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Parts of Speech
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Hafiz Waleed Hashmi

What is a Part of Speech?

A part of speech is a group of words that are used in a certain way. For example, "run," "jump," and "be" are all used to describe actions/states. Therefore they belong to the V !"# group. $n other words, all words in the nglish language are di%ided into eight different categories. ach category has a different role/function in the sentence.

The English parts of speech are: &' Nouns (' pronouns )' adjectives *' verbs +' adverbs ,' prepositions -' conjunctions .' interjections.


A noun is a word that names a person, a place or a thing. Examples: #arah, lady, cat, /ew 0or1, 2anada, room, school, football, reading. Example sentences: People li1e to go to the beach. Emma passed the test, S!"N is a good #tudent. Pa#istan is a beautiful countr$% This is a pen 3y parents are tra%eling to &apan next month. The word "noun" comes from the 4atin word nomen which means "name," and nouns are indeed how we name people, places and things.

T$pes of Noun
Abstract /ouns 2oncrete /ouns 2ommon /ouns 5roper /ouns 2ountable /ouns 6ncountable /ouns

T$pes of Noun in detail

"bstract Nouns An abstract noun is a noun that names an idea, not a physical thing. Examples: 7ope, interest, lo%e, peace, ability, success, 1nowledge, trouble. 'oncrete Nouns A concrete noun is a noun that names a physical thing. Examples: "oy, table, floor, coffee, beach, 1ing, rain, children, professor.

'ommon Nouns A common noun is a noun that names a general thing, not a specific thing. Examples: "oy, girl, city, country, company, planet, location, war.

Proper Nouns A proper noun is a noun that indicates the specific name of a thing. $t begins with a capital letter. Examples: 6sman !a88a9, :aleed ;ureshi, A9ib 7ameed, #weden, <oogle, arth, iffel Tower, 2i%il :ar. =2ompare these examples to ones in the "2ommon nouns" section to see the difference.'

'ountable Nouns A countable noun is a noun that indicates something you could actually count.

For example, you could count pigs> one pig, two pigs, three pigs... 7owe%er, you couldn?t count (ater> one water, two water @ no, it doesn?t wor1... A countable noun has both a singular and a plural form, and it can be used with the indefinite articles =a/an'. Examples: :indow, teacher, tree, lion, eye, cloud, pencil, heart, mo%ie.

ncountable Nouns An uncountable noun is a noun that indicates something you cannot count. For example, you could count pigs> one pig, two pigs, three pigs... 7owe%er, you couldn?t count (ater> one water, two water @ no, it doesn?t wor1... An uncountable noun has only one form =no plural', and it cannot be used with the indefinite articles =a/an'. Examples: Furniture, ad%ice, mail, news, e9uipment, luggage, wor1, coffee, information.


A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. For example, you could say "4isa is a nice girl." Then you could replace the noun "4isa" with the word "#he" and get the following sentence> "#he is a nice girl." "#he" is a pronoun. Examples: $, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself. Example sentences: )e doesn?t want go with them. :ould the$ help usA )is house is bigger than ours. Who is sheA :hat is he to $ouA The word "pronoun" comes from "pro" =in the meaning of "substitute"' B "noun."

T$pes of Pronoun:
5ersonal 5ronouns Cemonstrati%e 5ronouns $nterrogati%e 5ronouns 5ossessi%e 5ronouns !elati%e 5ronouns !eflexi%e 5ronouns $ndefinite 5ronouns

T$pes of Pronoun in detail

Personal Pronouns 5ersonal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are> $, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them. *emonstrative Pronouns "Cemonstrati%e" means "showing, ma1ing something clear."

Cemonstrati%e pronouns point to things. The demonstrati%e pronouns are> this, that, these, those. 6se "this" and "these" to tal1 about things that are near in space or in time. 6se "that" and "those" to tal1 about things that are farther away in space or time. Example sentence: This cannot go on. That was beautifulD 7e wanted those, but decided to compromise on these.

+nterrogative Pronouns "$nterrogati%e" means "used in 9uestions." $nterrogati%e pronouns are used to as1 9uestions. The interrogati%e pronouns are> who, whom, which, what, whoe%er, whate%er, etc. 6se "who" and "whom" to tal1 about people. 6se "which" and "what" to tal1 about animals and things. Example sentences: Who is your fatherA Whom did you spea1 toA Which bag did you buyA What are my choicesA

Possessive Pronouns "5ossessi%e" means "showing ownership." 5ossessi%e pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The possessi%e pronouns are> my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs. Example sentences: $?%e lost m$ wallet. 7e married his girlfriend. This place is theirs. $s that cat $oursA 3y car is slow. )ers is much faster.

,elative Pronouns "!elati%e" means "connected with something." !elati%e pronouns are pronouns that lin1 different parts of a sentence. The relati%e pronouns are> who, whom, which, that, whoe%er, etc.

Examples sentences: The girl (ho called yesterday came to see you. The teacher (hom you wrote has answered your 9uestions. #he li%es in Eie%, (hich is the capital city of 61raine. $ really li1ed the boo1 that you ga%e me.

,eflexive Pronouns "!eflexi%e" means "going bac1 to itself." !eflexi%e pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. !eflexi%e pronouns end in "F self" =singular' or "Fsel%es" =plural'. The reflexi%e pronouns are> myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oursel%es, themsel%es. Example sentences: 7e cut himself while sha%ing. $ sent m$self to bed. 7e could hurt himselfD :e must help ourselves. #he trusts herself. +ntensive Pronouns "$ntensi%e" means "gi%ing force or emphasis." An intensi%e pronoun is a pronoun used for emphasis. $n other words, $ntensi%e pronouns emphasis the subject of the sentence. They are written exactly the same way as the reflexi%e nouns, but their function is different. $ m$self ba1ed the ca1e. The 9ueen herself recommended this restaurant. 7a%e you $ourself been thereA The project itself wasn?t difficult. :e will do it ourselves. +ndefinite Pronouns "$ndefinite" means "not exact, not limited." $ndefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to any specific person or thing. Examples: Anything, e%erybody, another, each, few, many, none, some. Example sentences: !an$ ha%e died during the war. 2an an$one call herA Ever$bod$ wants to see you. Something can be done to hel


An adjecti%e is a word that describes a person or thing. Examples: "ig, pretty, expensi%e, green, round, French, loud, 9uic1, fat. Example sentences:

6sman has expensive laptop A9ib has green shirt :aleed has prett$ watch
7e has big blue eyes. The ne( car bro1e down. The old lady was tal1ing in a -uiet %oice. The word "adjecti%e" comes from the 4atin word jacere, which means "to throw."

*ifferent T$pes of adjectives

Adjecti%es can be di%ided into se%eral types> .pinion /ice, pretty, stupid, original, expensi%e, etc. Si/e "ig, small, large, tiny, enormous, little, etc. "ge 0oung, old, new, ancient, anti9ue, etc. Shape !ound, s9uare, flat, straight, etc. 'olor "lue, red, white, blac1, dar1, bright, yellowish, etc. .rigin $talian, "ritish, 3exican, western, southern, etc.

!aterial 3etal, wooden, plastic, golden, etc.

A determiner is a word that comes before a noun to show which person or thing you are tal1ing about. Examples: A, an, the, my, your, some, any, se%eral, enough, any. Example sentences: $ ha%e a red hat. 5lease gi%e me m$ bag. Some people decided to lea%e. #he doesn?t want an$ money. They watched several mo%ies. #ome people consider determiners to be a type of adjective. :hat?s special about determiners is that you usually can use only one determiner at a time. +ncorrect: 7e has the my tic1et. 'orrect: 7e has my tic1et / 7e has the tic1et.

Nouns that act li#e adjectives

#ometimes nouns function as adjecti%es. $n other words, they come before another noun and describe it. Examples: Sports car .range juice Television station 'offee shop 0oo# co%er

The order of adjectives

A noun can ha%e se%eral adjecti%es describing it. Examples: "#he bought a new red $talian table." "7e is a great, successful father." There are certain rules on the correct order of those adjecti%es.

This is the order (e should generall$ follo(: *eterminer 12 opinion 12 si/e 12 age 12 shape 12 color 12 origin 12 material 12 a (ord describing purpose3function

Examples: A nice little coffee shop

=Ceterminer FG opinion FG si8e FG purpose/function word'

3y huge new swimming pool

=Ceterminer FG si8e FG age FG purpose/function word'

#e%eral 2hinese plastic cups =Ceterminer FG origin FG material' "djectives from the same t$pe: :hen you ha%e se%eral adjecti%es from the same type, you should separate them with commas or a conjunction =and, but'. Examples: A happy, smart man The beautiful, original painting 3y nice and sweet cat

'omparative adjectives
"2omparati%e" means "comparing something to something else." 2omparati%e adjecti%e show us which thing is better, worse, stronger, wea1er, and so forth. Examples: "etter, worse, bigger, smaller, nicer, fatter, thiner, more dangerous. Example sentences: 3aham is a better student #adaf. The test was (orse than $?%e expected. 0ou are stronger than me. 7e seems healthier.

Superlative adjectives
"#uperlati%e" means "of the highest degree." #uperlati%e adjecti%es show us which thing is the best, the strongest, and so forth. Examples: "est, worst, strongest, smallest, cheapest, most expensi%e. Example sentences: 0ou are my best friend. This is the (orst day of my life. %en the smallest donation helps. This is the most expensive restaurant $?%e e%er heard of.



A %erb is a word or group of words that express an action or a state. Examples: <o, jump, sleep, eat, thin1, be, change, become, dri%e, complete. Example sentences: :e had a nice lunch. $ thin# that he is right. 7e drove for hours. The word "%erb" comes for the 4atin word verbum, which means "word."

"uxiliar$ 4erbs 5also called 6helping verbs67

Auxiliary %erbs are %erbs that are used together with the main %erb of the sentence to express the action or state. 3ain %erb B auxiliary %erb H complete idea The main auxiliar$ verbs are: be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, ha%e, has, had. Example sentences 5the auxiliar$ verb is bold, and the main verb is underlined7: They are jogging. #he (as sitting. :e (ere waiting for hours. +s she sleepingA 7e didn8t 1now the answer. :e have gone a long way. )as she recei%ed any of my lettersA *o you smo1eA Will she helpA


'ompound 4erbs
" compound verb H auxiliary %erb B main %erb. Examples: was playing, has eaten, doesn?t want. They (ere discussing their future. 7e didn8t tell us the truth. $ have finished my homewor1. #he (ill meet us there.

Stative 4erbs
#tati%e %erbs are %erbs that express a state rather than an action. Examples: be, seem, lo%e, own, want, sound, ha%e, 1now, understand. Examples sentences: #he is a great wife. 7e seems rather strange. 7e (anted to see you. That sounds awesomeD :e have enough things to do. #tati%e %erbs are usually not used in the progressi%e tenses. Examples: +ncorrect: 7e is wanting to see you. 'orrect: 7e wants to see you. +ncorrect: $ am 1nowing what to do. 'orrect: $ 1now what to do. +ncorrect: They are seeming nice. 'orrect: They seem nice. 7owe%er, if the same %erb is used to describe an actual action =not a state' than it can be used in the progressi%e tenses. Example: :hen the %erb "ha%e" means "own" @ it is a state. #o we do not use it in the progressi%e tenses. +ncorrect: $ am ha%ing a laptop. 'orrect: $ ha%e a laptop.


:hen the %erb "ha%e" means "eat" @ it is an actual action. #o we can use it in the progressi%e tenses. 'orrect: $ am ha%ing lunch with Eate. 'orrect: $ ha%e lunch with Eate.

*$namic 4erbs
Cynamic %erbs are the opposite of stati%e %erbs. They express a real action. Examples: Iump, swim, catch, write, call, sleep, hit, open, spea1. Example sentences: They s(am to the other side. #he hit me on the headD .pen the window, please. The dynamic %erbs can be used in the progressi%e tenses. 'orrect: 7e is drin1ing water. 'orrect: 7e drin1s water.

,egular 4erbs
!egular %erbs are %erbs that follow this rule> 5ast form of the %erb H present form of the %erb B ed / d. Examples: 5ast form of "chec1" H chec1 B ed H chec1ed. 5ast form of "open" H open B ed H opened. 5ast form of "ba1e" H ba1e B d H ba1ed.

+rregular 4erbs
$rregular %erbs are %erbs that do not follow the abo%e rule, and there are 9uite a lot of themD Examples: 5ast form of "drin1" H dran1. 5ast form of "sleep" H slept. 5ast form of "bring" H brought.


Phrasal 4erbs
A phrasal %erb is a %erb that is combined with an ad%erb or a preposition. The combination creates a new meaning. Examples: !un H to mo%e %ery 9uic1ly with your legs. ="#he can run fastD"' $nto H in the direction of something. ="7e loo1ed into my eyes."' !un into H to meet someone by accident. =$ ran into Ioe yesterday."' 3a1e H to create or do something. =7e made a lot of noise.' 6p H to a higher point. ="4oo1 upD"' 3a1e up H in%ent =a story, an excuse'. ="$t has ne%er happened. 7e made the whole thing upD"' 5ut H to place something somewhere. ="2ould you put this upstairsA"' 6p H to a higher point. ="4oo1 upD"' :ith H concerning ="#he is happy with her wor1place."' 5ut up with H to tolerate. ="$ cannot put up with his beha%ior any moreD"'



An ad%erb is a word that describes or gi%es more information about a %erb, an adjecti%e, another ad%erb, or e%en the entire sentence.

"dverbs usuall$ ans(er the follo(ing -uestions:

:hereA )ome. ="$ went home."' :henA 9esterda$. =":e met yesterday."' 7owA Slo(l$. ="The turtle mo%es slowly."' 7ow oftenA Sometimes. ="#ometimes it stops responding."' 7ow longA Temporall$. =#he stays with us temporally."' 7ow li1elyA Surel$. =Jur team will surely winD"' To what degreeA 4er$. ="#he was %ery pleased."' "n adverb can describe a verb: #he runs -uic#l$. "n adverb can describe an adjective: #he is so beautiful. "n adverb can describe another adverb: #he smo1es ver$ rarely. "n adverb can describe an entire sentence: Naturall$, you don?t ha%e to come. The word "ad%erb" comes for the 4atin ad- =in addition' and verbum =word'.


+n man$ cases 5but not al(a$s:7 adverbs have the follo(ing form:
"djective ; 61l$6 Examples: ;uic1 B ly H -uic#l$ #trange B ly H strangel$ Cead B ly H deadl$ #udden B ly H suddenl$ 2le%er B ly H cleverl$ "ra%e B ly H bravel$ !eal B ly H reall$ When an adjective ends (ith 6$6 replace the 6$6 (ith an 6i6: 7ea%y B ly H hea%i B ly H hea%ily 7appy B ly H happi B ly H happily When the adjective ends (ith an 6e6 drop the 6e6: True B ly H tru B ly H truly )o(ever, there are man$ adverbs that do not end in 61l$6: Fast, %ery, hard, home, just, too, well, ne%er, sometimes, and so forth.

We can divided English adverbs into several categories:

Ad%erbs of degree Ad%erbs of manner Ad%erbs of place Ad%erbs of time Ad%erbs of fre9uency Ad%erbs of duration Ad%erbs of probability 2omparati%e ad%erbs #uperlati%e ad%erbs.



A preposition is a word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to another word in the sentence. $t is usually used to show location, direction, time, and so forth. Examples: Jn, in, at, by, under, abo%e, beside, to, out, from, for. Example sentences: $ sat on the floor. 4et?s go into the house. :e will meet at four o?cloc1. 7a%e a loo1 under the couch. 7e went to school. This letter is for you. The word "preposition" comes from the 4atin word praeponere =put before'. #o prepositions usually come before the noun/pronoun.



A conjunction is a word that joins parts of a sentence together. Examples: And, but, or, because, so. Example sentences: $ want to come, but $ can?t. #he is smart and beautiful. :ould you li1e a cat or a dogA 7e didn?t pass the test because he didn?t understand the subject. :e were hungry, so we ordered pi88a. The word "conjunction" comes from the 4atin word conjungere =join together'.



An interjection is a short sound, word or phrase used to express the spea1er?s emotion. Examples: JhD 4oo1 outD JwD 7eyD :owD AhD 6m... Example sentences: Wo(, that?s ama8ingD "h, that was a good meal. m... $?m not sure what to say. .h dearD :hat happenedA )elloD 7ow are you doingA Well, that?s an option too. The word "interjection" comes from the 4atin word interjicere =throw between'.

Summary Table

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