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.. , .. , ..

-
, 230101
, ,

2005

681.3
32.973.7
.., .., .. : . 1- . : , 2005. 116 .
ACCEL EDA v. 14.
,
.
.

- .
220100 , ,
, .

: ,
. .. .. ; -
.. .

ISBN 5-7995-0322-8


, 2005

......................................................................................................... 5
........................................................................... 6
1. ............................................................. 6
2. .......................................... 8
3. 15
4. .............................................. 17
5. ............................ 21
............................................................................ 26
1. .................................. 26
1.1. 1553...................................... 26
1.1.1. , ACCEL
Schematic
................................................................... 26
1.1.2. , ACCEL
Symbol Editor ................................................................................................ 34
1.2.
ACCEL PATTERN EDITOR. ........................ 36
1.2.1. .................. 36
1.2.2. Pattern Wizard................................................................. 37
1.2.3.
. ................................................................................................. 39
1.3. ............................................................................ 39
2. ... 42
2.1. ACCEL
SCHEMATIC........................................................................................................ 42
2.1.1. ............................................. 42
2.1.2. . ........................................................ 45
2.1.3. .......................................... 47
2.1.4. ........................................................... 49
2.1.5. . ...................................................................... 49

3. .................................................... 50
3.1. ........................................... 50
3.1.1.
................................................................................................... 50
3.1.2. ACCEL EDA PCB ............................................. 51
3.2. ACCEL EDA PCB .................................. 52
3.3. ..................................................................... 52
3.3.1. . .... 52
3.3.2. .............................................................. 54
3.3.3. ........................................................ 55
3.3.4. ....................................................................... 57
3.3.5. ....................................... 59
3.3.6. ........................................................ 60
3.4. ....................................................................... 63
3.4.1. . .................................... 63
3.4.2. . .......................................................... 63
4. .......................................................................................... 66
1. ........................... 66
2. .............................. 68
3. ..................................................... 72
1 ...................................................................... 73
2 ...................................................................... 88
3 ...................................................................... 96
4 .................................................................... 109
...................................................... 115


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21

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1.1. 1553
1.1.1. ,
ACCEL Schematic

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. \\
ACCEL\Schematic.
ACCEL
Symbol Editor, . 1.1.2.

1.1.1.1.
Options\Configure. Options Configure (. 1.1)
4 ( Workspase Size 4),
( Units mm).
. .
Options\Grids.
Options Grids (. 1.2)
5 ( Grid Spacing 5

27

Add). .
.

Snap to Grid View (
), .

. 1.1.

. 1.2.

28

1.1.1.2.
Options\Current
Line.
Options Current Line :
Width () Thin ( ), Style Solid ( ). (. 1.3)
. 1.3.

Place Line (
).

, .
(. 1.4).
.

.1.4.

29

1.1.1.3.
Place\Pin ( ). .

Place Pin ( Length User,
5), ( Display Pin Des Pin Name). Display
Characteristics Outside Edge Dot
( ), None (. 1.5). .
( ). .
Place Pin (
Outside Edge None).
, ,
, F .
.
Utils\Renumber.
Utils Renumber ( Type Pin Num).
(Starting Number) (Increment Value)
(. 1.6). .
. (. 1.7).

. 1.5. .

30

. 1.6.

. 1.7.

1.1.1.4.
Place\Text (
). .
Place Text &,

(Justification),

31

PartStyle (. 1.8). . .

. 1.8.

1.1.1.5.
Plase\Ref
Point (
).
( ).
1.1.1.6.
( )
Plase\Attribute ( ). .
Plase Attribute
(Attribute Category)
(Component). (Name) (RefDes). -

32

Text Style PartStyle. (Justification): , (. 1.9). .

. 1.9.

. , .

(Name) (Type).
(Visible). . . 1.10.

. 1.10.

33

1.1.1.7.
test.lib. Library
New
: test.lib. .
Library Setup Add. test.lib (. 1.11). . test.lib
( ) .

. 1.11.

Edit\Select ( )

. Library\Symbol Save As test.lib. Display
RefDes Type, Value . (Create Component).
Symbol NAND (not and
) (. 1.12). test.lib.

34

. 1.12.

1.1.2. ,
ACCEL Symbol Editor
,
, .
\\ ACCEL\Schematic, Utils\ACCEL
Symbol Editor.

1.1.2.1.
Options Configure.
OptionsConfigure 4 ( Workspase Size 4),
( Units mm).
. .
Options Grids. Options Grids 5 ( Grid Spacing
5 Add). . .

Snap to Grid View (
).
1.1.2.2. Symbol Wizard
Symbol Wizard ,

.
. ,
. . , ,

35

.
, (. 1.13).
1553 :
Symbol Width ( ) (10
);
Pin Spacing ( )
(5 );
Number Pins Left ( )
( 2);
Number Pins Right ( )
( 1);
Lenght ( ) User,
5 ;
Display () Pin Des ( ).
(. 1.13).
Finish.
, .

. 1.13. Symbol Wizard

36

1.1.2.3.
,
. ,
, (
), .
, Properties, , .
, . : Pin Properties (
, . ) Outside Edge Dot. .
Type .
(Attribute Properties)
Visible.
1.1.2.4.
Place\Text ( ). .

Place Text &,
,
(Justification), PartStyle. .
.
1.1.2.5.
Library\New.



. Symbol
, Create Component .
.
1.2.
ACCEL Pattern Editor

\\
ACCEL\Schematic, Utils\ACCEL Pattern Editor.
1.2.1.

Options Configure.
OptionsConfigure

37

( Units mm). Workspase Size


(Width Height) , , . . .
Options Grids. Options Grids 1 ( Grid Spacing 1
Add). .
.

Snap to Grid View (
).
1.2.2. Pattern Wizard

Pattern Wizard ,
.
. , . . , , .
,
(. 1.14).
1553
:
Pattern Type ( ) DIP;
Number Of Pads Down ( )
14;
Number Pad to Pad Spacing (On Center) (
) 2,5 ;
Pattern Width ( ) 8 ;
Pad 1 Position () 1;
Silk Line Width () 0,25 ;
Silk Rectangle Width () 6 ;
Silk Rectangle Height () 18;
Notch Type ( ) Arc.
.
Finish.
, .

38

. 1.14. Pattern Wizard

39

1.2.3.

Library\New.



. Pattern
, Create Component . .
1.3.

(. 1.1, 1.2)
.
.
. , , .
155
.
(Library Ex1.
ecutive).
Component New (
2.
).

3.
( test.lib).
Component Information, :
Select Pattern (Pattern)
: DIP14 ;
Component Type ( ) Normal;
Gate Numbering ( ) Numeric;
Number of Gates ( ) 4, .. 1553 4- 2-;
Refdes Prefix ( ) DD
(. 1.15).

40

. 1.15.

4.
Symbol View,
Select Symbol. LA3, .
Pins View. 5.
. ( ). :

PinDes ;

Gate# ;
SymPin# ( );
PinName ;
GateEq PinEq : 0 ( )
.
.
.
ElecType ( ).
Power, ,
Gate# (GND VCC).
:

41

, ( ) ,
;
, Windows
( Shift ), (Ctrl+C) (Ctrl+V);
( ) , ( Shft ) (Ctrl + ) (Ctrl + ).
. 1.16
1553. . Power ,
. (
).
6.
.
Component Validate.
Component Save 7.
K155LA3.

. 1.16.

42

2.
.
, , .
2.1. ACCEL Schematic


.
ACCEL EDA ACCEL
Schematic, . 2.1.

. 2.1. ACCEL Schematic

: ,
, , , Microsoft Word.
2.1.1.
,
Configure Options (

43

Options\Configure). (. 2.2) :
Workspace Size ( ) A4;
Units ( ) mm.
.
,
Options\Display (. 2.3),
: , , , .
, , , . , ,
. .

. 2.2.

44

. 2.3.

(Grid), . 1 .
Options\Grids, Grids Spacing 1.00 Add
(. 2.4). Grids .
,
.

45

. 2.4.

2.1.2.

. ,
. 2.5.

. 2.5.

3 25 ,

46

. Library\Setup (. 2.6).

dd
*.lib,

(Open Libraries).

.
,
. 2.6.

(. 2.7). Browse,
(. 2.7).

. 2.7. (, )

155LN1
, .
,
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, K1551

4--.
,


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47

. .
,
Del Delete , .

- . ,
View/Zoom In View/Zoom Out .

(. 2.8).

. 2.8.

,
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2.1.3.
.

. ,
(
), . , , . .
,
, , . ,
. :
, Del De-

48

lete . (
R). , ,
,
Properties ,
. (. 2.9) Value .

. 2.9.

(. 2.10).

. 2.10.

, .

49

2.1.4.

ACCEL PCB. .

(netlist),
.
Utils/Generate Netlist (. 2.11).

. 2.11.

, Netlist Filename,
, . Tango.
2.1.5.

:
1.
ACCEL Schematic ( ,
,
ACCEL)
File/Print. (. 2.12)
.
Scale to Fit
Page,

.
. 2.12.

50

2. Corel Draw, Paint Shop Pro . c


File/DXF Out DXF
(. 2.13).

. 2.13. DXF

Sheets ( Sheet1).
.

3.
3.1.
3.1.1.

, , , - :
1553 4 2-, 44 , 14 . DIP-14 (. 3.1). ( ) , , ( P-CAD Pad),

51

,
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

14
13
12
11
10
9
8

. 3.1. DIP-14

3.1.2. ACCEL EDA PCB


ACCEL EDA PCB
, ,
. ACCEL PCB
11 , .

3.1.2.1.
:
1. Signal layer , .
2. Plane layer , ,
. .
3. Non-Signal layer , , ,
( , .)

:
1. Top Silk ( ) ( ) .
2. Top .
3. Bottom .
, . 4

52

: , , Plane.
3.2. ACCEL EDA PCB

ACCEL PCB (. 3.2) , .


( )
(netlist), ACCEL Schematic.
, , ,
. ACCEL
SPECTRA. SPECTRA, , . , , .

. 3.2. ACCEL EDA PCB

3.3.
3.3.1. .


, : . Options Configure
Options\Configure (. 3.3).

53

. 3.3. Options Configure

Units () mm, Workspace Size ( 254254


, ).
(. )
. , , ACCEL EDA PCB , .
Library\Setup
(. 3.4).

54


.
,

Add.
3.3.2.



. 3.4. Library Setup
.

(netlist) .
Utils\Load Netlist (. 3.5).

. 3.5. Utils Load Netlist

, Netlist Filename, , , , ,
. (Optimize Nets) ,
.
, (. 3.6).

55

. 3.6.

, , .
3.3.3.
,
(
Place\Autoplacement) , .
, : , , , (. 3.7).
, ,
.
( ).
( , Ctrl Windows).
( ),
Properties Fixed.

56

. 3.7.

(. 3.8): , .
( 1-3, )
. . , .

57

. 3.8.

3.3.4.
,
. , , (
PC , ,
ISA).
, (),
.
Board.

Board. , .
Options\Layers, (. 3.9).

58

. 3.9.

Place\Line ( ) .
(. 3.10), .
, Board.

. 3.10.
( , - Top)

59

3.3.5. 1
Board.
. .

Place\Autoplacement.
(. 3.11).

. 3.11. Place Autoplacement

SPECTRA DO File,
. ,
. .
DO Wizard.
1

Cadence SPECTRA.

60

(. 3.12) Auto Create DO File.


, . SPECTRA DO File Wizard .


( Auto Create DO File)

. 3.12.

(. 3.13)
Start ( Place Autoplacement, . . 3.11).

. 3.13.

3.3.6.
ACCEL EDA . Quick
Route ;

61

ProRoute .

Route\Autorouters (. 3.14). , (
).

. 3.14.

(. 3.15) Start.

(Output PCB File, Output Log File),
.

62

. 3.15. ()

63

. 3.15. ()

3.4.
3.4.1. .
. ( ,
, ACCEL EDA). .
, ..
, , / ..
3.4.2. .
-
(, BMP),
.
ACCEL EDA PCB *.dfx ( AutoCAD 9.0),
, CorelDraw, Paint Shop Pro
*.dfx.
*.dfx
File\DXF Out.
Output Drill Holes .

64

:
1. Top Silk .
2. Top .
3. Bottom .
(. 3.16),
. : ;
-, , . .

TopSilk
. 3.16. ()

65

Top

Bottom
. 3.16. ()

66

1.
1551

2
DIP-14

1553

4
DIP-14

1554

3
DIP-14

1551

4
DIP-14

67

1551

2
DIP-14

1551

6
DIP-14

1555

4
DIP-14

Power, .
. .

68

2.
1551
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2

Pin
Name
A
B

Gate
Eq
1
1

Pin Eq Elec
Type
1
Input
1
Input

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
1
1
PWR
2
2
2

C
D
Y
GND
Y
A
B

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

12
13
14

2
2
PWR

C
D
VCC

1
1

1
1

3
4
5
5
1
2
3
4

Input
Input
Output
Power
Output
Input
Input
Input
Input
Power

1553
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
4
2
1
5
2
2
6
2
3
7
PWR
8
3
3
9
3
1
10
3
2
11
4
3
12
4
1
13
4
2
14
PWR

Pin
Name
A
B
Y
A
B
Y
GND
Y
A
B
Y
A
B
VCC

Gate
Eq
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

Pin Eq Elec
Type
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
Power
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Power

69

1554
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
4
2
2
5
2
3
6
2
4
7
PWR
8
3
4
9
3
1
10
3
2
11
3
3
12
1
4
13
1
3
14
PWR

Pin
Name
A
B
A
B
C
Y
GND
Y
A
B
C
Y
C
VCC

Gate
Eq
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

Pin Eq Elec
Type
1
Input
1
Input
1
Input
1
Input
1
Input
Output
Power
Output
1
Input
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
Power

1551
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
4
2
1
5
2
2
6
2
3
7
PWR
8
3
3
9
3
1
10
3
2
11
4
3
12
4
1
13
4
2
14
PWR

Pin
Name
A
B
Y
A
B
Y
GND
Y
A
B
Y
A
B
VCC

Gate
Eq
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

Pin Eq Elec
Type
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
Power
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Power

70

1551
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
4
2
1
5
2
2
6
2
3
7
PWR
8
3
3
9
3
1
10
3
2
11
4
3
12
4
1
13
4
2
14
PWR

Pin
Name

Gate
Eq
1
1
1
1
1
1

GND
1
1
1
1
1
1
VCC

Pin Eq Elec
Type
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
Power
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Power

1551
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
4
2
2
5
3
1
6
3
2
7
PWR
8
4
2
9
4
1
10
5
2
11
5
1
12
6
2
13
6
1
14
PWR

Pin
Name
A
Y
A
Y
A
Y
GND
Y
A
Y
A
Y
A
VCC

Gate
Eq
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

Pin Eq Elec
Type
Input
Output
Input
Output
Input
Output
Power
Output
Input
Output
Input
Output
Input
Power

71

1555
PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
1
4
2
3
5
2
2
6
2
1
7
PWR
8
3
1
9
3
3
10
3
2
11
4
1
12
4
3
13
4
2
14
PWR

Pin
Name
A
B
Y
A
B
Y
GND
Y
A
B
Y
A
B
VCC

Gate
Eq
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

Pin Eq Elec
Type
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
Power
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Output
1
Input
1
Input
Power


PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1

Pin
Name
GND

Gate
Eq

Pin Eq Elec
Type
Power


PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1

Pin
Name
0

Gate
Eq

Pin Eq Elec
Type
Passive


PinDes Gate # Sym Pin
#
1
1
1
2
1
2

Pin
Name

Gate
Eq

Pin Eq Elec
Type
Passive
Passive

72

3.
. DIP-14

73

1
ACCEL EDA v.14

ACCEL EDA v.14. , \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var1.sch.

74

ACCEL PCB


1. ACCEL PCB,
DD1-DD5 .
(
DIP ) :
( ) ,
,

( ).
2. (ACCEL
PCB) ?
3.
Quick Route ?

ACCEL EDA v.14. , \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var2.sch.

75

ACCEL PCB

76


1.
(pad) (via) ACCEL PCB?
2.
?
3.
ACCEL EDA ? ?

ACCEL EDA v.14. , \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var3.sch.

77

ACCEL PCB


1. (ACCEL
PCB) ?
2. DD1:3?
,
?
3.
(pad) (via) ACCEL PCB?

ACCEL EDA v.14. , \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var4.sch.

78

ACCEL PCB


1.
( ), C1-C6?

79

2.
?
3. DD1:3? , ?
5

ACCEL EDA v.14. , \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var5.sch.


80

ACCEL PCB

1. (ACCEL
PCB) ?
2.
Quick Route ?
3. (
PCAD)?
ACCEL EDA?

ACCEL EDA v.14. , \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var6.sch.

81

ACCEL PCB

1.
ACCEL EDA ? ?
2.
?

82

3.
Quick Route ?

ACCEL EDA v.14.


, \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var7.sch.

83

ACCEL PCB


1. ACCEL PCB,
DD1-DD5 .
(
DIP ) : ( ) , , ( ).
2. DD1:3? , ?
3. ( m i )
.

ACCEL EDA v.14.


, \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var8.sch.

84

ACCEL PCB


1. (
PCAD)?
ACCEL EDA?
2.
(pad) (via) ACCEL PCB?

85

3. (ACCEL
PCB) ?

ACCEL EDA v.14.


, \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var9.sch.

86

ACCEL PCB


1. ( m i )
.
2.
?
3.
Quick Route ?

10

ACCEL EDA v.14.


, \PCAD\Variants\Lab1_Var10.sch.

87

ACCEL PCB


1. (
PCAD)?
ACCEL EDA?
2.
Quick Route ?

88

3. DD1:3?
, ?

2
ACCEL EDA v.14

, ()
2.
SN7460N


1. ) ACCEL Library Executive; , ) ,
ACCEL Schematic. , , .

2. ? ACCEL Library Executive ?


3. (.
.)
?
1

, ( ).

89

, ()
.
SN74ALS279N


1.
?
2. ACCEL EDA ACCEL Schematic ACCEL Pattern Editor? ?
3. (),
Library Executive,
?

90

, ()
.
SN74ALS107N


1. ( ACCEL
Schematic) () ?
2.
:

3.
ACCEL Schematic? ?
4

, ()
.

91

MC74F153W


1. , ,
?
2. ) ACCEL Library Executive; , ) ,
ACCEL Schematic. , , .

3. ? ACCEL Library Executive ?

, ()
.

92

15543


1.
?

2.
?
3. ACCEL EDA ACCEL Schematic ACCEL Pattern Editor? ?

, ()
.
153319

93


1. ACCEL EDA ACCEL Schematic ACCEL Pattern Editor? ?
2. (),
Library Executive,
?

3. ( ACCEL
Schematic) () ?

, ()
.
15319


1.
.

94

2.
ACCEL Schematic? ?
3. , ,
?

, ()
.
1553


1.
?

2.
?
3.
ACCEL Schematic? ?

, ()
.

95

1332


1. , ,
?
2. ACCEL EDA ACCEL Schematic ACCEL Pattern Editor? ?
3. (),
Library Executive,
?

10

, ()
.
CDB413E

96


1. ? ACCEL Library Executive ?
2. (),
Library Executive,
?

3.
ACCEL Schematic? ?

3

ACCEL EDA v.14

ACCEL Schematic
, Slib.lib. .

97

98


1.
(SLIB.LIB) ?

2. ?

3. ?

ACCEL Schematic
, Slib.lib. .

99

100

1. ,
?

2. a b?

b
3. ?

ACCEL Schematic
, Slib.lib. .

101

102

1. a b?

2. , ?

3. ?

ACCEL Schematic
, Slib.lib. .

103

104


1. ?

2. ?
?

3. ?

ACCEL Schematic
, Slib.lib. .

105

106


1.
(Slib.lib) ?

2. , ?

3. ?

ACCEL Schematic
, Slib.lib. .

107

108

1. a b?

2. ?

3. a b?

109

4
ACCEL PCB

, , Lab4_Var1.net.
(fixed) :
( STRELKA);
(LED).
( - , Report Statistic):
1. "Components:27" (27 ).
2. "Pads:"149" (149 ).
3. "Vias:"4" (4 ).
4. "Nets:"41" (41 ), (
).

( ) Top, Bottom
Top Silk.

1. :
Daisy Chain (),

, (T-routing);
Mid-driven daisy chain topology ,
(Source), ,
, (Terminator) ;
Starburst ,
( SPECTRA ..).

?
2. ACCEL Schematic?
3. Capacitor SPECTRA () (decoupling
capacitor). SPECTRA
. ?

110

, , Lab4_Var2.net.
(fixed) :
( STRELKA);
(LED).
( - , Report Statistic):
1. "Components:20" (20 ).
2. "Pads:"141" (141 ).
3. "Vias:"6" (6 ).
4. "Nets:"44" (44 ), (
).

( ) Top, Bottom
Top Silk.

1. ACCEL
PCB SPECTRA?
2. ? SPECTRA ( , ..)?
3. FST :
, ;
;
;
;
.
?

, , Lab4_Var3.net.

111

(fixed) :
( STRELKA);
(TC23-11SRWA).
( - , Report Statistic):
1. "Components:17" (17 ).
2. "Pads:"145" (145 ).
3. "Vias:"15" (15 ).
4. "Nets:"44" (44 ), (
).

( ) Top, Bottom
Top Silk.

1. Capacitor SPECTRA () (decoupling
capacitor). SPECTRA
. ?
2. ACCEL Schematic?
3. (Shape-Based) , SPECTRA? ?

, , Lab4_Var4.net.
(fixed) :
( STRELKA);
(BUTTON).
( - , Report Statistic):
1. "Components:52" (52 ).
2. "Pads:"181" (181 ).
3. "Vias:"12" (12 ).

112

4. "Nets:"55" (55 ), ( ).

( ) Top, Bottom
Top Silk.

1. (Shape-Based) , SPECTRA? ?
2. , ,
, ?
3.
, ?

, , Lab4_Var5.net.
(fixed) :
( STRELKA).
( - , Report Statistic):
1. "Components:20" (20 ).
2. "Pads:"122" (122 ).
3. "Vias:"15" (15 ).
4. "Nets:"39" (39 ), ( ).

( ) Top, Bottom
Top Silk.

1. ? SPECTRA ( , ..)?
2. FST :
, ;

113

;
;
;
.
?
3. :
Daisy -Chain (),

, - (T-routing);
Mid-driven daisy chain topology ,
(Source), ,
, (Terminator) ;
Starburst ,
( SPECTRA ..).

?

, , Lab4_Var6.net.
(fixed) :
( STRELKA);
(LED).
( - , Report Statistic):
1. "Components:27" (27 ).
2. "Pads:"149" (149 ).
3. "Vias:"4" (4 ).
4. "Nets:"41" (41 ), (
).

( ) Top, Bottom
Top Silk.

1. FST :
, ;

114

;
;
;
.
-

?
2. (Copper Pour) (.
.)?

3. Capacitor SPECTRA () (decoupling


capacitor). SPECTRA
. ?

115


1. .., .. .
.: , 1989.
2. .. ACCEL EDA
. .: -, 2000.
3. ..
. .: , 2001.
4. .. - . .: , 2001.
5. / .. , .. . .:
, 1983.
6. .. P-CAD 2000.
.: -, 2000.
7. .. .
.: , 1996.

116

..
..
..
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. . . 7,25
. . . 6,74
. . . 6,3
150 .
199
70 . 00 .
________________________________________________________________

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