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Copyright & A K-C

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2010

Copyright & A K-C

519.62/.64
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160700.68
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, 2010

Copyright & A K-C

....................................................................................... 4
1 ............................................... 5
1.1 ...................................................... 5
1.2 ......................... 8
2 ............................................................................. 9
2.1 .............. 9
2.1.1 (SDOF) ................. 10
2.1.2 (MDOF) .... 10
2.2 .................................... 11
2.3 ............................ 12
2.4 ................... 14
3. .................................................. 18
3.1
(LSCE) ............................................................ 18
3.1.1 ............................ 18
3.1.2 .............................. 19
3.1.3 .......................... 20
3.1.4 ................... 22
3.1.5 LSCE .................................... 26
3.2
(LSFD) ..................................................................................... 33
3.2.1 LSFD .................................... 34
3.3
(PolyMAX) ................................................................ 35
3.3.1 .......................................................... 36
3.3.1 ............................................ 37
................................................................................. 39

Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

1
1.1

,
.
. 1.1
.

1.1

,
, ,
, .

-
(FRFs Frequency Response Functions)
(IRs Impulse
Responses).

Copyright & A K-C

hij (t ) (rijk e1t rijk* e1t )


*

(1.1)

k 1

-
(FRFs) :
N

rijk

k 1

( j k )

hij ( j ) (

rijk*
( j *k )

(1.2)

hij (t ) - (IR) (
) I (DOF i) (
) j (DOF j);
hij ( j ) - - (FRF)
( ) I (DOF i)
( ) j (DOF j);
N ,
;
rijk - (residue) k;

k - (pole) k;
rijk*
j *k

rijk
j k

(pole)
:
k k jdk ,
(1.3)
:

dk - ;
k - (damping factor) .

k k nk jnk 1 k2 ,

(1.4)

nk - ;

k - (damping ratio) .
6

Copyright & A K-C

1.5 , rijk
:
rijk akik jk ,

(1.5)

ik - I
(response DOF i) ;

jk - j
(response DOF j) ;

ak

- ,
.

( ) .
(real),
:

ak

1
,
2 j mk dk

(1.6)

mk - .
,

), (damping factors)
(damping ratios),

( ).

() ,

(
).
,
.

Copyright & A K-C

1.2
(frequency) (damping)
1/, .
(residues), 1.1 l.2,
, .
(mode
shape coefficients) (scaling constant)
(. l.5).
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
,
(mode shapes)
(modal participation factors).

. ,
,
,
.

Copyright & A K-C

2
2.1
,
,
.
(single degree of
freedom (SDOF) assumption).

2.1 -

, l.2,
- (FRF),
,
, :

hij

rijk
(j k )

rijk

(j k )
*

(2.1)

min max
,

(upper and lower residual terms).

hij

rijk
( jw k )

rijk

( jw k )
*

urij

lrij

(2.2)

:
9

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urij - ( - residual
stiffness),
min;

lrij - ( - residual
mass),
max.
2.2.

2.2 -

2.1 ,
, :

hij

rijk
( j k )

(2.3)

2.1.1 (SDOF)
(SDOF - Single
degree of freedom)
, (Peak picking), (Mode
picking) (Circle fitting).
2.1.2 (MDOF)
(SDOF)
,
.
10

Copyright & A K-C

,
.


(multiple degree of freedom
method).
2.2

,
N

hij (t ) (rijk e1t rijk e1t )


*

(2.4)

k 1

, h
(response) (reference DOFs).
, h
,
. ,
: (local)
(global) (. 2.1).
2.1


,


.



,
.
,
, ,

.
,





.
,

.
,

(global estimates).

11

Copyright & A K-C


,
(Peak
picking)
(Circle fitting).


(LSCE Least Squares Complex
Exponential) PolyMAX


.

2.3
, Ni
(Ni input DOFs) N0
(N0 output DOFs).
(. 2.4)
.

H Rk e t Rk* e t ,
N

*
1

(2.5)

k 1

H - (N0, Ni) hij ;


Rk - (N0, Ni) rijk .

1.5
(residue matrix)

Rk ak V k Vr k ,

(2.6)

V k - () N0 (mode

shape coefficients) (output DOFs);


Vr k - () Ni (mode
shape coefficients) (input DOFs).
(DOFs) i j

-,
rijk rjik
(2.7)

12

Copyright & A K-C

, ,
,
(2.8)
Rk V k Lk ,
:
Lk - () Ni,

.

(modal participation factors).
,
(modal participation factors)
(mode shape coefficient)
(input DOFs).
,
2.5 ,
t
*t
*
*
H V k Lk e V k L k e
N

(2.9)

k 1

-

N

t
t
*
*
H i ik Lk e ik L k e
k 1

*
1

(2.10)

H i -

Ni i
.
2.10 ,

. ,

t
(2.11)
Lk e 1


, 2.11 (
)
.
13

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,
2.10.

.
, ,
1 2.
-
j,
H i ...V 1l1 j e1t V 2 l2 j e2t ...
(2.12)
,

H i ...V 1l1 j V 2 l2 j et ...

(2.13)

,
,
, .
(combination coefficients)
l1j l2j.
l,
2.13.
H i ...V 1 l1l V 2 l2l et ...
(2.14)

l1j
l2j.
i, l
.

,
,
.
2.4

.

- (FRF).

. , ,
14

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(stepped sine
excitation)
.

, ,
:
*

rijk
rijk

,
hij ,n ( j )

(
j

)
(
j

)
k 1
n
k
n
k

(2.15)

:
hij ,n - ;

n - .

. ,

. ,
2.15.

,
(IR Impulse Response) (FRF)
.
(FFT),
,
2 (, 32, 64, 128, ...)
. ,

.


.
, ,
, ,
. 2.3.

15

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2.3-

,
.
,
,
.
max min t :

2
2(max min )

(2.16)

,
:
N

hij ,n (t ) rijk ek nt rijk* ek nt


k 1

(2.17)

hij ,n rijk zkn rijk* zk*n ,

(2.18)

k 1

zk ek t

(2.19)

, 2.18. hij,n,
zk. 2.19 k.
.

16

Copyright & A K-C

zk e( k jm2 / t ) t ek t

(2.20)
,
2/t. ,
,

(min, max).

,
( ).

,
.
,

.

17

Copyright & A K-C

3.
3.1
(LSCE)
LSCE -
(Least Square Complex
Exponential method)

. ,
(global estimates).
, ,
(IR),

N

hij (t ) (rijk e1t rijk e1t )


*

(3.1)

k 1

, k,
()
() . ,
( ),
.
-
(FRF).
,
.

, .
3.1.1
3.l
,
rijk,
. , hij
,

,
k. ,
18

Copyright & A K-C


2N .
2N

d
d
hij a1
dt
dt

2 N 1

hij ... a2 N hij 0

(3.2)

, 3.l
2N
, .



.

d

dt

2N

d
f (t ) a1
dt

2 N 1

f (t ) ... a2 N f (t ) 0

(3.3)

,
. ,
3.2 ,
:

2 N a12 N 1 ... a2 N 0
k , *k , k 1...N

(3.4)

, ,
3.2
.
k
3.4.
3.1.2
,
. , 3.l
:

19

Copyright & A K-C

hij ,n rijk z kn rijk* z k*n


k 1

(3.5)

z k e k t
,
,
zk.
,
,

2N (
).
hij ,n a1hij ,n1 ... a2 N hij ,n2 N 0
(3.6)
, , , hij,n
:
(3.7)
zk2 N a1 zk2 N 1 ... a2 N 0
3.1.3

(LSCE) ,
3.6 ,
.

hij,n.
.
3.6
,
(response)
(reference) ,
, 3.8.
.
,
,

20

Copyright & A K-C

( 3.9).
.

h11, 2 N 1

h
11, N t 1

h
ij ,n 1

hN 0 N i , N t 1

s h11, 2 N

a
h11, N t 2 N 1 h11, N t
a2

hij ,n 2 N
hij ,n
a2 N

hN 0 N i , N t 2 N
hN 0 N i , N t

h11, 0

(3.8)

Nt ;
No (response)
(DOFs);
Ni (input)
(DOFs).
:

r1,1

a1 r1,0

a2 r2, 0


r2 N , 2 N a2 N r2 N ,0

sr1, 2 sr1, 2 N
r2, 2 r2, 2 N

(3.9)

:
No

Ni

Nt

rk ,l (hij ,n k hij ,n l )

(3.10)

i 1 j 1 n 1



.
,
3.10
.
3.9 ,
,
21

Copyright & A K-C

3.7.
zk.
3.1.4
3.9
,
3.6. ,

.
.
, N .
, , ,
.

.



3.8 .
,
3.8,
N. ,
,
.

r1,1 r1, 2 a1 r1,0

r a r
2 , 2 2

2, 0

(3.11)


1.
,
, :

r1,1

22

r1, 2
r2, 2

r1,3
r2,3
r3,3

r1, 4 a1 r1, 0

r2, 4 a 2 r2, 0

r3, 4 a3 r3, 0

r4, 4 a 4 r4, 0

(3.12)

Copyright & A K-C


. ,
, ,

,
.
,
,
(least square
error chart) (. 3.1).

3.1 -
( 4 )

,
,
.
,
( )
, .

. ,
,
, ,
,
. , ,
(. 3.2).

23

Copyright & A K-C

3.2 - (stabilization diagram)

3.1.4.1
,
, 3.3.

3.3 -
(least squares complex exponential)

,
3.1.

24

Copyright & A K-C

3.1 -
n
h11
h21
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
-1
0
3
0
-1
(N=1).
, 3.8 3.9
:

1
1

1
1

0 a1 0

0 a2 0

1
s1

2 0 a1 0


0 2 a2 2
, : a1=0, a2=1.
3.7 zk k.

z2 1 0
zj

:

z e t
z j, 0 j
z j, 0 j

2t

2t

4t
, ,
3.3

25

Copyright & A K-C

3.1.5 LSCE

(Least squares Complex Exponential
method), ,
()
, . ,
,
(reference DOFs).
, ,
.

(multiple inputs Least Squares Complex
Exponential),


( )
.
, .
,

( ) (.
2.3.).
,
,
, (highly couples, even
repeated modes).

,
2.10
(. 2.3).
N

t
t
*
*
H i ik Lk e 1 ik L k e 1
k 1

(3.13)

H i -

() Ni (IRs Impulse Responses) i (DOF i)


(DOFs);
26

Copyright & A K-C

Lk

- (vector
modal participation factor) . , Ni
(reference DOF), L k
Ni.
ik - (modes shape coefficient)
i (DOF i) k.
, ,

.

.
3.1.5.1
, 3.13

, ,
(mode shape
coefficients), (response DOF).
.
3.13
(sampled nature of the data),
:
N

n
*
*
*n
H n i ik Lk zk ik L k zk

(3.14)

k 1

zk e1t
, ,
3.14,
:
(3.15)
H n i H n1 i A1 ... H n p i Ap 0

p
p 1
Lk zk zk A1 ... Ap 0

(3.16)

pNi 2 N

(3.17)
27

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.
3.15
Ni
. ,
A1Ap (NiNi).
, 3.16 ,
Lk z kn
.
3.14 - 2N , ,
3.17,
pNi, ,
2N.
,
,
Ni=1, 3.15 3.16 3.6 3.7.



.
3.1.5.2
3.15
,

3.18.
, ,
3.19.
.

28

Copyright & A K-C

H p 1 1

H
N t 1 1

H
n 1 i

H N t 1 N
o

H p 1

A1

H N t p 1
H
A N t 1

H n p i H n i
A
p

H N t N
H N t p N
o
o

H 0 1

(3.18)

:
Nt ;
No .
No

Nt

Rk ,l H nk i H n l i
i 1 n p

R1,1

R1, 2 R1, p A1 R1, 0


R2, 2 R2, p A2 R2, 0

R p , p Ap R p , 0

(3.19)

(3.20)

(p)
3.17. ,
.

,

. ,
,
.
, 3.17
,
. ,

(. 3.2). , 8-
11 12 ,
3- ().
29

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,
11 12.



(stabilization diagram).
, ,

. (. 2.3),
,

.
.
,
, .


(computational modes)
(physical modes).
,
.
,

, .
3.2 - (
), (N)
(Ni)

30

Ni=1

Ni=2

Ni=3

Ni=4

Ni=5

Ni=6

10

12

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14

16

18

10

20

10

11

22

11

12

24

12

13

26

13

14

28

14

10

15

30

15

10

16

32

16

11

17

34

17

12

18

36

18

12

19

38

19

13

10

20

40

20

14

10

21

42

21

14

11

22

44

22

15

11

23

46

23

16

12

10

24

48

24

16

12

10

25

50

25

17

13

10

26

52

26

18

13

11

27

54

27

18

14

11

28

56

28

19

14

12

10

29

58

29

20

15

12

10

30

60

30

20

15

12

10

31

62

31

21

16

13

11

32

64

32

22

16

13

11

31

Copyright & A K-C

3.1.5.3
, ,
(. 3.1.5.2). ,
, , h12 h21.
[h12 h21]
1 (DOF 1) 1 2
(DOF 1 2).
1 (p = 1, Ni = 2),
3.9 3.10 .

0
1

0
0
a11 a12
1
1
a12 a22

0
0
0 a11 a12 0

2 a12 a22 1

0
1
2

l1

z 1 0

l 2
1 z 0

()

z j, 0 j

L j,1

2t

,



. , ,

1 2 (DOFs 1 2),
h11 - , h12 - .

32

Copyright & A K-C

3.2
(LSFD)
LSFD -
(Least Square Frequency Domain method),
(residue) (mode shape
coefficients) (multiple DOF).

.
.
:
N

hij (t ) rijk e1t rijk* e1t


k 1

'

(3.21)

,

.
, 3.21
. ,

N
rijk
rijk*
hij , p

j p *k
k 1 j p k

lr
urij ij ,

p2

(3.22)

urij ,
max,
lrij ,
min.
2.2.
, , ,
(response DOF)
(reference DOF).

, 3.22.
(residues),
(lower and upper residuals)
.
33

Copyright & A K-C

3.2.1 LSFD
LSFD -
(Multiple input Least
Square Frequency Domain method),
(mode shapes) (multiple
DOF).

(reference
DOFs), (mode
shape coefficients),
.
3.23:
N

t
t
*
*
H i ik Lk e 1 ik L k e 1 .
k 1

'

(3.23)

,
,
. ,
(response DOF),
(reference DOF),

.
, 3.23
.
, ,
:
N
ik Lk
ik* L* k

p i j j *
k 1
p
k
p
k

LRi

URi ,
2
p

(3.24)

[UR]i
i (response DOF i)
(reference DOFs), Ni;
[LR]i
i (response DOF i)
(reference DOFs), Ni.

34

Copyright & A K-C

LSFD (
)
3.24.
3.3
(PolyMAX)
PolyMAX

(LSCF - Least-Squares Complex Frequency-domain).
LSCF,
(common-denominator model),

(iterative maximum likelihood
method).

.
LSCF,
, ,

.
,
.
(.
3.25),
(SVD - singular value decomposition)
(residues) ,
.

,
(
). ,
.
,
, .

(polyreference) LSCF,
PolyMAX.
35

Copyright & A K-C

3.3.1
,
(FDPI - Frequency-domain direct
parameter identification), PolyMAX
.
,

(polyreference LSCE method),


(
).
PolyMAX,
(right matrix-fraction
model):
1

p r
H z r z r ,
r 0
r 0

(3.25)

H Clm

, m
l ;
r Clm
;
r C mm
;
p .
, 3.25
z- ( ,
):
z e jf ,
(3.26)
f - .
3.25
. ,
( ) ,
, .

36

Copyright & A K-C

3.3.1

r ,
(poles) (modal
participation factors)

(companion matrix). ,
LSCE ,


,
.

r , r ,
.
:
n

H
i 1

i liT

j i

l
*
i

H
i

*
i

LR UR,
2

(3.27)

:
n ;
i Cl ; * , T , H
- ,

;
liT C m ,
-
i

i :
i , *i ii j 1 i2i .

(3.28)

,
LSCE

p
,
.
37

Copyright & A K-C

3.28 LR, UR R lm
,
.
i

liT .

i ,
3.27,
.

(LSFD - least-squares frequency-domain) (. 3.2).

LSCE (.
3.1.5).

38

Copyright & A K-C


.
,

,
-
.

,
.

39