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14-81

. .

. .
: 23.11.10

2010

1.
2. ..
3.
4. .
5.
6.
6.1 ().
6.2
.
6.3
6.4
.
6.5
7. .
8.
9. ..
1.

9,15 12,01 . :
,
, 410
V 3 .
MathCAD 14.
17 17 .
2.

. 1. 3.

. 2. .

,

.

. 3. - .

, , P0 = I 0 U 0 = 0.24 9 = 2.16

= P P0 . 10 (
) 32 . 9.15-12.01
: 9.15 , 9.75 , 10.5 , 11.25 , 12.01 .
1.
.

l,
P,

10
1.5

f, 12.01
,% 0.07

11
0.5

12
1.4

13
0.25

14
0.2

15
1

16
0.6

11.9

11.77

11.62

11.32

11.2

0.023

0.065

0.012

0.01

0.046

17
0.5

18
1

19
0.4

20
1.2

11.05 10.9

10.78

10.6

10.42

0.028

0.046

0.019

0.056

0.023

l,
P,

21
2

f, 10.27
,% 0.093

22
3.3

23
1

24
4.5

25
1.8

26
5

27
1.9

28
1.5

29
2

30
1

31
0.8

32
1

10.22

10.09

9.9

9.8

9.64

9.5

9.32

9.3

9.28

9.16

9.15

0.153

0.046

0.21

0.083

0.231

0.088

0.07

0.09

0.046

0.037

0.046


( ), ...
, [4], : 10

, ZH
U0; 10 .
4.
1
2 3, .
4.
5 6
.
7.

. 4. .

:
. 9,15
12,01 . 1 .
3.
,
.
,
, .

. 5. , ,
BH, lH ,
.


- f=10.5 , =c/f=2.855 .

. 6. - .

,
. =1.6;

: Zmin= Rmin=ZB/, ZB= 377
5

1(

2
)

rmin=
Rmin / ZB=1/1.6,
gmax=1.6 .


.

g=1,

=1.6

g=1.


( ) . ,
,
0.362 .
,
(0.362-0.25)=0.408 ,
,

.
.
0.48. /=1.241.
7,
a/a=0.67, a=1.541
l=

a a I
= 0.379
2

:
10.5 . ,
(10.5 1.5)
.

4. .
[1].
6

5. .
7

,
1 , 9,15 12,01
. [5] ,
, .
,
703, [1]:
, , , .
.
.
. 0,15 .
:
703, .339-003 , 703, .336.013 .
10 , 8.24 12.42 ,
8.59 . 3...20 ,
0,5 , 1,7 .
a = 23 10
2,3 4,46 , 300 (
).
r

. 9. .

: r=1,5 , =0,4 , =0,4 , L=0,6 .



G, "" . r, L,,
.
,
.
. 7
, (r, L,, , ),
(r02, L2,, 2, r03, L3,, 3,)
(, )
L, L.

. 10.

10 Z ,
. Z
,
(
).
5. .

, [1],
:
, .
:
f0
P;
, ;
f/f0
P/P;
;

, ;
;
:
, ;

;
.
5.1 .
9

f * = 1 (2

CKOH C
L ) =
CKOH + C KOH

0.42
2
0.6 10 21
0.8

= 14.529

R * = 2 f * C

= (2 14.53 0.4 10 3 )2 1.5 = 500

;
* = LKOH

21
CKOH C
= 0.6 10
= 54.772
0.42
CKOH + C
0.8

;
k1 =

1
1
=
= 0. 5
*
9
2 f C KOH
2 14.529 10 0.4 10 12 54.772

.

= 754

f 2
a
1(
)
b
2a

= 754

3 10 14.53 10 2
1
1(
)
2.3
2 2.3

10

= 366.8

*
f :

X* =

1
1
=
*
2 f C KOH 2 14.53 109 0.4 10 12

= -27.386 .

>> X * ,
rBH 1 =

( X * )2

2.045 .

r1 = r + rBH 1 =

=3.545
:

10

f 2
* 1
f

1 =
k1

2. .

f,
1

9.15
-1.207

9.75
-1.099

10.5
-0.955

11.25
-0.801

12.01
-0.633

(. .4).
5.2 .

2
2

m
n2 p2
+
+
a2 b2 l 2

m=1 n=0 10, p


10p.

. 11. 101 (f2) 102 (f3) .

b 10
=
= 0.435 > 0.15 ,
a 23

f
=

3 108
=
=
= 15
2
202

,
[1]. , (. 7)
l 4 C 4 r04 .
3.
, 8.

f2, 9.15
9.75
l,
23.34 20.67
f3, 14.403 15.901

10.5
18.21
17.706

11.25
16.35
19.46

12.01
14.86
21.201

, f3> f f3>> f2. [1] ,


. ,
L3 C3 r03.
9,
(), ,
, La, L.
*

11

. 12.

5.3 (L2 C2 r02).


101 23
10 15003000.
, Q02=1500 d= 3 .
, , ,
:
1

a
f 2
= 754 1 (
) f
b
2a

b
2 = 1184 (
a

1
)3
f 2
1(
)
2a

2

Q02
4. .
f r02 =

f,
,
2,
r02,

9.15
467,048
1489
0.992

9.75
440,762
1251
0.834

10.5
418.115
1068
0.712

11.25
402.187
950.558
0.634

12.01
390.288
868.66
0.579

[8]
, .

. 14.

f:
12

X =

1
2 f C KOH

k2 =

1
2 f C KOH 2

5.

f,
,
,
+ ,
+ ,
X,
k2

9.15
61.275
-34.888
26.387
17.79
-43.485
0.0292

9.75
66.37
-37.44
28.93
25.561
-40.809
0.0326

10.5
72.75
-40.62
32.13
34.856
-37.894
0.0355

11.25
79.12
-43.81
35.31
43.752
-35.368
0.0372

12.01
85.585
-47.042
38.543
52.455
-33.13
0.0381

(+)<< (+)<<, ,
rBH 2 =

( X a + X )2

,
r

2
2 = r .
1
3- 4- , 3= , 4= ,
2= 1 1 - .

r2 = r02 + r 2 ,

6. .

f,
r2,
r2,
2
2

9.15
0.678
1.67
0.471
-0.829

9.75
1.482
2.316
0.653
-0.91

10.5
2.906
3.618
1.021
-1.047

11.25
4.76
5.393
1.522
-1.249

12.01
7.05
7.629
2.152
-1.579

5.4

:
2

f* *

R 2
f

r
1 + 1 ( 2 + 2 1 )
r

7. .

f,
9.15
9.75
10.5
11.25
12.01
R,
316.387
262.509
209.721
178.602
166.173
R0=14.28
[
R
],
15

R
,
20

, ,
R
, R0 3 20 ,
.
:
13

, ,
, , P = P min = 10 ,
Pmin .
8.

f,

P,

9.15
0.507
5,07

9.75
0.605
6.05

10.5
0.686
6.86

11.25
0.728
7.28

12.01
0.738
7.38


1 , 5 ,
.
,
.
5.5 .
2<0 ,
101 , -
.
,
.
.
: X=Xa+Xb+X. :
2= X/ 2. : 2= - X/ 2.
: 2= 2 + 2.
, H101: f2=f(1+ 2)-0.5.
9.

f,
X,
2
2
2
f2,

9.15
-17.097
-0.029
0.011
-0.018
9.232

9.75
-11.879
-0.033
0.0095
-0.023
9.865

10.5
-5.764
-0.035
0.0054
-0.03
10.662

11.25
-0.058
-0.037
0.00006
-0.03706
11.465

12.01
5.413
-0.038
-0.006
-0.044
12.286

6. .
= P/P0
10.

l,
f,
P,

, %

23.34
9.232
5,07
0.235

20.67
9.865
6.05
0.28

18.21
10.662
6.86
0.318
14

16.35
11.465
7.28
0.337

14.86
12.286
7.38
0.342

. 15.

. 16

. 17.

7. .

.
. :
- 9,15-12,01 ( );
0.5-5 ( );
9 / 240 ;
- 1023 ( 4242 );
;
,
, .
15

10) :
1) .. " ". .:
, 1979
2) . . . 1 .
.: , 1970
3) : . / . . . ; .:
. . ., 1991. 32 .
4) . . /. .
, . . , . . . . . . :
, 1992 223.: .
5) . . . .: , 1982. 112
., .
6) . ., . .
. .: , 1974, 80 .
7) ., ., . : .
. .: , 1987. 432.: .
8) . ., . . . .:
, 1986. 184 .: .
9) . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1983. 400 ., .

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