Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 47




in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING




APRIL 2006


Certified that this project report DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC AUTO FEED DRILLING MACHINE is the bonafide work of C G ARRUN RAVI, D.K.BALAJEE, KAUSHAL KUMAR JAIN who carried out the project work under my supervision.





We would like to thank Dr. S. Krishnan, DEAN, School of Mechanical Engineering for permitting us to carry out this project work. Our sincere thanks to Mr. M. Thirumurugan, for guiding us and for his invaluable support toward our project. We are also grateful to Mr.Z.E.Kennedy for bearing with us throughout the project. We would like to place on record, our sincere thanks to all the staff of Machine Shop and the Thermal Lab for helping us with this project.

ABSTRACT In small-scale industries and automobile maintenance shops, there are frequent needs of tightening and loosening of screws, drilling, boring, grinding machine. Huge and complicated designed parts cannot be machined with the help of an ordinary machine and further for every operation separate machine is required therefore increasing the number of machines required and increasing the area required for them to be accommodated and hence overall initial cost required is increased.

In a single machine all the above specified operation can be carried out, i.e., after drilling, the drill head is removed from the barrel key and the required tools like grinding wheels, boring tool etc., can be attached, and the operation can be performed.

By the application of pneumatics, the pneumatic cylinder with piston which is operated by an air compressor will give the successive action to operate this machine. By this we can achieve our industrial requirements.






4 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


9 11 16 26 43 44 45 45 46 50 52 53


S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TABLE NO. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 9.1 10.1

DESCRIPTION Cylinder Tube Materials End Cover Materials Piston Materials Mount Materials Piston Rod Materials List of Materials Cost Estimation

PAGE NO. 17 17 18 18 18 49 50


S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

FIGURE NO. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 Flange 1 Flange 2 Vane Cover Bearing 1 Bearing 2 Stand Base Vane Barrel


PAGE NO. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Pneumatic Cylinder Solenoid Valve Pneumatic Double Acting Cylinder Hose Collar Pneumatic Auto Feed Drilling Machine



Area of cylinder (m) Diameter of Piston (m) Force exerted on the piston (N) Height (m) Length (m) Pressure (N/m) Volume (m)


INTRODUCTION The main objective of our project is to perform various machining operations using Auto feed mechanism in drilling machine with the help of pneumatic sources. For a developing industry the operation performed and the parts (or) components produced should have it minimum possible production cost for it to run profitability. In small-scale industries and automobile maintenance shops, there are frequent needs of tightening and loosening of screws, drilling, boring, grinding machine. Huge and complicated designed parts cannot be machined with the help of an ordinary machine and further for every operation separate machine is required therefore increasing the number of machines required and increasing the area required for them to be accommodated and hence overall initial cost required. In our project the above complicated problems are minimized.

NEED FOR AUTOMATION: Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation.

The main advantage of a pneumatic system is that it is economical and simple in construction which makes it different from other sources of automation. Automation plays an important role in mass production. Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is changing to automated machines in order to deliver the products with better quality and at a faster rate. The manufacturing operation is being automated for the following reasons.

To achieve mass production To reduce man power To increase the efficiency of the plant To reduce the work load To reduce the production cost To reduce the production time To reduce the material handling To reduce the fatigue of workers To achieve good product quality Less Maintenance

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE SURVEY PNEUMATICS: The word pneuma comes from Greek and means breather wind. The word pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from the word pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of air as a working medium in industry especially in driving and controlling of machines and equipment. Pneumatics has been considered to be used to carry out simple mechanical tasks. But, in todays world it is playing an important role by becoming one of the major sources for automation, and the recent developments in this field has made it a useful technology in the field of complex automated applications. Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it will indeed be necessary to deal with the section of compressed air supply. The key part of any pneumatic machine is supply of compressed air is by means reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivers the air at a high pressure. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered. And the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robert Boyle in 1962 and found that the product of pressure and volume of a particular quantity of gas is constant. This is usually written as: 10

PV = C

(or) PV = P2V2

In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressure which is about 14.7 Psi. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly used system now a days.

SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS: Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by mechanical power. Pneumatic is an attractive medium for low cost mechanizations particularly for sequential (or) repetitive operations. Many factories and plants already have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing the power (or) energy requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power). The main advantage of a pneumatic system is it is economically cheap and simple in design, also reducing maintenance costs. It can also have an out standing advantage in terms of safety.

PNEUMATIC POWER Pneumatic systems use pressurised gas to transmit and control power. Pneumatic systems typically use air as the fluid medium because air is safe, free and readily available. The Advantages of Pneumatics: 1. Air used in pneumatic systems can be directly exhausted in to the surrounding environment and hence the need of special reservoirs and no-leak system designs are eliminated. 2. Pneumatic systems are simple in design and economical. 3. Control of pneumatic systems is easier.

The Disadvantages of Pneumatics: 1. Pneumatic systems exhibit spongy characteristics due to compressibility of air.


2. Pneumatic pressures are quite low due to compressor design limitations (less that 250 psi).

PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. The key part of any pneumatic system for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivers it at a higher pressure. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered. And the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature. Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which decides the life of a compressor. Warm and moist suction air will result in increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air. Compressor may be classified in two general types.

1. Positive displacement compressor. 2. Turbo compressor Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for compressed air plant and have proved highly successful for pneumatic control application.

The different types of positive compressors are: 1. Reciprocating type compressor 2. Rotary type compressor


Turbo compressors are employed where large capacity of air required at low discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in pneumatic service.

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS Built for either stationary (or) portable service the reciprocating compressor is by far the most common type. Reciprocating compressors deliver more than 500 m/min. In single stage compressor, even if the air pressure is of 6 bar, the machines can discharge pressure of 15 bars. Discharge pressure in the range of 250 bars can be obtained with high pressure reciprocating compressors that of three & four stages. Single stage and 1200 stage models are particularly suitable for pneumatic applications , with preferences going to the two stage design as soon as the discharge pressure exceeds 6 bar, because it in capable of matching the performance of single stage machine at lower costs per driving powers in the range

Objective: The pneumatic auto feed drilling machine can be widely used in low cost automation in manufacturing industries. Drilling speed is high. The manpower requirement is reduced also reducing the machining time.


CHAPTER-3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT 3.1 PNEUMATIC CONTROL COMPONENT 3.1.1 Pneumatic cylinder An air cylinder is an operative device in which the state input energy of compressed air i.e. pneumatic power is converted in to mechanical output power, by reducing the pressure of the air to that of the atmosphere.

3.1.1 a) Single acting cylinder Single acting cylinder is only capable of performing an operating medium in only one direction. Single acting cylinders are equipped with one inlet for the operating air pressure, and can be produced in several designs. Single cylinders develop power in one direction only. Therefore no heavy control equipment should be attached to them, which is required to be moved on the piston return stoke. Single action cylinder requires only about half the air volume consumed by a double acting for one operating cycle.

3.1.1 b) Double acting cylinders: A double acting cylinder is employed in control systems with the full pneumatic cushioning and it is essential when the cylinder itself is required to retard heavy loads. This can only be done at the end positions of the piston stock. In all intermediate positions a separate externally mounted cushioning device must be provided with the damping feature. The normal escape of air is out off by a cushioning piston before the end of the stock is required. As a result the sit in the cushioning chamber is again compressed since it cannot escape but slowly according to the setting made on reverses. The air freely enters the cylinder and the piston stokes in the other direction at full force and velocity.



Table 3.1 Cylinder Tube Materials: LIGHT DUTY 1. Plastic 2. Hard drawn Aluminium tube 4. Hard drawn Brass tube Brass, Bronze, Iron or Castings, welded steel tube Table 3.2 End Cover Materials: MEDIUM DUTY Hard drawn brass tube Aluminium Castings HEAVY DUTY hard drawn brass tube. Hard drawn steel tube

LIGHT DUTY 1. Aluminium stock (Fabricated) 2. Brass stock (Fabricated) 3. Aluminium Castings

MEDIUM DUTY Aluminium stock (Fabricated) Brass stock (Fabricated) Aluminium, Brass, iron or steel Castings.

HEAVY DUTY Hard tensile Castings

Table 3.3 Piston Materials: LIGHT DUTY 1.Aluminium Castings 2. 3. MEDIUM DUTY Aluminium Castings Brass (Fabricated) Bronze (Fabricated) Iron and Steel Castings HEAVY DUTY Aluminium Forgings, Aluminium Castings. Bronze (Fabricated) Brass, Bronze, Iron or Steel Castings.

Table 3.4 Mount Materials:


LIGHT DUTY 1. Aluminium Castings 2. Light Alloy (Fabricated)

MEDIUM DUTY Aluminium, Brass And Steel Castings

HEAVY DUTY High Tensile Steel Castings High Tensile Steel Fabrication

Table 3.5 Piston Rod Materials:


FINISH Ground and polished hardened, ground and polished. Ground and Polished

REMARKS Generally preferred chrome plated Less scratch resistant than chrome plated piston rod

3.2 VALVES Solenoid Valve: The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic system. Commonly known as DCV, this valve is used to control the direction of air flow in the pneumatic system. The directional valve does this by changing the position of its internal movable parts. This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into automatic machine by means of using a solenoid valve. A solenoid is an electrical device that converts electrical energy into straight line motion and force. These are also used to operate a mechanical operation which in turn operates the valve mechanism. Solenoids may be push type or pull type. The push type solenoid is one in


which the plunger is pushed when the solenoid is energized electrically. The pull type solenoid is one is which the plunger is pulled when the solenoid is energized.


Figure 3.1 5/2 Solenoid Valve


Parts of a Solenoid Valve

1. Coil: The solenoid coil is made of copper wire. The layers of wire are separated by insulating layer. The entire solenoid coil is covered with a varnish that is not affected by solvents, moisture, cutting oil or often fluids. Coils are rated in various voltages such as 115 volts AC, 230 volts AC, 460 volts AC, 575 Volts AC, 6 Volts DC, 12 Volts DC, 24 Volts DC, 115 Volts DC & 230 Volts DC. They are designed for such frequencies as 50 Hz to 60 Hz.

2. Frame: The solenoid frame serves several purposes. Since it is made of laminated sheets, it is magnetized when the current passes through the coil. The magnetized coil attracts the metal plunger to move. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting. They are usually bolted or welded to the frame. The frame has provisions for receivers, the plunger. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid frame, and are made of materials such as metal or impregnated less fiber cloth.

3. Solenoid Plunger: The Solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. The plunger is made of steel laminations which are riveted together under high pressure, so that there will be no movement of the lamination with respect to one another. At the top of the plunger a pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. The solenoid plunger is moved by a magnetic force in one direction and is usually returned by spring action. Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover over either the solenoid or the entire valve. This protects the solenoid from dirt and other foreign matter, and protects the actuator. In many applications it is necessary to use explosion proof solenoids.

Working of Solenoid Valve:


The solenoid valve has 5 openings. This ensures easy exhausting of 5/2 valve. The spool of the 5/2 valve slide inside the main bore according to spool position; the ports get connected and disconnected. The working principle is as follows.

Position-1 When the spool is actuated towards outer direction port P gets connected to B and S remains closed while A gets connected to R

Poisition-2 When the spool is pushed in the inner direction port P and A gets connected to each other and B to S while port R remains closed.

SOLENOID VALVE (OR) CUT OFF VALVE: The control valve is used to control the flow direction is called cut off valve or solenoid valve. This solenoid cut off valve is controlled by the electronic control unit. In our project separate solenoid valve is used for flow direction of vice cylinder. It is used to flow the air from compressor to the single acting cylinder.

3.2.2 Flow control valve: In any fluid power circuit, flow control valve is used to control the speed of the actuator. The flow control can be achieved by varying the area of flow through which the air in passing. When area is increased, more quantity of air will be sent to actuator as a result its speed will increase. If the quantity of air entering into the actuator is reduced, the speed of the actuator is reduced.

3.2.3 Pressure Control Valve: The main function of the pressure control valve is to limit (or) control the pressure required in a pneumatic circuit. Depending upon the method of controlling they are classified as 20

1. Pressure relief Valve 2. Pressure reducing Valve

3.3 DRILLING HEAD : 3.3.1 Barrel : It is made out of mild steel. It is hollow cylinder. It has a length of 100 mm and inner diameter of 36 mm. It has two outlet holes on its top and two inlet holes drilled at angles for placing nozzles. It has threads at each end.

3.3.2. Shaft: Its made up of mild steel. It is a straight rod having a step. It is supported by two bearings in the cylinder. The diameter of rod is 15 mm for a length of 150 mm and 13.5 mm diameter for 22 mm length. The fan is fitted on the shaft through flanges. The fan is fixed to flanges and the flanges are fixed to the shaft through drilled holes.

3.3.3 Couplings: The couplings are made out of mild steel. Couplings cover the slides of barrel. The couplings have internal threads. With help of threads the couplings are fitted to barrel. It has a smaller diameter hole to place the bearings.

3.3.4 Flanges: The flanges are made out of mild steel. Its a cylindrical tube having a flange at its one of the ends. It also has a centre drill of 16 mm. There are holes are drilled in flanges correspondingly such that the holes drilled in the two flanges coincide each other. The fan is placed between the two flanges and screwed.


3.3.5 Vane: The vane 18 made out of aluminum. It is placed the flanges, which are fitted to the shaft through nuts and bolts. Air is forced on the fan and it is rotated and the rotation is transmitted to the shaft. The fan is twisted such that it could be driven in either direction.

3.4 HOSES Hoses used in this pneumatic system are made up of polyurethane. These hose can with stand at a maximum pressure level of 10 N/m. 3.4.1. Connectors: In our system there are two type of connectors used. One is the hose connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally comprise an adoptee hose nipple and cap nut. These types of connectors are made up of brass (or) Aluminum (or) hardened pneumatic steel.

3.5 CONTROL UNIT A pneumatic multipurpose device is an air-operated device used for many small operations. It is a portable one. Compressed air is the source of energy for this device. The compressed air is allowed to pass through the nozzle in such a way that the rotation obtained is utilized for machining. The nozzles welded to the fan can be rotated in either direction. The rpm and torque of the shaft depends upon the pressure of the air admitted so by varying the pressure, the RPM and torque can be varied. Thick tubes interconnect the parts. The Clamps are used at the connecting parts to prevent leakage. In thread parts seals are used to prevent leakage. The compressed air from the compressor first enters the control unit. In the control unit the pressure of the air is controlled and sent to the barrel to rotate the fan in the required direction. The gate valve controls the pressure and volume of air. Then the pressure is read by a pressure gauge. Later the air is admitted to the barrel, a shaft is placed and it carries the fan. The


shaft is supported by bearing. The bearings are placed in the couplings, which covers the end of barrel.

CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT AND DRAWING 4.1 Pneumatic components and its specification The pneumatic auto feed drilling machine consists of the following components: 1. Double acting pneumatic cylinder 2. Solenoid Valve 3. Flow control Valve 4. Connectors 5. Hoses

1. Double acting pneumatic cylinder

Technical Data Stroke length : Piston diameter Piston rod Quantity Seals End cones Piston Media : : Cylinder stoker length 170 mm = 0.17 m : : : : : EN 8 Air 0-80 C : 8 N/m 45 mm 15 mm 1 Nitride (Buna-N) Elastomer Cast iron

Temperature : Pressure Range:

2. Solenoid Valve:


Technical data Size Part size Max pressure range : Quantity : : : 0.635 x 10 m G 0.635 x 10 m 2

0-10 bar

3. Flow control Valve: Technical Data Port size Pressure Media Quantity : : : Air : 1 0.635 x 10! m 0-8 bar

4. Connectors: Technical data Max working pressure Temperature Fluid media Material 5. Hoses: Technical data Max pressure Outer diameter Inner diameter : 10 bar : : 6 mm = 6 x 10 m 3.5 mm = 3.5 x 10 m : : : : 10 bar Air Brass

0-100 C

4.2 General machine Specifications:

Drill unit Short capacity : 0.635 x 10! m


Barrel diameter (ID)

40 mm = 40 x 10 m

Clamping unit Clamping Max Clamping Size : : Auto clamping 100 mm = 0.1m

Pneumatic unit Type of cylinder Type of valve Max air pressure Size of machine (L x H) Weight : : : Double acting cylinder 8 bar : : 0.6096 m x 0.6096 m 45 kg = 441.45 N Flow control valve & solenoid valve

General unit

4.3 DESIGN CALCULATIONS: Max pressure applied in the cylinder (p) Area of cylinder (A) Force exerted in the piston (F) : : 8 bar (3.14 D) / 4 : : 12.56 cm = 12.56 x 10-2 m2 Pressure applied x area of cylinder.


Figure 4.1 Flange1

Figure 4.2 Flange2


Figure 4.3 Vane Cover



Figure 4.4 Bearing1

Figure 4.5 Bearing2


Figure 4.6 Stand


Figure 4.7 Base



Figure 4.8 Vane

Figure 4.9 Barrel


Figure 4.10 Pneumatic Cylinder



Figure 4.11 Solenoid Valve

Figure 4.12 Pneumatic Double Acting Cylinder


Figure 4.13 Hose Collar




Figure 4.14 Pneumatic Auto Feed Drilling Machine




Method of Fabrication: The stand (or) base carries the whole machine. The rod is vertically fixed on the stand by means of welding. One cylinder is mounted on the rod by using clamp and the other cylinder is fixed in stand (or) base by means of bolt and nuts. The lugs are connected with the piston rod of pneumatic cylinder. The hose is connected from solenoid valve to each cylinder. Before that the air goes through drill head through tubes. Barrel unit is fixed to the rod. The tubes are also connected by the nozzle head. The clamping unit is also fixed in the stand by means of welding. Finally the unit is connected to the compressor.



The compressed air from the compressor is used as the force medium for this operation. One Single acting and double acting cylinder is used in this machine .The air from the compressor enters into the flow control Valve. Air enters in to the barrel unit through one way and the other way of air enters to the solenoid valve. When air enters to the cylinder 1, due to pressure difference work blank is


clamped and when air enters to the other cylinder due to pressure difference drilling operation takes place as the drilling head comes down and drills the work piece. After this operation the cylinder releases the clamping and drilling head comes to its original position.


MERITS It reduces the manual work. Quick in operation Accuracy is more Low cost machine Its used multipurpose device like Grinding, screw driving.



Used in automobile workshops for drilling carburetor holes Used in small scale industries In welding shop for grinding For performing the operations in huge numbers which cannot be done in ordinary machines. Since its portable. In such places where frequent change in operation is required.



FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below. 1. Properties: The material selected must posses the necessary properties for the proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc. The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection a. Physical b. Mechanical c. From manufacturing point of view d. Chemical The various physical properties concerned are melting point, Thermal Conductivity, Specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical Conductivity, Magnetic purposes etc. The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile, compressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, elastic limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties. The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are.


2. Manufacturing Case:

Cast ability, weld ability, Brazability, Forge ability, merchantability, surface properties, shrinkage, Deep drawing etc.

Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of special materials.

3. Quality Required: This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material. be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel. For

example, it would never be desirable to go for casting of a less number of components which can

4. Availability of Material: Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. The delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be kept in mind.

5. Space Consideration: 43

Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved are high and the space limitations are there.

6. Cost: As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays an important part and should not be ignored. Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and non-maintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials.

Table 9.1 List of Materials

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Solenoid Valve Flow control Valve Drill head Control unit Pneumatic driller PU Tubes Hose Collar Reducer Frame stand Fixed Plate Moving Plate Column Support

Description Double acting pneumatic cylinder

Qty 1 2 1 1 1 1 5 meter 8 8 1 1 1 1

Material Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium C.I Electronic M.S Polyurethene Brass Brass M.S M.S M.S M.S




1. MATERIALS COST: Table 10.1 Cost Estimation S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Description Double acting pneumatic cylinder Solenoid Valve Flow control Valve Drill head Control unit Pneumatic driller PU Tubes Hose Collar Reducer Frame stand Fixed Plate Moving Plate Column Support Qty 1 2 1 1 1 1 5 meter 8 8 1 1 1 1 Material Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium C.I Electronic M.S Polyurethene Brass Brass M.S M.S M.S M.S AMOUNT(RS) 2440 2600+1400 950 1960 1500 2090 500 80 95 1500 75 80 150




The overhead charges are arrived by Manufacturing cost Manufacturing Cost = Material Cost + Labour cost = = 14070 + 1250 Rs.15320/-

TOTAL COST Total cost = = Material Cost + Labour cost Rs.15320/= Rs.15320/-

Total cost for this project


CONCLUSION The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the field of small scale industries and automobile maintenance shops. It is very usefully for the workers to carry out a number of operations in a single machine. This project has also reduced the cost involved in the concern. Project has been designed to perform the entire requirement task which has also been provided.



1. Design data book 2. Pneumatic hand book 3. Machine tool design hand book

- P.S.G. Tech. - R.H.Warrning - Central machine tool Institute, Bangalore.

4. Strength of materials 5. Manufacturing Technology 6. Machine Design

- R.S.Khurmi - M.Haslehurst. - R.S.Khurmi