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1.

1.1. .
: .
() .
. , , ,
, .
() .
, , , , .
.
. - .
,
.
( )
AB a () (.1.1).

1.1
( ) AB
| AB | | a |. , .
: , .

.

, . ,
1) ,
;
2) .
.
,

.
, .
0 . 0, . 0
.
NB . 0 .
() .
e . , a ,
a a o .
a b (),
. : a || b .
, a b (..
) a b , (..
) - a b .

( a = b ),
.
,
. , AB BA ,
a ( a ).
,
.
NB1. ,
, .
NB2. , . ,

.
.
NB3. , . ,
,
.
1.2. .
,
.
. a + b a b c ,
a b , b a (:
a + b = c ). (.1.2):
b

c = a +b
1.2
n

a
i =1

n a i ( i

=1, n )

s ,

, - , ,
n

(. 1.3): s = a i .
i =1

an

a1
n

s = ai
i =1

1.3
. a b = a ,
| b |=| || a |, a ( b a ) >0,
a ( b a ) <0.
NB. = 1 b = a a , b = a .
,
1) a || b b = a ;
1

2) : a = | a | a o .
, :
1
.
ao =
|a |
a b a ( b ):
a b = a + ( b ).

( ):
1) ( ):
a +b = b + a ;
2) ( ):
( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + c );
3) :
a + ( a )= 0 ;
4) 0 , 0
:
a +0=a .
5)
:
( ) a = ( a ) = ( a ), a , ( , )R;
6) : 1 a = a , a ;
7) ( ):
) : ( a + b )= a + b ;
) : ( + ) a = a + a .
1.3. .
. b a i ( i =1, n ),
,
n

= i a i ,

(1.1)

i =1

i R . ,
b ai .
. a i ,
, i =0,
n

a
i =1

= 0

i =1

2
i

= 0.

(1.2)

,
n

a
i =1

= 0, i 0,
2

(1.3)

i =1

a i .
. a i , .
. a1 = 0 , (1.3) 1 0.
. a i ( i =1, n ) ,
.
.
1

a1 a 2 ,
n

a
i

i =3

a
i =1
n

= 0

a
i =1

2
i

i =3

= 0

i =1

2
i

0,

= 0. a i

i =1

= 0

2
i

0. Fin.

NB. . ?
.
(), , .
, . :
1) ,
, , .
2) ,
, ,
.
1 ( ).
, a i ( i =1, n ) ,
,
.
NB.
.
.
a i ( i =1, n ) ,
.
.
1) . ai ,
0, 1 0. a1 =

i =1

i =1

i ai = 0 2i

a
i =2

, , a1

a i ( i = 2, n ).
2) . a1 :
a1 =

i =2

i =2

i ai (1) a1 + i ai = 0

i =1

i =1

i ai = 0 2i 0, ,

a i . Fin.

2 ( ).
, .
.
2

1) . a1 a 2 - . ,

a
i =1

2
( i 0). 1 0.
i =1

2
a 2 a1 || a 2 .
1

a
i =1

=0

= 0 1 a1 + 2 a 2 = 0 a1 =

2) . a1 || a 2 a1 = 2 a 2 (1) a1 + 2 a 2 = 0
2

i =1

2
i

a
i =1

=0 (

0), a1 a 2 . Fin.

3 ( ).
, .
.
1) . a1 , a 2 , a 3 - , , 1,
. , ,
a 3 = 1 a1 + 2 a 2 .
: ( a1 , a 2 , a 3 )1.
A2
a3

a2

A1

a1

1.4
2) . a1 # a 2 ( a1 , a 2 , a 3 )1, 1 .
a 3 ,
a1 a 2 . : OA1 = 1 a1 ; OA2 = 2 a 2 a 3 = 1 a1 + 2 a 2

(1) a 3 +

i ai = 0
i =1

i =1

i =1

i ai = 0 ( 2i 0), a1 , a 2 , a3

(. 1.4). Fin.
NB. ,
.
1.4. - . . .
. - () a i ( i =1, n ),

1 7 (.1.2).
n- ( Rn),
n, (n+1)
.
, , ,
1, 2 3 (: R1, R2, R3).
NB. ,
. .
. n- (Rn) n
. n- : { e1 ; e2 ;; en }.
.
, :
) ;

)
() , ;
)
() , .
NB. .
NB.
.
( )
a
() e1 e2 :

a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 =

e
i =1

(1.4)

(1.4) , a { e1 ; e2 }. 1 2
() a { e1 ; e2 }
{ e1 ; e2 }.
a a = ( 1 ; 2 ). : (
1 ; 2 ).
.
1) ( e1 , e2 , a )1, 1 , e1 # e2 .
, e1 e2 .
, e1 e2 .
(.1.5).

2
e2

e1

1.5

e1 e2 . {O; e1 ; e2 } { e1 ; e2 }.
a , e1 , e2
, OA1 = 1 e1 ; OA2 = 2 e2 . a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 .
2) 1 2 . ,
a { e1 ; e2 }, , a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 .
(1.4) ( 1 1 ) e1 + ( 2 2 ) e2 = 0 .
e1 # e2 , 2 (.1.3) .

1 1 = 0 1 = 1

. Fin.
2 2 = 0 2 = 2

( ).
a
() e1 , e2 , e3 :
1

a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 =

e
i =1

(1.5)

(1.5) , a { e1 ; e2 ; e3 }. 1 ,
2 3 () a { e1 ;
e2 ; e3 } { e1 ; e2 ; e3 }.
a a = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ).
( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ).
.
1) :
{ e1 ; e2 ; e3 } (.1.6).

z
y
A3
A2
e3

e2

x
O
e1

A1

1.6
a , e1 , e2 , e3
OA1 = 1 e1 ; OA2 = 2 e2 ; OA3 = 3 e3 . a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 .
2) 1 , 2 3 .
a { e1 ; e2 ; e3 }, , a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 .
(1.5) ( 1 1 ) e1 + ( 2 2 ) e2 + ( 3 3
) e3 = 0.
e1 , e2 , e3 , 3 (.1.3)
.

1 1 = 0

2 2 = 0
= 0
3 3

1 = 1

2 = 2 . Fin.
=
3 3

NB 1. e1 , e2 , e3 | e1 || e2 || e3 |,
.
NB 2. e1 , e2 , e3 | e1 | = | e2 | = | e3 | = 1,

. e1 , e2 , e3 i ,
j, k .

1. a = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ) b = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ) ,

1 = 1

, 2 = 2 .
=
3 3

2. a = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ) b = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ) ,
,

1 = 1

1 2 3

2 = 2
= = =
1
2
3
= , = const
3
3

NB. ,
.
.
1) .
.
a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ) k a = k( 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 ) =
(k 1 ) e1 + (k 2 ) e2 + (k 3 ) e3 = (k 1 ; k 2 ; k 3 ) . Fin.
2) .
.
a = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 = ( 1 ; 2 ; 3 ) b = 1 e1 + 2 e2 + 3 e3 = ( 1 ;
2 ; 3 ).
a + b = ( 1 + 1 ) e1 + ( 2 + 2 ) e2 + ( 3 + 3 ) e3 =( 1 + 1 ; 2 + 2 ; 3 + 3 ).
Fin.
1. { e1 ; e2 ; e3 } a1 =(1; 2; 0); a 2 =(1; 1; 1); a 3 =(2; 0; 1),
{ a1 ; a 2 ; a 3 } a 4 =(1; 2; 1). a 4
{ e1 ; e2 ; e3 }.
. a 4 = a1 +2 a 2 + a 3 , a1 = e1 +2 e2 ; a 2 = e1 + e2 + e3 ;
a 3 = 2 e1 + e3 . , a 4 = ( e1 +2 e2 )+2( e1 + e2 + e3 )+(2 e1 + e3 ) = e1 +3 e3
= (1; 0; 3)
: a 4 = (1; 0; 3) { e1 ; e2 ; e3 }.
2. { e1 ; e2 ; e3 } a1 =(0; 1; 2); a 2 =(2; 1; 1); a 3 =(1; 0; 1);
a 4 =(2; 1; 3). , { a1 ; a 2 ; a 3 }
a 4 .
. a1 , a 2 , a 3 ,

i =1

i =1

i ai = 0 , 2i = 0.

i . ai ( i
3

{ e1 ; e2 ; e3 }.

a = a
i =1

i i

=1, 3 )

+ 2 a 2 + 3 a 3 = 1 ( e2

2 e3 )+ + 2 (2 e1 + e2 + e3 )+ 3 ( e1 + e3 ) = e1 (2 2 + 3 ) + e2 ( 1 + 2 ) + e3 (2 1 + 2
+ 3 ) = 0
1

e1 , e2 , e3 , .
, ,
e1 , e2 , e3 , (

0 1 + 2 2 + 3 = 0

): 1 + 2 + 0 3 = 0
2 + + = 0
1 2 3
- , n = r(A) = r(A|),
,
: i = 0 ( i =1,3 ). a1 , a 2 , a 3
. , i = 0,

() .
NB. , 1-
a1 , 2- a 2 , 3- a 3 , 4-
( ) 0 .
0

1 0

1
2

1
1

0 0
1 0

~
2

0
1
0

2
1
3

1 0
0 0
1 0

0 0

0
0

2
3

1 0
1 0

~
1

1
0
0

1
2
1

0 0
1 0
0 0

1
0
0

1
0
1

0 0
1 0
0 0

1 + 2 = 0
1 1 0 0

~ 0 1 0 0 2 = 0
1 = 2 = 3 = 0.
0 0 1 0
= 0

i = 0 ( i =1,3 ), { a1 ; a2 ; a3 } .
a 4 . a4
{ a1 ; a2 ; a3 }:
a4 = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + 3 a3
a1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4
{ e1 ; e2 ; e3 }. : 2 e1 + e2 + 3 e3 = 1 ( e2 2 e3 ) + 2 (2 e1 + e2 + e3 ) +
3 ( e1 + e3 ) { ,
e1 , e2 , e3 .} 2 e1 + e2

+ 3 e3 = e1 (2 2 + 3 ) + e2 ( 1 + 2 ) + e3 (2 1 + 2

0 1 + 2 2 + 3 = 2

+ ) 1 + 2 + 0 3 = 1
2 + + = 3
1 2 3
3


.
NB. , 1-
a1 , 2- a 2 , 3- a 3 , 4-
( ) a 4 .

0
1
2

2
1
1

1 2

0
1
0

0 1
1 3

2
1
3

1 2
0 1
1 5

1
0
0

1
3
2

0 1
1 5
1 2

0 1

0
0

1
2

0 3
1 2

~
2

1
0
0

1
1
0

0 1
0 3
1 4

1 + 2 = 1
1 = 2

2 = 3 2 = 3 a4 = 2 a1 + 3 a2 4 a3 . : a4 = 2 a1 + 3 a2 4 a3
= 4
= 4
3

1.5. .
.
L Lo .
. ,
, .
,
- (.1.7).
L2

L2

Lo2

Lo2

L1

L1

o
1

Lo1

)
1.7

, 0 < .
NB. a b (a ; b ) .
a = AB L.

L
A1

B1

B1

aL > 0

A1
aL < 0

)
1.8

. a = AB L , A1 B1 ,
1 1 , AB
L (.1.8). : aL = L AB . aL (+),
1

10

A1 B1 L, (),
A1 B1 L. , aL =| A1 B1 |
A1 B1 L aL = | A1 B1 | A1 B1 L. ,
: aL = L a = | a
|cos
.
1) (),
() , .
2) .
3) .
(+), ,
() .
4) :
L ( a + b + c ) = L a + L b + L c .
5)
L ( a ) = L a
NB. ,
.
1.6. .
. ( ) Ox, Oy, Oz,
,
(.1.9).
z

k
j

x
1.9
Ox , Oy , z . i ,
, k Ox, Oy, z. (
) , i , j , k
, { i , j , k }.
{ i , j , k } .
. { i , j , k } ,
i j
k . i , j , k .

11

()
: { i , j , k } { j , k , i } { k , i , j } { i , j , k }.
(
), . , {
i , j , k } , { i , k , j } .
{ i , j
, k }, .

1.6.1. - .
.
. - r = OM
, (.1.10).
z
C
M

x
1.10
(Oxy), (Oxz)
(Oyz). 1.10 , OA = x i ; OB = y j ; OC = z k , x, y, z
(Oyz), (Oxz), (Oxy) .
Ox, Oy, Oz .
. - r
:
x = x r ; y = y r ; z = z r .
, x, y, z
() - r . : r = (x; y; z). : -
r (x; y; z).
NB. , - r ,
: (x ; y; z).
- r
(1.6)
r = OA + OB + OC = x i + y j + z k
(1.6) - r { i , j , k },
x i ; y j ; z k - r
Ox, Oy, Oz .
, -

| r | = x2 + y2 + z2
1.7)

12

- r Ox, Oy, Oz , ,
,
cos , cos , cos ,

r = x i + y

+ z k = | r |cos i + | r |cos

x = | r | cos

+ | r |cos k y = | r | cos
z = | r | cos

(1.8)

x
x
cos =
=
|r |

x2 + y2 + z2

y
y

=
cos =
|r |
x2 + y2 + z2

z
cos = z =
|r |

x2 + y2 + z2

(1.9)

(1.9) ,
os2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
(1.10)
e
NB. (1.8) ,

: e = (cos ; cos ; cos ).
.

- r , , , = , = .
4

- r , | r |=3.
.
. (1.10)

2
os = 1 cos 2 cos 2 = 1 0,5 0,25 = 0,5 1 =
, 2 =
- r (1.8):
x = | r |cos = 3

2
=
2

3
3
3
3
; y = | r |cos =
; z1 = | r |cos 1 =
; z2 = | r |cos 2 =
2
2
2
2

: r1 = (

3
3
3 3
3
3
;
;
), r2 = (
;
; )
2 2 2
2 2
2

1.6.2. .
a = AB Oxy,
(xA; yA), B(xB; yB) (.1.11).
y
yB

a
j

yA

A
x

13

xA

xB

1.11
a = AB :
a = ax = ; a = a y =
a = AB = ax i + a y j = ( ) i + ( ) j = ( ; ).
. a x = a y = a =
AB Oxy.
ax2 + a 2y =

| a | =

( xB x A ) 2 + ( y B y A ) 2 .

:
ax
xB x A

cos = | a | =
( xB x A ) 2 + ( y B y A ) 2
ax =| a | cos

yB y A
a y =| a | cos
cos = a y =

|a |
( xB x A ) 2 + ( y B y A ) 2

1.6.3. .
a = AB ,
(; yA; zA), B(xB; yB; zB) (.1.12).
z
A

a
B

y
i

O
j

x
1.12
(1.6)
a = AB = OB OA = (xB i + yB j + zB k ) (xA i + yA j + zA k ) = ( ) i + (
) j + + (zB zA) k = ( ; ; zB zA).
(1.11)
a
,
a = a x = , a = a y = , z a = a z = z z.
. a x = , a y = , a z = z z
a = AB .
NB.
.
:

14


a
xB x A
cos = x =
2
|a |
( xB x A ) + ( y B y A ) 2 + ( z B z A ) 2

ax =| a | cos

ay
yB y A

=
(1.12) cos =
,
a y =| a | cos
2
|a |
( xB x A ) + ( y B y A ) 2 + ( z B z A ) 2

az =| a | cos

zB z A
cos = az =
|a |

( xB x A ) 2 + ( y B y A ) 2 + ( z B z A ) 2

( ) | a | :

(1.13)

| a | = | AB | = ( xB x A ) 2 + ( yB y A ) 2 + ( z B z A ) 2

(1.14)

1.
a = AB , , (1; 3; 2),
(5; 8; 1).
. ax = xB xA = 5 1 = 4; ay = yB yA = 5; az = zB zA = 3

a =4i +5
cos =

3 k ; | a | = ( xB x A ) 2 + ( y B y A ) 2 + ( z B z A ) 2 =

16 + 25 + 9

50

=5 2;

ay
ax
a
4
2 2
1
3
=
=
; cos =
=
; cos = z =
.
|a| 5 2
5
|a|
|
a
|
2
5 2

2.
, (2; 4; 6) (3; 2;
5).
.
| AM | = | BM |. (; 0; 0).
| AM | = ( x 2) 2 +16 + 36 = ( x 2) 2 + 52 ; | BM | = ( x + 3) 2 + 4 + 25 = ( x + 3) 2 + 29 .
| AM | = | BM | ( 2)2 + 52 = ( + 3)2 + 29 2 4 + 56 = 2 + 6 +38 10 = 18
= 1,8 (1,8; 0; 0). : (1,8; 0; 0).
1.7. , .
a = a x i + a y

+ a z k = (ax; ay; az); b = b x i + b y

+ b z k = (bx; by; bz)

.
1) a b = ( a x b x ) i + ( a y b y ) j + ( a z b z ) k = ( a x b x ; a y b y ; a z b z ).
2) a = a x i + a y j + a z k = ( ax; ay; az).
.
ax = bx

a = b a y = by

az = bz
.

15

ax = bx
a x a y az

=
= =
a || b a = b a y = by
bx by bz

az = bz
, .

(1.15).

.
a = (; 3; 1); b = (2; 6; ) .
.

(1.15) : 2 = 6 = = 1; = 2.
1.8. .
1(1; y1; z1) 2(x2; y2; z2)
(.1.13). (x; y; z), [M1M2]
=

M 1M
MM 2

. ,

M 1 M = MM 2 .
z
M1
M
r1

2
r2

x
1.13
:
1) [M1M2], , [M1M2] .
M 1 M MM 2 . , > 0;
2) [M1M2], , [M1M2] .
M 1 M MM 2 . , < 0;
3) 1. = 1,

M 1M
MM 2

= 1 M 1 M = MM 2 M 1 M + MM 2 = 0

M 1 M 2 = 0 1 = 2. , 1 2 ;
4) = 0 = 1;
5) | |= = 2.
M 1 M = MM 2

16

x1 + x2

x = 1+

y + y2

y = 1
, ( 1),
(1.16)
1+

z1 + z2

z = 1+

(x; y; z) - r , (1; y1; z1) - 1


- r1 , (x2; y2; z2) - 2 - r2 .
(1.16)
r + r2
r= 1
(1.17)
1+

x x1 = ( x2 x) x(1 + ) = x1 + x2

y y1 = ( y 2 y ) y (1 + ) = y1 + y 2
z z = ( z z ) z(1 + ) = z + z
2
1
2
1

1. : 1(3; 2; 4), 2(6; 0; 1). (x; y; z),


[M1M2] =2.
. - r ,
r + r2 3i + 2 j + 4k + 2(6i + k )
2j
2
=
= 3i +
+ 2k = (3; ; 2)
(1.17) r = 1
1+
3
3
3
: (3;

2
; 2)
3

2.
, M 1 M 2 , 1(2; 8; 6), 2(4;
6; 0).
. [M1M2] , M 1 M = MM 2 =

M 1M
MM 2

=1 , =1. (1.16)

x1 + x2 2 + 4
x = 2 = 2 = 3

y1 + y 2 8 6
=
= 1 (3; 1; 3).
y=
2
2

z1 + z 2 6
z = 2 = 2 = 3

: (3; 1; 3).
3.
: (5; 3), (2; 1) (2; 2)
. (.1.14).

1.14

17

. D [AB] .
D:
x + xB 5 + 2 7
y + yB 3 1
7
=
= ; D = A
=
= 1 D( ; 1)
D = A
2
2
2
2
2
2
[D]
+ D

2
= = 2 . , =
=
= (1+ ) D = 23
D 1
1+
+ D
7
2 = 1; =
= (1+ ) D = 23 21 = 4 (1;4) : (1; 4).
2
1+
4.
[AB], (2; 0; 2) D(5; 2; 0)
(.1.15):

1.15
. [D], ,

x A +x D
+ D
z + zD
; =
; zC = A
2
2
2

x A = 2 xC x D = 1

y A = 2 yC y D = 2
z = 2z z = 4
A C D

(1; 2; 4).

, D [], ,

D =

xC +x B
+ B
z + zB
; D = C
; zD = C
2
2
2

x B = 2 x D x = 8

y B = 2 y D y = 4
z = 2z z = 2
B D

(8; 4; 2)

: (1; 2; 4); (8; 4; 2).

2. .
2.1. .
. a b ,
. a b , a b ( a , b ).
, a b = | a || b |cos, = (a ; b ) .
(2.1)
| b |cos = b | a |cos = b a (.2.1), (2.1)

a b = | a | b = | b | b a
(2.2)
b a =A1

18

B1

b = AB1

2.1
NB. .
F s , ,
, F
s , = F s .
2.2. .
1) ()
a b = b a .
2) ()
a b = ( a ) b = a ( b ) = ( a b ), R.
3) ()
( a + b ) c = a c + b c .
4) . ,
:
= a a =| a || a |cos0 = | a |2 | a | = a 2 .
a2
5) ,
, a b a b = 0.
NB. a = 0 b = 0 , a b = 0.
, ,
, .
.
. a b ,
.
6) :
2
i j = j k = i k = 0
(2.3)
i 2 = j = k 2 = 1;

i i

j i
k i

ij
j j
kj

i k 1

j k = 0

k k
0

0
1
0

0
1

2.3. .
.

. , a = (; y; az), b = (bx; by; bz),
a b = axbx + ayby + azbz
(2.4)
.
a = i + y j + az k ; b = bx i + by j + bz k , (2.3),
a b = ( i + y j + az k )( bx i + by j + bz k ) = axbx + ayby + azbz . Fin.
1. .
a b ( a 0 , b 0 ) a b = 0 axbx + ayby + azbz = 0.
.
, , (4; 4;
4), (3; 2; 2), (2; 5; 1), D(3; 2; 2) .
1

19

.
AC D : AC = (6; 9; 3), D = (6; 4; 0).
AC D = 36 36 = 0 AC D .
2.
,
a 2 = a a =| a || a |cos0 = | a |2 | a | =

ax2 + a 2y + az2

a2 =

(2.5)

3.
(2.2) ,

a b ax bx + a y by + az bz
=
b =
(2.6)
|a |
ax2 + a y2 + az2
4.
(2.1) ,
ax bx + a y by + az bz
a b
=
cos = | a | | b |
, a 0 , b 0
(2.7)
ax2 + a 2y + az2 bx2 + by2 + bz2
1.
: a = (2; 2; 1), b = (4; 1; 1). a b , | a |, | b |, b a , b , = (a ; b ) .
. (2.4) (2.7) :
a b = axbx + ayby + azbz = 24 + (2)(1) + 1(1) = 8 + 2 1 = 9
| a | = ax2 + a 2y + az2 =
b a =

bx2 + by2 + bz2 =

4 + 4 +1 = 3; | b | =

16 +1 +1 =

18

=3 2;

a b ax bx + a y by + az bz
9
3
3 2
=
=
=
=
;
2
2
2
|b|
3 2
2
bx + by + bz
2

a b ax bx + a y by + az bz 9
=
b =
= =3;
|a |
3
ax2 + a y2 + az2
a b
cos = | a | | b | =

ax bx + a y by + az bz
a +a +a b +b +b
2
x

2
y

2
z

2
x

2
y

2
z

9
9 2

1
2

2
2
= arccos
= .
2
2
4

2.
: a = (3; 2; 4), b = (5; 1; 6), c = (3; 0; 2). d , a d
= 4; b d = 35; c d = 0.
.
d = (x; y; z),

20

a d = 3x 2 y + 4 z

b d = 5x + y + 6 z
c d = 3x + 2 z

0
1
0

1
1
3

3
2
10
35
28 105

4 4

5
3

1
0

6 35
2 0

10 35

0
0

1
3

3 2
28 105

x + y + 10 z = 35 z = 3

y = 3z 2 = 7
y + 3z = 2
37 z = 111
x = y + 10 z 35 = 2

1
3

1
0

10 35
2 0

1
0
0

1
1
0

1
2

~~
3

10 35
3 2
37 111

d = (2; 7; 3). : d = (2; 7; 3).

3.
: a = (2; 1; 1), a || b , a b = 3, b = ?
.
1) a || b b = a b = (2 ; ; ),
2) a b = 3 axbx + ayby + azbz = 3 4 + + = 3 6 = 3 =
b = (1;

1
1
1
1
; ). : b = (1;
; ).
2
2
2
2

3. .
3.1. .
a b a b [ a ,
b ].
. a b c ,
, a b ,
| c | = | a b | = | a || b |sin, = (a ; b ) (.3.1). c
:
1) c a b ( c a c b );
2) { a ; b ; c } .

c = ab
B

h = |b|sin

3.1
NB. , a b ,
: S. = S. = | a |h = | a || b |sin = | a b | = | c |
1

21

.
S, a
b

S =

1
| a b | (.3.1).
2

3.2. .
1) ()
b a = a b .
2) ()
( a b ) = a b = a b .
3) () ()
a (b c ) = a b a c
a
4) = 0 b = 0 , a || b , a b = 0 . , a a = 0 , a .
5) i , j , k :

i i = j j = k k = 0
(3.1)

i j = j i = k ; j k = k j = i ; k i = i k = j,
(3.1) (.3.2).
(+)
i ;

; k ; i ;

()
3.2
(3.2),
, ,

, .
. a b ,
.
: if a || b ( a 0 , b 0 ) a b = 0 .
.
a || b , ( a 0 , b 0 ) = 0 = , = ( a ; b ) sin =0 | a b | = |
a || b |sin = 0 a b = 0 . Fin.
NB. - r F M =
r F - r .
3.3. .
.
, , a = (; y; az)
b = (bx; by; bz)

ab=

i
ax
bx

j
ay
by

.
(3.1)
1

22

k
az
bz

(3.2)

a b = ( i + y j + az k )( bx i + by j + bz k ) = axbx( i i ) + axby( i j ) + axbz( i k ) +


aybx( j i ) +ayby( j j ) + aybz( j k ) +azbx( k i ) +azby( k j ) +azbz( k k ) = 0 +
axby k axbz j aybx k + 0 + aybz i + azbx j azby i + 0 = i (aybz azby) j (axbz azbx) +
k

ay

az

(axby aybx) = = i b
y

bz

ax

az

bx

bz

ax

ay

+ k b
x

i
ax
bx

by

j
ay
by

k
az
bz

. Fin.

.
, a b ,
ay
by

S. = | a b | =

az
bz

ax
bx

az
bz

ax
bx

ay
by

(3.3)

1.
: (1; 1; 1), (2; 2; 2), (4; 3; 5). SABC
hB = | D |.
.
a = AB = (1; 1; 1), b = AC = (3; 2; 4). SABC
, a b : SABC =

1
SABC (.3.3).
2

a
hB

3.3
a b =

i
1
3

j
1
2

k
1
4

= i

1
1
6
|a b| =
4 +1 +1 =
2
2
2
2S
1
, S = | b | hB hB =
=
|b|
2

+ k

=2i

k = (2; 1;

1) S =

: S =

6
.2, hB =
2

6
=
9 + 4 + 16

6
29

6
.
29

2.
: c a , c b , a = (4; 2; 3), b = (0; 1; 3), | c | = 26.
c .
.
c a c b c || d = a b . c || d c = d = a b =
i
4
0

j
2
1

k
3
3

= ( i

+ k

) = (3 i 12

+ 4k )

= (3 ; 12; 4 ). , c = (3 ; 12; 4 ) | c | = 2 (9 +144 +16) =


169 = 13 . | c | = 26 26 = 13 = 2. , c1 =
(6; 24; 8), c 2 = (6; 24; 8).
: c1 = (6; 24; 8), c 2 = (6; 24; 8).
1

23

4. .
4.1. .
. a , b c ,
a b = d c . : abc = ( a b ) c .
( ).
abc a , b c
, , .
abc , { a ; b ; c }
, { a ; b ; c } .
. , a , b
c (.4.1).

ab

c
h

S.
O

a b
4.1.
{ a ; b ; c }
: ( a b ) c = | a b || c |cos = S. h = V, h

, V , S. , [0;
].
2

{ a ; b ; c } , ( a b ) c = | a b || c |cos() = S.(
h) = = V. Fin.
1.
1

24

a , b , c ,
.
.
1) . a , b , c , { a ; b ; c } 1,

( a b ) c =
abc = ( a b ) c = | a b || c |cos
= 0 | a b ||
2

c | 0=0
2) . abc = 0 ( a b ) c = 0 ( a b )

c =
{ a ; b ; c } 1, a , b , c . Fin.
2

2.
, , ,
.
. ,
.
. ,
. Fin.
4.2. .
:
) ;
) .

.
:
) { a ; b ; c } (), :
abc = ( a b ) c = V (V) a ( b c ) = ( b c ) a = V (V) abc = ( a b ) c =
a ( b c ).
NB. abc
.
) ,
, .
,
, , .
:
1) abc = bca = cab = abc ;
2) abc = bac ; abc = acb ; abc = cba . Fin.
4.3. .
.
, ,
, :
ax

ay

az

abc = b x

by

bz

cx

cy

cz

25

(4.1)

abc =

cy

( a b ) c =

i
ax
bx

j
ay
by

k
az
bz

ay

c = (i b
y

az
bz

ax
bx

ax
az
+ k b
bz
x

ay
by

)(cx i +

+
ay

+ cz k ) = cx b
y

az
bz

ax
az
+ cz b
bz
x

ax
cy
bx

ay
by

ax

ay

az

= bx

by

cx

cy

b z . Fin.
cz

1.
, .
ax

ay

az

abc = b x

by

cx

cy

bz = 0
cz

(4.2)

2.
, a , b , c ,
.
ax

ay

az

V = | abc | = mod b x

by

bz

cx

cy

cz

(4.3)

3.
, a , b , c

.
ax
1
1
V. =
| abc | =
mod b x
6
6
cx

ay

az

by

bz

cy

cz

(4.4)

1

3
1
1 1
1
1
1
, V. =
SOAB h =
SD h =
V. =
| abc | = = mod
3
3 2
6
6
6
ax a y az
b x b y b z . Fin.
cx c y cz

26

4.2
1.
, : (1; 1; 1), (4;
4; 4), (3; 5; 5), D(2; 4; 7).
.
, ,
BD. ,
a = AB = (3; 3; 3), b = AC = (2; 4; 4), c = D = (1; 3; 6).
3

1
1
V. =
| abc | = mod 2
6
6
1

= =6

1
0
0

1
1
0

1
1
3

3
4

3
4

1
=
{ 2
6
6
1

= = 6113 = 18} =

3
4

3
4

= 32 1

2
3

2
6

= 6

0
0

1
2

1
5 2

18
= 3 (3.). : V. = 3 (3.)
6

2.
(2; 4; 5), (1; 3; 4), (5; 5; 1), D(1;
2; 2). hA, .
.
, , D (4.4) V
(.4.3).

4.3

a = = (3; 1; 1), b = = (6; 8; 5), c = D = (2; 1; 2). V.=

1
|
6

abc |.
V.=
=
1
0
0

6V.
b c
2
5
0

c=

abc
b c
3
1
9
i
6
2

j
8
1

3V.
1
1
SDhA, SD =
| b c |. , hA =
=
S D
3
2
3

. abc =

5
2

8
1

0
2

5
1

1
2

=
2

0
0

5
5

1
8 1

10 k =

= 45
k
5
2

= i 1

(11; 2; 10) | b c | =

6
2

5
2

121 + 4 +100 =

2
225

27

+ k

= 11 i + 2

= 15. hA =

45
= 3. : hA = 3 .
15

1.
: .
, , , D (. ).
.
1) a = , b = AC , c = AD , d = , f = CD .
| a |, | b |, | c |, | d |, | f | a o , b o , c o ,
o
do, f .
2) w || a : w a = 1.
3) g = a 2 b + 3 c | g |.
4) h , , h g | h | = 2.
5) a , b , c .
R3. , d { a , b ,
c }.
6) a b , b c , c d , d f .
a b , b c , c d , d f ?
.
7) b a , , b , a +b d , a b f .
8) :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) C .

28

9) a b , a c , b c | a
b |, | a c |, | b c |.
10) : m = a + b , n = a b , p = a + b c . m , n , p ?
R3. ,
d { m , n , p }.
11) BCD :
) a , b , c ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) , D, AC AD.
12) ( a b ) c , ( a b ) c , ( a b ) c .
13) w = (x; y; z), , :
) w a = 1, w b = 1, w c = 2,
) w a , w b , w = | c |,
) w m , w n , | w | = 1.

0) (3; 1; 2);
1) A(1; 2; 3);
2) A(1; 3; 2);
3) A(2; 1; 1);
4) A(1; 3; 1);
5) A(1; 1; 1);
6) A(3; 2; 1);
7) A(1; 2; 3);
8) A(3; 1; 2);
9) A(1; 3; 2);
10) A(1; 1; 1);
11) A(1; 2; 3);
12) A(1; 3; 2);
13) A(3; 1; 2);
14) A(2; 3; 2);
15) A(2; 2; 3);
16) A(2; 3; 1);
17) A(3; 1; 2);
18) A(2; 1; 3);
19) A(1; 1; 3);
20) A(1; 3; 2);
21) A(1; 2; 1);
22) A(1; 1; 2);
23) A(2; 2; 2);
24) A(2; 1; 3);
25) A(2; 2; 3);
1

(2; 2; 3);
B(3; 1; 2);
B(2; 2; 3);
B(2; 3; 3);
B(2; 2; 1);
B(3; 3; 2);
B(2; 1; 2);
B(1; 2; 3);
B(2; 2; 2);
B(1; 2; 3);
B(1; 2; 3);
B(2; 1; 3);
B(1; 2; 1);
B(2; 2; 1);
B(1; 2; 3);
B(1; 1; 2);
B(1; 3; 2);
B(2; 1; 3);
B(1; 3; 2);
B(2; 1; 2);
B(2; 3; 1);
B(2; 2; 1);
B(2; 3; 1);
B(3; 1; 2);
B(2; 3; 1);
B(3; 3; 2);

(3; 2; 1);
C(2; 3; 1);
C(1; 2; 1);
C(1; 3; 2);
C(1; 1; 2);
C(2; 3; 3);
C(3; 3; 1)
C(3; 1; 2);
C(1; 3; 2);
C(2; 1; 1);
C(2; 1; 1);
C(3; 2; 1);
C(2; 2; 1);
C(1; 2; 3);
C(1; 1; 2);
C(2; 3; 1);
C(3; 2; 1);
C(3; 2; 3);
C(1; 2; 1);
C(3; 2; 3);
C(3; 2; 1);
C(2; 1; 1);
C(1; 2; 3);
C(1; 2; 3);
C(1; 2; 3);
C(2; 3; 1);
29

D(1; 3; 1).
D(3; 2; 1).
D(3; 2; 3).
D(1; 2; 3).
D(2; 2; 2).
D(3; 2; 1).
D(1; 2; 3).
D(1; 3; 2).
D(3; 3; 1).
D(3; 1; 2).
D(2; 2; 3).
D(1; 2; 2).
D(2; 1; 3).
D(2; 3; 3).
D(3; 2; 1).
D(3; 2; 1).
D(2; 1; 3).
D(2; 2; 2).
D(3; 2; 2).
D(2; 3; 2).
D(2; 1; 2).
D(1; 3; 3).
D(2; 2; 1).
D(3; 2; 1).
D(3; 3; 2).
D(3; 2; 2).

26) A(2; 1; 2);


27) A(2; 2; 3);
28) A(2; 3; 1);
29) A(3; 2; 1);
30) A(2; 2; 3);

C(1; 2; 3);
C(2; 3; 1);
C(2; 1; 2);
C(1; 1; 3);
C(3; 1; 2);

B(3; 2; 3);
B(1; 1; 1);
B(1; 2; 1);
B(2; 1; 3);
B(3; 1;2);

D(3; 1; 1).
D(3; 3; 2).
D(3; 3; 2).
D(3; 3; 2).
D(2; 3; 1).


().
1.
.
2. ,
. ,

.
3. :


:
() . ..
... ...

4. , , .
5.
.
6.
.
7. ,
, .
1

30

8. .
c .
, , .


1. .. . -.: , 1984.
-320.
2. .., .. . -.: , 1971. 232 .
3. .. . . -.: , 1970. 376 .
4. .. . -: .
., 1982. - 272.
5. .. . .1. - : , 2001. - 544.
6. .. . 1 . -.: , 2000. 288.
7. .. . -.: -
. -, 1977. - 120 .
8. .. . . 1 . -.: -, 2003.
-576.

31


.
1. ..1
1.1. ..1
1.2. ..2
1.3. ...3
1.4. - . . ...5
1.5. 9
1.6. ...11
1.6.1. - .11
1.6.2. .13
1.6.3. ..14
1.7. , ..15
1.8. ...15
2. 18
2.1. 18
2.2. 18
2.3. ...19
3. 20
3.1. 20
3.2. ....21
3.3. .22
4. ...23
4.1. .23
4.2. ...24
4.3. ..25
1. : ......28
1

32

..29
()...30
...31

33