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1. .

2. .
3. 1 .
4. .
5..
6. .
7. .
8. .
9..

,
CnH2n+2.
SP3
. ,
,
. 109
28 .


, ,
().
, .

,

CH2. ,
CH4 CH2 ( CH2
),
C2H6 ..
1.

.

1
.
, , .

, :
CH3 , CH3 CH2 , CH3 CH2 CH2 ..

,
.
:
1.
, :
1

) CH3 CHCH2 CH2 CH3


|

CH3

) CH3 CHCH2 CH3


|2

CH2
|1

CH3
2.
.
(-, -, - ..)
) 2
) 3

1.
.
CH3COONa :
CH3COONa+NaOH -- CH4 +Na2CO3
2. .


:
CH3 - I Na
+
--CH3 CH3 +2Na I
CH3- I
Na

1855
. ( )

3. .

.
,
.
, ,
.
4..

:
,450
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 -------------

CH3
|

------CH3

CH2 CH CH3

CH3

CH3


, .

5. ( )
.

. ,

(, , ):
Pt

CH3CH2CH=CH2+H2---- CH3CH2CH2CH3



.
6. .
,
4 (, ),
:
Al4C3 + 12H2O = 3CH4 + 4Al(OH)3




.
.
.
(80 97%).
, .

C2H6, C3H6, C4H6 .
,
.

, 2
, . , ,
,
,
( 1).

.
1,


.

1.
. ,
,
(
):
H
H

H C H + Cl Cl ----H C Cl + HCl

2. (IV) .
, :
CH4+2O2=CO2+H2O+880
( 1:2)
(1:10) .
. .
3. ( 1000 )
:
CH4 ----C+2H2
(1500 ),
:
2CH4 ---- C2H2 +3H2

4.

:
CH3- CH2- CH2- CH2- CH3 ---- CH3 - CH- CH2- CH3
|

CH3


.

, ,
,
.

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