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Geography and Early India

The Big Idea Indian civilization first developed on the Indus River. Main Ideas The geography of India includes high mountains, great rivers, and heavy seasonal rain.

Harappan civilization developed along the Indus River.


The Aryan invasion of India changed the regions civilization.

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Indian Geography
Mountains North: The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. West: The Hindu Kush provide protection from enemies. Plains and Plateaus Water Monsoons Heavy rainfall Civilizations arose around seasonal rainfall.

Rivers and melting snow kept the plains fertile.


Both sides of the river thrived.

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Harappan Civilization
People Population grew in the Indus River Valley. Growth came as irrigation and farming techniques improved. Cities were built as surplus food was produced. Cities Harrapa Mohenjo Daro Fortresses for defense against enemies Well-planned public areas Achievements Wells and indoor plumbing Pottery, cotton clothing, jewelry Indias first writing system

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Aryan Invasion
Invaders from the West When the Harappan civilization dissipated in 1700 BC, Central Asians called Aryans began taking over territory. The Aryans left behind vast collections of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals. They also had religious writings known as Vedas. No central government: small communities ruled by rajas Sanskrit is the root of many modern South Asian languages.

Religion

Government

Language

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Summary
Harappan Civilization
Two major cities: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro
Advanced civilization that thrived between 2300 and 1700 BC Culture, artistry, city planning

Aryan Invasion
South Asian warriors pushed through the Hindu Kush mountains and settled in the Indus Valley

Oral tradition in religion and mythology resulted in the most important language of ancient India: Sanskrit.

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Chapter 5

Geography and Early India


Harappan Civilization
2300 BC to 1200 BC Harappan Civilization formed in the Indus River Valley and the Sarasvati River southeast of the Indus River An irrigation system was used for watering crops Two large cities were formed 300 miles apart, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (the mound of the dead) Architecture was well planned Towering fortresses (citadels) Brick streets crossed at right angles Flat roofs Store houses, workshops, market stalls and houses Public wells Indoor plumbing Weights to measure goods Artisans: pottery, jewelry, ivory, cotton clothing First writing system in India Clay seals to stamp goods

Geography of Indian Subcontinent


India is a very large and separated from the continent of Asia by mountains Subcontinent =smaller than a continent Ganges delta in east Triangular shaped Bay of Bengal to the east Indian Ocean to the south Among the northern mountains of which the Himalayas are the largest in the world The Great Indian Desert is west of the Himalayas Most of India is covered by fertile plains and rugged plateaus Major rivers flow from the Himalayas The Indus and Ganges, provide fertile farmland with water Seasonal floods and Monsoons provide silt to farmland Hot and humid climate Arabian Sea to the west

Aryan Civilization
2000 BC People came from Caspian Sea in Central Asia People may have came through the Khyber Pass in Northwest Indias Himalayas Vedas-collection of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals written by Aryan Priest They did not build homes They formed small communities based on family ties No single ruling authority Group leaders were usually skilled warriors A Raja was the leader of the village or group Rajas often fought each other They had farmland and pastures They raised cows, horses, sheep and goats Sanskrit was the Aryan Language Sanskrit Language is the root of many Southeast Asian Languages Sanskrit is an Indo-European Language formed around 10,000 to 6000 years ago

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Origins of Hinduism
The Big Idea Hinduism, the largest religion in India today, developed out of ancient Indian beliefs and practices. Main Ideas Indian society divided into distinct groups under the Aryans. The Aryans practiced a religion known as Brahmanism. Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures.

The Jains reacted to Hinduism by breaking away to form their own religion.

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Indian Society Divides


Varnas Brahmins Kshatriyas Social divisions in Aryan society Priests Rulers and warriors

Vaisyas
Sudras

Farmers, craftspeople, and traders


Laborers and non-Aryans

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Caste System
Individuals Place in society based on birth, wealth, or occupation 3,000 castes once existed in India. Individuals could rarely change castes. Caste Rules

Sutras (guides) listed all the rules for the caste system.
Breaking rules resulted in a transfer to a lower class.

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Brahmanism develops into Hinduism


Brahmanism
Aryan priests were called Brahmins. Wrote Vedic texts, which were their thoughts about the Vedas

Evolving Beliefs
The Vedas, Upanishads, and other Vedic texts began blending with beliefs from different cultures, creating Hinduism.

Hinduism
Many gods Reincarnation: could be reborn into new forms and castes

Men and women could both gain salvation, but women were inferior.

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Jains React to Hinduism


Origins of Jainism
599 BC, established as an alternative to Hindu ritualism Based on the teachings of Mahavira, who abandoned his life of luxury to become a monk

Four Principles of Jainism


Injure no life. Tell the truth. Do not steal. Own no property.

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Origins of Buddhism
The Big Idea Buddhism began in India and became a major religion. Main Ideas Siddhartha Gautama searched for wisdom in many ways. The teachings of Buddhism deal with finding peace. Buddhism spread far from where it began in India.

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Siddhartha
Quest for Answers Siddhartha was born a prince, but he questioned the meaning of life. Determined to find answers using: Meditation Fasting Learning from different teachers Enlightenment Found it under the Tree of Wisdom while meditating Called the Buddha (Enlightened One)

Spent the rest of his life traveling and teaching his ideas

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Teachings of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
1.

Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human life. No one can escape sorrow.
Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure and material goods. People can overcome desire and ignorance and reach nirvana, a state of perfect peace.

2.

3.

People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an 4. eightfold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, and salvation.

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Chapter 5
Religion Brahmanism Polytheism Priest were called Brahmins

Origins of Hinduism
Origins Based on the Rigveda, oldest of the Vedas, written before 1000 BC Based also on a final group of Vedas text are Upanishads from 600 BC Developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures Vedas Upanishads Ideas from Persia and other Central Asian Kingdoms Teachings Priest believed fire would carry a sacrifice to the gods Gods Brahma

Hinduism Hinduism believes in many gods, but they believe that all the gods are aspects of a single universal spirit called Brahman. Three aspects of Brahman are particularly important in Hinduism; Brahman, Siva, and Vishnu Polytheism

A universal spirit named Brahman created the universe and everything in it. Everything in the world is just part of Brahman. Every person has a soul or Atman that will eventually join with Brahman. Peoples souls are reincarnated many times before they can join Brahman. A persons karma affects how he or she will be reincarnated Salvation is called moksha Dharma is a set of spiritual duties Karma is the effects that good and bad actions have on a persons soul

Brahma Siva Vishnu

Jainism/Jains (Atheist)
Sikhism/Sikhs (Monotheistic)

Mahavira 559 BC
Guru Nanak 1400 AD Blend of Hinduism, Islam and other religions

Ahimsa practice of nonviolence

Every soul is the architect of their own life


Gurus

Reunite with god after death Wear 5 items; long hair, small comb, steel bracelet, a sword, and a special

undergarment

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Challenging Hindu Ideas


Ancient Ways The Buddha taught that following the Vedic texts was unnecessary. Challenged the authority of Hindu priests Changing Society A more individualistic approach to enlightenment Caste System Opposed caste system The Eightfold Path could lead any individual to nirvana. The Buddhas teachings reached all classes.

Rebirth as a means to evolve

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Buddhism began in India and then became a major religion.


Buddhism branches out
Asoka, one of the most powerful kings in India, became a Buddhist and spread Buddhism in India and foreign lands. Buddhist missionaries traveled the world to teach enlightenment.

Buddhism splits
Buddhism split into two main sects: Theravada and Mahayana. Members of the Theravada followed the Buddhas teachings exactly. Members of the Mahayana believed that individual interpretation was important.

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Chapter 5

Origins of Buddhism
Spread in India After Buddhas death around 483 BC, 500 followers gathered together. They wanted to make sure Buddhas teachings were remembered Buddhas followers spread his teachings throughout India Within 200 years of Buddhas death, his teachings had spread through most of India Largest Buddhist population was around the city of Bodh Gava in Northeast India near the Ganges River Delta Basic Ideas Basic ideas came from the Vedas Rituals were necessary for enlightenment Fasting Meditation Reincarnation Nivarna state of perfect peace Opposed Caste System (The Varnas) Buddhism made people feel they had the power to change their lives The Noble Truths page 138 The Eightfold Path page 139

Spread Beyond India Powerful kings in India, Asoka became Buddhist in 200 BC and began to work on spreading Buddhism to areas outside India Buddhist missionaries spread the religion to other kingdoms in Asia Eventually Buddhism spread via the Silk Road into China, Korea, and Japan South east Asia near Himalayas Other Areas: Sir Lanka, Myanmar, Persia, Syria, and Egypt

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Indian Empires
The Big Idea The Mauryas and the Guptas built great empires in India. Main Ideas The Mauryan Empire unified most of India. Gupta rulers promoted Hinduism in their empire.

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Mauryan Rule
Candragupta Maurya Candragupta seized control of northern India and created a society dominated by war. Candragupta became a Jainist monk and gave up his throne. Asoka The grandson of Candragupt extended Mauryan rule over most of India. Asoka converted to Buddhism and stopped waging war, choosing instead to rebuild cities and spread Buddhist teachings.

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Gupta Empire
After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, India remained primarily Buddhist for 500 years.

Under the rule of Candra Gupta I, India became unified and prosperous again.

Gupta rulers spread Hinduism in their empire through the building of temples and the promotion of Hindu writings and rituals.
Widespread religious tolerance was encouraged for Buddhists and Jainists.

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Candra Gupta II
Growth Under Candra Gupta II, the Gupta Empire reached the height of its power. It spread across northern India and prospered. The economy boomed, allowing citizens the time and money to create great works of art and literature.

Economy and Culture The Caste System Social Ramifications

It was believed that keeping citizens under strict caste rule would stabilize the empire.
Women in the caste system were not seen as equals and had few basic rights.

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Time Line
320 BC Candragupta Maurya becomes the first Mauryan emperor. 301 BC Candragupta Maurya relinquishes the throne to become a Jainist monk. 270 BC Asoka becomes the second Mauryan emperor. 261 BC Asokas empire gains great power, and he leaves to become a Buddhist. AD 375 Candra Gupta I invades and conquers northern India and brings Hinduism, prosperity, and a strict caste system back into popular culture.

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Chapter 5
Empire
Mauryan

Indian Empires
Ruler
1. Candragupta 2. Asoka

Achievement Founded the Mauryan Empire Ruled through a network of spies and an army of more than 600,000 soldiers Expanded the empire across most of India Converted to Buddhism and abandoned war Had wells dug and roads built throughout the empire Helped spread Buddhism

Gupta

1. Candra I 2. Samudra 3. Candra II

Founded the Gupta Empire and conquered much of Northern India Expanded the empire to the Ganges River Valley through wars of conquest Expanded the Gupta Empire throughout much of India Helped the empire prosper economically Oversaw a period of great productivity in arts and literature

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Indian Achievements
The Big Idea The people of ancient India made great contributions to the arts and sciences. Main Ideas Indian artists created great works of religious art. Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta period. The Indians made scientific advances in metalworking, medicine, and other sciences.

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Religious Art: Temples


Both Hindu and Buddhist temples began flourishing under Gupta rule.

Once simply constructed meeting places, Hindu temples became complex towers covered with intricate carvings.
Buddhist temples were large and impressive, some carved out of mountainsides. Buddhist stupas were built to house sacred objects from the life of the Buddha. They were covered with detailed carvings.

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Religious Art: Paintings and Sculpture

Great artists were commissioned by rich and powerful members of society. Paintings offered a perspective on the daily life and religious belief of the ancient Indians; many of these paintings could be found on the walls of temples. Indian sculptors carved columns, statues, and entire temples in the likenesses of the Buddha and Hindu gods.

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Sanskrit Literature
Mahabharata One of the worlds longest literary works The story of two Indian families struggling for control of a kingdom Ramayana The story of a god, Vishnu, who has taken human form Written long after the Mahabharata; contains models for the ideal ruler (Rama) and the ideal mate (Sita)

Many long passages of Hindu beliefs and practices

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Sanskrit Literature
Other Works
Chadra Gupta II hired a famous writer named Kalidasa to write plays for the royal court. The Panchatantra, a book of stories intended to teach moral lessons and quick thinking, was translated into many languages.

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Scientific Advances
Metalworking Pioneers of metallurgy, the Indians created tools and weapons by mixing iron and other metals together. The Indians invented the concept of zero and developed a sophisticated number system, the Hindu-Arabic numerals. Using plants and minerals, Indian doctors made advances in medicinal science. They were among the first to practice inoculation and perform surgery. Indian astronomers knew of seven about the nine planets in the solar system and could predict eclipses of the sun and moon.

Mathematics

Medicine

Astronomy

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Chapter 5

Indian Achievements
Details About Achievements

Religious Art

Hindu and Buddhist temples Ajanta temple Stupas Carvings and sculptures of gods Monumental statues Wall and ceiling paintings of life in India and god Mahabharata Ramayana Bhagavad Gita Kalidsaas plays Panchatantra
Metallurgy Alloys Iron Pillar Hindu-Arabic numerals Zero Medical textbooks Inoculation Astronomical knowledge

Sanskrit Literature

Scientific Advances

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