have to be an adjacent exchange.

Route AB

Exch B Exch D

Exch A

Route AC

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Exch C Routeblock
To Exch B To Exch C To Exch D To Exch E

Routes
Route AB + Route AC + Route AB + Route AC Route AC Route AB Route AC

Exch E

A Routeblock can be subdivided into Subrouteblock depending on the required signalling system and the requested BC. Each subrouteblock consists of a number of subroutes. The selection of a subrouteblock within a routeblock is based upon the BC and required the signalling system.

RouteCode
A RouteCode is used to identify a RouteBlock. In the case of an outgoing call, PATED translates the dialled prefix into the Routecode, used for TrunkSearch. The Trunk Search programs (TRC/TRA) use this RouteCode, together with the requested signalling system and BC, to select an appropriate subrouteblock. This procedure is called RouteCode Modulation.

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SBL = Security Block


An SBL is a group of hardware circuits which perform a set of functions. The SBLs are arranged in such a way that if one of the functions is malfunctioning, the remaining functions can no longer be used by the exchange. The entire set (read: SBL) can therefore be removed from service. In case of problems, there are test programs (Diagnostic Tests) which are able to couple the error to an SBL, in other words to locate the faulty SBL. In case of failure, the corresponding SBL(s) is (are) taken out of service. In this way an SBL can have a number of different states, each indicating whether the SBL is contributing to the functioning of the exchange. SBLs do not overlap but are organized on a hierarchical basis so that failure of an SBL causes any lower level SBLs to become ineffective. These dependent SBLs are automatically taken out of service along with the primary suspect SBL. An exchange is the grouping of all the SBLs defined within it.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SCSI = SMALL COMPUTER SYSTEM INTERFACE


The SCSI is a parallel, multimaster I/O bus that provides a standard interface between computer and peripheral devices. It implements complete logical commands and true peer topeer communication.The former simply means that all SCSI devices use the same communication protocol. All peripheral devices, in the P&L modules, are connected a to the CE by the corresponding PBA which drive the SCSI bus and drive the devices.

SDN = Search Directory Number


The Search Directory Number of a PABX or huntgroup is used to identify the accesses towards this PABX/huntgroup. A call towards this SDN results in the hunting of all connections defined by this SDN.

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SourceCode
The SourceCode identifies the type of calling equipment. The sourcecode consists of 3 parameters : A. Type of equipment (Subscriber, trunk, test equipment, operator,...) B. SourceCode Number :further classification of the type of equipment. For trunks, this is the Trunkgroup number For subscribers, this is the Subscribergroup number,... C. An indication whether a Packet switched or Circuit switched call is involved.

Subscriber Group
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

All subscribers having the same treatment in the exchange are grouped in one subscriber group. Example : If subscribers, connected to an RSU receive a different treatment, all RSU subscribers are grouped in one subscriber group. All nonRSU subscribers are then grouped in another subscriber group.

TLCOS = Terminating Line Class Of Service


The TLCOS is that part of the subscriber data that is needed to set up calls towards that subscriber. Most important fields are : Type of connected device (Coinbox, normal line, operator,...) Call forwarding information, reverse charging indication, ...

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TN = Terminal Number
This number uniquely identifies the subscriber within the Xover paired modules. Because there are up to 128 subscribers connected to one module, the number is in a range of 1 to 256. 1 ... 128 129 ... 256 = Even module. = Odd module

The software receives the PTN (see PTN) from the hardware and translates it into the TN and vice versa. In the software the TN is used for database access. REMARK: For ISDN subscribers there are only 8 subscribers/PBA compared to the 16 subscribers/PBA for analogue. Both modules (ASM or ISM) use the same BPA which means 16 TNs / slot for analogue and 8 TNs / slot for ISDN. This is done by skipping 8 TNs for the ISDN. So the ISDN TNs are in the ranges: 1...8, 17...24, ... , 241...248, which is a total of 128 subscribers.

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Transaction
In the Protocol plane (SIG), we talk about a Transaction, whenever a call is established to/from a subscriber or a trunk. The SIG allocates a Transaction Control Block to keep information about each transaction. This information comprises : Cluster path identity, Network path Identity, TN of subscriber/trunk, ... Remark: A subscriber can have more than 1 transaction at the same time. E.g: ISDN subscribers have 2 B channels, so they can set up 2 calls at a time. Analogue subscribers can place an existing call (transaction) in hold and start a second call (transaction)

Trunkgroup
A trunk Group is the collection of all trunks towards an adjacent exchange, having the same properties : Same signalling system(R2, TUP, ISUP, ...), Same Transmission characteristics (analogue, digital, ...) ...

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TSU = TERMINAL SUBUNIT


Group of modules connected to the network, using two Access Switches.

8 9 TO GROUP SWITCHES

MODULE 0
1

10

ACCESS SWITCH
7

11 12 13 14 15

MODULE 1

1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

8 9 TO GROUP SWITCHES

10

ACCESS SWITCH

11 12 13

MODULE 7
7

14 15

TU = TERMINAL UNIT
Set of 4 TSUs joined to the same multiport that belongs to the first stage.

USER BUFFER
The user buffer is a memory area to support the sending of messages with more than 40 bytes of data. There are different sizes of user buffers: 64, 128,256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096 bytes long. These memory areas are located in a particular memory zone, and are managed by the operating system. When a process needs a user buffer, it requests the buffer to the operating system, which locates a free one in the pool zone and associates it to the requesting process. Once the user buffer has been used to send the data, the process returns it to the pool by requesting to the operating system.

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UCP = USER CONTROLLED PATH


User controlled path are twoway paths that are established and released by the user (process) request.These paths are associated to two processes, one of them in each CE connected to the path, and every message that enters to the CE via the UCP is directly delivered to the associated process by the operating system.

VIRTUAL MACHINE
Set composed by a real machine (example: line circuit), plus the programs that provide abstract operations to the users of this machine (in the example, JLTCEDH).
1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LINE CIRCUIT

JLTCE_DH

OTHER USERS OF LINE CIRCUIT

VIRTUAL MACHINE

VIRTUAL PATH
Virtual Paths are oneway temporary paths established through the Digital Switching Network, to send a message buffer from one CE to another.The usual procedure is to establish the path, by means of SELECT commands, to send the message buffer (using the ESCAPE protocol), and finally, to release it by means of more than two CLEAR commands.

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