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Analog Electronics Circuits Nagamani A N Lecturer, PESIT, Bangalore 85 Email nagamani@pes.


General Amplifiers
Cascade connection - FET & BJT Numerical Cascode connection Darlington connection Packaged Darlington connection Dc bias of Darlington connection AC equivalent ac output impedance of Darlington connection AC voltage gain Feedback concept Feedback connection type Practical feedback circuits Practical feedback circuits Numerical

Cascade connection FET

Cascade connection is a series connection with the output of one stage then applied as input to the second stage. Cascade connection provides a multiplication of the gain of each stage for a larger overall gain. Gain of overall cascade amplifier is the product of stage gains AV1 and AV2 Av = Av1AV2 = (-gmRD1) (-gmRD2) The input impedance of the cascade amplifier is that of stage 1, Zi = RG1 Output impedance is that of stage 2, Z0=RD2 The main function of cascading the stages is the larger overall gain achieved.


Calculate dc bias, voltage gain, input impedance, output impedance,Also calculate the load voltage if a 10K load is connected across the output
Data for numerical C1=C2=C3=0.05uF RG1=RG2=3.3 M RS1=RS2=680 RD1=RD2=2.4 K IDSS=10mA; VP=-4V for both stages Solution Step 1: from the dc bias details we can find out VGSQ= -1.9V, IDQ=2.8mA

Step 2: both transistors have gmo=2 IDSS/ Vp =2(10mA)/4 =5mS At dc bias point, gm=gmo(1-VGS/VP) gm =5m(1-(-1.9)/(-4) = 2.6mS Step 3: the voltage gain of each stage AV1=AV2=-gm RD=-2.6m x 2.4K = -6.2 Step 4: Overall gain of cascaded stage is Av=Av1Av2=-6.2 x -6.2 = 38.4 (output is in phase with input) Step 5: output voltage is Vo=Av Vi =384 mV Cascade amplifier input impedance is Zi=RG= 3.3 M Output impedance (with rd=very high) Zo=RD= 2.4 K Load voltage if load resistance is 10 K VL= [RL/(RL+Zo)] Vo =[10K/(10K+2.4)] 384mV=310mV

Cascade amplifier BJT

RC coupled cascade amplifier is taken here for example Advantage of cascading is increase in the overall voltage gain. Dc bias is obtained by procedure followed for single stage amplifier. Gain of each stage: AV= -(RC RL )/re Amplifier input impedance is that of stage 1: Zi= R1 R2 re Output impedance is that of stage 2 : Zo=Rc ro


Calculate voltage gain, output impedance, input impedance for cascaded BJT amplifier of fig above. Calculate output voltage resulting if 10K ohms load is connected to load. Given, R1=15K; R2=4.7K;Rc=2.2K;RE=1K C1=C2=C3=10uF =200 for both transistors Input voltage vi= 25uV Solution: Dc analysis yields

VB=4.7V;VE=4.0V;VC=11V; IE=4.0mA At bias point, re=VT/IE=26m/4.0m=6.5 Voltage gain of stage 1 is then, AV1= -{RC ( R1 R2 re)}/re = -665.2/6.5=-102.3 AV2= -Rc/re = -2.2K/6.5 =-338.46 Overall gain of AV=AV1AV2 =-102.3 x -338.46 =34,624 Output voltage is : Vo=AV Vi=34624 x 25u =0.866V Amplifier input impedance is Zi= R1 R2 re =4.7K 15 K 200x6.5 =953.6 ohms. VL= {RL/Zo+RL} Vo ={10K/2.2K+10K}0.866 = 0.71 V

Cascode connection A cascode connection has one transistor on top in series with another. Figure below shows CE stage feeding a CB stage. This arrangement is designed to provide a high input impedance with low voltage gain to ensure that the input Miller capacitance is at a minimum with the CB stage providing good high frequency operation.

Cascade connection configuration fig:1

Cascade connection configuration fig:2 Numerical Calculate the voltage gain for the cascode amplifier of fig above.. Solution: Dc analysis: VB1=4.9V ; VB2=10.8V; IC1=Ic2=3.8mA Dynamic resistance of each transistor is then re=26/3.8=6.8 ohms Voltage gain of stage 1 is

Av1= -Rc/re= -re/re = -1 Voltage gain of stage 2 is Av2=Rc/re =1.8K/6.8 = 265 Resulting in an overall cascode amplifier gain of Av=Av1 x Av2 =-1 x 265 =-265 CE stage with a gain of -1 provides the higher input impedance of CE stage. With gain of -1, miller capacitance is kept very small. A large gain is then provided by the CB stage, resulting in large overall gain of -265. Darlington connection Popular connection operates as super beta transistor is Darlington connection.

Main feature of the Darlington connection is that the composite acts as a single unit with a current gains of individual transistors. Darlington connection provides a current gain of o= 1+ 2 If 1= 2= then o= 2 This configuration provides a transistor having a very large current gain, typically a few thousands.

Packaged Darlington transistor Specification information of 2N999 Darlington transistor package

DC bias of Darlington circuits

Vcc VBE IB = RB + D RE I E = ( D + 1) I B D I B Voltages VE = I E RE VB = VE + VBE

Numerical Calculate dc bias voltages and currents for the Darlington connection. Given RB=3.3M;RE=390 ;d=8000;VCC=18V;VBE=1.6V

IB =

Vcc VBE 18 1.6 = = 2.56uA RB + D RE 3.3M + 8000(390)

I E = ( D + 1) I B D I B = 8000(2.56u ) = 20.48mA Voltages VE = I E RE = 20.48m(390) = 8V VB = VE + VBE = 8 + 1.6 = 9.6V VC = 18V

AC equivalent circuit

Equivalent model

Input impedance The ac base current through ri is Ib=Vi-Vo/ri Since Vo=(Ib+DIb)RE Substituting Ib in Vo expression, Ibri=Vi-Vo=Vi-Ib(1+ D)RE solving for Vi, Vi=Ib[ri+(1+ D)RE]=Ib(ri+ DRE) Ac input impedance looking into the transistor base is then Vi/Ib= ri+ DRE Zi=RB ( ri+ DRE)

ac output impedance of Darlington connection This can be determined for ac circuit shown in fig below

Output impedance The output impedance can be determined by applying a voltage Vo and measuring the current Io with Vs setting to zero. Solution for Io yields..

Io =

Vo Vo V V V + + DIB = o + o + D o RE ri RE ri ri

1 1 D Io = R +r + r Vo i E i

Zo =

Vo 1 = I o 1 / RE + 1 / ri + D / ri

Zo= RE ri ri/D

ac voltage gain

Gain expression

Vo = ( I b + D I b ) RE = I b ( RE + D RE ) Vi = Ibri + ( Ib + D I b ) RE
On simplification

Vi = I b (ri + RE + D RE ) Vi Vo = ( RE + D RE ) ri + ( RE + D RE ) Av = Vo RE + DRE = 1 Vi ri + ( RE + DRE )

Numerical For the Darlington pair, given RE=390 ohms and =8000. Calculate gain if ri=5K

Av =

390 + 8000 x390 = 0.998 5 K + [390 + 8000 x390]

Feedback concepts Depending on the relative polarity of fed back signal in to the circuit, there are two types of feedback > Negative feedback > Positive feedback Negative feedback results in Reduced gain Positive feedback are used in oscillators. Feedback amplifier

Negative feedback circuits Reduces the gain Increases input impedance Better stabilized frequency response Lower output impedance Reduced noise

More linear operation Feedback connection types Voltage series feedback Voltage shunt feedback Current series feedback Current shunt feedback Here voltage refers to small part of voltage as input to the feedback network Current refers to tapping some part of output current through feedback network. Series refers to connecting feedback signal in series with the input signal voltage. Shunt refers to connecting feedback signal in shunt with the input signal voltage Series feedback connections increases the input resistance Shunt feedback connections decreases the input resistance.

Voltage series feedback Af=Vo/Vs

Voltage shunt feedback Af=Vo/Is

Current series feedback Af=Io/Vs

Current shunt feedback Af=Io/Is

Gain with feedback Gain without feedback is A Feedback factor Gain with feedback is (1+A ) Parameter Gain with feedback Feedback factor Gain with feedback Voltage series Vo/Vi Voltage shunt Vo/Ii Current series Io/Vi Current shunt Io/Ii










Voltage series feedback With zero feedback then Vf=0 the voltage gain of amplifier stage is A=Vo/Vs=Vo/Vi If feedback of Vf is connected then, Vi=Vs-Vf Vo=AVi=A(Vs-Vf)=AVs-AVf=A(Vs-A(Vo) Then, (1+ A)Vo=AVs Overall gain with feedback is Af=Vo/Vi=A/(1+A ) This shows that gain of feedback has reduced by factor (1+A )

Voltage shunt feedback Af=Vo/Is=A Ii / (Ii+If)=AIi/(Ii+ AIi) Af=A/(1+ A) Input impedance with FB Ref to fig(1) Ii=Vi/Zi=(Vs-Vf) / Zi = (Vs- Vo) / Zi Ii Zi= Vs- AVi Vs=Ii Zi+ A Vi = Ii Zi+ A Ii Zi Zif = Vs/Ii=Zi+(A)Zi=Zi(1+ A) Improved circuit features of feedback Reduction in frequency distortion When A 1, then Af=A/(1+A )1/ Here feedback is completely resistive and thus frequency distortion arising because of varying gain with frequency is considerably reduced. Bandwidth variation When A 1, then Af=A/(1+A )1/ Therefore, here we can see that, practical circuits, open loop gain drops at high frequencies. Therefore A no longer 1, hence Af=1/ No longer holds good. Here reduction in gain has provided improvement in the Bandwidth. Product of gain and Bandwidth remains same its a tradeoff between gain and BW Gain stability for A1,

Af = 1 + A dA f 1 = dA A dA A

This shows that magnitude of relative change in dAf/A is reduced by the factor A compared to that without feedback dA/A Numerical If a amplifier with gain of -1000 and feedback of =-0.1 has a gain change of 20% due to temperature, calculate the change in gain of the feedback amplifier. Solution:

dAf 1 dA 1 = = 20% Af A A 0.1(1000) ........ = 0.2%

Practical feedback circuits Voltage series feedback

Here part of output voltage (Vo) is obtained using a feedback network of resistors R1 and R2. The feedback voltage Vf is connected in series with the source signal Vs. their difference being the input signal Vi. Gain without feedback A=Vo/Vi=-gmRL Where RL=parallel combination of RD,Ro,(R1+R2) The feedback network provides a feedback factor or =Vf/Vo = -R2/R1+R2 Using values of A and in above equation, Af is

Af =

g m RL A = 1 + A 1 + [R2 RL /( R1 + R2 )]g m 1 R + R2 = 1 R2

if .. A >> 1, then Af =

Numerical: Calculate the gain without and with feedback for the FET amplifier shown in fig. circuit values are given to be R1=80K,R2=20K,RD=10K and gm=4000uS Solution : RL=5K A=-20 =-0.2 and Af=-4

Series feedback connection Here gain of op-amp is reduced by factor =R2/R1+R2

Numerical If open loop gain of op-amp is 100,000 and feedback resistors are R1=1.8K and R2=200 then calculate the gain with feedback . Solution =0.1 Af=9.9999 Here A>>1, Af=1/ =1/0.1=10

Emitter follower circuit

The output voltage Vo is also the feedback voltage in series with the input voltage. Operation of the circuit without the feedback Vf=0 then,

A= =

Vo h fe I b RE h fe RE (Vs / hie ) h fe RE = = = Vi Vs Vs Vs Vf Vo =1

The operation with feedback then provides that,

Af =

h fe RE / hie Vo A = = Vs 1 + A 1 + (1)(h fe RE / hie )

h fe RE hie + h fe RE

hfeRE >> 1, Af 1
Current series feedback Feedback technique is to sample the output current (Io) and return a proportional voltage in series with the input. It stabilizes the amplifier gain, the current series feedback connection increases the input resistance. In this circuit, emitter of this stage has an un bypassed emitter, it effectively has current-series feedback. The current through RE results in feedback voltage that opposes the source signal applied so that the output voltage Vo is reduced.

To remove the current-series feedback, the emitter resistor must be either removed or bypassed by a capacitor (as is done in most of the amplifiers)

The fig below shows the equivalent circuit for current series feedback

Gain, input and output impedance for this condition is,

h fe / hie h fe 1 + ( RE ) h +R E ie h fe RE Z if = Z i (1 + A ) hie 1 + h ie Af = Io A = = Vs 1 + A h fe RE Z of = Z o (1 + A ) Rc 1 + h ie with feedback .. A;

h fe RC Vo I o Rc I o Avf = = = Rc = A f RC Vs Vs hie + h fe RE Vs

Numerical Calculate the voltage gain of the circuit..

With RB=470,RC=2.2K,RE=510 , hfe=120,hie=900.


Io hfe 120 = = = 0.085 Vi hie + RE 900 + 510 Vf = = RE = 510 Io A=

The factor (1+A) is then, 1+(-0.085)(-510) =44.35 The gain with feedback is Af=Vo/vi=A/(1+A ) =-.085/44.35 = -1.92x10e-3 Voltage gain with feedback is Avf=Vo/Vs=AfRC=(-1.92x10e-3)(2.2x10e3)=4.2 Without feedback (RE=0) the voltage gain is

Av=-RC/re=-2.2x10e3/7.5= -293.3 Voltage shunt feedback Constant gain op-amp circuit provides voltage shunt feedback. Ref to fig below. The input impedance of a ideal op-amp is taken to be infinite. Hence Ii=0,vi=0 and voltage gain is infinity. Ie., A=Vo/Ii=infinity And =If/Vo= -1/Ro This is transfer resistance gain.

Voltage shunt negative feedback amplifier 1.Constant gain circuit 2.Equivalent circuit

Voltage gain with feedback ,

Avf =

Vo Is 1 R0 = ( Ro) = Is V 1 R1 R1

Voltage shunt feedback using FET

Equivalent circuit

With no feedback A=Vo/Ii=-gmRDRS The feedback factor is =If/Vo= -1/RF

With feedback, gain of the circuit is,

Af =

Vo g m RD RS A = = I s 1 + A 1 + (1 / RF )( g m RD RS ) Vo I s g m RD RS RF = I s Vs RF + g m RD RS 1 R S

voltage gain withfeedback ..is, g m RD RF RF = = ( g m RD ) RF + g m RD RS RF + g m RD RS Avf =

Numerical Calculate voltage gain with and without feedback for the circuit of FET f/b. With the values, gm=5mS, RD=5.1K, Rs=1K, RF=20K Solution : Use above formulae Av=-gmRD=-25.5 Feedback gain Avf=-11.2