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811.

111(075)
81.2-9
27

27

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/
... . : , 2012. 256. ( : ).
ISBN 978-5-699-54783-8

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811.111(075)
81.2-9

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08.02.2012. 701001/16.
Minion. . . . . 20,74.
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ISBN 978-5-699-54783-8

.., 2012
, 2012

1
Exercise 1

Translate into English paying attention to the word order in the English sentence.
,
.

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
Exercise 2

Place the words in the appropriate order to make sentences.


, .

1. were, pale, they, men, faces, big, with.


2. New Zealand, were, from, the eight men, divers.
3. to clear, the harbour, was brought, of its wrecks, the team, to, Rangoon.
4. these, refugees, a lot, of, ships, had boarded.
5. climbed, of, the ship, hole, in, the side, I, through, one.
6. the compartment, the lamp, next, just, in, is being fixed.
7. appeared, the porter's, in, the doorway, face, smiling.
8. a few, words, I, to say, companion, was eager, my, to.
9. was born, of, Mark Twain, a lawyer, in, small town, the family, in 1835.
10. in, he, a printshop, began, home, his, to work, town, at.
11. a number, this, was followed, of, by, story, stories, short, novels, and.

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Exercise 3

Analyze the structure of the following sentences.


(
).

1. My friend's son was discussing the height of Mount Everest.


2. My young niece was given a very much wanted puppy for a present.
3. On the first night it began whimpering very loudly.
4. It is difficult to find a nice place to stay a night in.
5. I like the idea of going there for a weekend.
6. He was always first to spot interesting things lying on the pavement.
7. Two of us had to ride on the crossbar.
8. It was impossible to get to the top without pedalling.
9. There is nothing particular about a woman doing a man's job nowadays.
10. Our grandfathers must have resented the idea of marrying a chimneysweeper or a bus conductor.
11. One afternoon some friends rang up Susan and Derek to invite them out
for the evening.
12. The dog, excited by so many people, rushed round and round the cyclist,
seeming to enjoy it.
13. A man with long hair was stopped in a street by a very small boy.
14. By staying away from school we are helping to ease the problem of overcrowded classrooms.
Exercise 4

Find subjects in the following sentences.


.

1. Between him and the two other brothers who were present, there was
much difference, much similarity.
2. It was not safe driving through the fields.
3. There is no sense in talking to him now.
4. Whats the point of setting out at this hour of night?
5. Next day it was cold and he was not feeling well.
6. Thirty is a good age to begin everything anew.
7. It was no use trying to make him change his mind.
8. The stronger of the girls engaged in active sports.
9. It was essential that I speak to him immediately.
10. Red has never been a favourite with me.
11. It was very pleasant to be free and alone.
12. Collecting postage stamps was a hobby with him.
13. All the tickets were sold, there was no getting in that night.


Exercise 5

Insert there or it.


there it.

1. were many people in the room, was very stuffy.


2. is time to go to bed, is no time to waste.
3. is no need to hurry, is still plenty of time.
4. was twenty degrees in the shade. was not a cloud in the sky.
5. was nothing to be seen, was too dark.
6. was deep snow at the foot of the hill, was hard to walk.
7. came a knock at the door, was the postman.
8. Something clanked outside. was the dogs chain. Then was a sudden
furious barking.
9. was still very early, was nobody to be seen in the street.
10. was nothing left to do. remained only to sign the document.
11. was thirty kilometers to town and were many villages on the way.
12. Im sure is a rule for it, but is not the rule he referred to.
13. Im afraid is no use trying. is no preventing it.
14. Do you think is time for another cigarette?
15. is no time for tea if we are in a hurry.
16. was not a bench in sight and, anyway, was too cold to sit down.
17. was an hour to the plane, was time to have the luggage registered.
Exercise 6

State the type of predicate in the sentences below.


.

1. She soon grew tired of the game.


2. He was thoroughly enjoying his dinner.
3. He was looking extremely nervous.
4. He looked nervously at the clock on the building.
5. You are to go straight to your room.
6. I am afraid I am not feeling any better.
7. I began to stammer my apologies.
8. The story will only get repeated and exaggerated.
9. The ship was reported to be arriving in the morning.
10. He has made no effort to bring the matter up.
11. The estate has ceased to be a family home.
12. Alice went on speaking as if she had not heard.
13. He felt he could not let it pass, he had to do something.

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Exercise 7

Remove the brackets. Use a Complex Object or an Object Clause.


.
.

1. We saw (he, to cross) the street and (to enter) the post-office.
2. They did not notice (the boy, to enter) the shop.
3 He felt (somebody, to touch) him by the hand.
4. I heard (she, to say) it.
5. He watched (she, to put on) her skates and (to go) to the ice.
6. We hear (your daughter, to study) at llege.
7. Jane's words made (he, to realize) that her aunt was unkind to her.
8. What makes (you, to think) so?
9. I saw (he, to be) nervous.
10. Don't let (she, to go out) so late.
11. They saw (he, to run) across the road.
12. 1 should like (you, to show) me the way to Pushkin Square.
13. We heard (he, to tell) them the history of London.
14. We watched (the child, to look) through her grandfathers collection of
books.
15. Make (she, to close) the window, it is very cold in the room.
16. Now I see (he, to be mistaken).
17. I felt (I, to do) something wrong.
18. We expect (you, to give) a talk on London.
19. I felt (they, to look) at me, but I did not turn my head.
20. We heard (she, to recite this extract) at the evening-party.
21. I see (you, to be tired).
22. From my seat I saw (you, to enter) the hall and (to go) up to Nina.
23. Ive heard (a famous opera singer, to come) to Moscow.
Exercise 8

Translate using the Complex Object where necessary.


, , .

1. .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , ?
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. .

10. , .
11. , ?
12. , .
13. .
14. ?
15. .
16. , .
17. .
18. .
19. , .
20. , .
21. .
22. .
23. , .
24. , .
25. , .
26. .
27. , .
28. , .
29. , .
30. , .
31. ,
.
32. , .
33. , , ,
, - .
34. , .
35. , , , -
.
36. , .
37. , - .
38. , .
39. , , ,
.
40. , . ,
.
41. , .
42. .

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Exercise 9

Translate into English using the Complex Object after the verbs in
brackets.
, .

1. , (to have).
2. , (to hear).
3. (to leave).
4. (to make).
5. ,
(to have).
6. , (to
get)?
7. , , (to hear).
8. (to see).
9. , (to
have).
10. , - - / - (to get).
11. , - (to see).
12. , , (to notice).
13. , (to let).
14. (to have).
15. , (to expect).
16. , (to hear).
17. , - (to
have).
18. , (to
bring oneself).
19. , (to want).
20. (to get).
21. , , (to see).
22.
(to make).
23. , (to get).
24. , (to see).
25. , (to have).
26. , , (to hear).

27. , (to
wish).
28. , (to wait).
29. , (to motion).
30. , (to see).
31. ,
(to have).
32. , (to know).
33. ,
(toforce).
34. , ,
(to watch).
35. , , , , (to expect, to find).
36. , (to hear). ,
(to expect).
37. , , (to listen).
38. , , (to discover).
39. , (to wait).
40. , (to rely).
41. , , , , (to look).
42. (to gesture).
43. , ,
(toarrange).
Exercise 10

Translate into English using have smb do smth/get smb to do smth or


have/get smth done.
, have smb do smth/get
smb to do smth have/get smth done.

1. , ,
.
2. , .
3. , ,
.
4. .
5. .
6. - .
7. , ,
.

10

8. , , , .
9. , .
10. , ,
.
11. , , , ,
.
12. , , .
13. , .
14. , .
15.
.
16. , ,
, .
17. , .
18. - ?
19. .
20. , ,
.
21. .
22. ?
23. .
24. ? .
25. ? , .
26. ? .
27. , .
28. .
29. ?
Exercise 11

Find attributes in the sentences.


.

1. He received a long letter from his friend.


2. It was a cold day.
3. Peter's collection is very good.
4. There are two broken chairs in this room.

5. The second chapter is very interesting.


6. He picked up a letter lying on the floor.
7. The roof of the house is red.
8. He has a great desire to travel about the country.
9. There is no hope of seeing him soon.
10. I don't understand his wish to go there alone.
11. A girl in a long white dress appeared in the hall.
12. He was the last to understand the joke.
13. The boy's new toy was forgotten.
14. I have news to tell you.
15. The desire to share a secret was too strong for him.
16. What's the use of talking to him again?
17. I don't know the man sitting next to me.
18. The colour of his hair is black.
19. I didn't like his manner of talking.
20. The rising sun could be seen through my window.
21. He looked at the books neatly arranged on the shelf.
22. The letters to be sent away are in this box.
Exercise 12

Place the attributes in the appropriate order.


.

1. Poems first, Byron's, young.


2. Pipe my, old, black, father's.
3. Pictures new, Ivanov's, painter, the.
4. Book the, thick, English, girl's, young.
5. Daughter uncles, my, little, pretty, old
6. Plays successful, Bernard, most, Shaw's.
7. Voice beautiful, Helen's, clear, sister, my.
8. Life hard, Dickens's, young.
9. Spectacles the , big, new, boy's.
10. Plait thick, girl's, black, little, a.
11. Dresses the, beautiful, girls, red-and-white, young.
12. Costumes bright, children's, carnival, our.
13. Bicycle elder, expensive, brother's, my, new.
14. Novel this, first, author's, successful, young.
15. News sensational, yesterday's.
16. Baby wonderful, sister's, ten-month-old, my.
17. Cap my, old, friend's, favourite, best.
18. Gloves old, white, grandmother's, lace, my.
19. Smile my, warm, guest's, pleasant.
20. Cough old, loud, man's, the.

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12

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Exercise 13

Translate into English using the Possessive Case.


, .

1.
.
2. .
3.
.
4. , .
5. .
6. .
, .
7. , ,
, .
8. .
9.
.
10. .
11. , ,
, .
12.
?
13. ?
14. , , .
1. , - .
Exercise 14

Supply the appropriate articles.


.

1. He put envelope in doctors hand.


2. She teaches at smart girls school.
3. After two months leave he was sent to Officers Training Camp in
Dorset.
4. assistants office is located on second floor.
5. I was going to attend parents meeting next Monday.
6. His eyes narrowed like cats.
7. He was thinking of going to Teachers Training College.
8. She was given dolls house for her birthday.

9. That dog is proper brute. Ive known him bite clean through ladys
stocking.
10. They were promised four days rest.
11. She is out visiting neighbours daughter.
12. The theatre had three weeks ballet season.
13. Very early in my life I was taught not to believe girls tears.
14. chiefs remarks left me indifferent.
15. "Is that Mr. Blake?" womans voice asked in telephone.
16. Then she leaped to one side as cars brakes screamed behind her.
17. By clowns grimace on his face I understood that he was suffering.
Exercise 15

Translate into English paying attention to ways of expressing comparison.


, .

1. ? , .
2. , .
3. .
4. , .
5. .
6. .
7. , ,
.
8. .
.
9. .
10. .
11. , .
12. , , .
13. .
14. , .
15. .
16. - , -.
17. .
18. , ,
.
19. , .
20. , .
21. . .

13

14

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Exercise 16

Put the words in brackets in their appropriate places.


.

1. You are here when something happens (usually).


2. I work at night (best, always).
3. Her mum cooks a meal (always, in the evening).
4. He moves very slowly (always, in the morning).
5. She speaks Japanese (fluently).
6. We book the April holiday (usually, in February).
7. I think wed better open the parcel (now).
8. They think that we have got bread (probably).
9. Chocolate cakes are the best (definitely).
10. She was crying in her room (quietly).
11. I have had an illness (never, in my life).
12. We talked about it (at lunchtime, briefly).
13. Im going to break the eggs (into the bowl, carefully).
14. I remember buying some sugar (definitely).
15. Ann works at the village shop (on Saturdays, usually).
16. I cant explain my feelings (clearly).
17. The team played (yesterday, brilliantly).
18. She has done that before (never).
19. I worked (always, at school, very hard).
20. It is very difficult (sometimes).
21. She practices the piano (every evening, here).
22. I have tried to find it (often).
23. I dont think she plays tennis (very well).
24. We are going to win (definitely).
25. We were at the station (all).
26. He read every word (slowly).
27. Put the butter in the fridge (at once).
Exercise 17

Insert enough.
enough.

1. He knows English well.


2. The boy is strong.
3. He has money to buy a new suit.
4. He has no time to stay to tea.
5. The actor is famous.
6. I have notebooks at home, I can give you some.
7. The weather is warm.
8. There is no work for all of you.
9. I have no time to tell you the story.

10. You are not strong to do such work.


11. The museum is near, we can walk there.
12. If you take two more books we'll have books for the whole group
13. This room is large for ten people.
14. Do you think there will be food for all the guests?
15. He ran away quickly.
16. He jumped high.
17. We don't have cups for everybody.
18. He greeted me warmly.
19. We have no flowers to give the teachers.
20. There is no water.
21. He phones often.
22. They had no money for a motor bike.
Exercise 18

Paraphrase using a) so; b) such.


, so such.

Model: It was cold


a) It was so cold.
b) It was such a cold day.
1. He is hard-working.
2. The idea is splendid.
3. The mistake was awful.
4. The joke was funny.
5. The question was unexpected.
6. The story was touching.
7. The present was expensive.
8. The coat is warm.
9. It was an interesting book.
10. had a strong voice.
11. It was a funny hat.
12. She was lucky and we envied her.
13. She wore extravagant clothes.
14. It was useful advice.
15. The girls were pretty.
16. Youve given me interesting books.
17. Don't give me much money.
18. They were busy.
19. Her hair is beautiful.
20. It was hard work.
21. The countryside was beautiful.

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Exercise 19

Translate into English paying attention to so, such.


, so, such.

1. , .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. , .
6. .
7. , .
8. !
9. .
10. !
11. , .
12. , , .
13. , .
14. , .
15. , .
16. , .
17. .
18. , .
19. , !
20. , .
21. C .
22. .
23. !
24. .
25. , .
Exercise 20

Translate into English paying attention to first, at first.


, first, at first.

1. ?
2. .
3. , .
4. .

5. .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. .
10. ,
, .
11. .
12. .
13. , .
14. .
15. .

17

2
Exercise 1

Translate paying attention to the word order and the place of the
negative in the English sentence.
, .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. , .
8. .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , .
12. , .
13. ,
.
14. .
15. , .
16. , .
17. , .
18. , .
19. .
20. , .
21. .
22. , .
Exercise 2

Ask questions about the following sentences.


.

1. There will be a lot of fruit in this garden in autumn.


(a) General;
(b) Disjunctive;

(c) Special with "where";


(d) Special with "when";
(e) Special with "why";
(f ) Special with "how much";
(g) Special with "what".
2. There will be a military parade in Red Square.
(a) General;
(b) Disjunctive;
(c) Special with "where";
(d) Special with "what";
(e) Special with "when".
3. There will be a new cinema in this district next year.
(a) General;
(b) Alternative;
(c) Disjunctive;
(d) Special with "what";
(e) Special with "where";
(f ) Special with "when".
Exercise 3

Add question-tags and give full answers to the questions.


.

1. She doesn't study Greek.


2. He doesn't drive a car.
3. Nobody is there.
4. Granny doesn't do the shopping.
5. He doesn't begin work at eight.
6. There isn't a table in this room.
7. The short hand of the clock doesn't tell the minutes.
8. There was nobody at home.
9. He doesn't drink tea in the morning.
10. You have never been to the Caucasus.
11. I don't have to get up early.
12. Nobody goes home by bus.
13. There won't be many people at the library.
14. She doesn't like cheese.
15. Peter never drinks coffee.
16. She won't be able to come.
17. Mother doesn't cook breakfast.
18. He isn't reading.
19. You are not younger than he.

19

20

20. There was not a book on the table.


21. You don't have to do it.
22. They can't come.
Exercise 4

Turn the following direct questions into indirect with the help of
a) Iwonder, b) Do you think (Does he think, etc).

: ) I wonder; b) Do you think (Does he think, ..)

Model: Do they live here?


) I wonder if they live here
) Do you think they live here?
1. Do these men go to town every day?
2. Does he spend his holidays at the seaside?
3. Why is he late?
4. Do birds fly to the South in autumn?
5. What is he doing?
6. Does Mary do her work quickly?
7. Will it rain long?
8. Does he want to catch the 6 o'clock train?
9. Did he like the book?
10. Does she travel a lot in summer?
11. What kind of book is that?
12. How much is it?
13. Does mother wake him up at 6?
14. Where can I buy a guide-book?
15. Does he want to buy a few toys?
16. How many toys is he going to buy?
17. Does the book cost a lot?
18. What shall I say to her?
19. Will there be a lot of people at the party?
20. Which is the shortest way to Red Square?
21. Was there nobody at home?
22. When shall we meet?
23. Is he coming?
24. Does he write to them?
Exercise 5

Translate the following questions into English.


.

1. , ?
2. , ?
3. , ?

4. , ?
5. , ?
6. , , ?
7. , ?
8. , ?
9. , 35 ?
10. , ?
11. , ?
12. , ?
13. , ?
14. , ?
Exercise 6

Translate Into English.


.

1. ? , .
2. ? .
3. ? , .
4. ? , .
5. ? , .
6. ? , .
7. ? , .
8. ? , . .
9. ? , , .
10. ? !
.
11. ? , .
12. , ? ? .
!
13. ? , . .
Exercise 7

Render the following in reported speech using offer or suggest where


necessary.
, , ,
offer suggest.

1. "Turn on the light," she said.


2. "Lets go and see Fred tonight," Kate said.
3. "Let me ring up the teacher," Tom said.
4. "Let the girls do the cooking," said the boys.

21

22

5. "Lets go and see him some other day," Jane said.


6. "Dont leave your coat on the chair," my sister said.
7. "Lets do the shopping tonight," Helen said.
8. "Let me pay the fare," my friend said.
9. "Dont let us tell Kate about it," Mike said.
10. "Let me introduce you to Helen," my cousin said.
11. "Lets invite Jim," he said.
12. "Let them solve this problem," my friend said.
13. "Dont be afraid of the exam," my mother said.
14. "Let him present his paper next week," the teacher said.
15. "Let me buy the presents," my friend said.
Exercise 8

Rephrase the sentences with the help of offer or suggest.


offer suggest.

1. Mr. Brown invited me to the theatre and said he would buy the tickets himself.
2. Jack said I should call a doctor as he did not like the way I looked.
3. My neighbour in the compartment said he would help me with the luggage because my suitcase was very heavy.
4. Oliver said we must join efforts to solve the problem because it concerned
all of us.
5. He showed me a lot of books and said I could take any of them.
6. "Let us share the porter," he said. "We havent got a lot of luggage."
7. Mother said I must go to bed as I looked pale.
8. The teacher said he would help me with the homework and advised me to
read a book on the subject.
9. He said we should choose another play as the one that was on tonight was
boring.
10. "Let us meet at the station at five," he said. Then we will have plenty of
time before the train.
11. "Theres still a lot of time to kill. Lets play a game," Mark said.
12. Helen said we had to go on a tour of the city on Monday, because Sunday
tours were all booked.
13. "Ill buy the book for you," said Victor. "I live opposite a book shop."
14. "It is late," I said. "Lets take a taxi."
15. "Its raining. You had better wait until the rain stops." Mother said.
16. Kate said she would help me prepare for the exams because she didnt
want me to fail.
17. "You must have a rest, youve been overworking yourself these past weeks,"
Sarah said.

18. "Its rather far to the place. Lets take a bus," he said. "No," I objected. "Lets
walk. The weather is fine and the place is within walking distance anyway."
19. "Let me help you with the bag," he said. "It must be very heavy."
20. It was Helens birthday. Nick said he would buy flowers and I was to buy a
cake.
21. The Smiths want to sell their cottage at the seaside. Ann has agreed to help
them to find a buyer.
22. I cannot eat the whole pie, its much too big. Lets share it.
23. Susan was upset because she had broken her sisters watch. Helen said she
would take it to a watchmakers to be repaired.
24. Youve been arguing for quite a while. I think you had better stop this useless argument, you are not getting anywhere.
25. Betty said she didnt have enough money to buy a mobile phone. Bill said
he could lend her some money.
26. Granddad said he wanted the baby to be named Susan after her grandmother.
27. Ann is very upset. Her canary has flown away from its cage. I think we must
buy another canary for her.
28. "We are going mountain skiing. You could join us if you wished," Susie said.
29. The Parliament Building is open for visitors tomorrow. Lets go on a tour.
30. "You keep forgetting things," Mother said. "You must keep a diary."
31. Weve been driving since seven in the morning. Lets make a stop and have
lunch, Im starving.
32. "Will you be going my way?" Mr. Smith asked. "Then I will give you a lift as
far as the station."
Exercise 9

Insert offer, suggest, suggestion in the required form.


offer, suggest, suggestion .

1. Your ... is very tempting, but I cannot accept it.


2. My friend ... to pay the fare as I had no change.
3. Why doesnt somebody ... that we should do something to help her?
4. The plan which you ... is very interesting and I am ready to try it.
5. I refuse to take anything he ... me.
6. He ... that the matter be discussed at the next meeting.
7. The teacher ... a very good way of memorizing words.
8. The host ... playing a very amusing game.
9. Mr. White has been ... the post of director.
10. The worker ... a more effective method of cutting metals.
11. Mother ... that I should put on the blue dress when I go to the theatre.
12. I ... buying this book.
13. What do you ... doing now?

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24

14. Who has ... him the job?


15. I ... taking an umbrella because it looked like rain.
16. The host ... that we should sing a song, or play some merry games.
17. No one ... him help.
18. Peter ... that we should go skiing after lunch.
19. The man nodded to his visitor and ... him a seat.
20. The coach ... that we walk another two miles and then have a rest.
21. They ... him money for the picture but he refused to sell it.
22. My friend ... that we should play a game of tennis.
23. The boy ... to carry her basket.
24. The school doctor that I should see the dentist.
25. Do you know who ... the idea of going to the seaside?
26. The builder ... a new and more effective method of laying bricks.
27. My friend ... to go to the station to find out when our train started and ...
that I should take care of the things.
Exercise 10

Translate into English.


.

1. .
2. , ,
.
3. , .
4. .
5. , ,
.
6. ?
7. - , .
8. , , .
9. ,
.
10. , ,
.
11. , .
12. , , .
13. 10- , ,
.
14.
, .

15. .
16. , , .
17. .
18. , .
19. ? .
20. , .
?
21. , ; ,
-.
22. .
Exercise 11

Translate into English.


.

1. . . .
2. ? , .
3. . .
4. .
5. . .
6. .
7. . .
8. . .
9. 20 . ,
.
10. ? . ?
11. .
12. , . .
13. . .
14. 2 . .
15. , .
16. . .
17. .
18. . .
19. , .
20. 20 .
21. ?

25

26

22. .
23. .
24. .
Exercise 12

Translate into English paying attention to sentences with the emphatic It.
, It.

1. .
2. , .
3. .
4. .
5. 1 .
6. , .
7. ?
8. my dear, ,
-.
9. , .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
Exercise 13

Make the following sentences exclamatory.


.

1. He is a good singer.
2. The singer is good.
3. He is a fine athlete.
4. This athlete is good.
5. She is a pretty girl.
6. This girl is pretty.
7. She has beautiful hair.
8. Her hair is beautiful.
9. Its a cool night.
10. The night is cool.
11. He speaks English well.
12. Everything was quiet.
13. They understood each other perfectly.
14. She plays the piano well.
15. It is noisy here.
16. Its stuffy here.

17. This place is beautiful.


18. She sings beautifully.
19. Its fine weather we are having.
20. She is wearing beautiful clothes.
21. The cake smells delicious.
22. You have brought us sad news.
23. They are laughing very loudly.
24. You have given me a lot of money.
25. You are wrong.
26. She looks beautiful in this dress.
27. The child has grown very tall.
28. The tree is growing fast.
29. April is usually cold.
30. The flowers smell nice.
31. Her hair has turned grey.
32. Its getting cold.
33. He seems to be a nice man.
Exercise 14

Translate into English.


.

1. , !
2. !
3. !
4. !
5. !
6. , !
7. !
8. !
9. !
10. !
11. !
12. !
Exercise 15

Complete the sentence using so.../neither...


, so/neither.

1. Jims going to town tonight. (We)


2. Jack isnt going to town. (They)
3. He hasnt changed a bit. (She)
4. Sam can play chess. (Mike)

27

28

5. Jill cant skate. (We)


6. John must work harder. (Nick)
7. I havent heard the news. (Mary)
8. My brother got married last year. (His sister)
9. I didnt promise them anything. (He)
10. Peter doesnt know our new address. (His brother)
11. Henry visits the Browns very often. (John)
12. Bill never goes to parties. (Jill)
13. Kate cleans the flat every day. (My mother)
14. We wont be staying at a hotel. (They)
15. He was surprised to hear it. (We)
16. We were not expecting to hear that. (He)
17. She managed to do the work in time. (He)
18. I havent seen the new film. (They)
Exercise 16

Translate Into English.


.

1. 10 . ? .
2. . . .
3. . .
4. . .
5. . .
6. . . - .
7. -. .
8. , (Brahms). .
9. .
.
10. . .
, ?
11. . . , ?
12. , ( ).
.
13. . . . .

3
Exercise 1

Open the brackets putting the verbs in the appropriate tense forms.
, .

1. The first Wednesday in every month (be) a Perfectly Awful Day. Every floor
must be spotless, every chair dustless and every bed without a wrinkle. Ninetyseven little orphans must be scrubbed and combed and reminded of their manners and told to say "Yes, sir", "No, sir", whenever a Trustee (speak).
It (be) a distressing time; and poor Jerusha Abbott (have) to bear the brunt of
it. But this particular Wednesday, like its predecessors, finally (drag) itself to a
close. Jerusha (escape) from the pantry where she (make) sandwiches and (turn)
upstairs to do her regular work. Her special care (be) room F. Jerusha (assemble)
her charges, (straighten) their frocks, (wipe) their noses and (send) them to the
dining-room.
Then she (drop) down on the window seat and (lean) her forehead against
the cool glass. She (be) on her feet since five that morning.
The day (to end) quite successfully, so far as she (know). The Trustees and
the visiting committee (make) their rounds and (read) their reports and (drink)
their tea. And now they (hurry) home.
2. In the early morning he (awake) and (look) out upon a small town just arising from sleep. Lights (come on), soft voices (mutter). A porter (move by), a shadow in shadows.
"Sir," (say) Willie.
The porter (stop).
"What town is this?" (whisper) the boy in the dark.
"Valleyville. Is this your stop?"
"It (look) green, "Willie (gaze) out at the cold morning town for a long time.
"It(look) nice and quiet."
"Son," (say) the porter, "you know where you (go)?"
"Here," said Willie.
"I hope you know what you (do), boy," said the porter.
"Yes, sir," said Willie. "I know what I (do)." And he (be) down the dark aisle, luggage lifted for him by the porter, and out in the cold morning.

30

He (watch) the black train until it was completely gone away and out of sight.
Then, as the sun (rise), he (begin) to walk very fast, so as to keep warm, down
into the new town.
3. I liked our guide. I (ask) him if he (be) a spaceman and he (say) no, he (be)
just a Colonial Service Ranger.
Dad and Mr. Latham (join) us we (finish) the tour while Mr. Perrin thats our
guide (announce) the trip outside "to see the Devils Graveyard and the site of
the Great Disaster of 1984."
Dad (rub) his hands together. "This is for me," he (announce).
"You (enjoy) it," Mr. Latham (agree). "Im tempted to come along myself."
"Why dont you?" Dad (ask).
"No, I want to have the papers ready for you to sign when you (get) back and
before you (leave) for Luna City. Besides, I (be) out on the surface dozens of times.
But I (come) along and (help) you into your spacesuits."
Mother (say) she (not think) she (go); she (not be) sure she (can) stand the
thought of being shut up in a spacesuit.
Mother always (object) and then (give) in. I suppose women just (not have)
any force of character.
Exercise 2

Open the brackets putting the verbs in the appropriate tense forms.
, .

1. I (go) down past Tamus cabin quietly so she wouldnt hear me and to my
own the door of which (be) slightly open.
I (leave) it closed. And locked. I always (leave) it closed and locked.
I (throw) the door open. Tamu (stand) over my open suitcase with my passport in her hand.
What you (say) in a situation like that? I (be) angry and that (help).
"You (break) into my cabin and (steal) my passport."
"How cruel of you. The door (be) open and I (come) in. I (steal) nothing."
"You have it in your hand!"
"I (examine) it. It is a very interesting document."
"Now hand it back."
She (hesitate) a moment, looking at me closely before she (speak).
"I would very much like to examine it further."
I (be) still angry.
"Of course you can examine it. But the examination fee for the standard
American passport (be) a hundred dollars an hour."
"Very agreeable. And here is the hundred dollars."
And she (have) it too, in a little purse she (dig) out of her clothes. They (be) in
my palm and she (be) out of the door before I (realize) what (happen).

2. Mrs. Morris (open) a can and (pour) hot soup into a bowl. During all this
Mink (fidget).
"Hurry, Mom. This is a matter of life and death!"
"I (be) the same way at your age. Always life and death. I know."
Mink (bang) away at her soup.
"Slow down," said Mom.
"Cant," said Mink. "Dill (wait) for me. I got to run if we want to have the Invasion."
"Who (invade) what?"
"Martians invading Earth. Well, not exactly Martians. They (be) from up."
She (point) with her spoon.
"And inside," Mom (say) touching Minks feverish brow. Mink (rebel). "You
(laugh)! You (kill) Dill and everybody."
"I (not mean) to," said Mom. "Dills a Martian?"
"No. Hes well maybe from Jupiter or Saturn or Venus. Anyway, he (have)
a hard time."
"They couldnt figure a way to attack Earth. Dill (say) in order to make a good
fight you got to have a new way of surprising people. That way you win. And he
(say) also you got to have help from your enemy. And they couldnt figure a way
to surprise Earth or get help."
Mink (sit) there, staring at the table, seeing what she (talk) about.
"Until one day," (whisper) Mink melodramatically, "they (think) of children."
Exercise 3

Open the brackets putting the verbs in the appropriate tense forms.
, .

1. They (walk) slowly at about ten in the evening talking calmly.


"But why so early?" (say) Smith. "Your first night out in years and you (go)
home at ten oclock.
"Nerves, I suppose".
"What I wonder is how you (manage) it. I (try) to get you out for ten years for
a quiet drink. What you (do), put sleeping powder in your wifes coffee?"
"No. You (see) soon enough. Look up there!"
In the window above them a man about thirty-five years old, with a touch of
gray at either temple, sad gray eyes and a small thin moustache (look) down at
them. They (wait). The street door of the apartment (open) and the gentleman
with the moustache (come) out to meet them.
"Hallo, Braling," he said.
"Hallo, Braling," said Braling.
They (be) identical.
Smith (stare). "Is this you twin brother?"
"No," said Braling quietly. "Put your ear to Braling Twos chest."

31

32

Smith (hesitate) and then (lean) forward.


"Tick-tick-tick-tick."
Smith (stagger) back, appalled.
He (reach out) and (touch) the warm hands and the cheeks of the thing.
"Where you (get) him?"
"Give the man your card, Braling Two."
Braling Two (produce) a white card:
"MARIONETTES, INC".
"Duplicate self or friends, new humanoid plastics 1990 models."
"How long this (go on)?"
"I (have) him for a month. I (keep) him in the cellar in a toolbox. My wife never
(go) downstairs, and I (have) the only key to that box. Tonight I (say) I (wish) to
take a walk to buy a cigar. I (go) down to the cellar and (take) Braling Two out of
his box and (send) him back up to sit with my wife while I (come) out to see you,
Smith. So I (be) home all evening."
2. Braling and Braling Two (turn) in at the door to the apartment.
"Well, its the cellar box for you, B-Two." Braling (guide) the other creature
down the stairs.
"Thats what I want to talk to you about," said Braling Two. "The cellar. I dont
like it."
"I (try) and (fix) something more comfortable. Besides it only (be) a few days
now. I (be) off to Rio and you (not have) to stay in the box. You can live upstairs."
Braling Two (gesture) irritably.
"And when you (come) back from having a good time, I (go) back in the box."
Braling said, "They (not tell) me at the marionette shop that I (get) a difficult
specimen."
"Theres a lot they dont know about us," said Braling Two. "We are sensitive. I
hate the idea of your going off to Rio while we are stuck here in the cold."
"But I (want) that trip all my life," said Braling quietly.
"And another thing. Your wife."
"What about her?" asked Braling beginning to edge toward the door.
"I (grow) quite fond of her."
"Im glad you (enjoy) your employment." Braling (lick) his lips nervously.
"Im afraid you dont understand. I think Im in love with your wife."
"You are in what?" Braling (freeze).
"And I (think)," said Braling Two, "how nice it is in Rio and how I never (get)
there, and I (think) about your wife I think we could be very happy."
"Thats nice." Braling (try) to rush out the door, but a metal-firm grip (seize) his
wrists.
Braling Two said, "I (go) to put you in the box, lock it and lose the key. Then I
(buy) another Rio ticket for your wife. Good-buy, Braling."

Ten minutes later Mrs Braling (awake). She (put) her hand to her cheek. Someone just (kiss) it. She (shiver) and (look up).
"Why you (not do) that in years," she (murmur).
"Well see what we can do about it," someone said.
Exercise 4

Translate into English.


.

1. . .
2. , . .
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. .
7. ?
8. , .
9. , .
10. .
11. ?
12. , .
13. . ?
14. ?
15. . .
16. ?
17. ? ?
18. ?
19. . .
20. ? .
21. , .
22. , .
23. .
24. . .
25. ? .
26. . - .
27. . - .
28. - , .
29. ? .
30. , . .

33

34

31. .
.
32. , .
33. . .
34. , .
Exercise 5

Translate into English.


.

1. , .
2. , ,

3. ? ? .
.
4. , . 10 . ,
. .
5. , .
.
6. , .
, ,
.
7. ? .
8. ? . 20 , .
9. , , .
10. , ?
. .
11. - ? ,
. .
12. . . .
13. , . .
14. 10 , .
15. , 5 .
16. , 1973 .
Exercise 6

Translate into English.


.

1. ? .
.

2. ,
.
3. , ? , .
.
4. , , .
5. , , .
6. .
7. - ? , .
. .
8. ? . , .
9. : 20 ,
.
10. .
11. , .
12. , .
13. , .
14. ? . , .
15. , , .
16. , .
17. - ? . ,
.
18. , . , .
19. , . ?
Exercise 7

Translate into English.


.

1. , ,
.
2. , , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , , ,
.
6. , ,
.

35

36

7. , , .
8. , , .
9. , .
10. , , .
11. , .
12. , .
13. , - .
14. , ,
.
15. , , , ,
.
16. , .
, , .
17. , .
18. , ,
.
19. , .
20. , .
21. , .
.
22. .
23. .
. , .
24. / , ,
, .
25. .
26. , , .
, .
27. ,
.
28. , . , , .
29. C , ,
.
30. ,
.
31. .

32. , - . - .
33.
.
34. .
, .
35. ,
.
36. , .
, ,
. , .
37. , .
.
38. .
.
39. , .
40. , ,
, .
41. , .
, .
Exercise 8

Translate into English.


.

1. .
.
2. ? .
3. ,
.
4. , ? - ? . .
5. . .
6. . .
7. , , .
8. , , ,
.
9. , - , .
10. ? ?
11. , , , .

37

38

12. , , - .
13. .
.
14. , . . .
15. , . .
16. ,
.
17. , . .
18. , ,
.
19. , . .
20. ? . , , .
21. , ? ? .
22. , ? ? , .
23. , .
24. , . , , .
25. . . .
26. , .
27. . .
.
28. , ,
. - , .
29. , . , .
30. , . .
31. ? , . ?
, .
32. , , , .
33. ; .
34. , . , . . ,
.
35. 7 ,
.

36. , , .
37. ? . ?
38. .
. , .
.
Exercise 9

Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense forms to describe


future actions.
,
.

1. I shall read for an hour or so before I (to turn off ) the light.
2. We shall be obliged to you if you (to find out) it.
3. Shall we go somewhere if the weather (to change) for the worse?
4. I am so tired that I shall go to bed as soon as I (to get) home.
5. He will sleep until the alarm (to wake up) him.
6. They dont know when he (to call).
7. You will get wet through unless you (to take) an umbrella.
8. Ring up when you (to get) back.
9. I am not sure if he (to ring).
10. We shall go to the country if the weather (to keep) fine.
11. He wont come unless you (to ask) him.
12. I will ask him if he (to do) it.
13. I will be cooking dinner while you (to pack).
14. We will have finished the work by the time they (to arrive).
15. He wont tell me if something (to go) wrong.
16. I would like to know when you (to return) the money.
17. Will you see him after he (to get) back from holiday?
18. Could you find out when the concert (to start)?
Exercise 10

Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense forms to express


a future action.
, .

1. I have not visited the place yet. I (go) there tomorrow


2. Our train (start) at 8 p.m., so if you (come) at 5 oclock, we (pack).
3. At 4 oclock tomorrow we (begin) packing and by 6 we (finish) with ease.
4. Ring me up at 11, I (not sleep) yet.
5. I (start out) on my round by the time you (go), so I (say) good-bye now.
6. I think you (like) him when you (know) more of him.

39

40

7. "Shall we go downstairs and meet the man?" "Let us stay here; he (knock)
at our door in a moment, youll see."
8. I suppose everyone (ask) me questions and its so awkward.
9. But you (not go). I (not let) you.
10. When I (meet) your brother?
11. What you (do) this afternoon?
Exercise 11

Translate into English.


.

1. .
2. , .
3. .
4. ? .
5. , .
6. . .
7. , .
8.
.
9. 11 . .
10. , .
.
11. 7 . , .
12. .
13. , 8.
14. .
15. ? , .
16. .
17. , .
18. . .
19. , , 4 .
20. : 5. ,
.
21. .
22. , , ?
23. 6 .
24. C
.


Exercise 12

Translate into English.


.

1. ,
.
2. , - .
3. , /.
4. , .
5. .
6. . , , .
7. -? .
8. , .
9. . .
10. ,
.
11. . .
12. , .
13. . .
14. . .
15. , .
16. ,
.
17. , .
18. , .
19. , .
20. , .
21. ?
22. , .
23. , .
24. , .
25. , .
Exercise 13

Translate into English.


.

1.
, .
, - .
, - .

41

42

2. .
. , , .
3. , . . .
4. . ,
. .
5. , , ,
.
6. ,
.
7. , ,
, .
8. ,
.
9. , . - ?
10. , ,
.
11. , , , . ,
(Idaho Falls). .

4
Exercise 1

Make the following sentences Passive.


.

1. Did they offer you a good job?


2. Why cant you tell them the truth?
3. What kind of explanation did they give you?
4. They have just shown us a new film.
5. The teacher was reading a fairy tale to the children.
6. Have you written a letter to Father?
7. Will the teacher dictate the text to you?
8. They asked me a lot of interesting questions.
9. Everyone was listening to the speaker very attentively.
10. People are talking a lot about this young actress.
11. He never mentioned the incident to his friends.
12. His father taught him mathematics.
13. We envy him his luck.
14. They have always listened to his lectures with great interest.
15. He explained the rule to us.
16. Nobody slept in the bed.
17. She cant dance when you are looking at her.
18. What song did they sing you?
19. They were looking at the picture with admiration.
20. He has thrown away all his old notebooks.
21. I must think the matter over.
22. I have spoken to the Dean on the subject.
23. People are talking a lot about this film.
24. People always laugh at his jokes.
25. They argued about the incident for a long time.
26. You cannot speak lightly of such matters.
Exercise 2

Translate into English.


.

1. , .
2. , .

44

3. , .
4. .
5. ?
6. .
7. , .
8. , , .
9. .
10. . .
11. .
12. .
13. . .
14. .
15. .
16. , .
Exercise 3

Translate into English.


.

1. , .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
.
8. , .
9. , .
10. , ,
.
11. .
12. , .
13. ?
14. ?
15. , :
.
Exercise 4

Translate into English.


.

1. .
2. ?

3. .
4. , , .
5. , .
6. .
7. ,
8.
8. , .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , .
12. , .
13. . ,
. , .
14. , .
15. ?
16. ?
17. , .
18. , .
19. , .
20. , .
21. , .
22. .
23. ?
24. , ?
25. , .
Exercise 5

Translate into English.


.

1. , , .
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , ,
.
5. , .
6. , , .
7. .

45

46

8. .
9. , .
10. , .
11. ,
.
12. , - .
13. , .
14. ?
15. , .
16. ,
.
17. , ?
18. , 100 ?
19. , ?
20. , .
21. , .
22. , .
23. .
24. , .
25. , .
26. .
27. . -
.
28. .
29. .
30. .

5
Exercise 1

State the type of the Predicate in each sentence.


.

1. went home after the lecture.


2. They are doctors.
3. She has received a letter from her father.
4. We can do this work in a short time.
5. He was ill yesterday.
6. He must post the letter at once.
7. The article will be published tomorrow.
8. This must be done at once.
9. The room was in disorder.
10. This pen is mine.
11. We are to meet at the station at 10.
12. I have to get up early.
13. It was raining a minute ago.
14. The day was fine yesterday.
15. Our plan was to spend the holidays in the mountains.
16. He was the first to arrive.
17. When did you begin learning English?
18. It is growing dark.
19. He wants to become a doctor.
20. I have just finished reading the book.
21. He likes skiing.
22. It will stop raining soon.


Exercise 2

Open the brackets using either an adjective or an adverb.


, , .

1. Catherine smiled at me (happy, happily).


2. I felt very (ill, badly) myself.
3. I felt (terrible, terribly) when we started.
4. He sounded (brisk, briskly) and (cheerful, cheerfully).

48

5. It will sound (strange, strangely).


6. The hay smelled (good, well).
7. I write English (bad, badly).
8. I looked at her (attentive, attentively).
9. But dont look (sad, sadly), my little girl. It breaks my heart.
10. He was looking at me (intent, intently) and (grave, gravely).
11. The wine tasted (delicious, deliciously) after the cheese and apple.
12. The brandy did not taste (good, well).
13. The pistol felt (heavy, heavily) on the belt.
14. He received the message (mute, mutely).
15. I thought he looked (suspicious, suspiciously).
Exercise 3

Translate the sentences into English paying attention to compound


nominal predicates.
, .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. / .
13. .
14. . .
15. , ?
16. !
17. .
18. .
19. .
20. , .
21. .
Exercise 4

Translate into English. State the type of the Predicate in each sentence.
. .

1. .
2. .

3. , .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7. .
8. , .
9. !
10. !
11. .
12. , .
13. ?
14. .
15. . .
16. , .
17. .
18. ? ?
19. , .
20. .
21. . , , .
22. . .
23. , .
24. . .
.
25. , .
26. , .
27. .
28. ?


Exercise 5

Use an Infinitive or a Gerund after an aspect verb.


.

1. They stopped (talk) when they saw me.


2. The pianist began (play) and the choir began (sing).
3. He started (write) poetry at an early age.
4. I gave up (smoke) three years ago.
5. When the telephone rang he stopped (play) and got up to answer it.
6. When I called him he did not raise his head but continued (write) as if he
had not heard.
7. Ill be with you as soon as I finish (write) this letter.
8. It always starts (rain) when you dont expect it.

49

50

9. He has just finished (build) a summer cottage.


10. He went on (talk) as if nothing had happened.
11. He was beginning (understand) what was wrong.
Exercise 6

Translate into English.


.

1. ,
.
2. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. .
10. .
11. , .
12. , ?
13. .
14. .
15. , .
16. 10 .


Exercise 7

Use can or may to complete the sentences.


can may.

1. . you (to call) a little later? Im afraid Ill be busy till seven.
2. it (to be) a joke?
3. She asked me if she (to switch) off the radio.
4. Dont be angry with her. She (to do) it by mistake.
5. You not (to see) him at the meeting. He was ill.
6. There is no regular ferry there. You (to have) to hire a boat.
7. we (to walk) fifteen kilometers? The village is not yet seen.
8. I (to ask) you to explain the rule once more?

9. He not (to forget) your address. He has visited you several times.
10. No matter how bad the weather (to be) she never missed her everyday
stroll after dinner.
11. I dont believe her, she (to fail) to recognize me.
12. He said he (to manage) the task by himself.
13. If nothing prevents them, they (to arrive) ahead of time.
14. It (to be taken) for a joke if his face had not been so serious.
15. You should not feel offended; they not (to notice) you.
16. Tell him he (to warn) me and not (to put) me in such an awkward position.
17. He (to have) to walk a long distance, he looks tired.
Exercise 8

Use must, have (to) or be (to).


must, have (to) be (to).

1. He told me that he had missed his train and wait for another one.
2. We discovered that the place was dangerous to bathe in and look for a
safer spot.
3. His wife kept telling him that he not sit up late.
4. The doctor told him he give up smoking.
5. Father said that I be careful while crossing the street.
6. The bus was not going that direction, so he change.
7. It was not that the work be finished soon, but we ourselves wanted to
be through with it as soon as possible.
8. I didnt feel much like doing it, but I felt it be done one way or another.
9. I realized that I speak louder to make myself heard.
10. Telling himself that he control himself, he did not answer anything.
11. He remembered that he stand up to be introduced.
12. For a moment she felt her heart break.
13. I wondered what happen to us.
14. Its raining. You take your raincoats.
15. We agreed that the one who arrived first reserve seats for the rest of us.
16. Nobody met me at the station as I have arrived a day later.
17. He always puts off doing what he do until it be done.
18. We leave on Monday, but because of two days delay with the visas we
book tickets for Wednesday.
19. It was too late to change the timetable, it remain as it was.
20. You do it if you dont want to.
21. You not do anything until you get further instructions.
22. They hoped to move to the seaside, but that not be.
23. When no food -- be had, he seemed capable of doing without.

51

52

C
Exercise 9

Use should, ought (to), have (to), be (to), must or need to complete the
sentences.
should, ought (to), have (to), be (to), must
need.

1. I ... not (to tell) him this news, he was so much upset, but I really ... (to do)
so, for the circumstances demanded that.
2. You ... (to see) him dance! You have missed a lot. I (to take) you to the
concert.
3. You ... (to speak) to him already. I see he knows everything.
4. Dont contradict her, you ... (to respect) her age.
5. He was boiling with rage, but he ... (to control) his feelings not to give himself away.
6. Your questions surprise me, you ... (to know) this.
7. You ... not (to come) so early, now you (to wait).
8. They ... (to study) the subject more thoroughly; they will regret it later on.
9. He ... (to take the floor and speak) in favour of the proposal.
10. I ... (to take) Grandfathers spectacles. I cannot see anything through them.
11. Not a living thing ... (to be seen).
12. I thought I ... (to do) something to return their hospitality.
13. Ring me up at 6. The situation (to clear up) by then.
14. According to the rules of the game a football player ... not (to touch) the
ball with his hands.
15. His heart was now thumping so violently he felt it ... (to burst).
16. You ... not (to return) the money so soon. I could have waited.
17. The situation grew awkward. He felt that something ... (to be done), or else
the party would break up.
18. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer,
you ... (to know) better.
19. You ... (to apologize) when you saw that his feelings were hurt.
20. You ... not (to help) him with this work. He could have managed it himself.
21. She ... not (to speak) about such things in the childs presence. Now you see
the results.
22. It was very hard work but we ... (to do) it.
23. They ... (to study) the subject thoroughly; they answered every question.
24. How I (to know) where he is?
25. Lets tell him all as it is. He ... (to understand).
26. Though it is a very unpleasant mission, I feel I ... (to tell) you the truth.
27. Children (to obey) their parents..
28. I ... (to know) that it might come to that.
29. He gave you just that feeling of assurance, of confidence that a doctor ...
(togive).
30. She is not a bad sort, if somewhat capricious; so you sometimes ... (to put
up) with her whims.


Exercise 10

Translate into English paying attention to the English equivalents


of the Russian , .
,
, .

1. .
.
2. 5, .
3. . .
4. .
.
5. . .
6. ? 8 . 7.45.
7. ? ,
.
8. ? , .
.
9. ?
10. ? , .
.
11. . .
12. . .
13. ? , .
14. .
15. , .
16. ,
.
17. ? .
.
18. ? ,
.
19. , ?
. .
20. . . . .
21. . .
22. . .
Exercise 11

Translate using the modal will where appropriate.


, will, .

1. ? .
2. , .

53

54

3. . .
4. , .
5. ,
.
6. ,
.
7. .
.
8. ,
, .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , ,
.
12. - . .
13. , .
14. , .
15. , , .
16. , - , , .
Exercise 12

Translate using used to or would where appropriate.


, used to would, .

1. .
.
2. , , .
3. .
, .
4. , .
5. -
. .
6. . , ,
.
7. .
, .

8. , .
9. , .
.
10. , .
11. ,
.
12. , .
.
.
13. ,
.
14. - . ,
.
15. . ,
. , ,
, , , , .
16. , , . .
17. ,
. - .
,
- . ,
- ,
.
18. ,
. ,
.
19. , .
.
20. , , .
.
21. ,
. ,
.
22. , , .
. ,
.

55

56

C
Exercise 13

Translate into English.


.

1. . , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. ? .
5. . .
6. , ,
.
7.
. ,
8. , .
9. ? ,
.
10. , , , .
11. , ,
.
12. .
13. .
14. ,
.
15. , , , ,
.
16. , .
17. .
.
18. , .
? , - .
.
19.
?
20. ? . ,
.
21. .
.

22. ? .
.
23. .
24. , , .
25. 1 .
26. . .
27. ?
28. , ? .
29. ? ) . ) .
.
30. .
31. .
32. .
33. .
34. . .
35. .
36. , , .
37. , .
38. , .
39. , 11 (not to be out
after11), , .
Exercise 14

Translate into English.


.

1. . .
, . .
2. ?
, ,
.
3. . , .
. . , - .
4. ? , .
. .
5. ?
. , ? , .
. , ,
.

57

58

6. .
? .
, . - .
7. 2. 2.30.
. , .
8. . , , .
9. . ,
80 . , .
, . . . , , ,
.
10. , .
. ? . . ,
, .
? .
11. , ? . ? .
, .
, , ?
?
. . .
.
12. ,
, ? , .
.
, .
13. ? , . . .
. , ? .
? ,
. , .
.
14. ? , ,
.
15. . , . .
16. , . ,
.

17. , . ,
.
18. .
19. , . . , .
20. ,
. ,
.
21. . .
22. 21. , .
23. . , .
24. , . 8.
25. ? , .
26. , .
27. ? .
? , 20.
28. , ? . , .
? . .
29. 5. ,
, .
30. 5.30. ,
. ? , . - , . ,
, .
Exercise 15

Translate into English.


.

1. , , .
2. , , , .
3. , , .
4. , , , .
5. , , .
.
6. , , , .
7. , , . , , ,
.
8. , , . . ,
, .

59

60

9. , , . , .
.
10. , , ,
.
11. , , .
12. , , . .
13. , , , , , .
14. , , , .
15. , , , .
16. , , , ,
.
17. , , , .
18. , , , .
19. , , .
, .
20. , , .
21. , , .
22. ? .
23. , , , .
Exercise 16

Translate into English.


.

1. ! .
2. ,
. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , , ,
.
6. ,
.
7. , - .
8. ?
9. ? .
10. ? .

11. , .
. , ; , , .
12. ,
.
13. ,
, .
14. , .
15. , , . ,
, .
16. .
.
17. -, .
.
18. O ,
, , , .
19. ? ,
, , .
Exercise 17

Translate into English.


.

1. ,
.
2. , .
3. , .
4. . -.
5. .
, .
6. , ,
.
7. , ,
.
8. , ;
.
9. . ,
, .

61

62

10. , , .
.
11. ; .
12. :
.
13. , ? .
14. , ,
.
15. .
16. , , - ; ,
.
Exercise 18

Translate into English.


.

1. . .
2. , , .
3. . .
4. . , .
5. ?
.
6. ?
7. .
8. . ,
.
9. , , .
10. .
.
11. . .
12. , , ,
.
13. , .
8 .
14. .
.
15. , , .
16.
?

17. , .
18. ? ,
.
19. , , .
20. , , .
21. . ,
- .
22. , , 5 .
.
23. , .
.
.
24. () . ,
.
25. , . .
26. ? .
27. , . , .
28. , . .
29. ? .
30. , . , .

63

6
Exercise 1

Open the brackets putting the verbs in the appropriate tense and
voice forms.
,
.

As soon as I (notice) that Maria (can) not pronounce her "ss" I (make) an appointment and (see) a doctor. He (tell) me that she (grow) out of it naturally.
I(not believe) that and, consequently, I (get) in touch with my old school friend
who (live) near us. She still (work) as a speech therapist in a local hospital and she
(take) the matter seriously and (send) me back to my doctor. Although a month
or so (elapse), Marias lisp (grow) appreciably worse and that (help) to convince
the doctor. Maria (see) by the consultant two months ago and (have) treatment
for three weeks already. In my opinion she (make) progress and I (be) confident
that in a month or so she (cure).
Exercise 2

Translate into English.


.

1. , . ,
.
2. . ,
.
3. 5, . , ? .
4. ? , . ? .
5. , .
, , . , .
6. , , . , .
7. , .

8. , , .
9. . ,
?
10. . ,
, , , .
11. , . . .
12. , . ,
.
13. , . , . .
14. :
.
15. ,
. , , . , ,
, .
16. , .
17. , .
18. , , .
19. , , ,
.
20. , ,
.
21. , ,
.
22. ,
.
23. , ,
, .
Exercise 3

Translate into English.


.

1. , . .
2. ,
.

65

66

3. , .
4. . ? .
5. . .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , , .
9. . , .
10. , .
11. , . . .
5.30
12. .
13. , .
14. , , .
15. , .
. , , ,
.
16. , , .
17. , ,
.
18. , , .
19. , .
20. , .
21. , .
22. . .
23. . .
24. , ?
25. , .
26. , .
27. . ? , . . ? , .

.
Exercise 4

Translate into English.


.

1. , 75 .
2. ,
.
3. ? ?
4. .
.
5. , .
6. ? ,
.
7. ? , . .
8. , , .
9. , ,
.
10. 1907 1910 .
11. , , .
12. .
, , .
13. , -! ? ?
. .
14. . .
15. , .
16. . ,
.
17. - ! , .
18. , .
19. , ,
.
20. ,
.
21. , . , .
22. . .
23. 20 , 9 ,
.

67

68

C
Exercise 5

Translate into English.


.

1. , .
2. , ,
.
3. , , , .
4. , .
5. ,
,
.
6. , ,
.
7. , .
8. , 1948 .
9. , , .
10. , .
Exercise 6

Translate into English.


.

1. , . ,
. , , ?
.
2. .
c , , , , . , ? . ?
. , .
. ? .
. ,
. , . ,
, . .
, .
3. .
, . .

, - ,
. . . .
, , - .
. , ,
, . , (to miss a beat).
, , . ,
.
4. . , . . ? , ,
. .
, .
5. , , .
. , .
, .
, . ,
, . ,
. . (to feel) y c ,
. .
, . ,
, . ,
. , (to miss).
, , . . , .
, , , .
6. . , ,
. , ,
. ,
.
, - .
, .
Exercise 7

Translate into English.


.

1. ? . .
? 10 . .
.

69

70

2. ? , .
.
, .
3. ? , . , . , .
4. , . ,
62 .
5. , . , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. ,
.
9. - . ,
. . , . , .
10. , .
? . , ,
, . .
11. , .
, , , .
12. , . ? , . . , . , ,
.
13. ? , ? ,
, ,
.
14. , , .
, .
, . .
Exercise 8

Translate into English.


.

1. ? , . , . . ? . ,
.

2. , . ,
. .
3. , ,
.
4. , ?
. ? , ?
5. 7, .
10 . , . ? , ,
. .
6. .
7. , ,
. , ,
, .
10 , .
8. , ,
. . .
9. , . ,
.
10. , ? ,
. , .
? , ,
. , .
11. ? - ?
.
12. . .
. , .
13. ? , .
.
14. , .
.
15. ? ,
? . .
Exercise 9

Translate into English.


.

) .
. .
, .

71

72

. , , . .
, , , .
.

. .
, . , . .
) , , ,
(training-ground). , ,
.
: ,
, , .
. , ,
, , .
, ,
(special) .
. , (tasks) , , . - . . ,
, .
Exercise 10

Translate into English.


.

1. . (Poirot) (Hastings)
. ,
. , , , ,
.
2. , , , .
,
.
3. , (Cronshaw) 6 . , .
(Beltane).
.

4. . () .
, .
5.
. , , , . ,
.
6. ,
, . , , , . ,
(supper-room) , , ,
.
7. ,
(Pierrot) .
, . , .
8. ,
. , ,
. ,
.
9. , .
, . , , .
10. , ,
. . ,
, .
11. , , , .
. . .
12. , ,
. . , , ,
.
13. ,
. . , , .
14. ,
. ,
, .

73

74

C
Exercise 11

Translate into English.


.

1. , .
. ,
(white hot wire).
2. , ,
. , , . (plot) -
.
3. ,
- . ; , .
.
4. .
(creak) (swish)
(cloak). , ,
.
5. . , , , .
6. . , ,
, 10
, .
(wand) , (perform
a curse) . .
,
(rebound on) . ,
.
7. , . . (Crouch). (wondered), . :
, , ?
. (deal with)
.
8. (Dumbledore)
. .
, c , , .
9. .
(wail).
(Filch), , (Peeves),
. , : !

! (Snape) , , ,
, . - ,
. , ,
(intruder), . ,
, , , , . .
10. . Po . ,
(hexes) .
11. (Bagman) , . , . (hexes and spells), , ,
, .

75

7
Exercise 1

Translate into English paying attention to the Possessive Case.


, .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. 8 .
5. ?
6. .
7. ?
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. 5 .
17. .
18. .
19. .
20. 20 .
21. .
22. 10- .
23. .
24. .
25. .
Exercise 2

Use the appropriate articles.


, .

1. He began to climb stairs which were dark and smelt of cats.


2. I read until breakfast time novel I had borrowed from friend.

3. I dont have to go into reasons why they hate each other.


4. What he said reminded me of film I had seen.
5. lieutenant offered Grey cigarette which he refused.
6. He was wearing tweed jacket with leather inserts at elbows,
thing that I had never seen.
7. Charlotte did not like idea that Arthur could be better at anything than
Joe was.
8. This was sentence that made sense, but no meaning.
9. questions Ann asked always seemed to be questions to which Paul
knew answers.
10. Stanley knows woman who might be persuaded to come out by bus
once week to clean house.
11. She was not little girl he had known, but she was not yet woman either.
12. Her eyes were really like searchlights, picking out things that no one
saw.
13. fact that he would have independent means made her feel relieved.
14. Without knowing her at all I got feeling that she was strongest person
in family.
15. It was not job that he liked.
16. Her husband made her presents of books she did not read.
17. And then he put forward amazing suggestion that she should turn down
offer and settle in London.
18. She wanted to fill wine-glasses which she had received as wedding
present.
19. I liked reading in garden, which was several steps below level of
yard.
20. I have impression that you dont trust me.
21. She was drinking glass of orange juice.
22. My friend is man of culture and wide reading.
23. His voice was determined, lines of his face had grown harsh.
24. Tom sat down on edge of log and looked at glassy surface of
lake.
25. deposit of 5 pounds is payable by anyone who wishes to become
reader of library.
26. faint purring of motor woke Julia next morning.
27. "Come back in half hour, Ill give you bottle of medicine", said
doctor.
28. lamplight made his skin colour of red brick.
29. He found orchid of peculiar rarity.
30. He remembered soothing effect of her words.
31. He was disturbed by sound of shot.

77

78

32. Willy leaned on back of chair.


33. He always disliked anybody as soon as they were appointed to position
of authority.
34. He always took line of least resistance.
35. My grandfather was man of force and intellect.
36. From kitchen came singing of kettle on stove.
37. Just then latch of front door clicked, and my father came in.
38. From sitting-room came chink of light beneath door, and
sound of whispers from my mother and her friends.
39. wallpaper was dark-blue with design of conventional flowers.
40. This machinery drills holes to depth of two miles or even more.
41. The woman moved her chair slightly towards right side of path.
42. In crate there were boxes of cigars.
Exercise 3

Insert articles where necessary.


, .

1. For minute or two we were all silent. Then Robert struck match and lit
cigarette.
2. Without waiting for answer, he walked over to his car.
3. It was calculated risk to take man without medical experience, but
we were looking for manager primarily.
4. She gave low rather hoarse chuckle, that chuckle which so delighted
audiences.
5. guard blew cracked whistle and waved red flag.
6. When I got home again, I found note in her bold, legible writing on ...
sideboard.
7. You thought you'd only given birth to ugly duckling, perhaps he's going
to turn into white-winged swan.
8. With her open hand she gave him great swinging blow on face.
9. I ought never to have accepted valuable presents from you and allowed
you to lend me money.
10. After while I got into private employment and met ... nice girl.
11. Then, on one excuse and other, she sent him ... pearl studs and ... sleevelinks and ... waistcoat buttons. It thrilled her to make him ... presents.
12. She wore ... very small hat with ... feathers in it, and ... pale gray dress with
large leg-of-mutton sleeves and ... long train.
13. He spoke gently, and slowly, like ... father who reassures frightened
child.
14. mists were dangerous, too, rising in cloud from damp ground and
closing in about marshes like white barrier.
15. In half ... hour she had ... kitchen scrubbed clean as ... pin.

16. Clinging to her father's hand, she saw ... great white ship like bird rolling
helplessly in ... tough of sea.
17. She rose like ... fish to his bait.
18. town was set on bosom of hill, with castle in centre, like
tale from old history.
19. little car shot up to right house like bullet, and shot out its owner
like bombshell.
20. Without word, with curious swift motion, like tiger pacing his cage,
she came down and followed May out.
21. There is ... packet of candles in larder, I saw them, better use those.
22. There's ... piece of ... mutton in kitchen
23. brook burbled merrily over stones and there was fording gate
across ... shallow water.
24. There's piece of ... cheese in cupboard behind you.
25. Michael gave Dolly ... glance. There was ... twinkle in his eye.
26. There was shout and clatter of hoofs and Jem rode up to her round
corner of house, astride black pony.
27. There was flaming spot of colour high on his cheekbone.
28. Even as she spoke, there was ... loud knock at entrance-door and then
pause, followed by thunder of blows.
29. "There's light in kitchen," she whispered.
30. There's been ... very nasty atmosphere in this Lab recently, and if ... certain
gentleman doesn't take hold of himself, there'll be mischief done, you mark
my words.
31. There was ... noise, faintly discernible, like creeping of ... myriad insects.
32. kitchen was lit by ... single candle stuck sideways into ... bottle.
33. She walked away up ... hill without backward glance or ... wave of
hand.
34. ... people had lived there once ... happy, placid people, ... rectors with ...
musty books beneath their arms; and there by window gray-haired woman
in ... blue gown had stooped to thread her needle.
35. In ... little while appeared ... ancient and haggard female in ... very dirty print
dress, with ... untidy mop of ... grey hair, and showed me, two flights up very
small grubby room.
36. Then she lifted her eyes and saw door of kitchen open very slowly,
little by little, ... inch at ... time.
37. They sucked oranges beneath ... striped tent, and had their fortunes told
by ... wrinkled gypsy woman.
38. Jem bought Mary ... crimson shawl, and ... gold rings for her ears.
39. She regarded me merely as ... person in ... play.
40. ... drinking well in ... yard had ... thin layer of ... ice.

79

80

C
Exercise 4

Insert articles where necessary.


, .

(A) Whirling, talking, 11 D began to enter... Room 109. From ... quality of ...
classs excitement Mark Prosser guessed it would rain. He had been teaching ...
high school for three years, yet his students still impressed him, they were such
sensitive animals. They reacted so infallibly to ... mere barometric pressure.
(B) Mark hadnt noticed exactly when ... rain started, but it was coming down
hard now. He moved around ... room with ... window pole, closing ... windows
and pulling down ... shades. He began to talk to Gloria in ... crisp voice that, like
his device of shutting ... windows, was intended to protect them both from ...
embarrassment.
() "And about ... love. ... Love is one of... words that illustrate what has happened to ... old, overworked language. These days, with ... movie stars and ...
preachers and ... psychiatrists all pronouncing ... word, it has come to mean nothing, but ... vague fondness for something. In this sense, I love ... rain, ... blackboard, ... desk, you. It means nothing, you see, whereas once ... word signified
quite ... explicit thing ... desire to share all you want and are with someone
else. It is ... time we coined ... new word to mean that, and when you think up ...
word you want to use, I suggest that you be economical with it. Treat it as something you can use only once, if not for your own sake, for... good of... language."
(D) I got ... advance on my salary ... next morning, and I put ... nine hundred
dollars into ... envelope and walked over to ... Warburtons when ... last lights in ...
neighbourhood had been put out. It had been raining, but ... rain had let up.
Stars were beginning to show. I went around to ... back of their house, found ...
kitchen door open, and put ... envelope on ... table in ... dark room. As I was walking away from ... house, ... police car drew up beside me, and ... patrolman I knew
asked, "What are you doing out at this time of ... night, Mr. Hake?"
"Im walking ... dog," I said cheerfully. There was no dog in ... sight, but they
didnt look. "Here, Toby! Here, Toby! ... good dog!" I called, and off I went whistling
merrily in ... dark.
(E) ... poor young artist was asked to paint ... portrait of ... rich lady and he did
his best to make ... good picture. When ... portrait was finished, it was shown to
...ladys friends.
Some of them thought it was too realistic. They were afraid ... lady would not
like ... picture. One of his friends suggested ... following, "We shall leave it for ...
ladys dog to decide whether ... picture is good or bad."
... next day ... picture was sent to ... ladys house where her friends had gathered to see ... result of ... test. As soon as ... dog was brought before ... portrait it
began to lick it all over.
Nobody knew that ... painters friend had spread ... bacon all over ... picture.

C
Exercise 5

Translate paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. , .
2. , .
3. , ,
.
4. , .
5. , , .
6. , .
7. , , .
8. .
9. , .
10. ?
11. , , , .
12. .
13. , .
14. . , , . .
15. , , .
16. .
17. , .
18. .
19. , .
Exercise 6

Translate into English paying attention to the articles and the number
of the nouns.
, .

1. c !
2. ?
3. .
4. , .
5. ?
6. , , .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .

81

82

11. , .
12. .
13. , .
14. .
15. , , .
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. .
20. .
21. .
22. .
23. .
24. .
25. !
26. .
Exercise 7

Translate into English paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. .
2. , .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. , .
7. .
.
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. ?
13. .
14.
.
15. .
16. .
17. .
18. .

C
Exercise 8

Translate paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. . .
2. .
3. ?
4. .
5. - .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12 .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. , .
17. . .
Exercise 9

Translate paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. .
2. . .
3. .
4. . .
5. .
6. ?
7. ?
8. .
9. , .
10. . , .
11. ,
.
12. .
13. .
14. , .
15. .

83

84

C
Exercise 10

Translate paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. .
2. .
3. ? .
4. .
5. ? .
6. . .
7. - . .
, , , .
8. .
9. , .
10. , .
, .
11. . .
12. - .
Exercise 11

Translate paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. . , .
6. , .
7. .
8. . .
9. ?
10. . .
11. .
12. .
13. . .
14. ,
.

C
Exercise 12

Translate paying attention to the articles.


, .

1. .
2. 2002 .
3. .
4. ?
5. ! .
6. .
7. .
8. 1 . .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. , ,
. ,
.
13. , .
14. .
Exercise 13

Use the appropriate articles.


.

1. They made him major-general after he left headquarters.


2. We were children of our class and time.
3. Heavens! Look at dog! Or is it lion?
4. Hart was uneasy nervous man who broke into flashes of speech.
5. I wouldnt be Prime Minister if they asked me on their knees.
6. Jason was made Secretary of the club.
7. John could not make up his mind about blackmail. He had been led to
think that McGrath was blackmailer, because he had personality to be
blackmailer.
8. She was only Liberal in their family.
9. After some most astonishing adventures in New Guinea he made himself
king of some wild tribe.
10. No, you are getting this quite wrong. She is wife of friend of mine.
11. Prynne was manager of estate up river.
12. With face like yours Id be at least president of steel company.
13. Learning comes easier to young.
14. public are requested to keep off grass in park.

85

86

15. I believe there is theory that men and women emerge finer and
stronger after suffering.
16. Future Tense is not used in adverbial clauses of time and condition.
17. He was at that time lieutenant in British Army.
18. Mr. Richardson was owner and editor-in-chief of publishing
house.
19. Rudy had gift of being liked. That was why he was elected president
of his class three times in row.
20. At that time I was manager of Crawford Street branch of bank.
21. I saw group of workmen coming towards us. One of them was fat,
red-faced man and I presumed that he was foreman.
22. Its girl called Betsy. She is bosss secretary.
23. Henry Green was son of general.
24. I might be leader of party instead of you.
25. His wife and Sheila were active strong women who loved using their
muscles.
26. Im going to be President of this company.
27. He was manager of largest estate in district.
28. There seemed no reason why he should not eventually be made Governor.
29. On way back to compartment we passed Natalie Winter. She was
very shy woman. She was also star of season.
30. She was proud of being daughter of poet.
31. If anyone could tell her what she wanted to know, Mrs. Ferguson was
woman.
32. Then Rudy saw Professor Denton, head of History and Economics
department.
33. sun was hanging over hill behind them, large red ball which had
lost its fierceness.
34. Philips wife, biggest snob in family, invited me to tea.
35. Then we were joined by two women, acquaintances of Charles and
Ann.
36. figure 5 is same for Russian or American, while word five is
not.
37. Admiral Lacey was red-faced man.
38. Then he walked down Broadway, main street of town.
39. She was daughter of well-known theatrical manager, willowy,
wispy, fair-haired girl with colourless eyes.
40. He assumed role of breadwinner for family.
41. General Holt withdrew his plan.
42. The had lunch at Hexley, small village on coast.

43. He was their favourite nephew, son of their dead elder sister.
44. We spoke to Philips secretary, youngish man called Williams.
45. Within short time Gregory married Zalia Phelps, daughter of Angus
Phelps, planter in Georgia.
46. Smiley, captain of ... team, got up on bench and told them of his
plan.
47. nurse Everett, bony woman of fifty, herself opened door.
48. My friend Herbert was professor of English literature at one of smaller
universities of Middle West.
49. He turned to me and said, "What extraordinary names these boys seem
to have."
50. Thames Street was broad road on edge of town half mile
from park. Most of houses in it had been built just before Second
WorldWar.
51. All big hotels are very much the same.
52. The plane flew at speed of 1,560 miles per hour.
53. "What beautiful portraits," she said, "and what lucky man you
mustbe!"

87

8
Exercise 1

Translate into English paying attention to the Conditional.


, .

1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. ,
.
11. , .
12. , .
13. , , . .
14. , .
15. ,
.
16. , .
17. , .
18. , .
19. , .
20. , .
21. ,
.
22. .
23. .
24. .
25. . .
26. .
27. .

C
Exercise 2

Translate into English paying attention to the Conditional.


, .

1. , .
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. ,
.
5. . ,
.
6. , .
7. c , .
8. , . ,
, , .
9. , .
, .
10. , .
11. ,
.
12. - .
.
13. , .
14. , .
15. ,
.
16. ,
.
17. .
18. .
19. ,
.
20. .
21. ,
.
22. ,

23. , .

89

90

C
Exercise 3

Translate into English paying attention to Wish-clauses.


, , .

1. ,
.
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. .
11. , , .
12. , .
13. , .
14. , .
15. , .
16. , .
17. , .
18. , .
19. , .
20. , , .
21. , .
22. , .
23. , .
24. .
25. , .
26. , , .
27. , .
.
28. , .
29. . .
30. , , . .
31. , .
32. . , .
33. , .
.

C
Exercise 4

Translate into English using the Subjunctive where appropriate.


, , .

1. , .
2. .
3. , ; .
4. ,
?
5. .
6. , .
7. ,
.
8. , , , .
9. , .
10. .
11. , - , .
12. , ,
, ?
13. , ,
.
14. , , , , .
15. , ?
Exercise 5

Use a Subjunctive form with should where appropriate.


should, .

1. , .
2. ,
.
3. , .
4. , .
5. .
6. , .
7. .
8. , .

91

92

9. , .
10. .
11. , .
12. , .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. ?
17. .
18. .
19. .
20. , .
21. .
22. .
23. , .
24. .
25. , .
26. .
Exercise 6

Translate into English using the Subjunctive Mood where appropriate.


, , .

1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , .
12. , .
13. , , .
14. , .
15. , .
16. , .

17. , .
18. , .
19. , .
20. , .
21. , .
22. , .
23. ,
.
24. ,
.
25. , .
26. , .
27. , .
28. , .
29. , .
30. , .
31. , .
32. ,
.
33. , .
34. , .
35. , .
36. , .
Exercise 7

Translate into English using the Subjunctive where appropriate.


, , .

1. . .
2. . .
3. . ,
.
4. , .
5. , ? .
6. . , .
7. .
.
8. ? .
9. .
10. ? .

93

94

11. ,
.
12. , . , .
13. ? .
Exercise 8

Translate into English using the Subjunctive where appropriate.


, , .

1. , . , .
2. , . ,
. .
3. , - .
, .
4. , . ,
. ,
.
5. , , . ,
, .
6. , ,
.
7. , ,
. , , . ,
.
8. , . , .
9. ,
, .
10. , .
, -,
.
11. ,
. , , ?
12. ,
.
13. , .
, .
14. , ?

15. ,
!
16. , ;
.
17. . ,
.
18. .
. .
19. ,
, .
20. ,
.
21. ,
.
22. ,
. .
23. , .
, .
24. ,
. , .
, .
25. , . , . ,
.

95

9
Exercise 1

Translate into English using the Subjunctive and modal verbs where
appropriate.
, , .

1. .
, ,
.
2. , , .
,
.
3. . , .
4. , , , , .
5. .
- , .
6. .
.
, .
7. , , 5 . . , .
8. , . ,
.
9. , . .
10. .
.
11. .
, .


Exercise 2

Translate into English using the Subjunctive and modal verbs where
appropriate.
, , .

1. , , , . .
2. , . , .
3. , , .
, .
4. ; , , . , .
5. . .
, .
6. , ,
, , .
7. , , , ,
. .
8. , , ,
- , . , .
9. , ,
, .
.
10. ,
. ,
.
11. C, . . .
12. , , . . , .
13. , , ,
.
14. , , , .
15. , , , , ,
.
.

97

98

16. . .
, .
17. , , .
.
18. , ,
. , .
19. ? .
20. , , . , , , .
21. .
.
22. , ,
. , , - .
23. . , . . ,
.
24. , , , ,
.
25. . , .
, , .
26. , . , , .
. , .
, , .

10
Exercise 1

Analyze the sentences. State the form and function of the underlined
word in each sentence.
. .

1. It is difficult to understand him.


2. This is the best way to understand him.
3. He showed deep understanding of the poem.
4. There is no hope of understanding him.
5. He was the first to come.
6. I saw him going down the street.
7. He left without saying a word.
8. On coming home he rang up his friend.
9. He insisted on coming to see us.
10. Birds announced the coming of spring.
11. He got up to ask a question.
12. He was happy to be invited.
13. Ill show you the way to do it.
14. It was difficult to answer the question.
15. The duty of a postman is to deliver mail.
16. She lay on the sofa reading a book.
17. He is fond of reading.
18. He nodded without raising his hat.
19. He liked the idea of going there.
20. He had to go there alone.
21. He waited for the clock to strike.
22. The best way to get ready for your exam is to go over your notes again.
Exercise 2

State the form and function of the Infinitive in each sentence.


.

1. seems to be saying something, but I cant hear a word.


2. I felt that to show him the letter would only pain him uselessly.

100

3. Im happy to have met you.


4. We were sorry to find out that the Museum was closed.
5. We did not expect him to return so soon.
6. He suddenly got worse and had to be operated on at once.
7. He was sorry to have missed so many lectures.
8. She must have gone there yesterday.
9. She was to have gone there yesterday.
10. You should have seen the doctor at once.
11. They were happy to be left alone.
12. He may be studying in the reading-room.
13. Could you give me a book to read?
14. He had to leave at once.
15. He was the first to come to the finish.
16. He cant have said it.
17. He was the only one not to change his opinion.
18. You ought to be doing your homework.
19. He seems to know what he is talking about.
20. The letter was to be sent at once.
21. This problem should have been solved a long time ago.
22. This is a chance not to be missed.
Exercise 3

Translate into English using the Infinitive as in the model.


, , .

Model: He expected the problem to be solved at once.


He asked to see the letter.

1. ,
.
2. , .
3. .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. ,
.
10. , .
11. , .
12. .


Exercise 4

Combine the following sentences to use Infinitives as attributes.


, .

MODEL:
) Can you lend me an English book?
) I want to read it.
Can you give me an English book to read?
1. This is an interesting subject. You can make a talk on it.
2. This is a good film. You can see it.
3. This is an interesting fact. Why not mention it in your talk?
4. This is the man. You can rely on him.
5. This is an inconvenient moment. You must not ring him up.
6. My friend was the first. He raised this question.
7. He is the only one. He has given up smoking.
8. He wants to be next. He will make a talk about the book he has read.
9. He was the only one. He mentioned this fact.
10. He was the last. He changed his opinion about the matter.
11. He was the second. He came to the finish.
Exercise 5

Translate into English paying attention to the Infinitive as adverbial


modifier of the consecutive action.
, .

1. .
2. .
3. , , .
4. , ,
.
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , .

101

102

C
Exercise 6

Paraphrase the following using the verb in the brackets and an Infinitive construction.
, .

1. This part of land was under the sea (to believe).


2. Our ways never crossed (to happen).
3. His flat was a one-room affair (to turn out).
4. My fears were groundless (to prove).
5. Hardly anybody noticed his departure (to appear).
6. The truth will come out (to be sure).
7. The answer will not please him (to be likely).
8. The mans mind was working with extraordinary freedom (to seem).
9. The events would be much commented on in the press (to be certain).
10. He is the best candidate for the post (to consider).
Exercise 7

Paraphrase the following using Infinitive constructions.


, .

1. It was announced that the Spanish dancers were arriving next week.
2. It is expected that the performance will be a success.
3. It is said that this book is popular with both old and young.
4. It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown author.
5. It is supposed that the playwright is working on a new comedy.
6. It was understood that the parties had come to an agreement.
7. It is reported that the flood has not caused much damage to the crops.
8. It has been discovered that mineral water is very good for the liver.
9. It seems they know all about it.
10. It seems they have not heard about it.
11. It seemed that the discussion was coming to an end.
12. It seems that you dont approve of the idea.
13. It seemed that the house had not been lived in for a long time.
14. It appeared that he was losing patience.
15. It appeared that he had not heard what had been said.
16. It so happened that I overheard their conversation.
17. It proves that my prediction was correct.
18. It turned out that the language of the article was quite easy.
19. It is likely that the article will appear in the next issue of the journal.
20. It is not very likely that he should change his opinion.
21. It was certain that they would come to an understanding.
22. It seemed unlikely that questions of the kind should crop up.

23. We are sure that everything will turn out all right.
24. No doubt he noticed it.
25. I am certain that the treatment will help you.
26. It is likely that we will have a lot of snow this winter.
Exercise 8

Translate into English.


.

1. .
2. , , .
3. , .
, .
4. , , , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , , .
8. , .
9. , , .
10. , .
11. , .
12. ,
.
13. , ,
.
14. , .
15. ,
.
16. , .
17. , .
18. , - .
19. , .
20. , .
21. , , ?
22. , ,
.
23. ?
24. -, .

103

104

25. .
26. , .
27. , , .
28. , .
29. .
30. - .
31. .
32. .
33. .
Exercise 9

State the form and function of the Gerund in the following sentences.
.

1. Choosing a present for the boy was not easy.


2. On seeing the funny toy, the child burst out laughing.
3. They finished discussing the matter at 10.
4. He was blamed for not having helped his friend.
5. He doesnt like praising people too often.
6. He doesnt like being praised.
7. A lot depends on his turning up in time.
8. He was accused of stealing the money.
9. Everybody objects to the meeting being cancelled.
10. He has stopped smoking.
11. Why dont you do the work properly without being reminded?
12. I dont feel like bathing today.
13. I have no hope of ever returning to this place.
14. Read the theory before doing the exercise.
15. I dont mind being asked about it.
Exercise 10

Paraphrase the sentences according to the model.


.

MODEL:
The TV-set must be repaired.
The TV-set needs repairing.
1. Must the tooth really be stopped?
2. His hair must be cut.
3. Is it necessary to have the boots mended?
4. What else must be repaired?
5. Your suit must be pressed.
6. His clothes must be cleaned.

7. The floor is dirty, it must be washed.


8. The house must be painted.
9. The book must be bound.
10. The walls have to be repapered.
Exercise 11

Complete the sentences using Gerunds or Infinitives.


, .

1. Does he prefer ( )?
2. I would rather ( ).
3. Did you enjoy ( )?
4. He made a note in his diary not to forget ( ).
5. He is in the habit of ( ).
6. Excuse me for ( ).
7. It will be a pleasure ( ).
8. Is the film worth ()?
9. We cant afford () such an expensive piece of furniture.
10. Has he finished ()?
11. I remember ( ).
12. I regret () that I wont be coming.
13. He dreams of ( ).
14. Did you remember ( )?
15. The translation needs ().
16. My friend is thinking of ( ).
17. We discussed the budget and then went on () the sales.
18. Your son looks forward to ( ), doesnt he?
19. We used () when at school.
20. You are fond of (), arent you?
21. Who is responsible for ( )?
22. I am used to ( ).
23. If everything else fails, try () the instruction.
24. Ill try () your car tomorrow.
25. We are tired of ( ).
26. Do any of you feel like ( )?
27. He stopped () a week ago.
28. Why does he avoid ( )?
29. She went for a walk instead of ( ).
30. We must stop ().
31. He went away without ( ).
32. What else did you do besides ( )?
33. He put off ( ) because he was too busy.
34. Do you have any objections to ( )?

105

106

35. I tried () the wheel, but my hands were too cold.


36. He objected to ( ).
37. I dont mind ( , ).
38. Whats your idea of ( )?
39. He tried () her flowers and () her letters, but it had no effect.
Exercise 12

Translate into English using Gerunds or Infinitives.


, .

1. ?
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. ?
6. , ?
7. , .
8. .
9. .
10. , - .
11. .
12. , .
13. , ?
14. , .
15. C , .
16. , .
17. C , .
18. , .
19. , .
20. .
21. , .
22. .
23. .
24. , .
25. .
26. , .
27. .
28. , .
29. , , .
30. C , .
31. , .

32. .
33. , .
34. , .
35. .
36. .
37. .
38. .
39. , ,
.
40. .
41. , , - o
.
42. , .
43. .
44. .
Exercise 13

Use the appropriate form of the participle.


.

1. He said that the people ( ) had been sitting here for a


long time.
2. The person ( ) has just gone.
3. The man ( ) was our teacher last year.
4. Ask the policeman (c ) for directions.
5. We went up to the man ( ) and asked him the way.
6. I didnt see in what direction the man ( ) went.
7. ( , ) the witness left the box.
8. He wants to write a book () his impressions of the trip.
9. ( ) he decided that there was nobody in.
10. The conference ( ) at the University is devoted to environmental problems.
11. We were unable to attend the conference ( ) at the
University.
12. ( ) he felt that it was not locked, and ( ) he looked
inside.
13. I felt very tired ( ) in the sun.
14. Each time ( ) he could not help a smile.

107

108

15. A new power plant ( ) a number of industrial


regions was built here a couple of years ago.
16. ( ) he did not care to look for it in the darkness and
took another one.
17. ( ) he began to dial the number.
18. They stood ( ) ( ) the meter.
19. ( ) only a few years before he knew those parts as if he had
always lived there.
20. ( ) he tiptoed into the room.
21. Suddenly I heard the sound of a key () in the lock.
22. The flowers have faded ( ).
23. The sight of ( ) made my mouth water.
24. ( ) the flowers opened their petals.
25. ( ) she found a telegram awaiting her.
26. Here are some samples of the products of this plant () to different parts of the country.
27. These are samples of products () last month.
28. Here are samples of products of the plants () us machinery.
29. These are samples of products () before the restoration of
the plant.
Exercise 14

Replace the infinitives in brackets by appropriate participles or


gerunds.

.

1. (to reject) by the editorial board, the story was returned to the author for
revision.
2. (to reject) by publishers several times, the story was accepted by a weekly
magazine.
3. (to wait) for some time in the reception room, he was asked into the office.
4. (to wait) in the reception room, he thought over what he would say when
he was asked into the office.
5. They reached the peak at dusk, (to leave) their camp with the first light.
6. They put up for the night at a temporary camp, (to leave) it at dawn.
7. The friends went out into the city (to leave) their cases at the left luggage
department.
8. (to write) and (to leave) a note with the porter, he said he would be back in
a half-hour.
9. (to write) in an archaic language, the book was difficult to read.
10. (to write) his first book, he could not go far beyond his own experience.
11. (to be) away so long he was happy to be coming back.

12. (to be so far away) he still felt himself part of the community.
13. The children looked wonderingly at the elephant, never (to see) such a
huge animal.
14. Not (to want) to go deeper into the matter, he abruptly changed the conversation.
15. (to read) the telegram twice, he realized that the matter needed immediate
attention.
16. When (to fill in) a form, you must write your name and address clearly.
17. (to make) great progress by the end of the school year he was able to start
(to read) books in the original.
18. "Dont lose your things, little boy," said a man (to pick up) the gloves (to
drop) by the boy.
19. (to be) fond of music, my brother never misses an opportunity (to go) to a
good concert.
20. (to walk) about the town for some time, he went up to a man and asked to
be directed to the main square.
21. I thought I had lost my bag and was therefore grateful to the man (to bring)
it back to me.
22. I had never realized what a talented writer he was until I saw his play (to
stage) in a Moscow theatre.
23. The man (to make) the opening speech at the exhibition yesterday is a wellknown painter.
Exercise 15

Translate into English paying attention to the form of the Participle.


, .

1. , ,
.
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , , .
10. , , , .
11. , , .
12. , , .
13. , , .

109

110

14. , , .15.
, .
Exercise 16

Use not or without as appropriate.


NOT WITHOUT .

1. -- speaking the language, he was questioned through an interpreter.


2. She never did a thing -- asking somebodys advice.
3. The man was holding forth -- paying attention to the attempts to interrupt
him.
4. I left him alone -- wanting to distract him from his work.
5. -- having recognized me, she passed by -- answering my nod.
6. The girl looked innocently about her, -- realizing what the joke was.
7. They could not see each other -- immediately losing their temper.
8. -- waiting for an answer, he turned round and went out.
9. I tried to catch his eye, but he sat motionless -- looking in my direction.
10. They jumped at the proposition -- thinking of consequences.
11. The wind had been blowing for many days -- seeming to stop.
12. The young man asked me all sorts of questions -- concealing his curiosity.
13. I stood motionless, -- believing my eyes.
14. He never signed a paper -- having thoroughly read it through.
15. The door stood ajar and we entered -- knocking.
Exercise 17

Use a Gerund with a preposition or a negative Participle to translate


the sentences below.
, .

1. ,
.
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. ,
.
6. , ?
7. , , .
8. , .
9. , , .

10. ,
.
11. , .
12. , .
13. , .
14. , .
Exercise 18

Use the appropriate form of the Infinitive or participle of the verb


in brackets.
, .

1. He could not help a smile (to remember) the incident.


2. She strained her memory (to remember) the date.
3. He reached out a hand (to switch on) the light.
4. He went to the table (to switch on) the light on the way.
5. There is a road (to connect) the two villages.
6. A canal was built (to connect) the two rivers.
7. He received a letter (to inform) him of their new address.
8. They sent him a letter (to inform) him of their new address.
9. They tried many other methods, finally (to return) to the initial one.
10. We have tried many other methods, only (to return) to the initial one.
11. There is a man (to wait) for you.
12. There is a man (to see) you.
13. He shaded his eyes with his hand (to protect) them from the sun.
14. She opened the drawer only (to find) it empty.
15. (to find) the room empty, she stopped in the doorway not (to know) what
to do.
16. He is not a man (to move) by tears.
17. He sat silently for a while (to move) by the story.
18. (to see) from afar, a beacon must be high and powerful.
19. (to see) from afar, the beacon was an unfailing guide for ships at sea.
Exercise 19

Translate into English.


.

1. C ,
.
2. , .
3. , .
4. ,
.
5. , .

111

112

6. , , .
7. 10- , , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , ,
.
11. , .
12. , , .
13. , ,
.
14. , ,
.
15. ,
.
16. , ,
.
17. ,
.
18. , .
19. , .
Exercise 20

Translate into English.


.

1. , ,
.
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , , .
5. , .
6. , , , , , , .
7. , , .
8. , .

9. , , ,
.
10. ,
.
11. , , , , ,
.
12. , ?
. , ?
13. , , , ,
.
14. , , .
15. , ,
.
16. ,
.
17. , , , 423.
18. , ,
.
19. ,
.
20. .
21. , .
22. , ,
.
23. , ,
.
24. , , .
25. ,
, .
26. ,
, .
Exercise 21

Translate the phrases in Russian with the help of infinitives, gerunds


or participles. Supply prepositions where necessary.
, . , .

1. He settled in his new home ( ).


2. ( ), he never wished to leave it.

113

114

3. They prided themselves ( ).


4. We counted ( ).
5. I cannot recall ( ). I dont even remember (
).
6. He turned round ( ).
7. He turned round ( , ).
8. That will be the greatest discovery ( - ).
9. He could not get used ( ).
10. She was quite unconscious ( ).
11. Excuse me ( ).
12. That was the greatest discovery (- ).
13. There are a lot of people here ( ).
14. We have many people ( ).
15. Im really ashamed ( ).
16. He is upset ( ).
17. She denied ( - ).
18. She had her jewels valued ( , ).
19. She was devastated, (), that her jewels were worthless.
20. He must be a great authority on the subject (
).
21. He was a great authority on the subject () in the field for so
many years.
22. We hope he succeeds ( ).
23. Why do you avoid ( )?
24. There are twenty more delegates ( ).
25. How many rooms have been reserved for the delegates (
)?
26. These rooms are occupied by the delegates ( ).
27. This is a wisdom ( ).
28. His was a wisdom ( ).
Exercise 22

Paraphrase the situations using non-finite forms of the verb.


, .

1. He tore the envelope open and took out the enclosed letter. He turned it
several times in his hand and put it back unread.
2. When he received the information, he immediately went down the hall and
rang up his wife.
3. We took a cab: we wished to be among the first who would greet the
guests.

4. We arrived at the party, we found everybody gathered.


5. He wanted me to speak in public; he insisted on it.
6. He had studied every exhibit on display. He now felt he knew what should
be done to improve the layout.
7. He poured out the wine clumsily and spilt some of it on the table cloth.
8. I have not stayed in the country long enough. I havent learned the customs
of the people.
9. I hope you will remember this. You wont make me remind you.
10. They did not wish to meet anybody; they went round the house to the back
door.
11. Every other minute he would push up his sleeve and look at his watch.
12. When he saw me in this dress he burst out laughing. He couldnt help it.
13. You will not make a good recovery if you dont take regular treatment.
14. When I was examining the post mark, I noticed that the letter had been
sent a week before.
15. He went on reading, he did not answer. It seemed he had not heard my
question.
16. The man registered new arrivals, that was his job.
17. He did not suspect a trap. He readily accepted the offer.
18. When he arrived at the gallery, he paid the entrance fee, picked up a catalogue and went in.
19. As they had been promised assistance, they felt more confident.
20. After he was shown in, he was asked to wait for a while.
21. They started the construction of the dam early in the spring and completed
it before cold weather set in.
22. He lit a cigarette, leaned against the porch rail and looked out at the trees
and the rain that was pouring down steadily and monotonously.
23. When she was walking down the steps, she suddenly stopped as she remembered that she had left the gas burning.
24. He was standing at the counter and hesitating as he did not know what to
choose.
25. After they had finalized the program, they proceeded to the discussion of
the items that dealt with financial matters.
26. He knows the language better than a foreigner usually does, for he has
been living in the country for a long time.
27. Though he had lived there a long time, he knew very few people in the
neighbourhood.
28. After they had finished the translation, the students were allowed out of
the room for a while.
29. As they had not bought tickets in advance, they had to go to the theatre
long before the show started.

115

116

30. After she had spent a week in the country, Ann looked almost fully recovered.
31. As I had lent my dictionary to a friend, I had to go to the library to get one
for myself.
32. As soon as Peter arrived in the city, he hurried to the nearest post-office and
sent a post card home.
33. Henry paid the rent and found that he had only small change left till the
end of the week.
34. As I had left my notebook behind, I couldnt phone you as I had promised.
35. As the teacher was very pleased with the students answer, he did not ask
him any more questions.
36. The house which will be built here has been designed by a famous architect.
37. I left the window open so that I might hear the music.
38. He went there and was told he might as well not have come at all.
39. The book is long and one cannot read it in one day.
40. Helen reached the hospital and found her brother a little better.
41. It made me feel sad when I saw him in distress.
Exercise 23

Translate into English.


.

1. , , .
2. , .
3. .
4. , .
5. ,
.
6. .
7. , ?
8. , .
9. , , ,
.
10.
.
11. ; .
12. ,
, .
13. , .
14. , - .
15. , , .

16. .
17. .
18. , , .
19. , .
20. .
21. , .
22. , ,
.
23. , , .
24. , ,
.
25. , , .
26. , ,
.
27. , .
28. , .
29. , , .
30. , .
31. , ,
.
32. , ,
, .
33. , .
34. , .
35. , , .

117

11
Exercise 1

Translate Into English.


.

1. , , , ,
, ,
. .
! .
, .
2. , .
, , - . , , .
, ,
.
3. , , ,
. ?
! .
4. ,
. .
, , , , .
, , .
5. - , . !
.
. , . -
.
6. - , ,
. , .
.
7. , .
, . , ,
. , .

8.
, - . , .
9. . , , .
, .
10. . .
.
. , ,
. ? . ? .
11. , , . - .
12. , ? . ,
.
13. , . . ,
.
14. , , , . , , , . ?
?
15. ? .
, .
. .
.
16. . ? , . , . .
11 .
11?
17. ? . ? . . ,
.

119

120

18. ,
. , , , .
19. ,
.
, . , .
Exercise 2

Translate Into English.


.

1. ? - ?
2. , .
, . , ,
, . .
3. , .
4. , ,
. .
5. , - , ?
. , , .
6. ? ? .
7. , . , , , , ? , , .
, .
8. , . ? , , . ?
. .
9. . 8 .
. .
10. ? , .
, . 5 .
11. 15 .
5 , ,
, .
12. ,
. , , , .

e
Exercise 3

Translate into English.


.

1. .
. ,
. . , .
2. .
: . , , . , , . 18 . 100 , ,
. , , . , .
3. , .
. - , . ,
.
4. . ,
, . , , . , -
100 .
5. , ,
. , .
. , . , - .
. 100 . - ,
, . , ,
, . ,
- , .
Exercise 4

Translate into English.


.

1. ,
. , -, .
. , . , .

121

122

2. . -
: , , , ,
30 . . , , 18 .
. ! - :
, ,
100 .
3. , -
. ,
, .
. - ,
, . . , , 100
. . .
, - .
4. , , - .
, . ,
, - - .
, . - .
- , , ,
. ,
- , -
. - .
.
5. ,
, . ? . , . , . , , .
, . ?
, .
Exercise 5

Translate into English.


.

1. . , . , , .
, , - .
, .

,
.
2. , ,
. ,
, . , . , , .
3. , . ,
. C, ,
, - . ,
.
4. .
, . ,
, (enjoy oneself).
,
, . ,
. . .
, , .
5. , ,
. ,
, , . , .
6. , , . . , . , . ,
.
7. , . , c - , . , . , , ,
. .
8. . , .
, , .

123

124

9. . , , .
. .
. .
10. . ,
. ,
, ,
. , , . .
. ,
.

12



Exercise 1

1. I read this story several years ago.


2. Several hundred people live in this block of flats.
3. I know this person very well.
4. I like this film very much.
5. We did not tell him about it yesterday.
6. I gave Tom this book to read.
7. They did not tell me about it.
8. He gave me these magazines yesterday.
9. A friend of mine told me about it.
10. About two thousand people work at this factory.
11. We discussed this matter with him yesterday.
12. Our teachers will take part in this work.
13. I dont know this person very well.
Exercise 2

1. They were big men with pale faces. / They were men with big pale faces.
2. The eight men were divers from New Zealand. /The divers were eight men
from New Zealand.
3. The team was brought to Rangoon to clear the harbour of its wrecks.
4. A lot of refugees had boarded these ships./ Refugees had boarded a lot of
these ships.
5. I climbed through one hole in the side of the ship.
6. The lamp is just being fixed in the next compartment.
7. The porters smiling face appeared in the doorway.
8. I was eager to say a few words to my companion.
9. Mark Twain was born in the family of a small town lawyer in 1835.
10. He began to work at a printshop in his home town.
11. This story was followed by a number of short stories and novels.

126

C
Exercise 3

My
SON
was given c
the height
1. My friends son was discussing the height of Mount Everest.
2. My young niece was given a very much wanted pupp for a present.
3. On the first night IT began whimpering very loudly.
4. It is difficult to find a nice place to stay a night in.
5. I like the idea of going there for the weekend.
6. HE was always first to spot interesting things lying on the pavement.
7. TWO of us had to ride on the crossbar.
8. It was impossible TO GET TO THE TOP without pedalling.
9. There is NOTHING particular about a woman doing a mans job nowadays.
10. Our GRANDFATHERS must have resented the idea of marrying a chimneysweeper or a bus conductor.
11. One afternoon some FRIENDS rang up Susan and Derek to invite them out
for the evening.
12. The dog, excited by so many people, rushed round and round the cyclist,
seeming to enjoy it.
13. A MAN with very long hair was stopped in a street by a very small boy.
14. By staying away from school WE are helping to ease the problem of overcrowded classrooms.
Exercise 4

1. who; much difference, much similarity.


2. driving through the fields.
3. sense
4. what
5. ; he.
6. thirty
7. trying to make him change his mind.
8. the stronger of the girls.
9. that I speak to him immediately.
10. red
11. to be free and alone.
12. collecting postage stamps.
13. all the tickets; no getting in.


Exercise 5

1. There were many people in the room, it was very stuffy.


2. It is time to go to bed, there is no time to waste.
3. There is no need to hurry, there is still plenty of time.
4. It was twenty degrees in the shade. There was not a cloud in the sky.
5. There was nothing to be seen, it was too dark.
6. There was deep snow at the foot of the hill, it was hard to walk.
7. There came a knock at the door, it was the postman.
8. Something clanked outside. It was the dogs chain. Then there was a sudden furious barking.
9. It was still very early, there was nobody to be seen in the street.
10. There was nothing left to do. It remained only to sign the document.
11. It was thirty kilometers to town and there were many villages on the way.
12. Im sure there is a rule for it, but it is not the rule he referred to.
13. Im afraid it is no use trying. There is no preventing it.
14. Do you think it/there is time for another cigarette?
15. It/there is no time for tea if we are in a hurry.
16. There was not a bench in sight and, anyway, it was too cold to sit down.
17. There was an hour to the plane, there/it was time to have the luggage
registered.
Exercise 6

1. She soon grew tired ( ) of the game.


2. He was thoroughly enjoying ( ) his dinner.
3. He was looking extremely nervous ( ).
4. He looked ( ) nervously at the clock on the building.
5. You are to go ( ) straight to your room.
6. I am afraid I am not feeling any better ( ).
7. I began to stammer ( ) my apologies.
8. The story will only get repeated and exaggerated ( ).
9. The ship was reported to be arriving ( ) in the
morning.
10. He has made ( ) no effort to bring the matter up.
11. The estate has ceased to be a family home ( ).
12. Alice went on speaking ( ) as if she had not heard
( ).
13. He felt ( ) he could not let ( ) it
pass, he had to do ( ) something.

127

128

C
Exercise 7

1. We saw him cross the street and enter the post-office.


2. They did not notice the boy enter the shop.
3. He felt somebody touch him by the hand.
4. I heard her say/saying it.
5. He watched her put on her skates and go to the ice.
6. We hear your daughter studies at college.
7. Janes words made him realize that her aunt was unkind to her.
8. What makes you think so?
9. I saw that he was nervous.
10. Dont let her go out so late.
11. They saw him running/run across the road.
12. I should like you to show me the way to Pushkin Square.
13. We heard him telling/tell them the history of London.
14. We watched the child looking through her grandfathers collection of
books.
15. Make her close the window. It is very cold in the room.
16. Now I see he is/was mistaken.
17. I felt I was doing/had done something wrong.
18. We expect you to give a talk on London.
19. I felt them looking at me, but I did not turn my head.
20. We heard her recite/reciting this extract at the evening-party. / We heard
that she recited this extract...
21. I see you are tired.
22. From my seat I saw you enter the hall and go up to Nina.
23. Ive heard that a famous opera singer is coming/has come to Moscow.
Exercise 8

1. He let me decide for myself.


2. I have never heard him boast.
3. I hear he is fond of boasting
4. What makes you think he is wrong?
5. He was happy to see his father entering the room.
6. I would like you to help me.
7. The boy did not expect his father to leave.
8. Let me know when you are leaving.
9. He made us all laugh with his story.
10. The boy was expecting his father to visit him.
11. When did you hear him praise this work?
12. I hear he has refused to do the job.
13. Dont let him smoke here.

14. When did you last have your hair cut?


15. We made him promise to come again.
16. He heard the/a young man swear.
17. She is having her luggage registered.
18. Dont let her carry heavy things.
19. You can see my neighbour walking with his daughter every day.
20. The boy saw his mother put sugar in the soup instead of salt.
21. She is having her watch repaired.
22. The child did not let go of her hand.
23. I hear you have moved into a new flat.
24. I heard a car stop in front of the house.
25. I hear that a famous actor has arrived in Moscow.
26. It is impossible to make Tom work on such a hot day.
27. I do not want you to go to the country in such awful weather.
28. All the family watched the father putting up a picture.
29. We watched him run and catch a passing bus.
30. We would like them to be present at the discussion.
31. You can see our neighbour working in his garden every Sunday in summer.
32. Nobody expected the foreign guests to know Russian so well.
33. Robert did not notice his friend enter the cafe and was surprised to feel
somebody touch him by the shoulder.
34. I see that I was mistaken.
35. I saw everybody look up and felt that something had happened.
36. We felt that he did not like our work.
37. I felt somebody pull at my sleeve.
38. I noticed a taxi slow down and stop at the corner of the street.
39. He knew that the book was interesting/the book to be interesting, but he
did not expect it to be so interesting.
40. I hear he is working on a new book. I wonder what it is about.
41. They felt it was time to go.
42. Dont let the children watch TV until late.
Exercise 9

1. I had to wait two hours to have my application registered.


2. Ive heard his name (being) mentioned in this connection.
3. After his death he left his family well provided for.
4. He wanted to make everyone respect him.
5. I could not have my only son expelled from university.
6. Why didnt you get him (to be) sent on that trip?
7. It annoyed him to hear/hearing his affairs being discussed by a stranger.

129

130

8. It was hard to see/seeing him defeated.


9. I expect your mother had her bills paid regularly.
10. It is impossible to get anyone to do anything/ to get anything done in
this house.
11. I dont want to see anyone hurt.
12. My husband gave such a loud laugh that I noticed other people glance
round at our table.
13. She smiled, slowly letting the door shut.
14. Mary had the table laid.
15. I did not expect the problem to turn into a tragedy.
16. Ive often heard this joke (being) told.
17. Ill have somebody put on to watch the house.
18. She could not bring herself to say that she was afraid of losing him.
19. I want this telegram sent at once.
20. He got the check cashed next morning.
21. We saw him lose his temper and felt uncomfortable.
22. Nothing can make him return to town in the middle of (the) summer.
23. Ill try to get your son to write to you.
24. Ive often seen this (being) done.
25. I wont have you speaking to me like this.
26. She smiled hearing herself being described as a middle-aged woman.
27. She does not wish her whereabouts to be known/ being known/known.
28. We were all waiting for the letter to arrive.
29. He motioned to me to go out.
30. I saw him sitting at the window watching the street.
31. She suffered from the thought of having another woman looking after
her child.
32. I know him never to lose anything.
33. Your letter has forced me to write what I feel.
34. I watched another car drive off and walked slowly back to the house.
35. I had expected my father to meet me at the station and was surprised to
find nobody waiting for me.
36. He heard water running in the bathroom. He had not expected his wife
to get back so early.
37. Listening to Sam speaking about his family, I was thinking about my own.
38. Arriving home in the evening, I discovered him sitting on the stairs in
front of my door.
39. He was waiting for me to explain my business.
40. I rely on you not to talk.
41. I looked at John drinking beer, but he did not seem to notice me.
42. He nodded to Andrew and gestured to him to sit down.
43. My uncle said he would arrange for me to spend a month on a farm.


Exercise 10

1. She has found a dress she likes, but she will have to have it altered.
2. I learned that the price included the cost of having my hair washed and
dried.
3. I would rather pay for having my shirts washed than wash them myself.
4. Ive had my best photographs enlarged and framed.
5. Im having the best photographs enlarged and framed.
6. Lets have/get the flat cleaned before the holiday.
7. To make sure your electrical equipment is safe, you should have it checked
regularly.
8. Ever since I learned that I had had my paper accepted at the conference,
Ive been worrying about things that I need to get done.
9. Ive decided to have my old suit cleaned rather than have a new one
made.
10. My hair needed cutting/I needed to have my hair cut anyway, so I began
to think of having it restyled.
11. I must get a friend of mine who is a stylist, to advise me on what will look
best.
12. I had my laptop stolen when my car was broken into, so Ive had to borrow
one and get an IT specialist to transfer my presentation onto the new computer.
13. Ill get a taxi to pick me up from home.
14. Ill have/get my secretary run/to run the film for you.
15. The chief of the hospital had had this document delivered to me before
the beginning of the working day.
16. I thought you might not get a chance to eat, so Ive had some food brought
here.
17. As we are getting the flat redecorated anyway, it might be a good idea to
have the electric sockets replaced.
18. Shall we get somebody to redecorate the kitchen/have the kitchen redecorated or shall we do it ourselves?
19. We have our knives sharpened once a year.
20. When she had had her jewellery valued, she found it wasnt actually
worth much.
21. Im going to have the roof repaired next year.
22. When did you last have your car serviced?
23. He had his nose broken in a fight.
24. Whats that smell? We are having the house painted.
25. Are the photographs ready? No, they arent. I havent had the film developed yet.
26. What are those workmen doing in the garden? We are having a swimming pool built.

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27. The engine in Toms car could not be repaired, so he had to have a new
engine fit in.
28. He had his money stolen on a tram.
29. Did you have the newspapers delivered or did you buy them yourself?
Exercise 11

1. long, from his friend. 2. cold


, . 3. Peters. 4. two broken. 5. second. 6. lying on
the floor. 7. of the house. 8. great, to travel about the country. 9. of seeing him
soon. 10. his, to go there alone. 11. in a long white dress. 12. to understand the
joke , .
13.the boys new. 14. to tell you. 15. to share a secret. 16. of talking to him again.
17. sitting next to me. 18. of his hair. 19. his, of talking. 20. rising. 21. neatly arranged on the shelf. 22. to be sent away.
Exercise 12

1. young Byrons first poems


2. my fathers old black pipe
3. the painter Ivanovs new pictures
4. the young girls thick English book
5. my old uncles pretty little daughter
6. Bernard Shaws most successful plays
7. my sister Helens beautiful clear voice
8. young Dickenss hard life
9. the boys new big spectacles / the new boys big spectacles
10. a little girls thick black plait
11. the young girls beautiful red-and-white dresses
12. our childrens bright carnival costumes
13. my elder brothers new expensive bicycle
14. this young authors first successful novel
15. yesterdays sensational news
16. my sisters wonderful ten-month-old baby
17. my best friends favourite old cap
18. my old grandmothers white lace gloves/ my grandmothers old white lace
gloves
19. my guests warm pleasant smile
20. the old mans loud cough
Exercise 13

1. There were a lot of large and small mens and womens hats of different
styles in the shop window.
2. There was a large tourists camp on the/ river bank.

3. We called at the nearest florists on our way and bought a large bouquet
of roses, my mothers favourite flowers.
4. There was a minutes awkward silence, then everyone started to talk at
once.
5. They went into the childrens footwear department.
6. There was a disagreement. Some suggested having the New Year party at
the Browns, others suggested having it at the Smiths.
7. Her eyes were as beautiful as her mothers and her chin was as strong as
her fathers.
8. Children were sweeping up last years leaves in the park.
9. The painting "Pushkin by the sea" is Aivazovki and Repins joint work.
10. The portrait of Remrandts wife is one of the great artists most famous
masterpieces.
11. He had no bicycle of his own, so when he had to go to the station, he borrowed his neighbours.
12. Whose proposal do you support the directors or the chief engineers?
13. Whats your best friends younger sisters name?
14. "Carmen", Bizets most popular opera, is based on Merimees famous novella.
15. Those are not his words, they are some other writers.
Exercise 14

1. He put AN envelope in THE doctors hand.


2. She teaches at A smart girls school.
3. After two months leave he was sent to AN Officers Training Camp in Dorset.
4. THE assistants office is located on THE second floor.
5. I was going to attend A parents meeting next Monday.
6. His eyes narrowed like A cats.
7. He was thinking of going to A Teachers Training College.
8. She was given A dolls house for her birthday.
9. That dog is A proper brute. Ive known him bite clean through A ladys
stocking.
10. They were promised four days rest.
11. She is out visiting A neighbours daughter.
12. The theatre had three weeks ballet season.
13. Very early in my life I was taught not to believe A girls tears.
14. THE chiefs remarks left me indifferent.
15. "Is that Mr. Blake?" A womans voice asked in THE telephone.
16. Then she leaped to one side as A cars brakes screamed behind her.
17. By A clowns grimace on his face I understood that he was suffering.

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Exercise 15

1. Are you younger than your sister? No, I am two years older than she.
2. This story is still more interesting than the one we were reading yesterday.
3. Our garden is the smallest of all.
4. It takes him less time to do his homework than it does me.
5. She is as young as her cousin./She is not older than her cousin.
6. Our TV-set is half as large as yours/ twice smaller than yours.
7. This text is twice as difficult as/twice more difficult than the one we have
just read.
8. His TV-set is as good as ours. But it takes up twice as much space.
9. This room is half as large as/twice smaller than yours.
10. This suitcase is still heavier than mine.
11. This text is the most interesting of all we have been reading so far.
12. This story is as long as that one, but not as interesting.
13. David is the older of the two brothers and the more intelligent.
14. Its not as cold today as it was yesterday.
15. This one is the more beautiful of the two dresses.
16. My brother speaks French much better than English.
17. The weather was becoming worse with every day.
18. This text is still more difficult than the one we were translating the other
day.
19. The more interesting a book is, the more quickly you will read it.
20. The sun is shining much more brightly today than yesterday.
21. Ive heard both reports. The first was much more interesting than the second.
Exercise 16

1. You are usually here when something happens.


2. I always work best at night.
3. Her mum always cooks a meal in the evening
4. He always moves very slowly in the morning.
5. She speaks Japanese fluently.
6. We usually book the April holiday in February.
7. I think wed better open the parcel now.
8. They think that we have probably got bread./ They
probably think that we have got bread.
9. Chocolate cakes are definitely the best.
10. She was crying quietly in her room.
11. I have never had an illness in my life.

12. We talked about it briefly at lunchtime.


13. Im going to break the eggs carefully into the bowl.
14. I definitely remember buying some sugar.
15. Ann usually works at the village shop on Saturdays.
16. I cant explain my feelings clearly.
17. The team played brilliantly yesterday.
18. She has never done that before.
19. I always worked very hard at school.
20. It is sometimes very difficult.
21. She practices the piano here every evening.
22. I have often tried to find it.
23. I dont think she plays tennis very well.
24. We are definitely going to win.
25. We were all at the station.
26. He read every word slowly.
27. Put the butter in the fridge at once.
Exercise 17

1. He knows English well enough.


2. The boy is strong enough.
3. He has enough money to buy a new suit.
4. He has not enough time to stay to tea.
5. The actor is famous enough.
6. I have enough notebooks at home.
7. The weather is warm enough.
8. There is not enough work for all of you.
9. I have not enough time to tell you the story.
10. You are not strong enough to do such work.
11. The museum is near enough
12. ... well have enough books for the whole group.
13. This room is large enough for ten people.
14. Do you think there will be enough food?
15. He ran away quickly enough.
16. He jumped high enough.
17. We dont have enough cups for everybody.
18. He greeted me warmly enough.
19. We have not enough flowers to give the teachers.
20. There is not enough water.
21. He phones often enough.
22. They had not enough money for a motor bike.

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Exercise 18

1. He is so hard-working. He is such a hard-working person.


2. The idea is so splendid. It is such a splendid idea.
3. The mistake was so awful. It was such an awful mistake.
4. The joke was so funny. It was such a funny joke.
5. The question was so unexpected. It was such an unexpected question.
6. The story was so touching. It was such a touching story.
7. The present was so expensive. It was such an expensive present.
8. The coat is so warm. It is such a warm coat.
9. It was such an interesting book. The book was so interesting.
10. He had such a strong voice. His voice was so strong.
11. It was such a funny hat. The hat was so funny.
12. She was so lucky... She was such a lucky person...
13. She wore such extravagant clothes. Her clothes were so extravagant.
14. It was such useful advice. The advice was so useful.
15. The girls were so pretty. They were such pretty girls.
16. Youve given me such interesting books. The books youve given me are so
interesting.
17. Dont give me so much money. Dont give me such a lot of money.
18. They were so busy. They were such busy people.
19. Her hair is so beautiful. She has such beautiful hair.
20. It was such hard work. The work was so hard.
21. The countryside was so beautiful. It was such beautiful countryside.
Exercise 19

1. The fog was so thick that it was impossible to see anything.


2. They could not see anything in such a thick fog.
3. The water was so cold that he did not enjoy his swim.
4. I cant bathe in such cold water.
5. I am so tired that I cannot walk home.
6. Ive always dreamed of such a cosy home.
7. We did not expect the film to be so interesting.
8. We saw such an interesting film yesterday!
9. Such news spreads fast.
10. I have so many/such a lot of things to do!
11. He was so angry with me that he refused to speak to me.
12. It was such difficult work, I wonder how he could do it so quickly.
13. I didnt know he was such a talented child.
14. He has been so busy lately that he has forgotten about our invitation.
15. Its a pity she works so slowly.
16. The wind was so strong that it was difficult to walk.

17. They have such sweet little daughters.


18. Her health is so poor that she seldom goes out.
19. I cant afford such an expensive coat, but I want it so very much!
20. This dress is so elegant, but it cannot be worn with such shoes.
21. Thank you for such an original idea.
22. You cant talk to your parents in such a way.
23. Its such a pleasure walking in the park in such fine weather.
24. She has such beautiful blond hair.
25. She has such a good taste, she is always so elegantly dressed.
Exercise 20

1. What did you do first?


2. I did not recognize him at first.
3. Listen to the text first, then answer my questions.
4. At first he refused to listen to me.
5. It is necessary to correct the mistakes first.
6. He wanted to go to the country at first, but then he changed his mind.
7. First think, then do.
8. He was so nervous at first that he could not speak.
9. We decided to go to the Tretyakov Gallery first.
10. At first we decided to go on an excursion on Sunday, but then it started
torain and we had to stay at home.
11. She advised me to do the oral exercises first.
12. We took no notice of his words at first.
13. I think you must speak to the chief engineer first.
14. I didnt want to speak to him at first.
15. I didnt want to speak to him first.


Exercise 1

1. I havent seen anyone today. / I have seen no one.


2. He does not come here every day.
3. I did not understand you well enough.
4. He does not work at our factory.
5. I do not get up very late on Sunday.
6. He did not tell me about this yesterday. / It was not about this that he told
me yesterday.
7. I do not think it will rain tomorrow.
8. It did not take me very long to do this job.

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9. I did not expect it would rain long.


10. He never understood what the matter was.
11. They do not seem to be in a hurry to see us.
12. I did not see Helen, but her sister.
13. He did not think you would be able to see all the sights in three days.
14. They do not live on the ground floor.
15. I do not think he went to work yesterday.
16. He does not seem to like it.
17. He did not go where he had been sent.
18. I do not expect you will object.
19. We do not meet very often.
20. I do not think you are right.
21. He did not greet us very politely.
22. I do not expect we shall be able to see him today.
Exercise 2

1. a) Will there be a lot of fruit in this garden in autumn? b) There will be a lot
of fruit in this garden in autumn, wont there? c) Where will there be a lot of fruit
in autumn? d) When will there be a lot of fruit in this garden? e) Why will there
be a lot of fruit in this garden in autumn? f ) How much fruit will there be in this
garden in autumn? g) What will there be in this garden in autumn?
2. a) Will there be a military parade in Red Square? b) There will be a military
parade in Red Square, wont there? c) Where will there be a military parade?
d)What will there be in Red Square? e) When will there be a military parade in
Red Square?
3. a) Will there be a new cinema in this district next year? b) Will there be a
new cinema or a new theatre in this district next year? c) There will be a new
cinema in this district next year, wont there? d) What will there be in this district
next year? e) Where will there be a new cinema next year? f ) When will there be
a new cinema in this district?
Exercise 3

1. She doesnt study Greek, does she? Yes, she does. She studies Greek.
No, she doesnt. She doesnt study Greek.
2. He doesnt drive a car, does he?
Yes, he does. He drives a car.
No, he doesnt. He doesnt drive a car.
3. Nobody is there, are they?
Yes, they are. Everybody is there.
No, they arent. Nobody is there.
4. Granny doesnt do the shopping, does she?

Yes, she does. Granny does the shopping.


No, she doesnt. Granny doesnt do the shopping.
5. He doesnt begin work at 8, does he?
Yes, he does. He begins work at 8.
No, he doesnt. He doesnt begin work at 8.
6. There isnt a table in this room, is there?
Yes, there is. There is a table in this room.
No, there isnt. There isnt a table in this room.
7. The short hand of the clock doesnt tell the
minutes, does it?
No, it doesnt. The short hand doesnt tell the
minutes.
8. There was nobody at home, was there?
Yes, there was. Everybody was at home.
No, there wasnt. There was nobody at home.
9. He doesnt drink tea in the morning, does he?
Yes, he does. He drinks tea in the morning.
No, he doesnt. He doesnt drink tea in the morning.
10. You have never been to the Caucasus, have you?
Yes, I have. I have been to the Caucasus.
No, I havent. I havent been to the Caucasus.
11. I dont have to get up early, do I?
Yes, you do. You have to get up early.
No, you dont. You dont have to get up early.
12. Nobody goes home by bus, do they?
Yes, they do. Everybody/Somebody goes home by
bus.
No, they dont. Nobody goes home by bus.
13. There wont be many people at the library, will there? Yes, there will.
There will be many people at the library.
No, there wont. There wont be many people at the library.
14. She doesnt like cheese, does she?
Yes, she does. She likes cheese.
No, she doesnt. She doesnt like cheese.
15. Peter never drinks coffee, does he?
Yes, he does. Peter always drinks coffee.
No, he doesnt. Peter never drinks coffee.
16. She wont be able to come, will she?
Yes, she will. Shell be able to come.
No, she wont. She wont be able to come.
17. Mother doesnt cook breakfast, does she?
Yes, she does. Mother cooks breakfast.

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No, she doesnt. Mother doesnt cook breakfast.


18. He isnt reading, is he?
Yes, he is. He is reading.
No, he isnt. He isnt reading.
19. You are not younger than he, are you?
Yes, I am. I am younger than he.
No, I am not younger than he.
20. There was not a book on the table, was there?
Yes, there was. There was a book on the table.
No, there wasnt. There was not a book on the table.
21. You dont have to do it, do you?
Yes, I do. I have to do it.
No I dont. I dont have to do it.
22. They cant come, can they?
Yes, they can. They can come.
No, they cant. They cant come.
Exercise 4

1. I wonder if these men go to town every day. Do you think these men go to
town every day?
2. I wonder if he spends his holidays at the seaside. Do you think he spends
his holidays at the seaside?
3. I wonder why he is late. Why do you think he is late?
4. I wonder if birds fly to the South in autumn. Do you think birds fly to the
South in autumn?
5. I wonder what he is doing. What does he/do you think he is doing?
6. I wonder if Mary does her work quickly. Do you think Mary does her work
quickly?
7. I wonder if it will rain long. Do you think it will rain long?
8. I wonder if he wants to catch the 6 oclock train. Do you think he wants to
catch the 6 oclock train?
9. I wonder if he liked the book. Do you think he liked the book?
10. I wonder if she travels a lot in summer. Do you think she travels a lot in summer?
11. I wonder what kind of book that is. What kind of book do you think that is?
12. I wonder how much it is. How much do you think it is?
13. I wonder if mother wakes him up at 6. Do you think mother wakes him up
at 6?
14. I wonder where I can buy a guide-book. Where do you think I can buy a
guide-book?
15. I wonder if he wants to buy a few toys. Do you think he wants to buy a few
toys?

16. I wonder how many toys he is going to buy. How many toys do you think
he is going to buy?
17. I wonder if the book costs a lot. Do you think the book costs a lot?
18. I wonder what I shall say to her. What do you think I shall say to her?
19. I wonder if there will be a lot of people at the party. Do you think there will
be a lot of people at the party?
20. I wonder which is the shortest way to Red Square. Which do you think is the
shortest way to Red Square?
21. I wonder if there was nobody at home. Do you think there was nobody at
home?
22. I wonder when we shall meet. When do you think we shall meet?
23. I wonder if he is coming. Do you think he is coming?
24. I wonder if he writes to them. Do you think he writes to them?
Exercise 5

1. Where do you think he can be?


2. Do you think it is a good film?
3. Do you think I will see him tomorrow?
4. Where do you think I can buy good perfume?
5. How much do you think this book costs?
6. When do you think I must leave to catch the train?
7. Which of them do you think will be meeting us?
8. Do you think 10 pounds is enough/will do?
9. Do you think 35 people are a lot?
10. Which of this perfume do you think I had better buy?
11. What do you think I had better cook for the holiday?
12. How many people do you think there will be?
13. What do you think I should wear?
14. Do you think he will ring?
Exercise 6

1. Wont you come with us? Yes, I will.


2. Dont you understand me? Yes, I do. I understand you perfectly well.
3. Dont you like the film? No, I dont.
4. Have you never been to London? No, I havent unfortunately.
5. Havent you brought the notebook? No, I havent.
6. Couldnt you remember such a simple thing? No, I couldnt.
7. Isnt it raining? Yes, it is.
8. Doesnt he live in Tverskaya Street? No, he doesnt. He lives in Gogol
Boulevard.
9. Doesnt he work now? Yes, he does, though he is retired.

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10. Dont you often go to the theatre? Of course, not. Not oftener than once
a month./Once a month at the oftenest.
11. Hasnt he lived here for a long time? No, he hasnt. He arrived a year ago.
12. Dont you know he is dead? No, never heard of it. What a pity!
13. Wont you come? I am afraid not. I will be busy.
Exercise 7

1. She told me to turn on the light.


2. Kate suggested going to see Fred that night.
3. Tom offered to ring up the teacher.
4. The boys suggested that the girls should do the cooking.
5. Jane suggested going to see/that we should go and see
him some other day.
6. My sister told me not to leave my coat on the chair.
7. Helen suggested doing the shopping tonight/in the evening.
8. My friend offered to pay the fare.
9. Mike suggested not telling/that we should not tell Kate about it.
10. My cousin offered to introduce me to Helen.
11. He suggested inviting Jim.
12. My friend suggested that they should solve this problem.
13. My mother told me not to be afraid of the exam.
14. The teacher suggested that he should present his paper next week.
15. My friend offered to buy the presents.
Exercise 8

1. Mr. Brown invited me to the theatre and offered to buy the tickets.
2. Jack suggested I (should) call a doctor as he did not like the way I looked.
3. My neighbour in the compartment offered to help me with the luggage
because my suitcase was very heavy.
4. Oliver suggested joining efforts to solve the problem because it concerned
all of us.
5. He showed me a lot of books and suggested I (should) take any of them.
6. He suggested sharing the porter as we hadnt got a lot of luggage.
7. Mother suggested I (should) go to bed as I looked pale.
8. The teacher offered to help me with the homework and suggested a book
on the subject.
9. He suggested choosing another play as the one that was on tonight was
boring.
10. He suggested meeting at the station at five. Then we would have plenty
of time before the train.
11. Mark said there was still a lot of time to kill and suggested playing a game.

12. Helen suggested going on a tour of the city on Monday, because Sunday
tours were all booked.
13. Victor offered to buy the book for me as he lived opposite a book shop.
14. I said it was late and suggested taking a taxi.
15. Mother said it was raining and suggested I (should) wait until the rain
stopped.
16. Kate offered to help me prepare for the exams because she didnt want me
to fail.
17. Sarah suggested I (should) have a rest because I had been overworking
myself these past weeks.
18. He said it was rather far to the place and suggested taking a bus. But I
suggested walking because the weather was fine and the place was within
walking distance anyway.
19. He offered to help me with the bag because it seemed very heavy.
20. It was Helens birthday. Nick offered to buy flowers and suggested I
(should) buy a cake.
21. The Smiths want to sell their cottage at the seaside. Ann has offered to
help them find a buyer.
22. I cannot eat the whole pie, its much too big. I suggest sharing it.
23. Susan was upset because she had broken her sisters watch. Helen offered
to take it to a watchmakers to be repaired.
24. Youve been arguing for quite a while. I suggest you (should) stop this
useless argument, you are not getting anywhere.
25. Betty said she didnt have enough money to buy a mobile phone. Bill offered to lend her some money.
26. Granddad suggested naming the baby Susan after her grandmother.
27. Ann is very upset. Her canary has flown away from its cage. I suggest buying another canary for her.
28. Susie said they were going mountain skiing and suggested we (should)
join them if we wished.
29. The Parliament Building is open for visitors tomorrow. I suggest going on
a tour.
30. Mother said I kept forgetting things and suggested I (should) keep a diary.
31. Weve been driving since seven in the morning. I suggest making a stop
and having lunch, Im starving.
32. Mr. Smith asked if I would be going his way and offered to give me a lift as
far as the station.
Exercise 9

1. Your offer is very tempting, but I cannot accept it.


2. My friend offered to pay the fare as I had no change.

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3. Why doesnt somebody suggest that we should do something to help her?


4. The plan which you suggest/are suggesting/have suggested is very interesting and I am ready to try it.
5. I refuse to take anything he offers me.
6. He suggested that the matter be discussed at the next meeting.
7. The teacher suggested a very good way of memorizing words.
8. The host suggested playing a very amusing game.
9. Mr. White has been offered the post of director.
10. The worker suggested a more effective method of cutting metals.
11. Mother suggested that I should put on the blue dress when I go to the
theatre.
12. I suggest buying this book.
13. What do you suggest doing now?
14. Who has offered him the job?
15. I suggested taking an umbrella because it looked like rain.
16. The host suggested that we should sing a song, or play some merry games.
17. No one offered him help.
18. Peter suggested that we should go skiing after lunch.
19. The man nodded to his visitor and offered him a seat.
20. The coach suggested that we walk another two miles and then have a rest.
21. They offered him money for the picture but he refused to sell it.
22. My friend suggested that we should play a game of tennis.
23. The boy offered to carry her basket.
24. The school doctor suggested that I should see the dentist.
25. Do you know who suggested the idea of going to the seaside?
26. The builder suggested a new and more effective method of laying bricks.
27. My friend offered to go to the station to find out when our train started
and suggested that I should take care of the things.
Exercise 10

1. Michael has been offered a very interesting job.


2. When Kate learned what had happened she phoned her friends and offered her help/to help.
3. I suggest listening to the news first and then going out for a walk/ I suggest that we (should) listen to the news before going out for a walk.
4. John suggested that the whole group should go on an excursion to Moscow in the summer.
5. When a passer-by saw that a woman was afraid to cross the street, he offered to help her.
6. Who suggested cancelling the meeting/that the meeting (should) be
cancelled?

7. I suggest going out tonight, I am tired of sitting at home.


8. As the weather is fine, I suggest walking from the station to the dacha, it
is a kilometers distance from the station.
9. When an elderly woman got on the bus, a young man got up and offered
her his seat.
10. Learning that my friends daughter was ill, I offered to call/suggested calling a doctor.
11. I hear he has offered to look after your dog.
12. Learning that she was ill, I offered to call a doctor.
13. He offered me a ticket for the 10 oclock show, but I refused as it was too
late.
14. After graduation he was offered a job in the Far East and he agreed with
pleasure.
15. He suggested going to the country.
16. I saw her carrying a heavy suitcase and offered to help her.
17. She accepted the offer to see her home.
18. You were the first to suggest this title for my story.
19. May I offer to help you? he asked.
20. As the weather is fine, I suggest a walk in the park. Do you mind?
21. I dont know what to cook for breakfast, would you suggest something,
please?
22. A boy offered to help me carry my suitcase to the lift.
Exercise 11

1. It is winter. It is cold. It is snowing.


2. Is it raining? No, but there are a lot of clouds in the sky.
3. Its hot. There isnt a wind.
4. Its easy to get up/getting up early in summer.
5. It is hot in the Crimea in summer. There is not much rain.
6. It often rains in autumn.
7. It is 3 oclock. Let us go and listen to some music.
8. It is spring. There are a lot of flowers in the parks.
9. It is 20 kilometres to Moscow. There is a bus that goes twice a day.
10. What time is it? A quarter to six. Are you coming?
11. It was cold and there was a lot of snow in the street.
12. Its strange that you dont want to go to the lecture. It will be very interesting.
13. It is dark. There are few people in the street.
14. It is two oclock. There is time for a bathe.
15. Its not easy to understand what he means.
16. Its time to go. There is almost no one left in the hall.

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17. It has been raining for two days.


18. There are puddles in the street. It has been raining.
19. I dont like when it snows.
20. It is 20 minutes walk from here to the museum.
21. Did it snow yesterday?
22. It stopped raining a minute ago.
23. Its difficult to understand this sentence.
24. Its two kilometers from here to the river.
Exercise 12

1. It was on Monday that we set off.


2. It was Monday when I first met him.
3. It was Max that I met at the party.
4. It was Pushkin that he read to us.
5. It was on the morning of the first of January that it happened.
6. It was noon when the group arrived in the town.
7. Is it this book that you want to buy?
8. It was only when I heard the words "my dear" that I understood what language he was speaking/ It wasnt until I heard the words that I understood
9. It is I who am to blame for what has happened.
10. It is we who have bought this picture.
11. It was with Ann that I went to London.
12. It is by reading aloud that he has improved his pronunciation.
13. It was a ring that he found.
Exercise 13

1. What a good singer he is!


2. How good the singer is!
3. What a fine athlete he is!
4. How good the athlete is!
5. What a pretty girl she is!
6. How pretty this girl is!
7. What beautiful hair she has!
8. How beautiful her hair is!
9. What a cool night it is!
10. How cool the night is!
11. How well he speaks English!
12. How quiet everything was!
13. How perfectly they understood each other!
14. How well she plays the piano!
15. How noisy it is here!

16. How stuffy it is here!


17. How beautiful this place is!
18. How beautifully she sings!
19. What fine weather we are having!
20. What beautiful clothes she is wearing!
21. How delicious the cake smells!
22. What sad news you have brought us!
23. How loudly they are laughing!
24. What a lot of money you have given me!
25. How wrong you are!
26. How beautiful she looks in this dress!
27. How tall the child has grown!
28. How fast the tree is growing!
29. How cold April usually is!
30. How nice the flowers smell!
31. How gray her hair has turned!
32. How cold its getting!
33. What a nice man he seems to be!
Exercise 14

1. Look, how many flowers they have picked!


2. What heavy traffic there is in Moscow!/ How heavy the traffic in Moscow is!
3. What a beautiful bridge he has built!
4. How pleasant it is to walk/walking in this wonderful park!
5. What an interesting journey it was!
6. How well you describe the cities youve been to!
7. What an important historical document you have discovered!
8. How late you are/you have come!
9. What awful weather it was yesterday!
10. How pleasant it was to make his acquaintance!
11. What an interesting book he has brought!
12. How thrilling it will be to see the sights with your own eyes!
Exercise 15

1. Jims going to town tonight So are we.


2. Jack isnt going to town Neither are they.
3. He hasnt changed a bit. Neither has she.
4. Sam can play chess. So can Mike.
5. Jill cant skate. Neither can we.
6. John must work harder. So must Nick.
7. I havent heard the news. Neither has Mary.

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8. My brother got married last year. So did his sister.


9. I didnt promise them anything. Neither did he.
10. Peter doesnt know our new address. Neither does his brother
11. Henry visits the Browns very often. So does John.
12. Bill never goes to parties. Neither does Jill.
13. Kate cleans the flat every day. So does my mother.
14. We wont be staying at a hotel. Neither will they.
15. He was surprised to hear it. So were we.
16. We were not expecting to hear that. Neither was he.
17. She managed to do the work in time. So did he.
18. I havent seen the new film. Neither have they.
Exercise 16

1. I have been living in Moscow for 10 years. Have you? So has my brother.
2. I dont quite understand this rule. Neither do I. I suggest asking the
teacher to explain it to us again.
3. My brother is now reading up for his exams. So is my sister.
4. Jim must work hard on his pronunciation. So must John.
5. We are going to the Tretyakov Gallery on Sunday. So are my friends.
6. Ann has a lot of interesting books. So has/does Mary. Lets ask them for
something to read.
7. Michael cant write in French. Neither can Nick.
8. I dont like the way this violinist plays Brahms. Neither do I.
9. My favourite symphony is Chaikovskis Fifth. Mine too./I like Chaikovskis
Fifth Symphony most of all. So do I.
10. I havent been to the Art Theatre for a long time. Neither have I. What
about going there tonight?
11. Hes just back from holiday. So am I. Does he look as brown as I?
12. Weve only just arrived, we are checking in. So are they.
13. Ann never goes to work by bus. Neither do I. I prefer walking. My office
is within walking distance.


Exercise 1

1. The first Wednesday in every month was a Perfectly Awful Day. Every floor
must bespotless, every chair dustless and every bed without a wrinkle. Ninetyseven little orphans must be scrubbed and combed and reminded of their manners and told to say "Yes, sir", "No, sir", whenever a Trustee spoke.

It was a distressing time; and poor Jerusha Abbott had to bear the brunt of it.
But this particular Wednesday, like its predecessors, had finally dragged itself to
a close. Jerusha escaped from the pantry where she had been making sandwiches and turned upstairs to do her regular work. Her special care was room F.
Jerusha assembled her charges, straightened their frocks, wiped their noses
and sent them to the dining-room.
Then she dropped down on the window seat and leaned her forehead
against the cool glass. She had been on her feet since five that morning.
The day had ended quite successfully, so far as she knew. The Trustees and
the visiting committee had made their rounds and had read their reports and
had drunk their tea. And now they were hurrying home.
2. In the early morning he awoke and looked out upon a small town just arising from sleep. Lights were coming on, soft voices were muttering. A porter
was moving by, a shadow in shadows.
"Sir," said Willie.
The porter stopped.
"What town is this?" whispered the boy in the dark.
"Valleyville. Is this your stop?"
"It looks green, "Willie gazed out at the cold morning town for a long time.
"It looks nice and quiet."
"Son," said the porter, "you know where you are going?"
"Here," said Willie.
"I hope you know what you are doing, boy," said the porter.
"Yes, sir," said Willie. "I know what I am doing." And he was down the dark
aisle, luggage lifted for him by the porter, and out in the cold morning.
He watched/was watching the black train until it was completely gone away
and out of sight. Then, as the sun rose/was rising, he began to walk very fast, so
as to keep warm, down into the new town.
3. I liked our guide. I asked him if he was a spaceman and he said no, he was
just a Colonial Service Ranger.
Dad and Mr. Latham joined us we were finishing the tour while Mr. Perrin
thats our guide announced the trip outside "to see the Devils Graveyard and
the site of the Great Disaster of 1984."
Dad rubbed his hands together. "This is for me," he announced.
"Youll enjoy it," Mr. Latham agreed. "Im tempted to come along myself."
"Why dont you?" Dad asked.
"No, I want to have the papers ready for you to sign when you get back and
before you leave for Luna City. Besides, Ive been out on the surface dozens of
times. But Ill come along and help you into your spacesuits."

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Mother said she did not think she would go; she was not sure she could
stand the thought of being shut up in a spacesuit.
Mother always objects and then gives in. I suppose women just dont have
any force of character.
Exercise 2

1. I went down past Tamus cabin quietly so she wouldnt hear me and to my
own the door of which was slightly open.
I had left it closed. And locked. I always left it closed and locked.
I threw the door open. Tamu was standing over my open suitcase with my
passport in her hand.
What you do you say in a situation like that? I was angry and that helped.
"You have broken into my cabin and are stealing my passport."
"How cruel of you. "The door was open and I came in. I am stealing nothing."
"You have it in your hand!"
"I have been examining it. "It is a very interesting document."
"Now hand it back."
She hesitated a moment, looking at me closely before she spoke.
"I would very much like to examine it further."
I was still angry.
"Of course you can examine it. But the examination fee for the standard
American passport is a hundred dollars an hour."
"Very agreeable. And here is the hundred dollars."
And she had it too, in a little purse she had dug out of her clothes. They were
in my palm and she was out of the door before I realized what had happened.
2. Mrs. Morris opened a can and poured hot soup into a bowl. During all this
Mink fidgeted/was fidgeting.
"Hurry, Mom. This is a matter of life and death!"
"I was the same way at your age. Always life and death. I know."
Mink banged away at her soup.
"Slow down," said Mom.
"Cant," said Mink. "Dills waiting for me. I got to run if we want to have the
Invasion."
"Whos invading what?"
"Martians invading Earth. Well, not exactly Martians. They are from up." She
pointed with her spoon.
"And inside," Mom said touching Minks feverish brow. Mink rebelled. "You
are laughing! You will/would kill Dill and everybody."
"I dont mean to," said Mom. "Dills a Martian?"

"No. Hes well maybe from Jupiter or Saturn or Venus. Anyway, hes had
a hard time."
"They couldnt figure a way to attack Earth. Dill says in order to make a good
fight you got to have a new way of surprising people. That way you win. And he
says also you got to have help from your enemy. And they couldnt figure a way
to surprise Earth or get help."
Mink sat there, staring at the table, seeing what she was talking about.
"Until one day," whispered Mink melodramatically, "they thought of children."
Exercise 3

1. They were walking slowly at about ten in the evening talking calmly.
"But why so early?" said Smith. "Your first night out in years and you go/are
going home at ten oclock".
"Nerves, I suppose".
"What I wonder is how you managed it. Ive been trying to get you out for
ten years for a quiet drink. What did you do, put sleeping powder in your wifes
coffee?"
"No. Youll see soon enough. Look up there!"
In the window above them a man about thirty-five years old, with a touch of
gray at either temple, sad gray eyes and a small thin moustache was looking
down at them. They waited. The street door of the apartment opened and the
gentleman with the moustache came out to meet them.
"Hallo, Braling," he said.
"Hallo, Braling," said Braling.
They were identical.
Smith stared. "Is this you twin brother?"
"No," said Braling quietly. "Put your ear to Braling Twos chest."
Smith hesitated and then leaned forward.
"Tick-tick-tick-tick."
Smith staggered back, appalled.
He reached out and touched the warm hands and the cheeks of the thing.
"Where did you get him?"
"Give the man your card, Braling Two."
Braling Two produced a white card:
"MARIONETTES, INC".
"Duplicate self or friends, new humanoid plastics 1990 models."
"How long has this been going on?"
"I have had him for a month. I keep him in the cellar in a toolbox. My wife
never goes downstairs, and I have the only key to that box. Tonight I said I
wished to take a walk to buy a cigar. I went down to the cellar and took Braling

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Two out of his box and sent him back up to sit with my wife while I came out to
see you, Smith. So Ive been home all evening."
2. Braling and Braling Two turned in at the door to the apartment.
"Well, its the cellar box for you, B-Two." Braling guided the other creature
down the stairs.
"Thats what I want to talk to you about," said Braling Two. "The cellar. I dont
like it."
"Ill try and fix something more comfortable. Besides itll only be a few days
now. Ill be off to Rio and you wont have to stay in the box. You can live upstairs."
Braling Two gestured irritably.
"And when you come back from having a good time, Ill go back in the box."
Braling said, "They didnt tell me at the marionette shop that I would get a
difficult specimen."
"Theres a lot they dont know about us," said Braling Two. "We are sensitive. I
hate the idea of your going off to Rio while we are stuck here in the cold."
"But I have wanted that trip all my life," said Braling quietly.
"And another thing. Your wife."
"What about her?" asked Braling beginning to edge toward the door.
"Ive grown quite fond of her."
"Im glad you are enjoying your employment." Braling licked his lips nervously.
"Im afraid you dont understand. I think Im in love with your wife."
"You are in what?" Braling froze.
"And Ive been thinking," said Braling Two, "how nice it is in Rio and how Ill
never get there, and Ive been thinking about your wife I think we could be
very happy."
"Thats nice." Braling tried to rush out the door, but a metal-firm grip seized
his wrists.
Braling Two said, "Im going to put you in the box, lock it and lose the key.
Then Ill buy another Rio ticket for your wife. Good-buy, Braling."
Ten minutes later Mrs Braling awoke. She put her hand to her cheek. Someone had just kissed it. She shivered and looked up.
"Why you havent done that in years," she murmured.
"Well see what we can do about it," someone said.
Exercise 4

1. Water was running in the kitchen. Alice was washing dishes.


2. Sorry, my hands are wet. I have been washing dishes.
3. Have you washed the dishes?

4. Who has eaten/ate my apple?


5. Have you been eating garlic again?
6. They sat at the table eating spaghetti./ They were sitting and eating .
7. Have you discussed this matter?
8. Write down what we have been discussing here today.
9. They had finished writing and were discussing who would send the
letter.
10. They talked/were talking about the weather and their plans for the summer.
11. What have you been talking about?
12. He answered that they had been talking about sport.
13. He has been telling me awful stories about you. And what has he told/
did he tell you?
14. Have you told me everything?
15. It was quiet in the room. John was talking about his trip to Australia.
16. What has he been telling you about me?
17. Whats the matter with my hat? Have you been sitting on it?
18. Who has been sitting on my bed?
19. He usually sat in the armchair. But that day he had moved onto the sofa.
20. What have you been doing? Ironing your trousers.
21. He told his brother what he had been doing in his absence.
22. He did well in his exam because he had been studying/had studied hard.
23. We studied in the library from three to five.
24. Your eyes are red. I have been studying for tomorrows exam.
25. Why are you yawning? I have been napping.
26. He saw a foot. Somebody was sleeping in his bed.
27. The bed was in disorder. Somebody had obviously been sleeping in it.
28. Somebody has been reading my book. This is not my bookmark.
29. Have you read this book? Read it by all means.
30. John, you have been reading Kant for todays class. Tell us.
31. You must have a rest by all means. You have been working too hard today.
32. We have been working on the problem, and we have come to very interesting conclusions.
33. Youve done a good job. You have a right to an evening off.
34. He could not sleep because he had been reading until late at night.
Exercise 5

1. I did not know that he had been learning English since childhood.
2. She said she had invited a friend with whom she had been at university
together.
3. What is Mike doing? Has he done his homework? No, he hasnt. He has
been watching television and is only now sitting down to his homework.

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4. At last you have answered the door. Ive been ringing for 10 minutes.
Icouldnt hear you ringing. I was washing dishes.
5. We have decided he will come at five. By his arrival well have finished/
finish translating the article and well go to the cinema together.
6. I had hardly entered the flat when the phone rang. It was my school friend
who said she had just arrived in Moscow and was going to stay here for a week.
7. Where did you get this hat? I(ve) always wanted one exactly like this.
8. Are you a Muscovite? Yes. It will be 20 years in August since Ive been
living here.
9. Youve interrupted me and I dont remember where I stopped.
10. Who is the man you have just been talking to? He is a neighbour. We
usually meet at this time in the morning.
11. Have you ever been to this museum? Yes, I was here two or three times
in my childhood. But I havent been here since.
12. I met Lena the other day. She told me about a common acquaintance. He
had/has sent her a letter.
13. He said that he had been working in the garden. He had planted two
rose bushes.
14. It will be 10 years in September since I have been working in this institute.
15. He assured me that he would finish/would have finished the work by 5
oclock.
16. I learned yesterday that he (had) left Moscow in 1973.
Exercise 6

1. Where has Ann gone? She hasnt gone anywhere. She is in the next
room reading a book.
2. She has been reading the book for two days and she says that the book is
very interesting.
3. Has Lena sent you the books you asked for/have been asking for? Yes,
she has. Lena has always been a reliable friend.
4. They had gone rather far from the town when they noticed a storm coming.
5. He put on the light, took the mail and sat down at the table to look through
it.
6. He had put on the light and now sat watching/was sitting and watching
television.
7. Have you ever been to the Tretyakov Gallery? Yes, of course. Ive been
there many times. I last went there in the winter.
8. What has happened to Ann? She has fallen ill. She had been ill a whole
week when I learned about it.
9. Tom looked at his watch: 20 minutes had passed but Sid had not arrived
yet.

10. He will have received your letter by tomorrow night.


11. She was late for the parents meeting because she had been buying
Christmas presents.
12. He had hardly knocked at the door when it opened.
13. She had hardly entered the room when the phone rang.
14. How is Irene? I dont know. I havent seen her since I returned from
holiday.
15. He said he was not hungry as he had had lunch in the Institute.
16. From the expression of his face I understood that he had been drinking.
17. Did anyone ask for me? No. Ive been working here since 2 oclock and
nobody has called in this time.
18. I was very surprised to hear Roys voice on the phone. Roy had not phoned
me for three years and now he said he had been living here for several months.
19. Here is the book I have been looking for. Where did you find it?
Exercise 7

1. We were talking/talked about what we had been doing since we (had)


last met.
2. Jack, whom Tom had met/whose acquaintance Tom had made recently,
was the last to arrive.
3. Now they were sailing on the sea in which they had just been swimming.
4. The painter says he has been painting all day and has not had anything
to eat.
5. Jack arrived half an hour late, asked what we were eating and ordered
the same.
6. She says she has had the picture for a long time, has never given it to
anyone and is not planning to sell it.
7. It was cold and damp in the house because it had been raining for a few
days and the heating was not working.
8. I dont want Mother to know what we have been doing here.
9. The/A noise woke up the baby who had been sleeping in his cot.
10. He said he had not written to you because he had been working on his
thesis.
11. It is hot and it has not rained/there has been no rain for a month.
12. He raised his head from a magazine which he had been looking through.
13. There was a sheet of paper on the table on which somebody had been
learning to draw.
14. When he gets back, well try to pretend that we have not been speaking
about him.
15. The/ people she met/was meeting seemed to know where she had
been and what she had been doing.

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16. Max looked at the book he had been reading. It was lying open, but the/a
corner of the page was turned to mark the place.
17. I wonder where he has been and what he has been doing all this time.
18. I dont think Ive been the worst of husbands those twenty years that we
have been married.
19. You have been working too hard and not getting enough sleep lately, you
look/are looking ill.
20. I havent had a proper meal since I arrived.
21. I know he is not coming/wont be coming. Ive just been speaking/ve
just spoken to him on the phone.
22. Jack had taken his suitcase into the carriage and was now smoking on the
platform.
23. I saw your sister in the theatre. She was wearing a very beautiful suit. I
wonder where she (had) bought it.
24. We had lived/had been living in the village for two months when we
learned that an old friend whom we had not seen for twenty years was coming
to visit us.
25. We stayed in the village for two months and returned home in the autumn.
26. I got up from the couch on which I had been sitting and went to the window. It had been raining and there were puddles everywhere.
27. I usually study in the library for two hours after lunch and then go home.
28. I had been wandering about the wood for about an hour when I saw a
small house. As I had never been in those parts before, I did not know who
lived there.
29. A house stood/There was a house among trees and there was a path leading to it along which I was walking.
30. We had been traveling about two hours when at last we saw a petrol station.
31. We traveled about two hours and at last saw a petrol station.
32. I had hardly reached the corner when I heard footsteps behind. Someone
was catching up with me.
33. During the Great Patriotic War she taught geography for two years.
34. I have packed my things and am now waiting for a taxi. I rang up for it
two hours ago and hope it arrives/will arrive in time.
35. John had marked his students essays and was now reading the/ book he
had bought on the way.
36. I met Betty in the cinema when it was raining. She had been sitting next
to me, but I had not noticed her until she dropped her handbag on the way
out. I picked it up and we got talking.
37. I had hardly said goodbye when the train started. My family were standing on the platform waving to me.

38. Now he lives in Moscow. He lived in Kazan for twenty years before.
39. He would/did not sign the contract until he had studied it carefully.
40. My sister, who had been washing dishes in the kitchen, turned off the tap
and called out to me that she would finish later.
41. Her heart was beating fast as if she had been running. In fact she had
never risen from the chair on which she was sitting.
Exercise 8

1. You are pale. Ive been going to bed late and getting up too early this
week.
2. What have you been doing all this time? Ive been preparing a/the
collection for a new show.
3. Your wife has been telling me that you havent been sleeping well lately.
4. Whats the matter, Mother? Has anything happened? Take no notice.
Ive been scouring the pots.
5. His mother died a year ago. She had worked as a teacher all her life.
6. Dont touch the glass. Somebody has been drinking from it.
7. I have been thinking and I have decided that we havent done everything we planned/have been planning.
8. He said he had been thinking about my offer/suggestion, but didnt
know yet what to answer.
9. I dont want anyone to know I have been crying.
10. Have you been wearing my shoes again? Why are they dirty then?
11. I picked up the book my brother had been reading and saw a few marks
he had made.
12. Ive been trying to remember things to tell you, but somehow they have
all gone out of my head now.
13. My brother and I have been discussing the matter today. Thats why I have
come to see you.
14. Sorry I am late. I have been changing. I got caught in the rain.
15. He said he had had a wonderful time. He had been looking at photographs.
16. Mother is just back/has just returned from the school where she has
been helping to decorate the hall.
17. Im hot, I have been running. I was afraid of being late.
18. Mary went out of the room where she had been shutting windows and
walked down the stairs.
19. Thank God, you are back. Ive been missing you terribly.
20. What do you find wrong with my job? Ive been speaking to a/the doctor. He thinks you have been working too hard and it has told on your heart.
21. Has it been raining? Why? The streets are wet.

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22. Have you been drinking? How do you know? I can always tell when
somebody has been drinking.
23. Martha opened at once as if she had been waiting for me.
24. I asked him what he was doing there. He said he had been staying
with friends and was now going back to Moscow.
25. You are just in time. Ive been making a cake. It will be ready soon.
26. She was fined because she had been driving without a license.
27. Ive been seeing a lot of him this month. He has been very busy. He has
been preparing for his entrance exams.
28. When he came in, we tried to pretend we had not been speaking about
him. But he suspected something and asked what we had been discussing.
29. I heard my wife put down the receiver. I was very curious who she had
been talking to.
30. It annoys me to see you have been wasting time. Ive been expecting at
least some results.
31. Where is everybody? Sorry, we have been looking for a document.
Have you found it? Unfortunately not, though we have looked everywhere.
32. My sister came out of the kitchen where she had been washing dishes and
said she had made some soup for me.
33. There was a book lying /A book was lying on the floor by the bed; he had
been reading it the previous night before going to sleep.
34. John returned from the gym where he had been training. He was tired
because he had been working hard. His whole body was aching. But he was
pleased because he had made great progress.
35. Robert always woke up at 7 in the morning no matter where he had been
or what he had been doing the night before.
36. Michael put out the cigarette he had been smoking and walked to the
stage.
37. Where have you been? We have been playing tennis. Who won?
38. How strange it is to see you coming out of a library. What have you been
doing there? Dont ask me what I have been doing. Ill never tell you.
Exercise 9

1. I shall read for an hour or so before I turn off the light.


2. We shall be obliged to you if you find it out.
3. Shall we go somewhere if the weather changes for the worse?
4. I am so tired that I shall go to bed as soon as I get home.
5. He will sleep until the alarm wakes him up.
6. They dont know when he will call.
7. You will get wet through unless you take an umbrella.
8. Ring up when you get back.
9. I am not sure if he will ring.

10. We shall go to the country if the weather keeps fine.


11. He wont come unless you ask him.
12. I will ask him if he will do it.
13. I will be cooking dinner while you are packing.
14. We will have finished the work by the time they arrive.
15. He wont tell me if something goes wrong.
16. I would like to know when you will return the money.
17. Will you see him after he gets back from holiday?
18. Could you find out when the concert starts ( )/ will start (
)?
Exercise 10

1. I have not visited the place yet. I am going/will be going/go there tomorrow.
2. Our train starts at 8 p.m., so if you come at 5 oclock, well be packing.
3. At 4 oclock tomorrow we (ll) begin packing and by 6 well finish/have
finished with ease.
4. Ring me up at 11, I wont be sleeping yet.
5. Ill have started out on my round by the time you go, so Ill say good-bye
now.
6. I think youll like him when you know more of him.
7. "Shall we go downstairs and meet the man?" "Let us stay here; hell be
knocking at our door in a moment, youll see."
8. I suppose everyones going to/will ask/will be asking me questions and
its so awkward.
9. But you are not going/wont go. I am not letting/ wont let/dont let you.
10. When shall I/do I/am I going to meet//shall I be meeting your brother?
11. What are you doing this afternoon?
Exercise 11

1. Im going/will be going/go to Moscow next week.


2. When you arrive, Ill still be working.
3. The ship leaves tomorrow.
4. What are you doing tonight? Im going to the station to see off a friend.
5. I dont know how Ill be feeling tomorrow.
6. Lets hurry. Itll be raining in a minute.
7. I wont write/am not writing/am not going to write to him. Ill see/am
seeing/going to see/will be seeing him.
8. They will start the construction one of these days and finish it by the end
of the year.// They are starting/will be starting the construction one of these
days and will have finished it by the end of the year.

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9. Dont phone her at 11. She will be sleeping already.


10. Please, come round. Mike will be speaking about his trip to Italy.
11. Phone at 7 oclock, please. I expect your documents will have been printed.
12. We are moving/will be moving/are going to move into a new flat in a
month.
13. Ill phone you in the evening, at about 8.
14. I am expecting/will be expecting/expect you on Saturday evening./Ill be
waiting for you on Saturday evening.
15. What are you wearing/will you wear/will you be wearing/are you going
to wear to the party? A/the new dress, of course.
16. Ill call/Ill be calling on you one of these days.
17. I hope you (will) understand me.
18. Dont go. The train arrives/is arriving/will be arriving in a few minutes.
19. Doctor, I am expecting/will be expecting/expect/will be waiting for you
at 4 oclock tomorrow.
20. Dont forget: we are meeting/meet at 5 tomorrow. I hope your mood will
have changed by that time.
21. I am also going/will also be going/also go to Moscow tomorrow.
22. Youll be traveling again in the summer, wont you?
23. It will have grown/will be quite dark by 6 oclock.
24. Next term Professor Smith will be giving us lectures on the Renaissance.
Exercise 12

1. Rehearsals at the theatre will be starting at the end of March, the season
begins in May.
2. She has heard/heard that the board of directors will/would be sending
somebody to inspect their work.
3. Marie informed her landlady that she was/would be leaving soon.
4. One day he suddenly asked me if I would marry him.
5. The wedding ball began at eight oclock that evening.
6. Peter was to have dinner at the Smiths on Saturday. But in the morning he
phoned to apologize saying that his father was coming down and they would
be having a family dinner.
7. Is there anything to tell him? I am/will be seeing him tomorrow.
8. Shes gone out, she is not/will not be having dinner with us.
9. Its two oclock. The baby will be waking up soon.
10. The train leaves at seven, so well be starting for the station at six
oclock.
11. You wont go/arent going. I wont let you.
12. I am/will be seeing you tomorrow anyway, well discuss the matter then.

13. I dont think they will come. They are moving house in a couple of weeks.
14. I dont think they will be able to come on Friday. They will be moving
house.
15. Dont wait for me, Ill catch/will be catching up with you in a minute.
16. Dont trouble to phone him. Hell be coming again on Wednesday.
17. He wont be late, he is/will be coming by a fast train.
18. Theres no sense in waiting for him, he is/will be coming in late today.
19. We should/had better go, they wont be waiting long.
20. Look in the programme, who plays Hamlet.
21. Who will be replacing the actor, that has been taken ill, on Saturday?
22. Dont worry, Ill write shortly.
23. Dont go, well be having dinner in a couple of minutes.
24. I havent been to the factory yet. I am/will be going/will go there tomorrow.
25. I wont be able to see your exhibition, I will have left Moscow already.
Exercise 13

1. My friend Vanessa has just started a new cookery course and she is loving
it. At the moment she is staying at her sisters flat until she finds a place of her
own. Vanessa enjoys entertaining, so she is always inviting people round.
2. Last week I visited her for dinner. I hadnt seen Vanessa for over a month
and was looking forward to it. Vanessa was cooking when I arrived, so I offered to help her.
3. It was a great evening, I always enjoy good food and good company. Tonight I am/will be cooking for her. I am making my speciality.
4. My grandmother has lived with us for years. She moved in after my grandfather died. She used to live in Kazan.
5. He said he had been thinking about my offer but didnt think he was up
to the job.
6. At this rate Mike will beat /have beaten his own record before the season
ends/has ended.
7. If we dont get around this traffic jam, the train will have left by the time
we get to the station.
8. I dont feel very well because I havent been getting enough sleep lately.
9. I see youve been shopping. Have you bought anything special?
10. I felt/was feeling awful when I arrived as I hadnt slept the night before.
11. Unfortunately the wind is blowing and the visibility at the airport is below
the required minimum for landing. That means well be landing at Idaho Falls.
The airline will provide transport for passengers to Jackson.

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Exercise 1

1. Were you offered a good job? Was a good job offered (to) you?
2. Why cant they be told the truth? Why cant the truth be told them?
3. What kind of explanation were you given? What kind of explanation was
given (to) you?
4. Weve just been shown a new film. A new film has just been shown (to) us.
5. A fairy tale was being read to the children.
6. Has a letter to Father been written?
7. Will the text be dictated to you?
8. I was asked a lot of interesting questions.
9. The speaker was being listened to very attentively.
10. This young actress is being talked about a lot.
11. The incident was never mentioned to his friend.
12. He was taught mathematics by his father.
13. He is envied his luck.
14. His lectures have always been listened to with great interest.
15. The rule was explained to us.
16. The bed wasnt slept in.
17. She cant dance when she is being looked at.
18. What song was sung to you?
19. The picture was being looked at with admiration.
20. All his old notebooks have been thrown away.
21. The matter must be thought over.
22. The Dean has been spoken to on the subject.
23. This film is being talked about a lot.
24. His jokes are always laughed at.
25. The incident was argued about for a long time.
26. Such matters cannot be spoken of lightly.
Exercise 2

1. I have only looked through part/some of the papers, the rest are being
marked.
2. As soon as the documents are ready they will be brought to you.
3. I asked what was being built in that street.
4. A lot of attention is given to sport in our school.
5. Will the new theatre have been built by our arrival?
6. A new rule has just been explained to us.
7. If he does not arrive this matter will not be discussed.
8. Find out, please, if the presents have been bought.

9. He was asked a lot of questions.


10. These magazines have been read. They can be given away.
11. This exercise can be done orally.
12. These papers must be given to the director.
13. You are being looked for. Go home.
14. This letter cannot be sent in such an envelope.
15. The children were left at home alone and told to lock the door.
16. It was explained to them what had happened.
Exercise 3

1. The child was taken to hospital where he was looked after/cared for very
well.
2. I have just been offered interesting work.
3. The speaker was being listened to very attentively and nobody noticed
me.
4. This house has not been lived in for several years.
5. I was told yesterday that he had been ill for a week.
6. The bed was empty, it had not been slept in.
7. When I entered, a very important matter was being discussed. It had been
discussed for over an hour.
8. Show me where a new factory is being built in your city.
9. When I arrived the documents had been signed.
10. My sister stood by the door holding the letter that had just been brought.
11. I have never been talked to in this manner before.
12. I dont understand why this performance is being so much talked about.
13. Whose piece is being performed now?
14. Were these points touched upon at the conference?
15. No wonder the flowers have withered, they have not been watered for a
whole week.
Exercise 4

1. They were offered a lot of interesting books in the library.


2. When was this letter signed?
3. A lot of new buildings have been constructed in our city lately.
4. The matter which is being discussed now is very important.
5. I was told yesterday that he had been invited to work in our institute.
6. This picture is being talked about a lot.
7. We were told that he had gone to the factory and was not expected before 8 oclock./ We have been told that he has gone... and is not expected...
8. When we arrived in the city this building had just been completed.
9. He suddenly realized that he was being laughed at.

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10. I am sure he will be listened to with great attention.


11. The boy has been looked for for 2 days, but he has not been found yet.
12. This problem has not been solved yet, though it has been discussed since
last year.
13. We approached an unfinished building. It turned out that a new theatre
was being built. We were told it would be finished in two months.
14. A rule was explained to us, then we were given several exercises.
15. Whose work is being discussed now?
16. Whose piano concerto is being performed now?
17. I wonder how many times this opera has been performed.
18. When his speech had been translated to us we began to applaud.
19. When the tables had been laid the guests were invited into the diningroom.
20. He will be able to read this article if it is translated into Russian.
21. You may leave the girl here, she will be looked after.
22. He was asked a lot of questions after the lecture.
23. Where will the new train station be built?
24. The report will be presented next week, wont it?
25. The hall will not be decorated unless they hurry.
Exercise 5

1. When the fact was mentioned, it became clear to everyone what was
meant.
2. Burnss poems have been translated into many languages and are read
and enjoyed all over the world.
3. I did not quite understand what I must do because it had not been properly explained to me.
4. Three points had been discussed when we heard the bell ring.
5. He was given three days to finish his work.
6. He was being listened to which such great attention that nobody noticed
me enter.
7. He has just been taken to hospital.
8. Their conversation was interrupted by the unexpected arrival of another
guest.
9. You will be laughed at if you wear this hat.
10. When she entered the classroom, the last student was being examined
there.
11. These films are different from those we have been shown so far.
12. He had a feeling that he was being followed.
13. She did not follow the advice she had been given.
14. Has he been told about the changes in the timetable?

15. He wondered why the letter had been posted without a stamp.
16. The invitation was not accepted because it had been received too late.
17. What did you feel when this record was being played?
18. Do you know that tennis has been played for over 100 years?
19. What was being explained to the group when you joined them?
20. It was not explained to them what they must do.
21. He was told that the museum had been closed a week before.
22. He knew he was being watched.
23. Several schools have been built in our district this year.
24. They read all the books that are being talked about a lot.
25. She always feels uncomfortable when she is looked at/is being looked at.
26. The tickets must be paid for at once.
27. The mail is just being looked through. There may be something for you
there too.
28. Your advice must be thought over.
29. The address was written with a pencil.
30. This novel was written by a well-known writer.


Exercise 1

1. went . 2. are doctors . . 3. has received . . 4. can do . . 5. was ill . .


6. must post . . 7. will be published . 8. must
be done . . 9. was . . 10. is mine . .
11. are to meet . . 12. have to get up . .
13.was raining . . 14. was fine . . 15. was to
spend . . 16. was the first to arrive . . 17. did...
begin learning . . 18. is growing dark . .
19. wants . 20. have finished reading . .
21.likes . 22. will stop raining . .


Exercise 2

1. Catherine smiled at me happily.


2. I felt very ill myself.
3. I felt terrible when we started.
4. He sounded brisk and cheerful.
5. It will sound strange.
6. The hay smelled good.

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7. I write English badly.


8. I looked at her attentively.
9. But dont look sad, my little girl. It breaks my heart.
10. He was looking at me intently and gravely.
11. The wine tasted delicious after the cheese and apple.
12. The brandy did not taste good.
13. The pistol felt heavy on the belt.
14. He received the message mutely.
15. I thought he looked suspicious.
Exercise 3

1. The music sounded beautiful.


2. I can hear you very well.
3. The flower smells wonderful.
4. Youve done it wonderfully well.
5. Your words sound strange.
6. He looked at me strangely/in a strange way.
7. The cucumber tastes bitter.
8. She smiled bitterly.
9. The beefsteak smells delicious.
10. The cloth feels rough.
11. He plays roughly.
12. She feels/is feeling well/unwell (fine/ill).
13. She looks fine/beautiful in this dress.
14. Its growing dark. It has become cold.
15. We are growing old, arent we?
16. How quickly the tree has grown!
17. Her hair has turned gray.
18. He turned sharply around.
19. The note sounds sharp.
20. If the weather keeps fine, the snow will melt quickly.
21. He kept smiling broadly.
Exercise 4

1. He looked at me sadly (. .) and left the room quickly (. .).


2. He was sitting (. .) quietly in the corner and looked sad (.
.).
3. He has become very famous (. .) because he plays (. .)
the piano brilliantly.
4. The city is becoming more and more beautiful (. .).
5. He was growing more and more nervous (. .).

6. When he received (. .) the ticket, he looked nervously (.


.) at the clock on the station building.
7. He turned angrily (. .) around.
8. She turned pale (. .) when she heard the news (. .).
9. How fast you are growing (. .)!
10. How tall you have grown (. .)!
11. She grows flowers in her garden (. .).
12. The meat will go bad (. .) if you dont put (. .) it in the
fridge quickly.
13. Where has he gone (. .)?
14. I have been feeling unwell after the accident (. .).
15. Leaves are turning yellow (. .). Autumn is approaching (.
.).
16. He turned quickly around and recognized a man he had gone to school
with (. .).
17. You have been looking ill lately (. .).
18. Why are you looking at me so strangely (. .)? Do I look ill (.
.)?
19. He noticed (. .) sadly that his mothers hair had turned gray (.
.).
20. These vegetables grow fast (. .).
21. It has got dark (. .). Switch on the light, please.
22. Days are becoming shorter (. .). Winter is coming (. .).
23. He felt suddenly (. .) that he was turning red
(. .).
24 Petrov has fallen ill (. .). He fell ill (. .) three days ago.
Now he is feeling better (. .).
25. I hope (. .) the weather will keep/keeps fine another week
(..).
26. I gave (. .) him the book a week ago and he is still keeping it
(. .).
27. Some shops stay open till late at night (. .).
28. Will you stay another week? (. .).


Exercise 5

1. They stopped talking when they saw me.


2. The pianist began to play and the choir began to sing.
3. He started writing poetry at an early age.
4. I gave up smoking three years ago.

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5. When the telephone rang he stopped playing and got up to answer it.
6. When I called him he did not raise his head but continued writing as if he
had not heard.
7. Ill be with you as soon as I finish writing this letter.
8. It always starts raining when you dont expect it.
9. He has just finished building a summer cottage.
10. He went on talking as if nothing had happened.
11. He was beginning to understand what was wrong.
Exercise 6

1. He finished reading the book yesterday and said that he had not enjoyed
reading it.
2. He has just finished reading the book.
3. He had finished reading the book when you phoned.
4. When you phoned he had finished reading the book and was doing his
homework.
5. They will stop talking as soon as you enter the room.
6. The phone rang, but he continued writing and did not get up to answer it.
7. He kept interrupting me while I was telling the story.
8. The treatment will not help unless you stop smoking.
9. He has just started to answer/answering questions.
10. It began raining early in the morning and it has been raining since.
11. He kept looking at his watch while (he was) waiting for the doctor.
12. Do you think you could stop shouting and let me listen to the music?
13. All through dinner they kept talking about the experiment.
14. came onto the stage and began to talk about his work.
15. I am beginning to understand what has happened.
16. I started writing poetry at the age of 10.


Exercise 7

1. Can/Could you call a little later? Im afraid Ill be busy till seven.
2. Can it be/have been a joke?
3. She asked me if she might switch off the radio.
4. Dont be angry with her. She may have done it by mistake.
5. You cannot have seen him at the meeting. He was ill.
6. There is no regular ferry there. You may have to hire a boat.
7. Can we have walked fifteen kilometers? The village is not yet seen.
8. May/ould I ask you to explain the rule once more?
9. He cannot have forgotten your address. He has visited you several times.

10. No matter how bad the weather might have been she never missed her
everyday stroll after dinner.
11. I dont believe her, she cannot have failed to recognize me.
12. He said he could manage the task by himself.
13. If nothing prevents them, they may arrive ahead of time.
14. It might have been taken for a joke if his face had not been so serious.
15. You should not feel offended; they may not have noticed you.
16. Tell him he might have warned me and not have put me in such an awkward position.
17. He may have had to walk a long distance, he looks tired.
Exercise 8

1. He told me that he had missed his train and had had to wait for another
one.
2. We discovered that the place was dangerous to bathe in and had to look
for a safer spot.
3. His wife kept telling him that he must not sit up late.
4. The doctor told him he must/was to give up smoking.
5. Father said that I was to/must be careful while crossing the street.
6. The bus was not going that direction, so he had to change.
7. It was not that the work was to be finished soon, but we ourselves wanted
to be through with it as soon as possible.
8. I didnt feel much like doing it, but I felt it had to be done one way or another.
9. I realized that I had to speak louder to make myself heard.
10. Telling himself that he must control himself, he did not answer anything.
11. He remembered that he was to stand up to be introduced.
12. For a moment she felt her heart must break.
13. I wondered what was to happen to us.
14. Its raining. You have to take your raincoats.
15. We agreed that the one who arrived first was to reserve seats for the rest
ofus.
16. Nobody met me at the station as I was to have arrived a day later.
17. He always puts off doing what he is to do until it has to be done.
18. We were to leave on Monday, but because of two days delay with the visas
we had to book tickets for Wednesday.
19. It was too late to change the timetable, it had to remain as it was.
20. You dont have to do it if you dont want to.
21. You are not to do anything until you get further instructions.
22. They hoped to move to the seaside, but that was not to be.
23. When no food was to be had, he seemed capable of doing without.

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C
Exercise 9

1. I should not have told him this news, he was so much upset, but I really
had to do so, for the circumstances demanded that.
2. You should have seen him dance! You have missed a lot. I should have
taken you to the concert.
3. You must have spoken to him already. I see he knows everything.
4. Dont contradict her, you ought to respect her age.
5. He was boiling with rage, but he had to control his feelings not to give
himself away.
6. Your questions surprise me, you ought to know this.
7. You need not have come so early, now you will have to wait.
8. They should have studied the subject more thoroughly; they will regret it
later on.
9. He was to/should have taken the floor and spoken in favour of the proposal.
10. I must have taken Grandfathers spectacles. I cannot see anything through
them.
11. Not a living thing was to be seen.
12. I thought I ought to do something to return their hospitality.
13. Ring me up at 6. The situation should/ought to clear up by then.
14. According to the rules of the game a football player is not to touch the ball
with his hands.
15. His heart was now thumping so violently he felt it must burst.
16. You need not have returned the money so soon. I could have waited.
17. The situation grew awkward. He felt that something had to be done, or
else the party would break up.
18. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer,
you ought to know better.
19. You should have apologized when you saw that his feelings were hurt.
20. You need not have helped him with this work. He could have managed it
himself.
21. She should not/ought not to have spoken about such things in the childs
presence. Now you see the results.
22. It was very hard work but we had to do it.
23. They must have studied the subject thoroughly; they answered every
question.
24. How should I know where he is?
25. Lets tell him all as it is. He must/ought to understand.
26. Though it is a very unpleasant mission, I feel I must/ought to tell you the
truth.
27. Children must/ought to obey their parents.
28. I should have known that it might come to that.

29. He gave you just that feeling of assurance, of confidence that a doctor
should give.
30. She is not a bad sort, if somewhat capricious; so you sometimes have to
put up with her whims.
Exercise 10

1. I have to get up early tomorrow. I am going to the station to meet my


brother.
2. "You are to be there at exactly 5 oclock," the director said.
3. You shouldnt have gone out. You have a bad cough.
4. You neednt have gone to the station. You might have booked tickets on
the phone.
5. You shouldnt have told her. You upset her.
6. Why do you have to get up so early? I have to receive the morning mail
at 8. I am to be at the office at 7.45.
7. Where are you hurrying? I must buy some bread before my son gets
back from school.
8. Shall we copy down the text? No, you neednt. But you must write out
new words.
9. Why did you have to talk to him?
10. Shall I come to the lecture? No, you neednt. You have passed the exam.
11. You neednt go to the chemists. I have bought the medicine.
12. You must come round by all means. You wont be sorry.
13. Shall we do this exercise at home? Yes, you must.
14. You ought to have helped the old woman to cross the street.
15. You should (ought to) be doing your lessons instead of playing football.
16. I must/have to phone my friend or she will forget to bring my book.
17. Are you to translate this article? No. We are only to read it for today.
18. When are you to report at the airport? I was told I was to be there at 3
oclock at the latest.
19. Where do you have to go to buy this book? I dont have to go anywhere. The book is being sold in the shop across the street.
20. Lets go to my place. Thank you. But I have to do some shopping first. I
must buy everything for dinner.
21. You shouldnt have waited so long. You should have called the doctor at
once.
22. You neednt worry. Everything will be all right.
Exercise 11

1. Whats gone wrong with the lock? It wont open.


2. The child was told not to make a noise, but he wouldnt obey.

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3. He was to have signed the document yesterday. But he wont hear of it.
4. We asked him to slow down, but he wouldnt listen.
5. She wouldnt discuss the subject, it was no use asking/there was no point
in asking her questions.
6. Its only five minutes walk from his home to the metro station, but he will
never walk.
7. Its no use offering to help him. He will never accept our help.
8. He had been warned many times against driving at such speed, but he
wouldnt listen until he got into an accident.
9. He was trying to make a fire, but the wood wouldnt burn.
10. Even if he were to apologize, I will never speak to him.
11. He tried to write down what he felt/was feeling, but the right words
wouldnt come.
12. Something has gone wrong with the car. It wont start.
13. We used to be friends, but now he wont recognize me.
14. She needed a holiday, but she wouldnt hear of it.
15. We wondered why he had not come, but he would not discuss the subject.
16. It was obvious that something was worrying him, but he would not tell us
what the matter was.
Exercise 12

1. My family used to live on the outskirts of the city. Now we have moved to
the center.
2. Whenever a train was late, passengers would complain.
3. We used to go to the same place for our holidays every year. When they
stopped going, it was quite a shock to us.
4. When I visited my Aunt she would give me sweets.
5. Kevin used to gamble a lot and it got him into prison. But now hes given
up the habit.
6. Clare used to visit her grandmother every Sunday afternoon. Now her
grandmother is dead and Clare is suffering from a feeling of emptiness because
she has no one to take care of.
7. Tom used to have a very small car. Now hes bought a big one and hes
having difficulty driving it.
8. We lived by a lake and sometimes Dad would take us fishing.
9. I used to smoke, but I stopped last year. It wasnt easy to learn to live without cigarettes.
10. That shop used to be a grocers, now it is a butchers.
11. I used to have a small business, but I sold it and took a job in a restaurant.
12. From the time he was very young, Greg would spend all his spare time collecting birds, animals and insects of all kinds. Every morning he would get up

very early and go to the beach. There he would catch small crabs and sometimes small fishes and would take them home with him.
13. On the way home he would call at a fishermans cottage where he was
often lucky to find some unusual insects.
14. Mary used to work in a small hospital in Brighton. Now she is a world famous plastic surgeon, and she often sees herself on magazine covers.
15. Tom was a bad driver. He would do all the wrong things a driver shouldnt
do. He would speed when it was necessary to slow down, he would ignore the
traffic lights, he would turn where turning was forbidden and he would park in
wrong places.
16. I didnt use to travel so much before I got this job. Now I may visit five
places in seven days.
17. When I was a child, I used to go to the Crimea with my parents every summer. We would choose somewhere different from one year to another. Every
spring my parents would get out a map of the Crimea and study the coastline,
trying to discover something new. They would always argue at first because my
mother would suggest a quiet village and my father wouldnt like the idea.
18. When he was young and poor, Dennis often used to borrow money from
friends and family. But when he became rich, he wouldnt lend a penny.
19. When I was at school I would hate getting up early. I still hate it.
20. He was an independent man, unused to being ordered about. He would
never follow an order blindly, he would never take anything for granted.
21. When we moved to a small village in Dorset, I couldnt get used to living a
country life. I would lie awake at night missing the noise and lights of a big city.
22. This is a fairy tale book I used to read to my son when he was a little boy.
He used to be quite fond of it. Every night he would ask me to read the book to
him.
Exercise 13

1. You neednt/dont have to repeat the same thing to me. I simply cannot
do what you want.
2. I have to catch the earliest train or I am late for the first class.
3. She realized she would have to talk to him about the matter.
4. What shall I wear? You may wear your new suit.
5. You might have done it better. You didnt try.
6. He was to give the money to the secretary but I am not sure hes been
able to do it.
7. He cannot do without dark glasses in such sunny weather. His doctor said
he must/was to protect his eyes from bright light.
8. You dont have to eat the soup, but you must taste the second/main
course.

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9. Have you been able to read the book? You wont be able to discuss the
book until you have read it to the end.
10. We agreed that the one who came first was to reserve seats for the rest ofus.
11. I was to have arrived with the morning train, but it was cancelled and I
had to take one in the afternoon.
12. You should have taken the exams with the rest of the students.
13. This question must/is to/has to be discussed at the next meeting.
14. He should/ought to/must keep his things in order, then he wont have to
look for every little thing.
15. He must have failed to receive my note saying we were to meet at five.
16. They said we should have come at least a day earlier.
17. We dont have to deal with such matters. You may try speaking to Mr.
Smith.
18. They were to have arrived at noon, but its past two oclock already. What
can have happened? Some urgent matter must have held them up. Or the
car may have broken down.
19. Shall I rewrite the whole paper or may I only correct the mistakes?
20. When can I call for the rest of the material? You neednt come yourself.
Well be able to send it over to you when it is ready.
21. Youve been working very hard. You must/should have a good rest. You
may take a week off and go abroad.
22. Can this work be done in two days? Hardly. But you might try to do it
in a week.
23. He is to wait for me in the university at two.
24. He must be waiting for me in the university.
25. All papers are to be handed in before the first of April.
26. You mustnt/ought not to smoke here. There are children here.
27. May/can we join you on this journey?
28. Where do you think I can find this book? You may try phoning the university library
29. Must he/is he to/does he have to send the telegram today?
a) Yes, he must/ is/does.
b) No, he neednt. He may send it tomorrow.
30. I cant do without their advice.
31. We had to/were to return on the same day.
32. Ive been unable to see him this week.
33. She will have to follow the doctors advice and change the climate.
34. We neednt/dont have to hurry. The train is late.
35. We went there by train and were/had to return by air.
36. He said he would not be able to give an answer until he had thought everything over.
37. She did not understand at once why we had been unable to leave in time.

38. If you dont study the instruction you may break the machine.
39. Mother says Im not to be out after 11, but I neednt hurry home because
shes out herself.
Exercise 14

1. I cant read this book now. Its too difficult. Ill be able to read such books
when I am in the third year. I will have to wait.
2. Can this book really be too difficult for you? I remember that when I was a
student we could read such books in the first year.
3. He did not come to the meeting yesterday. He may have forgotten. He
cant have forgotten. I phoned and reminded him myself. Something must
have happened.
4. Where is your brother? He may be studying in the library. He cant
be studying in the library. I saw him in the street a minute ago.
5. Can your brother really be sitting in the library in such fine weather? He
might have found something more interesting to do. What, for instance?
For instance, he might have played football with me. Or he might have taken
his son out for a walk in the park. Well, he might take his son out for a walk
in the evening.
6. I had to bring books for the whole group today. Did you have to carry
them alone? Yes. A student of our group was to help me, but he couldnt
come. You should have phoned one of us.
7. You are to be at the station at 2. The guests are arriving by train at 2.30. You
mustnt be late. The group leader may want to meet you.
8. The article must be ready by the end of November. There is no need
to hurry, but you should not forget that the material is to be handed in on
the30th.
9. You shouldnt drive so fast. Our speed now must be about 80 km. You
know you cant drive so fast in town. You must have forgotten. I cant have
forgotten. But I cant drive so slowly. Well, if you cant drive as you must/are
to, you might let/ have let me drive.
10. He promised me to do this translation but did not turn up. So I had to do
the translation myself. Why did you have to do it? You should have left everything to him. I couldnt. I have no idea when I will see him again and the
work had to be done in time. Do you often have to do other peoples
work? I do sometimes.
11. Do you know when I got up yesterday? No. When? At half past four.
My brother had phoned and told me that he was coming by the 6 oclock train.
In other words, you had to get up early to meet him at the station, didnt you?
And why did you have to meet him at the station? He might have spared you
that. He couldnt. We have just moved into a new flat. I had to take him there.
12. You dont have to cook for the whole family now that your mother is
back from hospital, do you? Yes, I do. Mother is still very weak and has to

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spend most of the time in bed. I dont know when she will be able to do
housework.
13. Have you seen Ann? We were to meet here half an hour ago, but I was
late.You should have phoned. I couldnt. I was on my way here. Can she
have gone without leaving me a note? I dont think so. Why dont you look in
the next room? She may be waiting for you there. And as you are going there
anyway you might as well take this letter. Leave it with the secretary.
14. Can he still be at the meeting? Yes, they must be discussing the last
item now.
15. You dont have to/neednt worry. If Petrov has promised to come, he will
keep his word. You can rely on him.
16. You must have taken Peter for his brother. They are so much alike, that its
impossible to tell them apart.
17. Bills proposal must have been turned down. I hear many people were
against it.
18. This problem should have been settled long ago.
19. She cant have taken part in the concert. She is so shy. However she may
have changed lately.
20. The results of the latest experiments must have attracted everybodys attention. You should read the articles published in this journal.
21. You shouldnt have shouted so. You might have frightened the child.
22. Look in room 21. Petrov may be waiting for you there.
23. You ought to visit him. He may be feeling lonely.
24. They cant have arrived. The plane was to land at eight.
25. Can the book be so dull? I hear that the writer is very popular.
26. They may still be arguing about this proposal.
27. Can she be her daughter? She doesnt look like her at all. How old is she?
She must be about 20.
28. Where is the book you promised me? Petrov was to buy it. He promised
to phone me, but didnt. Can he have failed to go to the shop? Apparently
so. You should have bought the book yourself.
29. You are to meet him in the square at 5. The time may be inconvenient, but
you will have to go.
30. We were to meet at 5.30. I went there, but nobody turned up. Can they
have cancelled the meeting? They may have put it off. You should phone
somebody and find out. Well, if they have put off the meeting they might
have let me know.
Exercise 15

1. You must have never tried to do it. /You cannot have tried to do it.
2. He must have never guessed/have failed to guess why we were laughing.

3. You must have failed to recognize me and so did not greet me.
4. He must have misplaced the key, I could not find it.
5. They must have been wrongly informed. They were to (have) come yesterday.
6. Nobody must have told him that he was to do the job himself.
7. You must have been away for a long time. You must have forgotten that
the building you mentioned had been knocked down.
8. You must have failed to recognize him. -1 cannot have failed to recognize him. It must have been somebody else.
9. He must have been told nothing about it. He cannot have Jorgotten. He
cannot have failed to come.
10. They must have missed the train because they had left home too late.
11. The timetable for the morning trains must have remained unchanged.
12. They must have caught the train. They had left early.
13. He must have mispronounced the name of a/the dish and the waiter
must have misunderstood him.
14. Nobody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in public.
15. He must have failed to write to them that he was coming.
16. She must have left the door unlocked remembering that I was to come late.
17. The man must have failed to understand me and I had to explain again.
18. She must have been quite unaware of having made a mistake.
19. They must have given us incorrect information. I cannot see any of the landmarks they mentioned.
20. Th telegram must have failed to arrive in time.
21. He must have never done/must have failed to do anything in spite of his
promises.
22. Can the dog have failed to recognize its master? It should not have
barked.
23. He must be quite unaware of his clumsiness/how clumsy he is.
Exercise 16

1. How lucky! Another five minutes and we might not have obtained tickets.
2. You should have let us know that you would not be able to present your
paper. We might have put off the discussion of this matter.
3. You might have let me know you would not be coming.
4. You should not have gone there, they might have come themselves.
5. You should not have spoken to him like that, it cannot be his fault.
6. You should have thought about it before, nothing can be done to correct
it now.
7. The expedition was to spend the winter in the field, but had to return
early because of frosty weather.
8. May I ask you a few questions?

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9. Can you have believed them? They must have played a joke on you.
10. Can you have failed to believe them? They cannot have been lying to you.
11. I cannot understand why Marc did not come. We were to have met two
hours ago. He cannot have forgotten, he must have got ill.
12. If you do not feel like doing it today, you may finish the job tomorrow.
13. I was living near to the institute last year, so I did not have to get up as
early as now.
14. I dont think you need have paid attention to that.
15. You must have all read the book. If not, you must/should read it as soon
as possible so that we could discuss it in class.
16. You ought to have spoken to the child more gently. You might have
frightened him.
17. I think we should/must wait another half hour. The tourists may arrive on
the next train.
18. You should have sent him a letter. He must have failed to realize you
were being held up at work and may be worried.
19. Do you think you could read my book by tomorrow? I may have to leave
tomorrow night and I may need the book.
Exercise 17

1. I dont have to cook, we have food delivered from the nearest caf.
2. They neednt travel so far, they can/may study in our reading-room.
3. You dont have to answer this question if you dont want to.
4. You dont have to/neednt come personally, you may send somebody
over.
5. You neednt have gone to the library. We had (the) necessary books, you
might have used those.
6. The tooth had stopped aching by (the) evening and he decided he didnt
have to/neednt go to a dentist.
7. Our conversation didnt last long, everything was clear and we didnt have
to go into unnecessary details.
8. The text was easy and they neednt have used a dictionary, it only took
them longer.
9. I shouldnt have spoken to her in such a way. It is my tone that must have
offended her.
10. He must have gone already. We were to have come half an hour earlier.
11. You neednt have hurried so, you werent to be here until five.
12. We didnt have to carry our things, we caught a car going our way.
13. You dont have to get up so early now, do you? Your job is now only ten
minutes walk from home./It only takes ten minutes now to walk to your job from
home.

14. There are a lot of plants which shouldnt be touched because they leave
burns.
15. This medicine is to be obtained only on a doctors prescription.
16. They must have been discussing something heatedly, they didnt even
hear the doorbell ringing.
Exercise 18

1. They cant have done the work. They only started yesterday.
2. The work must have affected his eye sight.
3. You may/might be friendlier towards her. You dont have to be so demonstratively hostile.
4. You ought to visit him. He may be feeling lonely.
5. Can he be still doing the job? His part of the job was very insignificant.
6. Has he been able to do the job on his own or did you have to help him?
7. Weve been able to buy new shoes for both the children.
8. It cant be a serious case. The boy must only have a slight cold.
9. They may be still arguing whether to accept or reject the proposal.
10. You are to/must/should go and post the letter at once. Otherwise it may
be too late.
11 .He didnt have to revise the rules, he remembered them very well.
12. Your sister must have trained for many years to master this profession.
13. They cant have arrived. The plane was to land at eight.
14. They cant have failed to arrive. They were very interested in the meeting.
15. They must have been out of touch lately.
16. Am I to/Do I have to/Shall I answer the question at once or may I think a
little?
17. They might have announced in advance that the match had been cancelled.
18. Can he have already mastered this difficult skill? It must have taken a lot
of effort and patience.
19. He must have failed to prove that he was right.
20. The tourists must/should be going through the customs at the moment.
21. Your friend cant have been held up at work. Something unexpected
must have happened.
22. The meeting should/ought to finish by five. Only then will I be able to
look into your problem/I wont be able to... until then.
23. They cant be still preparing the experiment. The work was to start two
weeks ago. They should have/were to have finished everything by today.
24. The renovation was started yesterday. They should be able to finish it in
two weeks.
25. It cant have rained yesterday. I didnt notice anything.
26. Can you have failed to let them know? They should have/were to have
brought the documents an hour ago.

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27. He must have understood you. I can see him nodding.


28. He must have failed to understand you. He has brought the wrong documents.
29. Why need you have come? You should have stayed at home.
30. I may not have noticed him yesterday. He must have left early.

. .
Exercise 1

As soon as I noticed that Maria could not pronounce her "ss" I made an appointment and saw a doctor. He told me that she would grow out of it naturally. I did not believe that and, consequently, I got in touch with my old school
friend who lived near us. She still worked/was still working as a speech therapist in a local hospital and she took the matter seriously and sent me back to my
doctor. Although a month or so had elapsed, Marias lisp had grown appreciably worse and that helped to convince the doctor. Maria was seen by the consultant two months ago and has been having treatment for three weeks already.
In my opinion she is making progress and I am confident that in a month or so
she will be cured.
Exercise 2

1. Ill phone you as soon as weve settled this matter. But I dont know when
well be able to settle it.
2. You shouldnt have said that. If you say such things, youll be laughed at.
3. Well start at 5 if it stops/has stopped raining by that time. Do you think it
will have stopped raining? It may.
4. Has your project been accepted? No, its still being considered. How
long has it been considered? They were to start/must have started on
Monday.
5. I hadnt been in the room for 5 minutes when she came in. She was looking hot and tired, so I wondered what she had been doing. She answered that
she had been playing tennis.
6. You need not phone to find out if the drawings have been prepared. You
will be notified when the drawings will have been sent/have been sent.
7. He had tuned his violin and was playing a tune I had never heard before.
8. The boy fetched some water, as his mother had told him, and ran off to
play with his friends.
9. A new railway line across the desert is being built. When do you think it
will be/have been finished?

10. This picture is being talked about a lot. I havent been to the exhibition,
but it was described to me so vividly that I seem to have seen it.
11. When the visitor leaves you must have a rest. Youve been working too
hard today. You may have a headache.
12. Sue painted her picture for about an hour while Johnsy lay/was lying in
bed counting. She was counting leaves falling off the vine on the wall of the
building opposite.
13. Sue had been painting about an hour when there was a knock at the door.
It was their neighbour, an old painter. He had brought some hot broth.
14. The soldiers gave a cry: the figure that had been lying lifeless on the
ground, had begun to move again.
15. When Sue woke up the next morning, Johnsy was staring at the drawn
curtain. She was thinking about the last leaf, might have been thinking about
it for several hours. She knew that when the last leaf fell she would die.
16. He entered the room and said that he had been playing tennis and had
won.
17. They had worked out a detailed plan before they started/before starting
out on the expedition.
18. He said they had known each other since they had been members of the
club.
19. The years spent by Arthur /Arthur had spent in South America had
changed him so much that his friends could not recognize him.
20. He did not recognize me until I reminded him where we had met.
21. I still remember your brother though I have not met him since he left.
22. We had not traveled half the way when the car broke down and we had
to go back.
23. Two years have passed since he left and he has not written to us and
nobody has seen him since.
Exercise 3

1. The teacher wondered if I had finished writing the test. He suggested that
I should hurry with it.
2. We learned that the construction would begin one of these days and
would be completed by the end of the year.
3. She had written the exam and was waiting for the teacher to mark it.
4. He hasnt been seen around all week. Has he been taken ill? He has
gone away on holiday.
5. Dont call in the second period. Well be writing an exam.
6. When I arrived in the city that building was being constructed.
7. Pauls picture had been/was finished by October and a friend suggested
that he should send it to the annual show at the City Hall.

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8. He said he was tired because he had been doing his homework all day.
9. The book has been sold out. I never expected it to sell out so quickly.
10. Eliza was tired as she had been walking all day.
11. Its a good thing youve dropped by. Ive been packing. Ive called a taxi.
It will be arriving at 5.30.
12. A very important matter was being discussed at that moment and everybody was listening attentively.
13. Ill come round if I am not held up at work.
14. She knew that her sister would be returning home late as she had been
invited to the theatre.
15. The aunt said she had been working all night and had made a new suit.
She suggested that the boy should wear it to school. The suit was of a strange
green colour and the boy realized that he would be laughed at if he wore it.
16. She put aside the letter she had been writing and looked out of the
window.
17. The lecturer was being listened to so attentively that nobody noticed
me enter.
18. He said it was late and we would miss the train if we did not take a taxi.
19. I would like to know the exact day when my sister will be back.
20. When David arrived Sam was already waiting for him.
21. Show me where a circus is being built in your town.
22. I saw this play a long time ago and have not re-read it for a long time. I
have forgotten it.
23. I met her a long time ago/I made her acquaintance a long time ago. We
have been friends for over 10 years.
24. Was it explained to you why you had not been/were not allowed to
take part in the competition?
25. I will come after I have finished/finish m work.
26. When we arrived in the town this stadium was still being built.
27. I havent seen you around for a long time. Have you been busy? Yes,
awfully. Ive been writing my graduation paper. Have you written it? Yes,
I have. Ill be presenting it in a week.
Exercise 4

1. They have been playing this game a whole day, they have made 75 moves.
2. The conductor had not come out yet, but the orchestra players were in
their seats tuning their instruments.
3. Can he be still keeping the book? How long has he been reading it?
4. He has finished the first chapter of his thesis and is now writing the second. He has been working on his thesis for 2 years already.
5. He has been our coach since I have been playing in this team.

6. Have they passed a resolution on the second item? No, they are still
arguing.
7. Has Mike arrived? Yes, he has been here for two days. He arrived on
Friday.
8. Dinner was ready, everybody was hungry, but two guests had not arrived
yet.
9. When I arrived, he was at home and sat by the fire looking through a
magazine/was sitting by the fire and looking...
10. Surikov painted his picture "Stepan Razin" from 1907 to 1910.
11. He has been doing this crossword for half an hour and he says he is going
to finish it soon as he is now thinking over the last word.
12. The actors have been rehearsing since early morning. They are now running through the first scene because they do not like the way they perform it.
13. Here you are at last! Where have you been? Have you been waiting for
me? You neednt have. You could/might have started without me.
14. She has been on the phone for a long time already. Its high time she
stopped.
15. You have been going to bed late this week, you look/are looking tired.
16. It has been snowing for a week. If it goes on like this, nobody will be able
to reach the camp.
17. At last you have opened the door. It seems I have been ringing/I seem to
have been ringing for an hour.
18. My watch has been keeping good time since I had it repaired.
19. They have been discussing this problem since I have been here and they
have not reached a definite conclusion yet.
20. The typist has left out several words because she has been talking all the
time.
21. The lecturer has mentioned this name several times, but I have been unable to remember it. I will put it down as soon as he mentions it again.
22. He works/is working on his English all the time and he has made considerable progress. His pronunciation is excellent.
23. I have been living in this town for 20 years and it will be 9 years in October
since I have been working in this institute.
Exercise 5

1. She did/would not give me the letter until I (had) told her my name.
2. Nobody (had) told her how serious her illness was until she got well.
3. It was announced on the radio that the plane that had been filling up
would be leaving in half an hour.
4. He was not allowed into the building until he showed/had shown his
pass.

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5. A gray-haired man was sitting at the table in front of me who had been
famous as a traveler several decades ago and was now no less famous as a writer.
6. The teacher said his pronunciation had improved after he had worked
several times in the lab.
7. When the ambulance arrived the rescue team had not risen out of the
mine yet.
8. The engineer showed his foreign friends the bridge in the building of which
he took/had taken part in 1948.
9. When he arrived at his laboratory in the morning, he was happy to see that
the assistant had not touched anything and he could set to work at once.
10. When the actress had taken off her make-up I saw the tired face of a person who had been working hard.
Exercise 6

1. Aunt Polly expected Tom to keep his promise and stop missing lessons. But
next day she learned that he had been plying truant/had missed school again.
"Tom, do you want me to punish you?" Aunt Polly said angrily.
2. Aunt Polly decided to punish Tom and sent him to whitewash the fence.
Tom had been working very slowly at first, but when he noticed Ben approaching, he pretended to be enjoying the work. "What are you doing, Tom?" Ben
asked. "Dont you see? Im whitewashing the fence. Ive been doing it for half
an hour, but Im not tired at all. Its very interesting work." "Is it? Please, give
me the brush for a minute. Ive never whitewashed a fence in my life. Ill give
you a bite of my apple if you let me." "Sorry, Ben." Ben said he would give
Tom the whole apple if Tom gave him the brush. Tom agreed reluctantly. So,
while Ben was whitewashing the fence, Tom was sitting/sat in the shade eating
the apple.
3. That Sunday morning Nancy was at home alone. She had tried reading, but
had been unable to. She was thinking about her life with Godfry. She was happy with him, but on that day she wondered for some reason if he was happy
with her. A noise out in the street attracted her attention. She looked out of the
window and saw/to see a crowd in front of her house. Everybody was shouting
and gesturing emotionally. She was still standing at the window when she
heard somebody open the door. It was Godfry. She turned to greet him, but
could not say a word when she saw his pale face and shaking hands. She felt
her heart miss a beat. Very alarmed, she asked what had happened. Godfry
answered that Dansten and Silas Marners money had been found an hour before.
4. Tom and Becky sat together. Tom gave Becky a pencil and with his help
she drew a house. Then they got talking. "Have you ever been to the circus?" "Yes, I have, and Dad is going to take me again if Im good." "Ive

been to the circus many times and Ill go there again. Ill be a circus clown
when I grow up."
5. Neither Tom nor Becky knew where they were going. They had never
been in that cave before. They were very hungry because they had had nothing
to eat since morning. They had been looking for a way out of the cave, but had
been unable to find it. It was very quiet and dark because their candles had
gone out. They were both very tired, but Becky said she could walk a little further. They walked for a long time, but could not find an exit. At last they stopped
for a rest. Tom felt in his pockets and was happy to find a piece of pie there. The
boy broke it in two and gave Becky a half. He asked how she felt/was feeling.
The girl answered she felt/was feeling better, but she looked pale and tired.
Her eyes closed and she fell asleep. Tom was sitting /sat beside her wondering
how soon they would be/were going to be missed. Neither Aunt Polly nor
Beckys parents expected/were expecting them back early. Suddenly he saw a
light. He thought they were being looked for. But when Tom had made a few
steps in the direction of the light, he was very frightened because he saw Indian
Joe sitting in front of a fire.
6. The boys were being looked for everywhere. They had disappeared and
everybody in the village thought they were dead. Mrs. Harper went to see Aunt
Polly and they cried remembering the poor boys. Tom was lying/lay under the
bed crying too because he was feeling sorry for himself. When Mrs. Harper had
gone and the lights had gone out in the house, Tom crept out from under the bed
and went up to his sleeping aunt. He heard her repeating his name in her sleep.
Exercise 7

1. Where is Peter? He is in the garden. He is playing chess with a friend.


Can they still be playing? They started at 10 in the morning. And have been
playing since. I cant make them have lunch.
2. Have you seen Ann? No, but I have just been talking to her on the
phone. She feels/is feeling well. If she has no temperature tomorrow and the
day after, she will be able to come to work on Monday.
3. Will you go/are you going over to Anns (place) on Monday? I am afraid
not. My sister is moving into a new flat and I will have to help her. I may go to
see her tonight.
4. I dont know when he retired. He must have been 62 then.
5. I dont know what they are going to do in the summer. They may go traveling.
6. He asked me in what hotel I was going to stay.
7. She told us that the weather had not changed.
8. We could not find her because she had got married and changed her
name.

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9. A boy is waiting for you. He says he must see you. He will have to wait.
My younger brother is just back from school and I am cooking dinner for him. As
soon as I am free, I will talk to him.
10. I didnt know that your sister and her husband had gone to Siberia. Have
they taken the children? They have taken their younger son. Nina, their older
daughter, will be joining them when she graduates/has graduated from University. They will have to wait for three years.
11. When I arrived home, my younger brother sat/was sitting on a chair crying. At first I wanted to ask him what had happened, but then I decided to wait
till he stopped crying.
12. I am afraid I have lost my bag. Have you seen it? I seem to/must have left
it in the institute yesterday. Here is your bag. You must/should/ought to be
more careful, you always lose/are always losing everything. I would like you
always to know where your things are.
13. Have you done the exercises? We are to hand them in tomorrow, arent
we? No, these exercises are to be done by Friday, so there is no need to hurry,
we have a lot of time.
14. By the time we went out the rain had stopped/it had stopped raining.
Ihad an umbrella with me because Mother had told me to take it. I dont like
walking when its raining. How pleasant it is walking in fine weather.
Exercise 8

1. Has Marina arrived home? No, she is still in the library. She said she
would be back late. She is preparing a talk. When is she to give the talk?
In two weeks. She is afraid she will not be able to prepare it in time.
2. I will tell him about it as soon as I see him. But I dont know when I will be
able to see him. He has not been round to see us for two weeks.
3. If I see her tomorrow I will tell her that you have invited her to the country
on Sunday.
4. Where is the money I have just given you? Ive put it in the drawer of
the writing table. Do you need it? Yes, can I take a half?
5. If you finish the work at 7, we will be able to visit Peter. He has been ill
for 10 days. I think I will be able to finish the work half an hour earlier. Will
you? Unfortunately, I wont be able to leave the flat until Father comes. He has
lost his keys.
6. The news was important and it was listened to with great attention.
7. When I called for Olga she was still translating the article we had been
given the day before. She said that she had to finish the article before we went
out for a walk and that I would have to wait for her. I had to wait 10 minutes
until Olga had finished her work.
8. When Peter arrived home he heard his daughter playing the piano. She
had been learning to play for many years and played well. Peter was proud of
his daughter.

9. I hear that a new cinema is being built in your street. I wonder when it
will be built.
10. What were you looking for when I came in? We were looking for the
newspaper that Alex had brought. There is an article there that I have wanted
to read for a long time. Have you found the newspaper? You know, we
had been looking for it for half an hour until we found it in the bookcase. We
could not understand how it had got there.
11. Why is he being laughed at? Did he say anything funny? He is always
laughed at.
12. It is getting dark. It is time for the children to go to bed. They have been
playing in the yard all evening. They will not be able to get up early tomorrow
and they are to go on an excursion.
13. Has the rain stopped?/ Has it stopped raining? No, it is still raining. It
has been raining for a few days.
14. Kemp felt that he was being stared at. But there was nobody in the
room.
15. Can I take the documents? Sorry, could you call for them in half an
hour? They have just been printed. They are being looked through.
Exercise 9

A) A young writer was walking up and down the room. He was trying to find
a subject for a story. The story had been promised to the editor a long time
before. Time was running out and nothing had been done yet. The young writer looked at the bookshelves. "So much has been written", he thought. "All
good subjects have been used many times. Take these stories, for instance. No
doubt, in their time they were being read, enjoyed, talked about. But now they
are quite forgotten. And what if"
By the end of the day one of the forgotten stories had been retyped and
sent to the editor. His letter arrived the next day. "Its disgraceful", the editor
wrote. "Such behaviour can be neither understood nor forgiven. The story was
published in our magazine only a month ago".
B) When I arrived for my first class I saw a group of children who were watching with interest what was going on on the training-ground. Children always
come to watch dogs being trained and I did not pay much attention to them.
The next day I found two groups on the training-ground: a group of grown-ups
with the dogs I was to train, and a group of the children who had watched the
first lesson. They had also brought their dogs. As it turned out, the children had
thought that in order to be able to train on the training-ground you only had to
have a dog. I was sorry for the children, but I had to tell them that only special
dogs were trained there and it had to be paid for. The children left. I began to

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explain how the tasks were to be practised at home but I suddenly noticed that
nobody was listening to me. They were looking at something behind me.
Iturned round. Nine children were standing, nine dogs were sitting and each
dog was holding a stick in its mouth.
Exercise 10

1. It was a fine spring morning. Poirot and Hastings were sitting in Poirots
room. Poirot was combing his moustache, Hastings was sitting in an armchair.
The newspaper that Hastings had been reading had dropped to the floor and
he was sleeping peacefully when Poirot called him.
2. When Poirot wondered what Hastings was thinking about he answered
that he was thinking over the incident at the ball in the Victory Hall. Everybody
was talking about it and the newspapers were publishing news about Lord
Cronshaws murder every day.
3. Hastings reminded Poirot that Lord Cronshaws party at the ball had consisted of 6 people. They had been wearing costumes representing the old Italian comedy. The costumes had been copied from a set of china figures in Lord
Beltane collection. Lord Cronshaw had been wearing the costume of Harlequin.
4. The party were to have supper in a special room. By the time of supper
Lord Cronshaw and his fianc Coco were not speaking to each other. Cocos
eyes were red, she had obviously been crying.
5. Lord Cronshaw was found dead in the supper room after the ball. The only
clue the police had was a green pompon found in the dead mans hand. Cronshaw must have torn it off the murderers costume.
6. All the witnesses had said that they had seen Cronshaw a few minutes
before his body had been found. However, Poirot suspected that Cronshaw
must have been killed earlier. Poirot concluded that the supper-room had to
have a recess where a body should have been concealed until the end of the
ball.
7. The actor Davidson and his wife had been in Cronshaws party disguised as
Pierrot and Pierrette. Poirot asked Mrs. Davidson to show him the costume she
had been wearing at the ball. The woman hesitated a little at first, but then
turned and left the room.
8. Poirot noticed at once that one of the pompons on Mrs. Davidsons costume was missing. The woman explained that it had got torn off at the ball and
she had given it to Cronshaw to keep. But the pompon had not been torn off,
it had been cut off very neatly with scissors.
9. On the day of the ball Cronshaw had learned that Coco was taking drugs.
He had been determined to find out who the drugs came from. Davidson, who
had been supplying Coco with drugs, was afraid of exposure and decided to
silence Cronshaw at any cost.

10. Poirot promised to tell Hastings everything when the time came. But the
time had not come yet. He said they must all see a performance in which the
characters of the old Italian comedy were to pose before a white screen.
11. Everybody who had seen the performance thought that they had seen six
figures. In fact there had been five of them. One of the characters had appeared
on the stage twice. The spectators eyes had lied to them.
12. Poirot suspected at once that the murderer was the person disguised as
Pierrot. But Pierrot had left the ball two hours before the murder. It meant that
he must have either returned to the ball later or murdered Cronshaw before
heleft.
13. Mrs. Davidson was the only person who had seen Cronshaw after supper.
But her statement might have been a lie. In that case the Harleguin that everybody had seen at the end of the ball could not have been Cronshaw.
14. Poirot understood that Davidson must/should have killed Cronshaw immediately after supper. Then he took Coco home and quickly returned to the
ball, but already disguised as Harlequin, not Pierrot.
Exercise 11

1. Harry was lying on his back breathing heavily as if he had been running.
He had just awoken. The old scar on hid forehead was burning as if a white hot
wire had been pressed to his skin.
2. Harry tried to remember what he had been dreaming about before he
had awoken. He remembered two men who had been speaking about someone they had killed. They had been plotting to kill someone else him.
3. Harry opened his eyes and looked about the room as if expecting to see
something extraordinary. There was an open book lying on the floor beside his
bed; he had been reading it before he fell asleep the previous night. The pictures in the book were all moving.
4. Harry listened closely to the silence around him. He was half expecting to
hear the creak of a stair or the swish of a cloak. Therefore he started when he
heard his cousin Dudley give a tremendous snore from the next room.
5. Harry shook himself mentally. He was being stupid, there was no one in
the house with him except his uncle, aunt and cousin.
6. Harry lay thinking/was lying and thinking about the scar. He had been a
year old when Voldermort, the dark wizard who had been gaining power steadily for the last ten years, had arrived at his house and killed his parents. Then he
had turned his wand on Harry and performed a curse which had destroyed
many wizards. But the curse had not worked. Instead of killing the little boy, the
curse had rebounded on Voldermort. Harry had survived with a small scar on
his forehead and Vodermort had been almost destroyed.
7. Harry, Ron and Hermione were talking about goblins. They had been seen
on the school grounds. They had been looking for Crouch. Ron wondered if

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they needed protection. Hermione smiled sarcastically. "Havent you been listening to what Professor Binns has been telling us about goblins? They dont
need protection. They are quite capable of dealing with wizards."
8. Dumbledore sent Harry to his room asking him not to send an owl till
morning. Harry stared at him in surprise. How could Dumbledore know that he
had been thinking of sending an owl to Sirius to tell him what had happened.
9. Harry dropped the golden egg and the map. The egg burst open and began wailing loudly. At once Harry heard the voice of Filch, the caretaker, who
had been going around the building in search of Peeves, the local poltergeist.
Seeing the egg, he cried happily, "Peeves! Youve been stealing again!" At that
moment Snape came along and complained that when he was passing his office, he had seen that the light was on and the cupboard door was ajar. Somebody had been searching his office and it couldnt have been Peeves. Snape
wanted Filch to help him search for the intruder, but Filch hesitated. He said
that now that it was obvious that Peeves had been stealing, he could report
him to the principal and try to get him thrown out of the castle. But Snape
wouldnt listen.
10. The day of the third task was approaching. Ron and Hermione had taken
their end-of-term exams. Harry had been sitting at the back of each exam class
looking up fresh hexes for the task.
11. Bagman asked Harry if he was confident of success. Harry replied that he
was fine. He kept turning over in his mind all the hexes and spells he had been
practicing and the knowledge that he could remember them all made him feel
better.


Exercise 1

1. My younger sisters second husband is a doctor.


2. Helen new room is very large and light.
3. My husband Peters older sister lives in St. Petersburg.
4. My younger brothers working day begins at 8 oclock.
5. Do you know my brother Peters new address?
6. My friend Anns new winter coat is very warm.
7. Where are the little girls new books?
8. I like your new students clear high voice .
9. He did not hear the teachers next question.
10. I talked to the former directors secretary yesterday.
11. I do not know Johns new phone number.
12. I do not like this red-haired girls red dress.
13. She goes to a new large girls school.

14. I have a months holiday every year.


15. I would like to read todays morning newspaper.
16. It is five minutes brisk walk to the station.
17. Such was todays unexpected news.
18. He has a sweet four-year-old child.
19. After a minutes silence he answered the question.
20. Twenty miles distance is not a problem.
21. It is several miles walk from here to the town.
22. I took ten days holiday and went to the seaside.
23. These are new childrens books.
24. These are our childrens new books.
25. Its an elegant silk ladys hat.
Exercise 2

1. He began to climb THE stairs which were dark and smelt of cats.
2. I read until breakfast time A/THE novel I had borrowed from A friend.
3. I dont have to go into reasons why they hate each other.
4. What he said reminded me of A film I had seen.
5. A lieutenant offered Grey A cigarette which he refused.
6. He was wearing A tweed jacket with leather inserts at THE elbows, A thing
that I had never seen.
7. Charlotte did not like THE idea that Arthur could be better at anything than
Joe was.
8. This was A sentence that made sense, but no meaning.
9. (THE) questions Ann asked always seemed to be questions to which Paul
knew THE answers.
10. Stanley knows A woman who might be persuaded to come out by bus
once A week to clean THE house.
11. She was not THE little girl he had known, but she was not yet A woman
either.
12. Her eyes were really like searchlights, picking out things that no one saw.
13. THE fact that he would have independent means made her feel relieved.
14. Without knowing her at all I got A feeling that she was THE strongest person in THE family.
15. It was not A job that he liked.
16. Her husband made her presents of books she did not read.
17. And then he put forward AN amazing suggestion that she should turn
down THE offer and settle in London.
18. She wanted to fill THE wine-glasses which she had received as A wedding
present.

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19. I liked reading in THE garden, which was several steps below THE level of
THE yard.
20. I have AN impression that you dont trust me.
21. She was drinking A glass of orange juice.
22. My friend is A man of culture and wide reading.
23. His voice was determined, THE lines of his face had grown harsh.
24. Tom sat down on THE edge of A log and looked at THE glassy surface of THE
lake.
25. A deposit of 5 pounds is payable by anyone who wishes to become A reader of THE/ library.
26. THE faint purring of A motor woke Julia (THE) next morning.
27. "Come back in half AN hour, Ill give you A bottle of medicine", said THE
doctor.
28. THE lamplight made his skin THE colour of red brick.
29. He found AN orchid of peculiar rarity.
30. He remembered THE soothing effect of her words.
31. He was disturbed by A/THE sound of A shot.
32. Willy leaned on THE back of A/THE chair.
33. He always disliked anybody as soon as they were appointed to A position
of authority.
34. He always took THE line of least resistance.
35. My grandfather was A man of force and intellect.
36. From THE kitchen came THE singing of THE kettle on THE stove.
37. Just then THE latch of THE front door clicked, and my father came in.
38. From THE sitting-room came A chink of light beneath THE door, and THE
sound of whispers from my mother and her friends.
39. THE wallpaper was dark-blue with A design of conventional flowers.
40. This machinery drills holes to A depth of two miles or even more.
41. The woman moved her chair slightly towards THE right side of THE path.
42. In A crate there were boxes of cigars.
Exercise 3

1. For A minute or two we were all silent. Then Robert struck A match and lit
A cigarette.
2. Without waiting for AN answer, he walked over to his car.
3. It was A calculated risk to take A man without medical experience, but we
were looking for A manager primarily.
4. She gave A low rather hoarse chuckle, that chuckle which so delighted audiences.
5. THE guard blew A cracked whistle and waved A red flag.
6. When I got home again, I found A note in her bold, legible writing on THE
sideboard.

7. You thought youd only given birth to AN ugly duckling, perhaps hes going
to turn into A white-winged swan.
8. With her open hand she gave him A great swinging blow on THE face.
9. I ought never to have accepted valuable presents from you and allowed
you to lend me money.
10. After A while I got into private employment and met A nice girl.
11. Then, on one excuse and Another, she sent him . pearl studs and sleevelinks and waistcoat buttons. It thrilled her to make him presents.
12. She wore A very small hat with feathers in it, and A pale gray dress with
large leg-of-mutton sleeves and A long train.
13. He spoke gently, and slowly, like A father who reassures A frightened child.
14. THE mists were dangerous, too, rising in A cloud from THE damp ground
and closing in about THE marshes like A white barrier.
15. In half AN hour she had THE kitchen scrubbed clean as A pin.
16. Clinging to her fathers hand, she saw A great white ship like A bird rolling
helplessly in THE tough of THE sea.
17. She rose like A fish to his bait.
18. THE town was set on THE bosom of A hill, with A castle in THE centre, like A
tale from old history.
19. A/THE little car shot up to THE right house like A bullet, and shot out its
owner like A bombshell.
20. Without A word, with A curious swift motion, like A tiger pacing his cage,
she came down and followed May out.
21. There is A packet of candles in THE larder, I saw them, better use those.
22. Theres A piece of mutton in THE kitchen.
23. A brook burbled merrily over stones and there was A fording gate across
THE shallow water.
24. Theres A piece of cheese in THE cupboard behind you.
25. Michael gave Dolly A glance. There was A twinkle in his eye.
26. There was A shout and A clatter of hoofs and Jem rode up to her round THE
corner of THE house, astride A black pony.
27. There was A flaming spot of colour high on his cheekbone.
28. Even as she spoke, there was A loud knock at THE entrance-door and then
A pause, followed by A thunder of blows.
29. "Theres A light in THE kitchen," she whispered.
30. Theres been A very nasty atmosphere in this Lab recently, and if A certain
gentleman doesnt take hold of himself, therell be mischief done, you mark my
words.
31. There was A noise, faintly discernible, like (THE) creeping of A myriad insects.
32. THE kitchen was lit by A single candle stuck sideways into A bottle.

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33. She walked away up THE hill without A backward glance or A wave of A/
THE hand.
34. People had lived there once happy, placid people, rectors with musty
books beneath their arms; and there by A/THE window A gray-haired woman in
A blue gown had stooped to thread her needle.
35. In A little while appeared AN ancient and haggard female in A very dirty
print dress, with AN untidy mop of grey hair, and showed me, two flights up A
very small grubby room.
36. Then she lifted her eyes and saw THE door of THE kitchen open very slowly,
little by little, AN inch at A time.
37. They sucked oranges beneath A striped tent, and had their fortunes told by
A wrinkled gypsy woman.
38. Jem bought Mary A crimson shawl, and gold rings for her ears.
39. She regarded me merely as A person in A play.
40. THE drinking well in THE yard had A thin layer of ice.
Exercise 4

(A) Whirling, talking, 11 D began to enter Room 109. From THE quality of THE
classs excitement Mark Prosser guessed it would rain. He had been teaching
high school for three years, yet his students still impressed him, they were such
sensitive animals. They reacted so infallibly to mere barometric pressure.
(B) Mark hadnt noticed exactly when THE rain started, but it was coming
down hard now. He moved around THE room with A window pole, closing THE/
windows and pulling down THE/ shades. He began to talk to Gloria in A crisp
voice that, like his device of shutting THE windows, was intended to protect
them both from embarrassment.
() "And about love. Love is one of THE words that illustrate what has happened to AN old, overworked language. These days, with movie stars and preachers and psychiatrists all pronouncing THE word, it has come to mean nothing,
but A/ vague fondness for something. In this sense, I love THE rain, THE blackboard, THE desk, you. It means nothing, you see, whereas once THE word signified quite AN explicit thing A desire to share all you want and are with someone else. It is time we coined A new word to mean that, and when you think up
A word you want to use, I suggest that you be economical with it. Treat it as
something you can use only once, if not for your own sake, for THE good of THE
language."
(D) I got AN advance on my salary THE next morning, and I put nine hundred
dollars into AN envelope and walked over to THE Warburtons when THE last
lights in THE neighbourhood had been put out. It had been raining, but THE rain
had let up. Stars were beginning to show. I went around to THE back of their
house, found THE kitchen door open, and put THE envelope on THE table in THE
dark room. As I was walking away from THE house, A police car drew up beside

me, and A patrolman I knew asked, What are you doing out at this time of night,
Mr. Hake?
"Im walking A dog," I said cheerfully. There was no dog in sight, but they
didnt look. "Here, Toby! Here, Toby! Good dog!" I called, and off I went whistling
merrily in THE dark.
(E) A poor young artist was asked to paint A portrait of A rich lady and he did
his best to make A good picture. When THE portrait was finished, it was shown
to THE ladys friends.
Some of them thought it was too realistic. They were afraid THE lady would
not like THE picture. One of his friends suggested THE following, "We shall leave
it for THE ladys dog to decide whether THE picture is good or bad."
THE next day THE picture was sent to THE ladys house where her friends had
gathered to see THE result of THE test. As soon as THE dog was brought before
THE portrait it began to lick it all over.
Nobody knew that THE painters friend had spread bacon all over THE picture.
Exercise 5

1. Ive bought A book today that I have wanted to read for a long time.
2. When I entered, she was writing A letter to A friend.
3. She put aside THE letter she had been writing and looked out of THE window.
4. Ive been introduced to A young man who writes poetry.
5. THE young man who has just come in, writes poetry.
6. I heard A poem on THE radio yesterday that I liked very much.
7. THE poem you have recited seems familiar to me.
8. They live in A small town in THE Urals.
9. THE woman moved to THE town where her parents lived.
10. Have you been given difficult work?
11. THE work he was given was not difficult, but tiring.
12. I like classical music.
13. I do not like THE music he writes.
14. I have A large family. I have A mother, A father, two grandmothers and A
grandfather. THE second grandfather died before I was born.
15. THE family you are talking about live next door.
16. I hate rain.
17. He did not notice when THE rain (had) started.
18. He likes giving advice.
19. Thank you for THE advice you have given me.
Exercise 6

1. What fine weather we are having!


2. What will the weather be like tomorrow?

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3. I like wet weather.


4. I dont know what the weather is going to be like tomorrow.
5. How much money have you got?
6. The money you gave me was not enough.
7. This money is not for you.
8. He loves money more than anything else in the world.
9. Give me some money.
10. It is easy to give advice.
11. Advice is given by those who never follow it.
12. I am grateful for your advice.
13. Here is the advice I can give you.
14. He is making progress.
15. He owes to you the progress he has made.
16. This is good news.
17. I have brought you a lot of good news.
18. The news was important.
19. There is a lot of fruit this year.
20. The fruit was delicious.
21. She has blonde hair.
22. Blonde hair is our family feature.
23. There is a lot of evidence against you.
24. All the evidence is against you.
25. What pleasant and easy work it is!
26. What valuable information you have brought!
Exercise 7

1. Doctor Brown has just phoned.


2. Ask THE doctor how THE patient feels/is feeling.
3. Gorky Park is THE largest in Moscow.
4. Christmas is A popular holiday at THE end of December.
5. Meet Colonel Smith.
6. I am talking about THE Colonel Smith who has written/wrote A history of
THE American Civil War.
7. You should talk to THE colonel. He can give you good advice.
8. We met in Hertzen street.
9. London Bridge is one of Londons places of interest.
10. Flights from Russia arrive at Heathrow Airport.
11. Victory Day is observed at THE beginning of May.
12. How can I get to Tverskaya Station?
13. Time Magazine is printed in many languages of THE world.
14. THE Central Exhibition Hall is situated not far from Krymski Bridge.

15. We are leaving at dawn tomorrow.


16. It was midnight.
17. THE most famous lake in Africa is Lake Victoria.
18. He is A graduate of Moscow University
Exercise 8

1. I enjoy going to THE Pushkin Museum.


2. THE Mayakovsky Monument is in Mayakovsky Square.
3. Have you met THE Ivanovs?
4. He travelled in Central America.
5. THE South African Republic is in South Africa.
6. THE Pacific Ocean separates Asia and America.
7. THE Mississippi is THE greatest river of THE USA.
8. Vorkuta is A city in THE North of THE European part of Russia.
9. I have never been to THE Taganka theatre.
10. In the summer we traveled/were traveling down THE Volga.
11. We are staying at THE hotel "Rossia".
12. Disentis is A small town in THE Swiss Alps.
13. (The) summer in THE Crimea is hot.
14. Red Square is THE historic centre of Moscow.
15. THE Rhine starts in THE Alps.
16. We got lost because we had taken THE/A wrong turning.
17. THE Stanislavsky Theatre is in Tverskaya Street.
Exercise 9

1. She has beautiful hair.


2. I noticed A hair on THE table. THE hair was red.
3. I drink coffee every morning.
4. Have some coffee. It will do you good.
5. I called at A bar and asked for A coffee and A newspaper.
6. Is it good tea?
7. Do you prefer Georgian or Indian tea?
8. This is one of THE Indian teas/AN Indian tea.
9. I had some tea because I was very thirsty.
10. Have some wine. Its A light dry wine, it wont do you any harm.
11. I hate war and I will do all I can to prevent A new war.
12. THE North won in THE American Civil War between THE North and THE
South.
13. Not everyone likes fish.
14. He caught such A large fish that he couldnt carry it by himself.
15. He has added a few new fishes to his fish bowl.

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C
Exercise 10

1. Repin is A great Russian painter.


2. The museum has recently acquired A Repin.
3. Whats that ship? Its THE Repin.
4. They have sold their Lada and bought A Volga.
5. Which hotel is it better to stay in? I advise you to stay in THE Volga.
6. Let me introduce myself. My name is Smith.
7. A Smith rang you up. He has left his phone number. It must be THE
Smith who has promised me A job.
8. There are two Marys in their family THE mother and THE daughter.
9. I will phone in two days, on Saturday.
10. The story began on A Monday and finished on A Sunday. THE Monday was
quite usual and nobody expected anything out of THE ordinary.
11. He has bought A new TV-set. Its A Sony.
12. This young man may become A new Gogol one day.
Exercise 11

1. He looked out of the window and saw that it was night already.
2. THE night was fine and warm.
3. One does not feel like sleeping on such A beautiful night.
4. My son starts school next year.
5. Now my children go to school by bus. Next year A new school will be
opened not far from where we live, and they will walk there.
6. She offered us dinner and THE dinner was delicious.
7. We give two dinners a month.
8. We must be off. We are invited to dinner.
9. When are you going to THE hospital to visit Paul?
10. My friend is in hospital. He has pneumonia.
11. They live in THE country and come up to town only for weekends/THE
weekend.
12. We spent our holiday in A small town in Ukraine.
13. I prefer raveling by train. THE train is A wonderful opportunity to relax.
14. You had better catch AN early train, though not necessarily THE earliest.
Exercise 12

1. (The) Summer and (the) winter are my favourite seasons.


2. THE summer of 2002 was unusually hot.
3. Come and spend A summer with us.
4. When do you get up in THE morning?
5. Look! Its morning already.

6. There is nothing like A walk on A cool summer morning.


7. Monday morning is THE worst morning of THE week.
8. On THE morning of THE first of September THE boy woke up very early. He
was afraid of being late for school.
9. He works from morning till night.
10. We were at University together.
11. THE university consisted of several buildings.
12. Every morning I would get up at dawn and work all day building my house.
When at last I would get to bed at night, I would sleep like A log till morning.
13. It was late autumn, but THE weather was warm.
14. A cold humid night was replaced by A gloomy wet morning.
Exercise 13

1. They made him A major-general after he left THE headquarters.


2. We were children of our class and time.
3. Heavens! Look at THE dog! Or is it A lion?
4. Hart was AN uneasy nervous man who broke into flashes of speech.
5. I wouldnt be Prime Minister if they asked me on their knees.
6. Jason was made THE/ Secretary of the club.
7. John could not make up his mind about THE blackmail. He had been led to
think that McGrath was THE blackmailer, because he had THE personality to be A
blackmailer.
8. She was THE only Liberal in their family.
9. After some most astonishing adventures in New Guinea he made himself
THE king of some wild tribe.
10. No, you are getting this quite wrong. She is THE wife of A friend of mine.
11. Prynne was THE manager of AN estate up THE river.
12. With A face like yours Id be at least THE/ President of A steel company.
13. Learning comes easier to THE young.
14. THE public are requested to keep off THE grass in THE park.
15. I believe there is A theory that men and women emerge finer and stronger
after suffering.
16. THE Future Tense is not used in adverbial clauses of time and condition.
17. He was at that time A lieutenant in THE British Army.
18. Mr. Richardson was THE/ owner and editor-in-chief of A publishing house.
19. Rudy had A gift of being liked. That was why he was elected President of his
class three times in A row.
20. At that time I was THE/ manager of THE Crawford Street branch of THE
bank.
21. I saw A group of workmen coming towards us. One of them was A fat, redfaced man and I presumed that he was THE foreman.

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22. Its A girl called Betsy. She is THE bosss secretary.


23. Henry Green was THE son of A general.
24. I might be THE leader of THE party instead of you.
25. His wife and Sheila were active strong women who loved using their muscles.
26. Im going to be President of this company.
27. He was THE manager of THE largest estate in THE district.
28. There seemed no reason why he should not eventually be made Governor.
29. On THE way back to THE compartment we passed Natalie Winter. She was
A very shy woman. She was also THE star of THE season.
30. She was proud of being THE daughter of A poet.
31. If anyone could tell her what she wanted to know, Mrs. Ferguson was THE
woman.
32. Then Rudy saw Professor Denton, THE head of THE History and Economics
department.
33. THE sun was hanging over THE hill behind them, A large red ball which had
lost its fierceness.
34. Philips wife, THE biggest snob in THE family, invited me to tea.
35. Then we were joined by two women, acquaintances of Charles and Ann.
36. THE figure 5 is THE same for A Russian or AN American, while THE word five
is not.
37. Admiral Lacey was A red-faced man.
38. Then he walked down Broadway, THE main street of THE town.
39. She was THE daughter of A well-known theatrical manager, A willowy,
wispy, fair-haired girl with colourless eyes.
40. He assumed THE role of THE breadwinner for THE family.
41. General Holt withdrew his plan.
42. They had lunch at Hexley, A small village on THE coast.
43. He was their favourite nephew, THE son of their dead elder sister.
44. We spoke to Philips secretary, A youngish man called Williams.
45. Within A short time Gregory married Zalia Phelps, THE daughter of Angus
Phelps, A planter in Georgia.
46. Smiley, THE captain of THE team, got up on A bench and told them of his
plan.
47. Nurse Everett, A bony woman of fifty, herself opened THE door.
48. My friend Herbert was A professor of English literature at one of THE smaller universities of THE Middle West.
49. He turned to me and said, "What extraordinary names these boys seem to
have."
50. Thames Street was A broad road on THE edge of THE town half A mile from
THE/A park. Most of THE houses in it had been built just before THE Second
WorldWar.

51. All big hotels are very much the same.


52. The plane flew at A speed of 1,560 miles per hour.
53. "What beautiful portraits," she said, "and what A lucky man you must be!"

Coc
Exercise 1

1. I will phone him tomorrow if I find out his phone number.


2. I would phone him now if I knew his phone number.
3. I would have phoned him yesterday if I had known his phone number.
4. I would be phoning him now if I had not forgotten his phone number.
5. I will go and see him next week if I am free.
6. I would go and see him next week if I were free.
7. I will stay here longer when I am not so busy.
8. I would be staying in the country now if I had not received this letter.
9. I would stay here longer if I were not so busy.
10. I would have stayed here longer last year if I had not been so busy.
11. If I dont find him in, I will leave a note.
12. If you had left me a note, I would have called on you yesterday.
13. I would apologize if I felt I was wrong. But I dont.
14. We would not insist/be insisting if the matter were not urgent.
15. If you were/had been more attentive, you would not have mixed up those
two names.
16. He would have attended to the problem himself if he had not fallen ill.
17. If he were not ill, he would have sorted out yesterdays problem.
18. I would have gone to the cinema yesterday if I had felt like it.
19. The work would have been spoiled if we had not taken urgent measures.
20. If he had not let me down, I would have done the work in a week.
21. I would be obliged to you if you could put off our meeting.
22. If I were you I would try to behave better.
23. She would have read the greater part of the book by next week.
24. If I were you I would not be so frank with him.
25. If I were you I would not be waiting for him now. I would leave a note.
26. If I were you I would have punished the boy yesterday.
27. He would have closed the window long ago.
Exercise 2

1. If I had bought tickets beforehand, I would not have troubled you.


2. If I had bought tickets beforehand, I would not be troubling you now.
3. If we had talked him out of going to the country, he would not have
caught cold.

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4. If it depended on me, I would persuade Peter to stay with us.


5. Ann has a fine voice. If she were not so shy, she would be taking part in
this concert.
6. Ann will be taking part in the concert if she gets/has got well by that time.
7. I would not be arguing with you if it were my personal opinion.
8. The professor does not want you to stop the work. He thinks that if you
make another effort, it may be successful.
9. The professor thought that you should not have stopped the work. If you
had made another effort, it might have been successful.
10. If she had not mixed up the documents, everything would be all right
now.
11. If you had followed my advice, your play would have produced a better
impression.
12. There is no sense in putting off the meeting because of Peter. If I were you,
I would make him do his work properly.
13. You would not complain of headaches if you spent more time in the open
air.
14. You would not be complaining of (a) headache if you had not refused to
go out for a walk with us.
15. If you read English books in the original, it would do you a lot of good.
16. If you had read this book, you would be able to answer my questions.
17. He would have arranged for a meeting last time.
18. We would have paid no attention to it a week ago.
19. If you were more careful you would not keep mixing up these names.
20. If I were you, I would have phoned him yesterday.
21. If we had turned right at the lights, we would have been at home long ago.
22. If we had turned right at the lights, we would be home already.
23. If you look carefully, you will be able to find the mistake.
Exercise 3

1. Sarah wished she had taken the opportunity to speak to her brother.
2. He wished he had kept the secret.
3. I wish you were not so indifferent to sport.
4. She wished he had not been elected President of the club.
5. She wished the children would not be fighting all the time.
6. I wish it were not true.
7. John wished he had told the truth.
8. Sarah wished her brother would not break things so often.
9. Jane wished her husband were not so proud.
10. She wishes she could swim a little better.
11. Bill wished he had not hesitated whether to accept the job.

12. I wish you were not so shy.


13. They wished they had brought a spare wheel.
14. He wished he could take part in the concert.
15. I wish you would work harder.
16. I wish you were not so curious.
17. I wish you had paid attention to it then.
18. I wish you would keep to the subject.
19. I wish I had not suggested the idea.
20. I wish I could say that I had realized all my plans.
21. He wished he had not taken that street.
22. They wished they had stayed in the country for another week.
23. He wishes she would not avoid him.
24. If only it would stop raining.
25. I wish you had accepted the offer.
26. I wish you would convince your sister that she is wrong.
27. I wish my son were more interested in his studies. I would not have to
make him do his homework then.
28. I wish I had been taught a foreign language since childhood.
29. If only summer would come sooner. I am tired of wearing warm clothes.
30. I wish you had let me know you were coming. I would have met you.
31. I wish I had not given Nick my book.
32. We were expecting him yesterday. I wish he had come.
33. I wish I had not stayed in Moscow for the summer. I might/could have
spent my holiday with friends.
Exercise 4

1. Its essential that you should use every opportunity of practicing your spoken English.
2. It was ordered that the project should be submitted for consideration in a
months time.
3. Its strange that you shouldnt understand the lecture, it was very simple.
4. Dont you find it doubtful/suspicious that she should have forgotten
about such an important matter?
5. It was suggested that the meeting should be put off.
6. He was amazed that such things should still be possible.
7. It is recommended that a text should be read from beginning to end before
you translate it.
8. It is quite possible that the first part of the book is ready, but it is doubtful
that the whole book should be finished.
9. Its unbelievable that they should have walked this distance in such a
short time.

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10. I demand that the document should be considered today.


11. Its doubtful that anything should change before you get back.
12. Dont you find it astonishing that there should be so much unknown and
even mysterious in what looked so clear and definite at first sight?
13. It is desirable that your paper should be discussed by the department
before you present it at the conference.
14. Im surprised that so much attention should have been given to matters
which were insignificant in my opinion.
15. Why was it so important that he should be present?
Exercise 5

1. He demanded to speak to the director.


2. It is required that a covering letter (should) be attached to a resume.
3. She requested to be shown to her office.
4. I only ask/request to be heard out.
5. It is recommended that the medicine (should) be kept in a fridge.
6. We demanded to hear all the witnesses.
7. I demand that the job (should) be given to another person.
8. He insisted on going to the plant himself.
9. He insists that the document (should) be signed immediately.
10. I asked to call on them at the weekend.
11. You should have demanded to be shown a copy of the resolution.
12. He requested to read the letter.
13. It is required that the ticket (should) be retained till the end of the journey.
14. It was proposed that the meeting (should) be postponed for a week.
15. The director has ordered that the letter (should) be sent immediately.
16. What do you suggest doing?
17. The referee commanded that the match (should) be stopped.
18. He demanded that the cargo (should) be sent by air.
19. He ordered the ship to be unloaded at once./He ordered that the ship
(should) be unloaded at once.
20. The doctor insists that I (should) go to the seaside in autumn.
21. He suggested discussing the matter at the next meeting./He suggested
that the matter (should) be discussed at the next meeting.
22. He recommended that we (should) speak to the chief consultant./He
recommended us to speak to the chief consultant.
23. He ordered that all developments (should) be reported to him./He ordered all the developments to be reported to him.
24. After the divorce his wife demanded that the house (should) be sold and
the money divided equally.

25. He demanded to have his jacket altered at once./He demanded that his
jacket (should) be altered at once.
26. I demand that this matter (should) be sorted out.
Exercise 6

1. Whenever/No matter when I come, you are always working.


2. Whatever/No matter what I say, you will always object.
3. Whenever/No matter when you come, Ill be waiting.
4. No matter who/Whoever says that, I wont believe it.
5. The sooner you come the earlier it will be all settled.
6. Whichever/No matter which way you choose, Im sure it will be honest.
7. I dont care what he says.
8. The more interesting a book is, the more quickly you will read it.
9. No matter who/Whoever calls for the book, they will find it here.
10. I dont care how you do it.
11. No matter how/However hard he tries, he will get it all wrong.
12. The more you read the sooner you will learn.
13. No matter where/Wherever you go, you wont have problems with this car.
14. No matter where/Wherever I meet him, I wont speak to him.
15. No matter how much/However much it costs, I will pay.
16. The more thoroughly you prepare, the easier it will be to do this work.
17. No matter when/Whenever it happens, you shouldnt lose heart.
18. It doesnt matter when he brings the book.
19. No matter how many people come, Ill be glad to see them all.
20. The earlier you see a doctor the sooner youll get well.
21. No matter how many times I tell them, they will forget.
22. He doesnt care what people say about him.
23. No matter how eccentric she is, it wont stop you liking her.
24. The longer you look at the picture, the more you will like it.
25. It doesnt matter who you tell about it.
26. No matter what/whatever you say, I wont change my mind.
27. They dont care who calls for the documents.
28. Whatever/No matter what happens to you, you will never forget this day.
29. No matter where/Wherever you find yourself, this handkerchief will remind
you of home.
30. The more difficult a problem is, the more interesting it will be to solve it.
31. No matter how hard you listen, you wont hear a sound.
32. The longer you stay/the more time you spend in the open air, the better
appetite you will have.
33. No matter what/Whatever you say, you wont be able to convince me.
34. The earlier you come, the sooner well finish.

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35. No matter how hard he tries, hell never succeed.


36. The sooner you go to a doctor, the easier it will be to cure you.
Exercise 7

1. Its time you learned to observe the traffic rules. Youve been driving for
quite a while already.
2. Its high time we had the room redecorated. The wall-paper has faded.
3. Its after nine. Its high time the child were going to bed, but hes still watching television.
4. We believe its high time we paid attention to this matter.
5. Dont you think its high time we had dinner? Ive been hungry for quite a
while already.
6. Its high time you saw a doctor. If you go on prescribing treatment for yourself, itll only be worse.
7. Its high time they got used to his eccentricities. Theyve known him for
quite a while after all.
8. What are we waiting for? Its high time we were on our way.
9. Its time you learned the forms of the irregular verbs.
10. Isnt it time they stopped these jokes? They get on my nerves.
11. We believe its time you went on to practical application of the acquired
knowledge.
12. I think its time you stopped the discussion. The guests are waiting to be
invited to table.
13. What are you waiting for? Its high time you were cooking dinner.
Exercise 8

1. I wish I could give you an answer. If I could/were able to give you a definite answer, I would have done so a long time ago.
2. I wish you wouldnt think badly of them. Its very strange that they should
be late. They are usually punctual.
3. She looks as if she had had a shock. And she is speaking slowly, as if she
were having difficulty choosing words.
4. I wish you had read the article. If you had, you would have been able to
take part in the discussion yesterday. We wished so mush you could express
your opinion.
5. Its high time they made up, of course. I suggest that everybody should
think what can be done to get them to sort it out.
6. If you had told me that the date of the meeting had been moved, I would
have modified my timetable accordingly and might be finishing the first part
of the work.

7. He is looking at everyone with surprise as if he didnt understand what the


matter was. He must be unaware of what has happened. I suggest explaining
to him why we have gathered here.
8. I wish you had been here before. If you had arrived here a few years ago,
you would have seen nothing but dense forest.
9. Even if I were more informed about the subject I would hesitate before
answering your question.
10. We wished so much the paper would be presented in German. If we had
known that he would be presenting it in Russian, we would have never stayed.
11. They understand each other so well as if they had known each other for
years. Isnt it surprising that they should have made friends so quickly?
12. Even if you had let me know in advance, I would hardly have been able
to come to see you off.
13. He wished he had been able to meet my family. I found it strange that he
should be so anxious to meet them.
14. What would you start with if you were to organize a drama society?
15. If only there were somebody in the world who would share his views
completely!
16. I wish I could see your performance, but I will have left Moscow by that
time.
17. If I were you, I wouldnt be complaining. Its your fault that the parcel
wasnt delivered in time.
18. Its high time you stopped this pointless argument. I wish Id gone to the
beach on my own. I wouldnt have to be listening to all this now.
19. We would be still groping in the dark in this new area of research if it
hadnt been for a brilliant study carried out by a group of our scientists.
20. In the first place you should have done a translation of the text which
your teacher would have looked through and corrected.
21. No decent person would have behaved in this manner, he wouldnt even
have allowed such a thought.
22. Nobody will be able to answer this question, no matter who you ask. Its
necessary that you (should) get in touch with the leading expert on the subject.
23. Its time we acted, we cant afford to wait any longer. The longer we wait,
the more difficult it will be to correct the situation afterwards.
24. My client has expressed a request that she should be operated on by Dr.
Smith. I wish the doctor would find time to speak to me. Id be very grateful if
you gave me his phone number.
25. I wish you would stay here longer. Its very important that you should be
able to feel the atmosphere of the place. The longer you stay here, the more you
will want to come again.

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Exercise 1

1. You should have phoned Petrov again. If you had reached him on the
phone, he would have come an hour earlier and we would not have had to
wait.
2. The boy must have chosen the book himself. If grown ups had helped
him, they would have never advised him to take such a dull book.
3. Your friend should have seen a doctor long ago. If he had taken treatment, he would have got well already.
4. He may have tried to prove to her that he was right but failed.
5. I do not expect he will argue/him to argue about this proposal./He is unlikely to argue... If he had had objections, he would have sorted everything out
before the discussion.
6. The delegation may arrive any minute. You must prepare all the necessary
documents very quickly. If I had known about it before, I would have let you
know.
7. Your son must have been studying for 5 hours without a break. You should
make him go out for a walk. He may have a headache if he continues studying
without a rest.
8. Apparently he does not know anything. If he had been told, he would be
here already and he would have got in touch with you.
9. He may not have known about the meeting. He would have come by all
means.
10. You should not have raised this matter at the meeting. It might have
been settled quietly.
11. You should work more on your pronunciation. If you had spent more time
in the lab, you would have made greater progress.
Exercise 2

1. We might have missed the boat if we had taken the/an evening train. It
was in time that you suggested starting off in the morning.
2. I would never take my words back even if he apologized to me. However,
I would really prefer that he apologized.
3. She may have been at the concert, but I didnt see her there. Even if I had
seen her, I wouldnt have spoken to her.
4. He shouldnt be home at this time, he should be still at work. If he were at
home, he would have phoned already.
5. You shouldnt/oughtnt to have told her about it. I wish you had kept
quiet./ It would have been better if you had kept quiet./ You had much better

have kept quiet. Its strange that it should have occurred to you to raise the
subject at all.
6. He cannot have failed to hear of our decision, but Ill still tell him myself
because its essential that he (should) come.
7. He must have failed to read the book or he may not have been able to
obtain it/may have failed to obtain it. Its time you reminded him to hurry.
8. He has asked me to tell you that you may have to wait another two or
three days before he can see you. It is recommended that you think through
very carefully what you will say.
9. The operation was to have been performed on the tenth, but due to the
patients poor condition, it had to be put off. However, the professor insists that
the operation (should) be carried out not later than the end of the month.
10. You neednt have done the translation yesterday, you might have done it
today. If you hadnt been busy doing the translation, you would have been
able to read the article.
11. Its strange that he shouldnt have prepared the translation beforehand.
He might have written it last week. Then he wouldnt have found himself in an
awkward situation.
12. He must have failed to prepare the translation beforehand. Otherwise he
would have been sure to show it to you. I wish we could see his version.
13. He must have failed to prepare the translation and will have to spend all
Sunday on it as it is to be finished by the beginning of next week.
14. He must have failed to prepare the translation and had to spend the
weekend on it as it was to be finished by the beginning of last week.
15. He must have failed to finish the translation or he may not have known
that it was to be prepared by the beginning of next week. Otherwise he would
have let us know.
16. I wish we had taken our car. We shouldnt have listened to the neighbours. We would have saved a lot of time if we had taken the car.
17. Eric wished he had not told the professor how he had spent the summer.
He should not have been so frank.
18. The professor wished his voice would sound more affable, but his effort
wasnt being quite successful. He felt it was important that the young man
(should) trust him.
19. I wish it were not today that he had put off all his appointments. He might
have chosen another day.
20. The secretary wished she could hear what the professor was discussing
with the new employee. They might have been talking about the university,
but, most likely, the professor was telling the young man about his duties.
21. Its necessary that you (should) meet all the members of the staff. Its important that you (should) produce a good impression.

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22. The professor wished he had asked the new employee who had recommended him. It must have been someone of his colleagues.
23. The meeting may have finished. Lets wait here, he may come soon.
Hardly/I dont think so/Its hardly likely. If the meeting had finished, he would
be here already.
24. Peter must have got ill, otherwise he would be at the theatre already, he
never comes at the last moment.
25. She was to have come half an hour ago. She must have forgotten. She
cannot have forgotten about the concert, its not like her at all.
26. I wish I knew where she found this old book. She must have borrowed
it from our library. She cannot have borrowed it from our library, theyve
only got one copy and Marina has taken that. Well, she may have taken it
from another library.


Exercise 1

1. , . 2. , . 3. ,
. 4. , . 5. , . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8. , .
9. , . 10. , . II. , . 12. ,
. 13. , . 14. ,
. 15. , . 16. , . 17. , .
18. , . 19. , . 20. , . 21. ,
. 22. , ; ,
.
Exercise 2

1. to be saying Cont.Inf., . . .; hear Indef. Inf.,


. . . 2. to show Indef. Inf., . 3. to have met Perf. Inf.,
. 4. to find out Indef. Inf., . 5. to return Ind. Inf., .
6.to be operated on Ind. Inf. Passive, . . . 7. to have missed
Perf. Inf., . 8. have gone Perf. Inf., . . . 9. to have gone
Perf. Inf., . . . 10. have seen Perf. Inf., . . .
11. to be left alone Ind. Inf. Passive, . 12. be studying Cont. Inf.,
. . . 13. t read Ind. Inf., . 14. to leave Ind. Inf.,

. . . 15. to come Ind. Inf., . . . 16. have


said Perf. Inf., . . . 17. to change Ind. Inf., .
. . 18. to be doing Cont. Inf., . . . 19. to know
Ind. Int., . . . 20. to be sent Ind. Inf. Pas., . .
. 21. have been solved Perf. Inf. Pas., . . . 22. to be
missed Ind. Inf. Pas., . . .
Exercise 3

1. My friend asked to go to Kiev for two days.


2. The engineer wanted to be shown around the whole factory.
3. No one wants to be punished.
4. The boy did not want to be praised in the presence of other pupils.
5. He did not want to be laughed at.
6. He expected to be recognized.
7. I demand to be given that work.
8. He asked/requested not to be disturbed.
9. Everybody wanted the conference to be held as soon as possible.
10. He is happy to be helped in his work.
11. I expect the telegram to be sent at once.
12. I suggested that Granny (should) have a rest and offered to go to the shop.
Exercise 4

1. This is an interesting subject to make a talk on.


2. This is a good film to see.
3. This is an interesting fact to mention in your talk.
4. This is the man to rely on.
5. This is an inconvenient moment to ring him up.
6. My friend was the first to raise this question.
7. He is the only one to have given up smoking.
8. He wants to be the next to make a talk about the book he has read.
9. He was the only one to mention this fact.
10. He was the last to change his opinion about the matter.
11. He was the second to come to the finish.
Exercise 5

1. He returned to his native land never to leave it again.


2. He went to Africa to die there of malaria.
3. After the poem "Child Harold" came out, Byron wrote in his diary that he
had woken up in the morning to find himself famous.

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4. He went out on deck to be told that the ship would soon be arriving in
Brighton.
5. They heard a voice and looked up to see a womans head in a small window under the roof.
6. He went out into the street to find himself completely alone.
7. I entered the room to find them looking at family photographs together.
8. She arrived at the hotel to learn there was telegram for her.
9. He turned round to see them leaving.
10. He left the town never to be seen again.
Exercise 6

1. This part of land is believed to have been under the sea.


2. Our ways never happened to cross.
3. His flat turned out to be a one-room affair.
4. My fears proved (to be) groundless.
5. Hardly anybody appeared to notice his departure.
6. The truth is sure to come out.
7. He is unlikely to be pleased with the answer.
8. The mans mind seemed to be working with extraordinary freedom.
9. The events were certain to be much commented on in the press.
10. He is considered to be the best candidate for the post.
Exercise 7

1. The Spanish dancers were announced to be arriving next week.


2. The performance is expected to be a success.
3. This book is said to be popular with both old and young.
4. The poem is believed to have been written by an unknown author.
5. The playwright is supposed to be working on a new comedy.
6. The parties were understood to have come to an agreement.
7. The flood is reported not to have caused much damage to the crops.
8. Mineral water has been discovered to be very good for the liver.
9. They seem to know all about it.
10. They dont seem to have heard about it.
11. The discussion seemed to be coming to an end.
12. You dont seem to approve of the idea.
13. The house did not seem to have been lived in for a long time.
14. He appeared to be losing patience.
15. He did not appear to have heard what had been said.
16. I happened to overhear their conversation.
17. My prediction proves to have been correct.
18. The language of the article turned out to be quite easy.

19. The article is likely to appear in the next issue of the journal.
20. He is not very likely to change his opinion.
21. They were certain to come to an understanding.
22. Questions of the kind seemed unlikely to crop up.
23. Everything is sure to turn out all right.
24. He is sure to have noticed it.
25. The treatment is certain to help you.
26. We are likely to have a lot of snow this winter.
Exercise 8

1. You are sure to like the play.


2. He seems to be getting angry.
3. The man seems to know all European languages. He is said to have
learned them while traveling.
4. They are certain to do their best.
5. The river was reported to have overflowed the banks and to be advancing towards the city.
6. You seem to be looking for trouble.
7. It seems to have been raining all the time we have been here.
8. The committee is said to have revised the program and to be working
out a plan of its realization.
9. The man seemed to be studying me and I felt awkward in his presence.
10. He is believed to have spent ten years on the translation of the book.
11. The book was believed to have been lost until a librarian happened to
come across it during an inventory.
12. The strength of the metal proved to have been overestimated by the
designer.
13. The chief engineer claimed to have been warning against the use of the
material from the start.
14. Zhukovsky is known to have been an excellent teacher and lecturer.
15. The expedition is said to have collected very interesting material about
the natural wealth of the region.
16. A large group of builders is reported to have been sent to the area.
17. A new city is expected to be built in this place.
18. We turned out to have met before.
19. Cold weather was not expected to set in so early.
20. The working conditions turned out to be more difficult than we had expected.
21. You dont seem to like his suggestion, do you?
22. The temperatures in May are reported to have been much lower than last
year.
23. Do you happen to know the man?

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24. He is unlikely to do something he doesnt want to.


25. We turned out to have a lot of common acquaintances.
26. I happened to be in Yalta when the Chekhov monument was being unveiled.
27. Nothing seemed to be breaking the silence.
28. He knew he was sure to be asked about it.
29. The telegram is certain to be delivered tomorrow morning.
30. He is unlikely to know anything about it.
31. He is sure to mix everything up.
32. You dont seem (to be) likely to have any problems.
33. He is very likely to take interest in the proposition.
Exercise 9

1. Indef. Ger., . 2. Ind. Ger., . 3. Ind. Ger., . . .


4.Perf. Ger., . 5. Ind. Ger., . 6. Ind. Ger. Passive, . 7. Ind. Ger., . 8. Ind.
Ger., . 9. Ind. Ger. Passive., . 10. Ind. Ger., . . . II. Ind.
Ger. Passive, . 12. Ind. Ger., . 13. Ind. Ger., . 14. Ind. Ger., . 15.
Ind. Ger. Passive, .
Exercise 10

1. Does the tooth really need stopping?


2. His hair needs cutting.
3. Do the boots need mending?
4. What else needs repairing?
5. Your suit needs pressing.
6. His clothes need cleaning.
7. The floor needs washing.
8. The house needs painting.
9. The book needs binding.
10. The walls need repapering.
Exercise 11

1. Does he prefer skating or skiing?


2. I would rather speak to him personally.
3. Did you enjoy watching the game?
4. He made a note in his diary not to forget to buy a newspaper.
5. He is in the habit of getting up early.
6. Excuse me for interrupting you.
7. It will be a pleasure to meet/meeting your brother.
8. Is the film worth seeing?

9. We cant afford to buy such an expensive piece of furniture.


10. Has he finished working?
11. I remember speaking to him.
12. I regret to say that I wont be coming.
13. He dreams of going to Africa.
14. Did you remember to phone the secretary?
15. The translation needs editing.
16. My friend is thinking of selling the house.
17. We discussed the budget and then went on to discuss the sales.
18. Your son looks forward to meeting the man, doesnt he?
19. We used to be friends when at school.
20. You are fond of reading, arent you?
21. Who is responsible for decorating the hall?
22. I am used to being treated with respect.
23. If everything else fails, try reading the instruction.
24. Ill try to repair your car tomorrow.
25. We are tired of being told the same thing
26. Do any of you feel like going to the cinema?
27. He stopped smoking a week ago.
28. Why does he avoid being seen?
29. She went for a walk instead of doing her lessons.
30. We must stop to get petrol.
31. He went away without looking at me.
32. What else did you do besides watching television?
33. He put off going on holiday because he was too busy.
34. Do you have any objections to being told the story?
35. I tried to change the wheel, but my hands were too cold.
36. He objected to being sent on a business trip.
37. I dont mind being told what to do.
38. Whats your idea of arranging the meeting?
39. He tried sending her flowers and writing her letters, but it had no effect.
Exercise 12

1. When will you finish reading the book?


2. It has just stopped raining.
3. He continued reading without looking at me.
4. He avoided looking me in the face.
5. What do you suggest doing?
6. Did you remember to do what I (had) asked you for?
7. I dont mind speaking to him.
8. He enjoys playing chess.

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9. She prefers walking there.


10. I have forgotten lending my dictionary to someone.
11. The shoes need mending.
12. Seeing our difficulty, he offered to help us.
13. Do you remember talking to her about this problem?
14. He could not help laughing remembering/when he remembered the joke.
15. After saying/having said a few words about the history of the country, the
lecturer went on to analyze its economic situation.
16. He mentioned sending one letter.
17. I regret to tell you that you have failed your examination.
18. She insisted on speaking to me at once.
19. He said he had given up smoking.
20. I look forward to going to the seaside.
21. They are thinking of selling the house.
22. She has difficulty (in) keeping her temper.
23. He is used to living alone.
24. We used to live in the suburbs, but now we have moved to the centre of
the city.
25. I dream of becoming a writer.
26. I demanded to be put through to the director.
27. He is in the habit of phoning late.
28. He went out without putting on his hat.
29. He put off writing the letter as he did not know what to write.
30. The case proved to be difficult and the doctor suggested convening a
medical conference.
31. He phoned instead of writing.
32. They propose to set out in two weeks time.
33. Thank you for coming.
34. Dont forget to lock the door before leaving.
35. He suggested going to the country.
36. Illness prevented her from leaving.
37. He entered without knocking.
38. We have no hope of seeing him again.
39. Putting his hand in his pocket, he discovered there a/the letter he had forgotten to drop.
40. His art could not but arouse admiration.
41. Having read/On reading the first lines I remembered reading the story
before.
42. Whoever saw his pictures, could not help admiring his art.
43. The guide suggested/proposed starting a tour of the exhibition with a
bus ride around its territory.

44. In the second chapter the author continues/goes on describing the economic situation of the country.
Exercise 13

1. He said that the people waiting for the doctor had been sitting here for a
long time.
2. The person who has been waiting for you has just gone.
3. The man standing by the entrance was our teacher last year.
4. Ask the policeman standing at the corner for directions.
5. We went up to the man standing at the corner and asked him the way.
6. I didnt see in what direction the man who had been standing here went.
7. Having said everything he knew the witness left the box.
8. He wants to write a book summing up his impressions of the trip.
9. Having knocked twice and received no answer, he decided that there
was nobody in.
10. The conference being held at the University is devoted to environmental
problems.
11. We were unable to attend the conference being held at the University.
12. Pushing the door he felt that it was not locked, and opening it he looked
inside.
13. I felt very tired, having worked in the sun all day.
14. Each time, speaking about the incident, he could not help a smile.
15. A new power plant supplying electricity to a number of industrial regions
was built here a couple of years ago.
16. Having dropped a coin to the floor, he did not care to look for it in the
darkness and took another one.
17. Lifting the receiver, he began to dial the number.
18. They stood by a car being filled up watching the meter.
19. Having arrived here only a few years before he knew those parts as if he
had always lived there.
20. Closing the door quietly behind himself, he tiptoed into the room.
21. Suddenly I heard the sound of a key being turned in the lock.
22. The flowers have faded, having been kept without water for a long time.
23. The sight of a table being laid made my mouth water.
24. (Having been) put in water, the flowers opened their petals.
25. Arriving at the hotel, she found a telegram awaiting her.
26. Here are some samples of the products of this plant being sent to different
parts of the country.
27. These are samples of products sent last month.
28. Here are samples of products of the plants that used to send us machinery.
29. These are samples of products that had been sent before the restoration
of the plant.

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Exercise 14

1. After being rejected/Rejected by the editorial board, the story was returned to the author for revision.
2. After being rejected by publishers several times, the story was accepted
by a weekly magazine.
3. After waiting/Having waited for some time in the reception room, he was
asked into the office.
4. While waiting in the reception room, he thought over what he would say
when he was asked into the office.
5. They reached the peak at dusk, having left their camp with the first light.
6. They put up for the night at a temporary camp, leaving it at dawn.
7. The friends went out into the city after leaving/having left their cases at
the left luggage department.
8. Having written and left a note with the porter, he said he would be back
in a half-hour.
9. Written in an archaic language, the book was difficult to read.
10. While writing his first book, he could not go far beyond his own experience.
11. Having been away so long he was happy to be coming back.
12. Being so far away, he still felt himself part of the community.
13. The children looked wonderingly at the elephant, never having seen such
a huge animal.
14. Not wanting to go deeper into the matter, he abruptly changed the conversation.
15. Having read the telegram twice, he realized that the matter needed immediate attention.
16. When filling in a form, you must write your name and address clearly.
17. Having made great progress by the end of the school year he was able to
start reading books in the original.
18. "Dont lose your things, little boy," said a man picking up the gloves
dropped by the boy.
19. Being fond of music, my brother never misses an opportunity of going to
a good concert.
20. After walking about the town for some time, he went up to a man and
asked to be directed to the main square.
21. I thought I had lost my bag and was therefore grateful to the man who
brought/having brought it back to me.
22. I had never realized what a talented writer he was until I saw his play staged
in a Moscow theatre.
23. The man who made/having made the opening speech at the exhibition
yesterday is a well-known painter.


Exercise 15

1. Taking a sheet of paper he started to write a letter to a friend who had


gone away on holiday.
2. The letter consisted of a few lines written in pencil.
3. The woman who opened the door to us was a servant.
4. The travellers saw a lonely figure standing on the shore/bank.
5. Here are the new books sent in for our library.
6. Seeing the friends who had come to see him off, he went up to them.
7. She opened a/the book given to her on her birthday.
8. Holding the/a child by the hand, the/a woman entered the house.
9. The name of the person who wrote this poem is unknown.
10. Hearing the noise, the master, who had been sleeping upstairs, began to
shoot.
11. Passing by a shop window, he took notice of a picture exhibited there.
12. The piece being performed now is very popular.
13. The child, frightened by the noise, began to cry.
14. A letter lying on the table was addressed to the master of the house.
15. I am going to meet the person who phoned yesterday and invited me to
a concert.
Exercise 16

1. Not speaking the language, he was questioned through an interpreter.


2. She never did a thing without asking somebodys advice.
3. The man was holding forth without paying attention to the attempts to
interrupt him.
4. I left him alone not wanting to distract him from his work.
5. Not having recognized me, she passed by without answering my nod.
6. The girl looked innocently about her, not realizing what the joke was.
7. They could not see each other without immediately losing their temper.
8. Not waiting for an answer, he turned round and went out.
9. I tried to catch his eye, but he sat motionless not/without looking in my
direction.
10. They jumped at the proposition not/without thinking of consequences.
11. The wind had been blowing for many days without seeming to stop.
12. The young man asked me all sorts of questions without concealing his curiosity.
13. I stood motionless, not believing my eyes.
14. He never signed a paper without having thoroughly read it through.
15. The door stood ajar and we entered without knocking.

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Exercise 17

1. Not being personally involved in the matter, the engineer was unable to
answer our question.
2. My friend left without leaving me a note.
3. He went out not wanting to take part in the discussion of the matter.
4. He has taken the book without asking for permission.
5. Not having taken appropriate action in time, we were obliged to cancel
the meeting.
6. Why did you turn down the proposal without discussing it properly?
7. Not having read the timetable, we did not know when the train left.
8. He put down the receiver, never making an appointment.
9. The scientist died not knowing that he had made an important discovery.
10. Not having read the necessary literature, he was unable to answer the
teachers question.
11. He lifted the glass carefully without spilling a drop.
12. She sat silently, not looking in my direction.
13. Not/without waiting for an answer, he got up and left the room.
14. She knew without being told.
Exercise 18

1. He could not help a smile remembering the incident.


2. She strained her memory to remember the date.
3. He reached out a hand to switch on the light.
4. He went to the table switching on the light on the way.
5. There is a road connecting the two villages.
6. A canal was built to connect the two rivers.
7. He received a letter informing him of their new address.
8. They sent him a letter to inform him of their new address.
9. They tried many other methods, finally returning to the initial one.
10. We have tried many other methods, only to return to the initial one.
11. There is a man waiting for you.
12. There is a man to see you.
13. He shaded his eyes with his hand to protect them from the sun.
14. She opened the drawer only to find it empty.
15. Finding the room empty, she stopped in the doorway not knowing what
to do.
16. He is not a man to be moved by tears.
17. He sat silently for a while moved by the story.
18. To be seen from afar, a beacon must be high and powerful.
19. Seen from afar, the beacon was an unfailing guide for ships at sea.


Exercise 19

1. Having caught a bad cold, he had to miss a few lectures.


2. Having lost the receipt, he was unable to receive the parcel.
3. Having pasted/After pasting a stamp on the envelope, he went to post
the letter.
4. The boy was afraid of going to the library, not having returned the books
in time.
5. On arriving in the city the tourists went to the hotel.
6. He refused to go to the theatre with us saying that he was busy.
7. Having missed the 10 oclock train, he had to send a telegram to the friends
waiting for him.
8. Having looked through the magazines, he returned them to the librarian.
9. On arriving home he phoned his sister.
10. Thinking that the letter was urgent, the secretary decided to send it by air
mail.
11. Saying goodbye to everyone, he went out of the room.
12. Anna was very upset to hear that her sister would not be able to visit her.
13. The young man who has written this comedy is also the author of a few
interesting plays.
14. The information collected by the expedition was sent to the Geographic
Institute.
15. I have never heard of the actress who has played the main part in this film.
16. I would like you to see the pictures painted by this young artist.
17. They are planning to play against the team that won last years championship.
18. I have known for a long time the engineer who gave a talk at the club yesterday.
19. On receiving the/a telegram he went to the station.
Exercise 20

1. The teacher copied out the mistakes made by the students in the latest
examination and offered them a few exercises to practice the grammatical rules
forgotten by the students.
2. Walking around the park the other day I found myself in a completely unknown part.
3. Handing in his exercise-book, the student said that he had not finished the
last exercise and promised to do it for next class.
4. Seeing that it was going to rain the mother told her children to come/go
home.
5. Having missed two classes, the student was having difficulty (in) understanding the teachers explanations.

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6. Hearing the mans voice I thought I knew him, but on coming closer I realized I had made a mistake.
7. The novels written by this writer recently/in the past few years are very
popular.
8. After winning the university championship the team continued training.
9. I have no doubt that the information received with the morning mail will
be of interest to everyone.
10. A/The woman was grateful to the policeman who had saved her childs life.
11. On arriving at the station Peter bought a ticket and, seeing that he had
plenty of time, went to look at the new theatre being built near the station.
12. Do you see the tall man standing by the window? He is a famous actor.
Would you like me to introduce you?
13. After playing/Having played two games of chess, he rose to leave saying
he was feeling tired.
14. The students who had presented interesting papers in class were invited
to take part in a conference.
15. Entering the room I saw two people arguing.
16. This writer is the author of a few books about people who devoted their
lives to science.
17. The notice said that the person having lost their gloves was requested to
call at Room 423.
18. The engineer who has made the invention is coming to our factory tomorrow.
19. Being too busy, the director was unable to attend to the matter.
20. The students corrected all the mistakes pointed out by the teacher.
21. I cannot understand the meaning of the letter being dictated to me.
22. Not knowing the language in which the book was written, I was unable to
use it.
23. The goods being advertised in this magazine are of interest to many customers.
24. Having read part of the paper, the professor decided to put it aside for a
few days as several points required clearing up.
25. (On) learning that the boy had refused to take part in an amateur performance, the teacher decided to speak to him.
26. Having distributed the work among the students, the teacher went on to
discuss the paper presented the day before.
Exercise 21

1. He settled in his new home never to leave it again.


2. Having settled in the new place, he never wished to leave it.
3. They prided themselves on being the first to put forward the theory.
4. We counted on finding him in.

5. I cannot recall being introduced to him. I dont even remember ever seeing him.
6. He turned round looking surprised.
7. He turned round to see who had come.
8. That will be the greatest discovery ever to be made by man.
9. He could not get used to being called Grandfather.
10. She was quite unconscious of arriving at the wrong moment.
11. Excuse me for entering without knocking.
12. That was the greatest discovery ever made by man.
13. There are a lot of people here to help us.
14. We have many people helping us.
15. Im really ashamed of not writing for such a long time.
16. He is upset about having to start all anew.
17. She denied promising anything of the kind.
18. She had her jewels valued only to learn that they were worthless.
19. She was devastated, having learned that her jewels were worthless.
20. He must be a great authority on the subject to write a book about it.
21. He was a great authority on the subject, having worked in the field for so
many years.
22. We hope he succeeds in finding his way in life.
23. Why do you avoid calling things their true names?
24. There are twenty more delegates to arrive at the conference.
25. How many rooms have been reserved for the delegates arriving at the
conference?
26. These rooms are occupied by the delegates who have arrived at the conference.
27. This is a wisdom to be gained through experience.
28. His was a wisdom gained through experience.
Exercise 22

1. Tearing the envelope open, he took out the enclosed letter./He tore the
envelope open taking out the enclosed letter. He turned it several times in his
hand to put it back unread.
2. Having received the information, he immediately went down the hall to
ring up his wife.
3. Wishing to be among the first to greet the guests, we took a cab.
4. Arriving at the party, we found everybody gathered.
5. He insisted on my speaking in public./He insisted that I (should) speak in
public.
6. Having studied every exhibit on display, he now felt he knew what should
be done to improve the layout.

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7. He poured out the wine clumsily spilling some of it on the table cloth.
8. I have not stayed in the country long enough to learn the customs of the
people.
9. I hope you will remember this without my reminding you.
10. Not wishing to meet anybody, they went round the house to the back
door.
11. Every other minute he would push up his sleeve to look at his watch.
12. Seeing me in this dress he couldnt help bursting out laughing.
13. Not taking regular treatment, you will not make a good recovery.
14. Examining the post mark, I noticed that the letter had been sent a week
before.
15. He went on reading without answering. He did not seem to have heard
my question.
16. The mans job was registering new arrivals.
17. He readily accepted the offer without/not suspecting a trap.
18. Arriving at the gallery, he paid the entrance fee and, picking up a catalogue, went in.
19. Having been promised assistance, they felt more confident.
20. After being shown in, he was asked to wait for a while.
21. Having started the construction of the dam early in the spring they completed it before cold weather set in./ They started the construction of the dam
early in the spring to complete it before cold weather set in.
22. Lighting a cigarette he leaned against the porch rail to look out at the
trees and the rain pouring down steadily and monotonously.
23. Walking down the steps, she suddenly stopped remembering that she
had left the gas burning.
24. He stood at the counter hesitating, not knowing what to choose.
25. Having finalized the program, they went on to discuss the items dealing
with financial matters.
26. He knows the language better than a foreigner usually does, having lived
in the country for a long time.
27. In spite of having lived there a long time, he knew very few people in the
neighbourhood.
28. After finishing the translation, the students were allowed out of the room
for a while.
29. Not having bought tickets in advance, they had to go to the theatre long
before the show started.
30. After spending/Having spent a week in the country, Ann looked almost
fully recovered.
31. Having lent my dictionary to a friend, I had to go to the library to get one
for myself.

32. On arriving in the city Peter hurried to the nearest post-office to send a
post card home.
33. Henry paid the rent to find that he had only small change left till the end
of the week.
34. Having left my notebook behind, I couldnt phone you as I had promised.
35. (Being) very pleased with the students answer, the teacher did not ask
him any more questions.
36. The house to be built here has been designed by a famous architect.
37. I left the window open to hear the music.
38. He went there to be told he might as well not have come at all.
39. The book is too long to read in one day.
40. Helen reached the hospital to find her brother a little better.
41. It made me feel sad seeing/to see him in distress.
Exercise 23

1. The railway line to be opened this year will connect remote areas of the
region to industrial centres.
2. The fog was heavy enough to stop all traffic.
3. The team had another two games left to play until the end of the championship.
4. He is not a person to be judged at first sight.
5. His logic was difficult to follow, he kept switching from one subject to
another.
6. I ask to be kept posted.
7. Do you remember the last person reading this book?
8. He will always find something to boast about.
9. Listening to him talking one might think he has lived a long life.
10. The only thing she wanted at the moment was being left alone.
11. All was quiet in the house, there was not a sound to be heard.
12. He did not know the language very well, he had to concentrate very hard
to follow the conversation.
13. Im too weak a chess player to give advice.
14. He turned to me as if wanting to say something.
15. Coming out into the street we saw a taxi waiting for us.
16. He was the only one to notice the mistake.
17. Newspaper headings are sometimes very difficult to translate.
18. Coming out on the stage the young actress was unable to overcome the
fear that had gripped her.
19. Having read another persons note, she decided to use it to her own benefit.
20. He went limping to the horse.

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21. Disguising himself as a gypsy woman, the host decided to play a joke on
the guests.
22. After being questioned the witnesses were allowed to leave the room.
23. While being questioned the accused was trying to appear calm, but not
quite succeeding.
24. The person who had brought her a letter from her husband wanted to
speak to her in private.
25. The brooch stolen from me a year before turned out to be in her bag.
26. Glancing at the note lying on the table she immediately recognized her
husbands hand.
27. Having seen/after seeing my father to the car, I returned into the house.
28. She went to her room asking not to be disturbed.
29. The pilot having got out of the plane was looking very tired.
30. They fell silent having exhausted all possible subjects of conversation.
31. The smoke that filled the room prevented my adversary from spotting me.
32. At that moment the/an officer who had been sitting in a corner rose and
approached the table looking round at everyone.
33. People who had known him felt sorry for his untimely death.
34. Weve visited Tolstoys former estate now turned into a museum.
35. A boy who had lost his parents was placed in a childrens home.

e
Exercise 1

1. George must have forgotten to wind up his watch before going to bed
because, when he woke up in the middle of the night and looked at the watch,
it was pointing to a quarter to nine. "I was to have got up an hour ago. I cant
have slept so long", George thought. It never occurred to him that the watch
might have stopped.
2. Mrs. Hall gave a start hearing a loud knock at the door. The clock had just
struck midnight and she was not expecting anyone to arrive at the hotel at such
a late hour. She was astonished to see a stranger wrapped up from head to foot.
The stranger apologized for the late visit and said he would have never come at
such a late hour if his train had not been late.
3. The stranger had been working in his room for a few hours when he saw
the door open by itself and a man looking very much like him enter the room.
"Who can that be? I cant be dreaming all this", the stranger thought.
4. Mrs. Hall entered the strangers room and demanded that he (should) pay
his bills. He had been making her wait for her money too long. The stranger must
have lost his temper because he stamped his foot and exclaimed that he would

not have anyone speaking to him in such a manner. Mrs. Hall wished she had not
opened the door to him when he had first arrived.
5. After her parents death Jane went to live in the house of Mr. Reed, her
mothers brother. How lonely the girl felt! Mrs. Reed was a cruel woman. She
hated Jane and would often punish her. If the aunt could, she would have sent
Jane to an orphanage. But Mr. Reed had forbidden her to do it before his death.
6. After the death of Mr. Reed, her mothers brother, the girls life became still
harder. She had been afraid of her aunt when Mr. Reed had been alive. Now she
was still more afraid of her.
7. Jane had not expected her aunt to punish her so cruelly. If she had known,
she would have run away from home. On the day when it happened, it was dark.
It was raining, there was a thick fog.
8. One cold rainy morning the aunt locked Jane in the room where nobody
lived after Mr. Reeds death. Nobody had entered the room in the past few weeks,
so it never had a fire.
9. Jane stood looking out of the window. She could see children going to
school, but she could not join them. She had not been allowed to go to school
and the poor girl felt miserable.
10. The girl went up to the door and began to shout and knock. But there was
nobody behind the door. Jane sat down on a chair in the middle of the room and
began to cry quietly. She had never been in that dark cold room before. And now
she had been locked there and nobody knew how long she would have to stay
there. "What shall I do?" Jane thought. "How can I get out of here?" She had been
sitting in the room for about an hour and was beginning to freeze.
11. On the night the performance was to take place, the father was busy. He
had just returned from a business trip and had to look through some documents.
12. How much longer do you need to finish the job? Im finishing. I would
have finished it an hour ago if it were not so noisy here.
13. After his parents death Robert had to live in the house of his great grandmother who was an unkind woman. Robert felt very lonely in his great grandmothers house. He used to have a home and a family, but now he had to look
after himself.
14. On the day Robert was to go to school his great grandmother made him
put on a new suit she had made out of an old curtain. Robert was sure that if he
wore the suit, he would be laughed at. What did Roberts new suit look like? How
did Robert look in his new suit?
15. Have you done the homework? Let me have a look at the exercises. I am not
sure Ive done them correctly. You neednt have done the exercises at home.
We did them in class. We were only to read the text and prepare questions
aboutit.

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16. You havent been looking at all well lately. How do you feel? Ive been ill,
but Im all right now. However, Im still taking treatment. I go to the doctor every
Friday. Our classes finish at 11 in the morning on that day. On what other days
do your classes finish at 11?
17. Where are my clothes? I left them here on the/a chair yesterday. Have you
seen them? Here are your clothes. Ive put them in the wardrobe. Take them
and put them where they ought to be.
18. John was not in a hurry to get home because all evenings in his family were
alike. He would arrive home, Katie would meet him with a kiss, then they would
have dinner and John would read the newspapers.
19. That evening John could not help wondering finding the flat in disorder.
"Iwish Katie would not forget to tidy up the flat before leaving," he thought irritably. However there was nothing left for him to do but try and tidy up the flat
himself.
Exercise 2

1. Why do you look /are you looking so sad? Has anything happened? /Is anything wrong?
2. I heard them sing in concert yesterday. They now sing much better than
before. The number I heard yesterday is the best of all Ive heard so far. I suggest
going to their concert together.
3. We spent the summer in town, we did not go to the country.
4. When he arrived at the school he saw that everybody had gathered and
was waiting for him. There were a lot of people in the hall, it was noisy.
5. I wonder if anything can be done to help him. He looks/is looking so pale
and tired. He must have been working very hard this month.
6. Whats the matter? Why are cars and buses moving on the left hand side?
Because all traffic in England moves on the left hand side.
7. I watched/was watching him trying to start a car. "I wonder how long it will
take him to make the engine work," I thought when he addressed me suggesting
that I should give the car a push. He said he had been trying for half an hour, but
it would not start. I pushed the car and the engine started.
8. Ive just seen your son walking in the park. Have you allowed him? No, I
thought he was playing in the yard. What is he doing in the park? Its getting
dark. He must go home.
9. We are going to the country tomorrow. The bus leaves at 8 in the morning.
Weve been told to bring food with us. John has offered to buy it.
10. How can I get to the museum? Go straight on, take the second turning
on the right. When you turn right, youll see a beautiful white building on the left
hand side of the street. Its about 5 minutes walk from here.
11. I had been waiting for a friend for about 15 minutes and was beginning to
worry. "If he doesnt come in 5 minutes well be late for the performance,"

I thought and at that moment I saw my friend running towards me across the
street.
12. Its no use trying to make him do what he doesnt want to. If you really want
him to help you, youll have to convince him that its necessary.
Exercise 3

1. I was going to Japan. On board the ship I met/made the acquaintance of


Mr. Ramsey and his wife. I was sharing my cabin with Mr. Kellada whom I soon
disliked. That Mr. Kellada knew everything in the world and was fond of arguing.
No wonder I tried to avoid his company.
2. Mrs. Ramsey was wearing a string of pearls. Mr. Kellada looked at it and
said, "Wonderful pearls. The string must have cost you a fortune". "Oh, no," objected Mr. Ramsey. "Those are not genuine pearls. My wife has bought the string
for 18 dollars."
"I bet you a hundred dollars that the pearls are genuine," Mr. Kellada insisted.
"I wouldnt be arguing if I werent sure," and he asked Mrs. Ramsey to give him
the string. Mrs. Ramsey could do nothing, but take off the string and hand it to
Mr. Kellada.
3. "I am never wrong," Mr. Kellada was saying. "You may trust me/have confidence in me." He was about to say something else when he noticed the expression of Mrs. Ramseys face. At that moment Mr. Kellada wished he had not started
the argument.
4. Mr. Kellada was in a difficult situation. On one hand, he knew that the pearls
were genuine. On the other hand, he could not say so to Mr. Ramsey without
giving away Mrs. Ramsey. At last Mr. Kellada apologized for his mistake and paid
100 dollars.
5. When I woke up the next morning, I saw Mr. Kellada smoking in bed. He did
not seem to have slept at night. At that moment there was a knock at the door.
When I went to open it, I noticed a letter on the floor. Somebody must have
pushed it under the door. The letter was addressed to Mr. Kellada. There was a
hundred dollars inside. "Mr. Ramsey should not have left his wife alone in New
York for a whole year," Mr. Kellada said when I handed him the letter. "I wonder
what would have happened if I hadnt said that I was wrong. But it never occurred to me that Mrs. Ramsey might have received the pearls from somebody
else, not her husband."
Exercise 4

1. Mrs. Ramsey was the wife of an American who had spent a year in Japan as
an American Consul. Now, after a short holiday in New York he was returning to
Japan. That time his wife was accompanying him. She was a nice woman with a

229

230

lively sense of humour, one could not help liking her. She seemed to be enjoying
the voyage.
2. Mrs. Ramsey was wearing a string of pearls. Mr. Kellada took one look at it
and said: "The pearls must be very expensive, worth at least 30 thousand dollars."
Mrs. Ramsey turned pale. "Youll be surprised," said Mr. Ramsey, "but my wife
bought the string in a department store for 18 dollars just before our departure.
We cant afford genuine pearls." "Nonsense!" Mr. Kellada was getting excited. "I
tell you that the pearls are genuine and Im prepared to bet you 100 dollars."
3. After Mrs. Ramsey had handed him the string, Mr. Kellada looked it over
carefully and smiled. He opened his mouth to announce his conclusion when he
noticed the expression of Mrs. Ramseys face. She had turned quite pale and was
looking at him with horror. Mr. Kellada realized that everything depended on
what he would say. With an effort, he made himself apologize. He said he had
made a mistake and handed Mr. Ramsey 100 dollars. His hands were trembling.
Mrs. Ramsey went to her cabin. Everybody was pleased that Mr. Kelada had been
taught a lesson.
4. When I woke up in the morning I saw Mr. Kellada smoking. He must have
got up very early or been up all night. Suddenly there came a knock and I heard
somebody trying to push something under the door. I got up and saw a letter
lying on the floor. It was addressed to Mr. Kellada. I handed the letter to Mr. Kellada and as he opened it, a hundred-dollar note fell out. "If I had a pretty wife,"
said Mr. Kellada, "I wouldnt have allowed her to spend a year in New York alone."
Now I admired Mr. Kellada. He had saved Mrs. Ramsey from disgrace.
5. Melpomenus had been sitting with his friends for 3 hours when he rose and
said he must go. "Must you really?" exclaimed the hostess and invited him to stay
to dinner. He had dinner and then stayed for tea. The hostess expected him to
leave after tea. But when she saw him sitting down in an armchair, she suggested
he should stay with them for two weeks. Melpomenuss eyes filled with tears
when he heard the invitation. "Why wont they let me go? If they were not so
polite I would have left long ago."
Exercise 5

1. Kitty met Walter at a dance. His name was familiar to her because a mutual
friend had been telling her about him. When they were being introduced, Walter
said he was a bacteriologist. The word did not mean anything to Kitty, she only
understood it must be some kind of a doctor. She would have taken interest in
Walter if he had been one of her circle. But she was not interested in doctors and
took no notice of Walter at first.
2. But Walter would go to every dance she went to and soon she got used to
seeing him. They would dance, though it was clear that he did not enjoy dancing. Kitty often wondered why he was doing all that. She wished he would be
more sociable, then she would have felt more comfortable in his company.

3. Walter turned out to be shy and reserved, but he would make an effort to
entertain Kitty with polite conversation. She learned that he had arrived in England on holiday a month before and was soon going back to Hong Kong. Listening to Walter speaking about himself, Kitty could not help feeling that he was
holding something back. She found it strange that he should never speak about
his family or his past.
4. Kitty could not help feeling uneasy in Walters company. She did not know
how to behave. The trouble with Walter was that he never relaxed, he did not
know how to enjoy himself. He could never join in a song or a dance, and Kitty
had never seen him laugh at other peoples jokes. Kitty often wished he would
tell a joke or smile at least. But he was too serious and too proud. It was his pride
that made him unpopular. Kitty could not say she disliked Walter, but she thought
him a bore.
5. Doris, Kittys younger sister, was going out with a young man and intended
to marry him. She kept telling Kitty that she was not going to wait until Kitty
found herself a husband, she was getting married no matter what. Kitty hated
the idea of having her younger sister getting married first.
6. The day after Doriss engagement had been announced, Walter invited Kitty
for a walk in the park. He was unusually silent. He was trying to behave naturally,
but not quite succeeding. Kitty noticed that his hands were trembling. He must
have been very nervous.
7. There was a bench in one of the alleys and Walter suggested sitting there
for a while. He seemed about to say something, but not quite daring. Kitty had
no idea what he was going to speak about. Walter had never said he was in love
with her, so Kitty did not expect him to propose. She waited.
8. Walter made an effort and began to speak. Kitty was surprised to hear him
ask her to marry him. He was to go back to Hong Kong in a few weeks and he
wanted Kitty to go with him.
9. Walters proposal came as a total surprise. Taken aback, Kitty did not know
what to say. Walter was the last person she had expected it from. At the same
time she was moved. The proposal was so strange and unexpected. Nobody had
ever proposed to her in such a way.
10. It was not easy for Kitty to make up her mind. On one hand, she did not
love Walter and could not imagine him as her husband. On the other hand, if she
refused, Dorris would be married first, and Kitty did not like the idea at all. Besides, Kittys father had said that Walter was an unusually intelligent young man.
That settled the matter. Kitty decided to accept Walters proposal. Soon she
wished she had not married him.

231

Attribute

Subject

Attribute

There wasnt much time.


THERE,

,
BE,

It is easy to like him.


It is important that you speak to
him.

2) ,

It rained yesterday.


IT:
1)


,
,
.

4.

3.


+ ( )

2.

- +
(., ., .,
, , )

1.

Predicate

Object

Attribute

Attribute

Object

Attribute

The teacher explained a new rule to the


class.

5) ,
, :

He was speaking to me about you.

4) :

He offered me a cup of tea.

3) :

I have just seen your son.


He is looking for a job.

2) ( ):

lie etc.):
I am going to the station.

1) , -
(come, go, rise,

Attribute

such a nice house


such nice houses
So .

5. such .

4. enough . . .

3. , , . ,
all, both, each
. , .

2. -
, .

1. -: -
, -
with, - .

Adverbial Modifiers

LEAVE, FIND, DISCOVER


:
to (leave etc.) smb doing smth
:
to (leave etc.) smth being done( )
smth done ( )

:
to (see etc.) smb do smth ( to,
)
smb doing smth( , )
:
to (see etc.) smth done ( ,
)
smth being done ( , )
:
,
1) : I saw that his face was pale.
2) : He saw that it was raining.
3) (see, feel, hear)
(, ):
I hear you are moving into a new flat.
LET, MAKE
:
to let/make smb do smth ( to)

see, watch, notice, feel, sense, hear etc.

to have smth done


smth being done

HAVE
have , -
, .
:
to have smb do smth ( to )
smb doing smth ( )
:

smth being done


expect, wait (for), know, believe, consider etc., get,
order, motion/gesture (to), arrange (for), count (on) etc.
:
to (expect t.) smb to do smth ( to)
C :
to (expect etc.) smth to be done
smth done( , )

want, wish, (would) like etc.
:
to (want etc.) smb to do smth( to
)
smb doing smth (
)
:
to (want etc.) smth to be done
smth done ( , )

, (, )
.

,
.

.

hear
like
belong

know
love
remember .

doing smth /
to do smth

doing smth

begin
start
continue

go on
carry on
keep
finish
stop
leave off
give up

)
.
( + )

see
hate
own

:
)
().
:

He speaks loudly

.
.
.

do
be
have
shall
will

feel

( )

become
get
grow
turn
run
fall
go

()

remain
keep
stay

)
)
smell
taste
sound

( + ).

,
? ?.
: 1)
2)


be
seem
look

can
be able (to)
may
might
must
have (to)
be (to)
should
ought (to)
shall
will



( +
)


:
a smart girls school.
C :

: a beautiful silk ladys hat

:
the boys ball.

, ,
: young Pushkins lyrics;
, ,
:
Pushkins early poems.

:
)
) , -?
), .

, .
), .
.

, :
a girls school, a parents meeting.

.
, :
1) : a cats fur
2) some/any/nobody, some/any/no one, each other,
one another: somebodys book
,
3) : three hours flight
4) : four miles walk
5) today, yesterday, tomorrow: yesterdays news

Far 1) farther farthest ( )


2) further furthest ( )

! , -ly,
c more most.

C more, most , .

1) oftener oftenest
2) more often most often

less least
fewer fewest

more

Slowly 1) slower slowest


2) more slowly most slowly

Quickly 1) quicker quickest


2) more quickly most quickly

Often

little
few

most

many
much
a lot

2. , -, -er,
-ow, -1.

( )

worse worst

bad
badly
ill

1. .
: like, real, tired, just, right, wrong, ill ().

better best

good
well

C c -er, -est

than hers.

cheaper
more expensive

much cheaper
much more expensive

than hers.

earliest

cheapest
most expensive

of the two

C :

cheapest
most expensive

heaper
more expensive

asas

of all.

the

by far the

the

This dress is the

This dress is

arrived

This dress is

He did not arrive as early as you. , .


I have as many books as you do. , .
Your report must be as short as possible. .
He ran as fast as he could. .
He pulled as hard as he could. .
I have twice as much money as you do. , .
My room is half as large as yours. .

The sooner he comes, the better it will be for you


(, )

My dress is

I am 5 years younger than my elder brother


You must come half an hour earlier than the rest

My dress is

of all.

of all.

Do you go to
school? Yes, I
do.
Can he swim?
No,
he cant.
Are they busy?
Yes, they are.


BE
+

+

.


+
r
+
:
Is he in or out?

:
Are you reading or
watching TV?

:
Did he come in
time or was he late?

, or
:

Nobody was there,


were they?
Everybody came,
didnt they?
There was nobody in
the room, was there?

+
:
.


( have to)
BE
+
,
,
,

Who has come?


How many students
are
taking the exam?

,
:

:
Where are you going?


+
.


BE
+

3. :
I wonder + + . :
I didnt know what
was going to happen.

Where do you think


he lost his bag?

2. :

+
do you think
+
:

1. :
Do you think
+
:
Do you think you can
do it?

1. :
I wonder + if /
whether +
:
We wondered if they
would be late.
2.
:
I wonder + whether +
:
They asked whether
we had made up our
minds or were still
undecided.

+
Do you think
:


Do you think

,

:


I wonder

1- 3-

Let +
:
Let us go there.
Dont let us go
there.

Indefinite
Infinitive
to:
Close the door.
Dont close the door.

:
2-

:
1. :
Its noisy here.
Its winter.
2. Coco :
It often rains in
autumn.
3. :
Its 3 oclock
4. :
Its 3 miles to the
station

IT
+ +
.

.
:

IT
) :
It is easy to do this
work
) :
It was nice talking
to you
)

It is strange that you


should ask about it.

IT
+

+
,
:

c
IT

It was in winter that


it happened.
It is I who am to
blame.

IT
+
BE
+
,
+
THAT/WHO
+
. :


.
:

THERE


There were four of
us at table.
There must be
somebody in.
There seemed to be
something wrong
with the lock.

THERE
+
, BE
+

+
.

.
:

2.

:
What beautiful
pictures he has!
What sad news you
have brought!
How quickly they
came!
How pleasant it is
to walk in this park!

1.
: WHAT +

HOW + /

I am here. So is
Nick.
Neither
.
He has not done it.
Neither have they.

SO / NEITHER
+
.


BE

So
.

.
:

SO / NEITHER

IF

WHEN
as soon as
while
before
after
till/until
by the time


( ?)

unless
in case

(?)


(?)

(?)

(?)

What do we do
now?

2) ,

( ,
doubt, hope, not
know, not sure
..):

When do your
classes start
tomorrow?

I am seeing him
tomorrow.

2) ,
Indefinite.

Do you think it will


rain?

2)

( ):

What are you doing


tonight?

1)

(
):

1) :

1) (


):

FUTURE
INDEFINITE

PRESENT
CONTINUOUS

PRESENT
INDEFINITE

2)

Look, what a dark


sky! Itll be raining in
a minute.

(
).

Hell be coming here


again soon

1) ,

:

FUTURE
CONTINUOUS

He will have gone by


the time you arrive.

,


:

FUTURE
PERFECT

Im going to cook a
stew
Its going to rain

GOING TO

Before
Past

Past

had done

Past Indefinite
was
done
did
were

Future- in- the Past Indef.


would be
would do
done

Past Indefinite
was
done
did
were

Past

Fut.in-the
Past

Present Indefinite
do
am
does
are done
is

Present

to be
done

Future Indefinite
will do
will be done

to do

Future

Time

INDEFINITE
to be being
done

Present Continuous
am
being
doing
are
done
is

PAST PERFECT
had been done

Past Continuous
was
being
was
doing
were done
were

Future- in- the Past Continuous


would be
would be
doing
being done

Past Continuous
was
being
was
doing
were done
were

am
are
is

Future Continuous
will be
will be
doing
being done

to be
doing

CONTINUOUS

PRESENT TIME

PAST TIME

to have been
done

Future- in- the Past Perfect


would
would have
have done
been done

Present Perfect
have been
have
done
has
done
has

Future Perfect
will have
will have
done
been done

to have
done

PERFECT

Past Perfect
Continuous
had been doing

Future- in -the Past


Perfect Continuous
would have been
doing

Present Perfect
Continuous
have been
has
doing

Fut.Perf.Cont
will have been
doing

to have been
doing

PERFECT
CONTINUOUS

Past (Ind., Cont.)

() Present (Ind., Cont.)


Perf.

Pres.

Future (Ind., Contin., Perf., Perf. Contin.)

Perfect
ontinuous

Present

Past Perfect

Past (Ind., Cont.)


Perfect
ontinuous

Past

Future-in-the-Past (Ind.,Cont., Perf., Perf.Cont.)

III. :

II. ( ).

PAST

Past Time

PRESENT

I.
( ).

10

Perfect

3. ,

Perfect
Continuous

6.

)
)

Continuous
ontinuous

Present
Indefinite

Present
Continuous

)
8.
) ,

Present
Indefinite

7. , :
)

Present

Perfect
Continuous

5.
(c )-

Past Perfect

Continuous

2.
4.

Indefinite
Indefinite
Past, Future
Indefinite

Indefinite

1. ) (
)
) ,
)
)

work can be done in two days.


heat was beginning to be felt.
work seems to have been done in a hurry.
letters continued being written.

, , , .

, ( ), .

Rastrelli built the Winter Palace in the 18th century.


The Winter Palace was built by Rastrelli in the 18th century.
Everyone was looking for him everywhere.
He was being looked for everywhere.

, , , :

, (come, go, rise etc.), .

The
The
The
The

Passive Voice Passive Infinitive Gerund:

Passive Passive Infinitive.


Perfect Continuous Perfect .

A lot of trees have been uprooted by the hurricane.


The envelope was cut open with scissors.

:
1.
2. .
by , with :

11

at
for
after
through
to
at
for
to
of/about .

We always laugh at his jokes.


His jokes are always laughed at.


,
:

listen
laugh
send
speak
think

look

A job was
offered me.

They asked me a lot of questions.


I was asked a lot of questions.

Ask ,
,
:

The incident has been spoken about to the


director.

The director has been spoken to about the


incident

I have spoken to the director about the


incident.

talk/ speak (to smb about smth)

I was offered
a job.

They offered me a job.

give
tell
send
envy
show
pay
sell
offer
promise
teach (smb smth)

,
(
)

(smth to smb)

He explained the rule to me.


The rule was explained to me.

say
explain
describe
repeat
mention
dictate
buy
read
write
sing
suggest


,

.

,
,

COULD

Indefinite Infinitive

Indefinite Infinitive

MAY
MIGHT

.
BE ALLOWED (TO)

:
AN

.
BE ABLE (TO)

MAY
MIGHT

MAY

,
,

AN

( )

?
.

CAN

(COULD

:
,
.

MIGHT

:
,
.
.

MAY

(MIGHT

:

(
).

SHOULD
OUGHT (TO)

:

(
).

MUST

( )

:
.

The Perfect Continuous Infinitive to have been doing

The Continuous Infinitive to be doing/to be being done.

:
/ .

:
.

The Perfect Infinitive to have done/to have been done

: 1) :
You must do it tomorrow.
2)
: I can swim.

The Indefinite Infinitive to do/to be done.

12
.

Indefinite
Infinitive

Indefinite
Infinitive

Indefinite
Continuous
Infinitive

Perfect
Infinitive

Perfect
Infinitive

SHOULD

Indefinite Infinitive

:
,

SHOULD

Indefinite Infinitive

SHOULD

Indefinite
Infinitive

WILL

Indefinite
Infinitive

?
( ).

:
,

.

SHALL

NEED

OUGHT (TO)

Perfect Infinitive

2)

:
,
)
;
)
.

SHOULD

1) ( :
,
, ,
,
)

BE (TO)

SHOULD, OUGHT (TO)

(
)

( )

MIGHT

HAVE (TO)

MUST

Indefinite

)
MAY, MIGHT

MAY
MIGHT
BE ALLOWED (TO)

BE ABLE (TO)

) ,

CAN
COULD

1. , :
)

I. , ?

MAY

MUST

SHOULD
OUGHT (TO)

)

( )
(
)
.
)

.

MIGHT

CAN

)
(, )
(
)
.

)
( , )
(
)
.

2. , :
)
(
)

, ?

13

HAVE (TO)

BE (TO)

BE (TO)

2.
( )
Indefinite.

3.
(, ,
, , )
Indefinite ontinuous

4.
Perfect.

7.
( )
Indefinite.

6.

( )
.

5.
)
)
.

MIGHT
SHOULD/
OUGHT (TO)
SHOULD

1. ( )
Perfect.

2.
( )
Perfect.

3. ,
Indefinite.

SHOULD
WILL
WOULD

6.
Indefinite.

SHOULD

SHALL
SHOULD

NEED

SHOULD
OUGHT (TO)

5.
.

4. C ?
Indefinite.

III. , :

MUST

1.
( , )
Indefinite.

II. , :


.. a, the
.. 0, the

0, the

:
Look at the sky.

The pencil in your hand.

I saw a boy. The boy was crying.

:
:
:


1.
?
, ?
THE
2. ?
.
3.
?
.
4.
?
.
.

, -, .
THE ()
1.
2. , .
THE ()

.

1. a
.
2. . .
3. THE
) . .
) .
1) :
The shark is a fish.
2) : What
about the French? Get the necessary done.
3) ,
: to change for the better.

14


( ):
Repin is a great Russian painter ( ).
Can you afford to buy a Repin? ( ).

14

10. the sun, the moon, the earth.

10. : May Day.

12. Noon, midday, midnight, dawn, sunset, sunrise ( )

11.
Room 105 ( )
: a/the number 5 bus

9. : Time Magazine.

9. The Netherlands
the Hague
the Crimea

8. : the Independent.

7. : the Korolenko.

6. : the east.

5. : the Philippines.

4. : the Alps.

3. : the Volga.

Browns.

1. , :
the Black Sea.
: ,
.
Windsor Palace, the Winter Palace
2. : the

8. : Columbia University.

7. : Lake Geneva.

Avenue, London Bridge, Gorky park.

6. , , , : Leicester Square, Shaftsberry

5. , : Heathrow Airport, Charing Cross Station.

Don`t tell Mother.

4. :

3. : Don`t cry, little boy.

2. , , , .
Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms.; Sir, Dame, Lord, Duchess, Doctor, Professor,
Colonel, Captain, King, President, Bishop: Queen Elizabeth, Dame
Agatha Cristie etc.
: the engineer Ivanov

1. : Canada, South America

14



, :
a turkey turkey



,
:
1. : a hair.
, )
;
)
, .
2. (
): a coffee.
3. C :
Essentuki is a mineral water.

He was elected Chairman of the


meeting.

, :

, :
1. Town, bed, table, market,
camp, church, prison, hospital.
2. School, college, university ( ).
3. Breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner,
supper ( ).
4. By car, plane/air etc.(
).
5. ,

: in class, on
board, in detail etc.

4.
,
:
a new Gogol.

He was known as the Great


Gatsby.

:
1.
: a Repin, a
Sony, a Volga.
Weve got a John and two Marys
in the family.
2.
, -: A Smith
asked for you.
3.
. A
:
I saw a new Michael.
THE
:

Night fell.
It was a cool night.




.

.

.

14

4- , 1 2 2 3.

he would have done


would have been doing

If he had done
had been doing

3- .
,
()
:

he would do
would be doing

2- ()
:
If he did/were doing
:

he will do/will be doing


will have done
will have been doing

has done
has been doing

1-

:
If he does/is doing

had done
had been doing
He wished/If only he
had not asked the
question.

3-

:

did
were doing
I wish/If only I could be
like you.


.
2- :

would do
would be doing
I wish/If only you
would stop.

1-

:

IF
ONLY WISH

15

insist
suggest
propose
recommend
request/ask
order
demand
require
command
I suggest you
(should) agree.

1. ,
:
Its strange that you
should ask.
2.
,


:

SHOULD
+

The sooner you


start, the earlier you
will finish.

3.

care matter
. :
He doesnt care
what you say.
4.

no matter:
No matter what
happens I wont lose
hope.

2.

Whenever you call


Ill be waiting.

1.
-ever (whatever,
whenever ..):

Id rather you
stayed at home.

Its time you were


in bed.

He looks as if he
had seen a ghost.

had done
had been
doing

2- ,
:

did
were doing
He looks as if he
were dead

1- ,

:

as though

would rather
did
were doing

c c as if,

Its (high)
time, prefer,

to be doing

to have
done
to have
been doing

Continuous

Perfect

to have
been done

to be being
done

to be done

PASSIVE


Indefinite 1)
;
2) ;
Continuous / ;
Perfect ;
Perfect Continuous
.

Perfect
Continuous

to do

Indefinite

ACTIVE

16

having
done

Perfect

being
done
having
been
done

PASSIVE

Past

Present

being done
done

PASSIVE

doing

ACTIVE

admit
avoid
deny
enjoy
imagine
involve
mention
mind
doing smth
risk
suggest
it is no use
cannot help
I suggest writing to him.
need, want, require
be worth
doing
The matter is not worth speaking
about.

( ) :


Present Active
--/--, -/-
-/-.
Present Passive
--/- .
Present .
Past Passive
-/-
Perfect Active
-
Perfect Passive

.
--
( )
Present Participle (
)

Perfect

having been
having done

done
,

doing

Indefinite

ACTIVE

4) - :
seem/appear , happen c , turn out , prove
.
I happened to be passing by.
The strength of the metal proved to have been overestimated by the designer.

3) , : to be (un)likely/sure/certain/bound etc.
He is unlikely to have finished the work.
They are bound to retaliate.

2) , : to be believed/thought/expected/supposed etc.
He is believed to have been killed in action.
They are expected to arrive by train.

1) , : to be said/reported/announced etc.
He is said to be arriving tomorrow.
The talks are reported to have been cancelled.

,
, :

16

1.
........................................... 3
2. ..................................................................................18
3. .......................................29
4. ...............................................................................43
5. ......................................................................................47
.......................................................................47
.......................................................................49
....................................................................50
6. . ......................................................64
7. .....................................................................76
8. ....................................................................88
9. ...............................96
10. ........................................................................99
11. .............................................................................................. 118
12. ........................................................................... 125

............................................................................................ 125
.................................................................................... 137
............................................... 148
.................................................................................. 162
....................................................................................... 165
............................................................. 165
.............................................................. 167
.......................................................... 168
. .......................................................... 180
........................................................................ 190
........................................................................ 201
........................................ 208
........................................................................... 210
............................................................................................... 226
.......................................................................... 232

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