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AlanAlanAlanAlan WARDWARDWARDWARD

THETHETHETHE GRAMMATICALGRAMMATICALGRAMMATICALGRAMMATICAL STRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURE OFOFOFOF MUNSTERMUNSTERMUNSTERMUNSTER IRISHIRISHIRISHIRISH

UniversityUniversityUniversityUniversity ofofofof DublinDublinDublinDublin Ph.D.Ph.D.Ph.D.Ph.D. thesis,thesis,thesis,thesis, 1974197419741974

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements Preface Sources and references

I. PHONOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND TRANSCRIPTION

II. WORD LEVEL Morphological sandhi rules The noun The adjective The article and other nominal particles The numerals Pronouns Prepositions Adverbs The verb Verbal particles The copula Interrogative and allied particles Linking particles and subordinators Exclamations

III. PHRASE LEVEL The noun phrase The adverb phrase The converb

IV.SENTENCE LEVEL The verbal sentence The copula sentence Minor sentence types Juncture in the compound sentence Deletion in the compound sentence

Index

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This thesis for the degree of Ph.D. at Dublin University is based on research carried out under the auspices of the School of Celtic Studies in the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies from October 1972 to April 1974. My thanks are due to the Board of the School for the award of a scholarship during this period enabling me to undertake this research.

For my sources, I am indebted in the first place to my predecessors in the field, S.Ó Duilearga, N.M.Holmer and H.Wagner, on whose published collections I have drawn. In the second place, and more directly, I am immensely indebted to my informants in the Munster Gaeltachts, in particular to Seán Tóibín of Ring, Pádraig Ó Drisceoil of Cape Clear, Neil Bean Uí Ríordáin from Cúil Aodha and Dónall Ó Gairbhia of Dún Chaoin. But for their unfaltering patience, courtesy and kindness, this thesis could never have got off the ground.

Mr E.G.Quin of Dublin University supervised my work and his gentle encouragement and discrete but penetrating criticisms have been an aid that only one who saw the work in its earlier stages can fully appreciate. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú of Dublin University read the work at an early stage and offered constructive suggestions. Professors David Greene and Breandán Ó Buachalla of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies read each successive draft and contributed much positive advice and many valuable suggestions based on their intimate knowledge of the field. To them and to all those colleagues who have contributed an idea here and a stimulus there, I express my deepest gratitude. If the resulting work is a positive contribution to the field, their part in this must not be underestimated - for its shortcomings I alone must bear the responsibility.

PREFACE

General

By Munster Irish is meant that dialect or group of subdialects of Irish spoken in the twentieth century of our era in the counties of Waterford, Cork, Kerry and Clare, with pockets in Tipperary and Kilkenny. In terms of extant publications, objective rather than prescriptive synchronic information on Munster Irish may be said to begin with M.L.Sjoestedt-Jonval's

Description d'un parler irlandais de Kerry (1938). Despite the fact that this work is

frequently short on information and consistently shorter on analysis, nothing as comprehensive has been undertaken since on any Munster subdialect. Since 1938 the situation may be summed up as follows:

(i) Raw material in the form of texts and various items in narrow transcription has

been published by H.Wagner in Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects I (1955)

and II (1964) and by B.Ó Buachallla in Phonetic texts from Oileán Cléire in LOCHLANN II (1962). N.M.Holmer gives texts in phonemicised transcription in The dialects of Co.Clare I (1962) and II (1965). Folk texts have continued to appeer in the journal BÉALOIDEAS in variations of standard orthography which reflect the phonological and grammatical structures of the original speech event with widely differing degrees of fidelity. (ii) Two detailed phonetic studies of Munster subdialects have appeared: B.Ó Cuív's

The Irish of West Muskerry, Co.Cork (1944) and R.B.Breatnach's The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford (1947).

(iii) Two collections of Iexical material have appeared: B.Ó Cuív's Cnósach focal ó

Bhaile Bhúirne (1947) and R.B.Breatnach's Seanachaint na nDéise II (1961).

(iv) Two articles dealing with important albeit limited morphological points have

appeared: R.B.Breatnach's Initial mutation of substantives after preposition + singular article in Déise Irish in ÉIGSE IX (1961) and B.Ó Buachalla's Compráid na

hAidiachta i nGaeilge Chléire also in ÉIGSE IX (1961). N.M.Holmer (op.cit.) gives information of morphological content about the subdialects of Co.Clare but makes no meaningful analysis of it. This present work is intended as a contribution to a comprehensive description of Munster Irish. As such, it attacks that area which has been so far most manifestly neglected - grammatical structure.

The material

Taking warning from the discomfiture of N.M.Holmer (op.cit.) who was obliged by his terms of reference to work with a series of minuscule corpuses collected from a large number of speakers and who was therefore unable to make many meaningful statements about any one corpus, I have restricted my material to corpuses taken from seven different points. The seven points chosen may be safely taken as typical varieties of Munster Irish as spoken in the twentieth century. They are:

Ring, Co.Waterford Cape Clear, Co.Cork Cúil Aodha, Co.Cork Baile an Sceilg, Co.Kerry Dún Chaoin, Co.Kerry Cill Bheathach, Co.Clare Dubhlinn, Co.Clare Field work was carried out personally at Ring, Cape Clear, Cúil Aodha and Dún Chaoin and the corpus of material examined for each of these points consists of two to three hours of taped conversation and my field notes. The sources of the corpuses examined for the remaining points are given in the list of sources below. As the corpuses available for Baile an Sceilg and Dubhlinn were folk tales and the tellers

were born in the 1850s, these points not unnaturally show up as archaising in this study. A further corpus, that given for Baile Mhic Códa, Co.Cork by H.Wagner (op.cit.), was to have been included but it was later decided that it was too restricted in size and nature (consisting as it does almost exclusively of answers to Wagner's questionnaire) and it was therefore dropped.

Linguistic theory

The grammatical structures of a language may be handled on three related but discrete levels: those of decoding, description and encoding. On the decoding level, a corpus of speech events is analysed to discover the principles governing the grammatical structures it contains. The results of this analysis are presented on the descriptive level. On the encoding level, series of ordered rules are set up in such a way as to generate grammatically correct speech events as these are presented on the descriptive level. It is clear that the three handling levels, although separate, are dependent on each other in the sense that there can be no encoding until there is adequate description and there can be no description until there is adequate decoding. No encoding as such is attempted in this work although "transformationalist" techniques are used wherever they seem to be the clearest way of handling a given structure. The reason for remaining on the descriptive level is that the corpus of speech events analyzed, although large and broadly representative of speech events in Munster Irish, is not large or representative enough to justify setting up a complete generative grammar for the dialect. Certain aspects - the morphology, for instance - could be adequately covered, but so little has yet been published on syntactic structures in modern Irish that it is prudent to abstain from setting up generative rules in this area until such time as there is a possibility that they may be reasonably complete. Much criticism, discussion and corporative research must first take place. The principles of decoding and consequently of description here adopted are similar but not identical to those set out by K.L.Pike in Language in relation to a unified

theory of the structure of human behavior, 2nd revised edition (1967). Essentially,

grammatical structures within a speech event are seen as existing on a series of levels, going from the smallest grammatical unit to the largest structure. The levels are interrelated and each unit has a structured position and a structural function on each level. A concrete example will illustrate this better than much abstract discussion:

In the sentence tátátátá anananan bhóbhóbhóbhó mhórmhórmhórmhór titithetitithetitithetitithe leisleisleisleis anananan bhfaillbhfaillbhfabhfaillill the big cow has fallen down the cliff, the word bóLbóLbóLbóL is seen to function as follows:

(i) at WORD LEVEL it is a noun, the unmarked member of the opposition bóL:babóL:babóL:babóL:ba and consequently singular. It is also non-genitive and non-prepositional, although these facts would emerge only from an examination of similar structures involving nouns which exhibit a contrast non-genitive: genitive and a contrast non- prepositional:prepositional. (ii) at PHRASE LEVEL it is the nucleus of a noun phrase anananan bhóbhóbhóbhó mhórmhórmhórmhór containing definite article and attributive adjective. The fact that bóLbóLbóLbóL belongs to the marked series non-masculine (=feminine) causes the article to take the leniting form anLanLanLanL and the attributive adjective to be lenited mhórmhórmhórmhór as opposed to unlenited mórmór.mórmór (iii) at SENTENCE LEVEL, as part of the noun phrase anananan bhóbhóbhóbhó mhórmhór,mhórmhór it is the subject of the verbal sentence (resultative in aspect) and consequently follows directly on the finite verbal form tátá.tátá This method of analysis has been brought to bear on the material examined and the results are here presented descriptively. When handling is seen to be not entirely consistent with theory - there is, for instance, no account of the verb or copula at phrase level and the fusion of finite verb and pronominal subject is handled at word and not at sentence level - this is due to the nature of the material handled. Each language has its own presentational requirements and these must be respected.

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

The following sources and abbreviated references to them have been used:

(1) Subdialect of Ring, Co.Waterford. Collected in 1973 by myself. Principal

informant: Seán Tóibín, aged 73.

(11) Subdialect of Cape Clear, Co.Cork. Collected in 1973 by myself. Principal informant: Pádraig Ó Drisceoil, aged 84.

(15) Subdialect of Cúil Aodha, Co.Cork. Collected in 1973 by myself. Principal informant: Neil Bean Uí Ríordáin ("Neil Tam"), aged 79.

(18) Subdialect of Baile an Sceilg, Co.Kerry. Information from

(c)

S.Ó Duilearga Leabhar Sheáin Í Chonaill (1948),

(s)

BÉALOIDEAS 29

(w)

H.Wagner Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects I (1958) and II

pp 184-216 (1964) Cited as (18c), (18s), (18w) in cases of discrepancy.

(20) Subdialect of Dún Chaoin, Co.Kerry. Collected in 1973 and 1974 by myself. Principal informants:

(d)

Dónall Ó Gairbhia ("Dan Garvey"), aged 69

(l)

Liza Bean Uí Mhistéala ("Lisa Sheosaimh"), aged 65 (?)

(p)

Pádraig Mac Gearailt ("Patsy Ghearaltaigh"), aged 27

Cited as (20d), (20l), (20p) in cases of discrepancy.

(22) Subdialect of Cill Bheathach, Co.Clare. Information from

(i)

N.M.Holmer The dialects of Co.Clare II (1965) pp 10-13, 52-57

(ii)

H.Wagner Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects I (1958) and II

pp 244-275 (1964) The same informant was used by both investigators.

(23) Subdialect of Dubhlinn, Co.Clare. Information from

(s) BÉALOIDEAS 12 pp 139-164, 14 pp 113-129, 25 pp 21-49

The same story teller is recorded in each case.

(w) H.Wagner Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects I (1958) and II

pp 275-284 (1964) Cited as (23s) and (23w) in cases of discrepancy.

When a form is cited with bracketed number or numbers attached - e.g. (11), (15, 22), (1-20) - it is to be understood that it occurs in the points thus cited or included within brackets. When no such number or numbers are attached (i) if the citation is a phrase or sentence, I have generated it from a number of structurally identical but not neatly citable examples in the material. It is to be understood as a valid example for all points.

(ii) if the citation is a single word, it is to be understood as occurring at all points.

The verbal paradigms given in sections 120-132, however, are to be interpreted as in (i) above. References in sections 2-7 to Ó Cuív (1944) and Breatnach (1947) are to the already

cited phonetic studies The Irish of West Muskerry, Co.Cork (1944) and The Irish of

Ring, Co. Waterford (1947) respectively.

I.I.I.I. PHONOLOGICALPHONOLOGICALPHONOLOGICALPHONOLOGICAL STRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURE ANDANDANDAND TRANSCRIPTIONTRANSCRIPTIONTRANSCRIPTIONTRANSCRIPTION

1. The inventory of phonological contrasts round in Munster Irish is as follows:

VOCALIC ELEMENTS

long diphthongal Ring (1) also has /ai/ and /au/

short

/æ/ /œ/ /y/ /ə/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /əi/ /əu/ /iə/ /uə/

CONSONANTAL ELEMENTS /k/

/g/

/t/

/d/

/p/

/b/

/x/

/γ/

/f/

/v/

/h/

/s/

/ŋ/

/n/

/nn/

/m/

/l/

/ll/

/r/

/rr/

PROSODIC ELEMENT system (non-

a Y-system (palatal, marked /´/) in contrast with an A-

palatal, unmarked).

Consonantal elements belong either to the Y-system or to the A-system. Presence of Y-system will be marked by placing /´/ after the consonantal element. Vocalic elements belong either to the Y-system, to the A-system or to mixed systems (AY or YA). The system to which a vocalic element belongs depends on the system(s) present in the flanking consonantal element(s).

NOTE: A marginally contrastive consonantal element /z/ occurs in loanwords - but see also section 15 below.

2. "Emics and etics"

Of the symbols here used to describe the phonological inventory of Munster Irish, the following may be read off as broad phonetic transcrlption:

/ə/ /əi/ /əu/ /i / /u/ /ai/ /au/ /k/ /g/ /t/ /d/ /p/ /b/ /f/ /v/ /h/ /n/ /m/ /l/

´/ For a detailed phonetic description see Ó Cuív (1944) and Breatnach (1947). The remaining symbols should be interpreted as set out in sections 3-7below. References to the corresponding sections of Ó Cuív (1944) and Breatnach (1947) are given in parenthesis.

/r/ /

3. SHORT VOCALIC ELEMENTS

/æ/ is a~a (Ó Cuív 66-70, Breatnach 43-51) /œ/ is o in A-systems and usually in AY- and YA-systems but e in Y-systems and occasionally in AY- and YA-systems (Ó Cuív 64-65, 73-74, Breatnach 38-42, 56-59) /y/ is u in A-systems, usually in YA- and rarely in AY-systems but i in Y-systems, usually in AY- and occasionally in YA-systems (Ó Cuív 59-61, 77, Breatnach 25-37,

65-69)

In position before word-final or pre-consonantal /ŋ/ /nn/ /m/ /ll/ or before the groups /ls/ /ld/ /nasal + plosive, l, h or s/ /æ/ is au in A- and YA-systems but ai in AY-systems (Ó Cuív 97, 99, Breatnach 105,

109)

/œ/ is əu in A-systems but əi in AY- and Y-systems (Ó Cuív 94-95, 101, Breatnach

114-115, 121) /y/ is u: in A- and YA-systems and i: in AY- and Y-systems in all subdialects, except that Ring (1) has au resp. ai before nasals Ring (1) and Co, Clare (22-23) have əi in AY- and Y-systems before /l/ /ll/ (Ó Cuív 57-58, 78-79, Breatnach 106-107, 110-112, 114-115)

In position before word-final or pre-consonantal /rr/ or before the groups /rd/ /rn/ /rl/ /æ/ is a:~a: (Ó Cuív 68, 71, Breatnach 53) /œ/ is o: in A- and AY-systems and e: in Y-systems (Ó Cuív 62, 75-76, Breatnach 34, 61, 63) /y/ is u: in A- and AY-systems except for the word aoirde /yrd´ə/ where it is i: (Ó Cuív 58, 78, Breatnach 22, 71)

4. The LONG VOCALIC ELEMENTS represent a: e: i: o: u: respectively except that /e/ in

a YA-system is ia~e: (Ó Cuív 57, 62-63, 68, 71-72, 75-76, 78-79, 87-89, Breatnach 20-24, 33-57, 52-55, 60-64, 70-74, 93-98)

5. CONSONANTAL ELEMENTS

/x/ is ç (Ó Cuív 147, Breatnach 197-199) /g´/ is j (Ó Cuív 145, Breatnach 187-190) /nn/ /nn´/ are n resp. n´ except in (1) and (15) where they are n resp. ŋ´ (Ó Cuív 154, 156, 159, Breatnach 226-230) /ll/ /ll´/ are l resp. l´ (Ó Cuív 162-164, Breatnach 239-255) /rr/ is r (Ó Cuív 173, Breatnach 263-266) /s´/ is š (Ó Cuív 142, Breatnach 177-180)

6. In the following consonantal clusters only the last consonantal element behaves

phonetically as if it were in a Y-system:

WORD-INITIAL /sp´/ /sm´/ and in (20) only /gr´/ /gl´/ /gn´/; optionally /str´/ and optionally in (20) only /sk´/ WORD-MEDIAL AND -FINAL /xt´/ /r + dental or lateral + ´/

7. Stress or absence of stress in a syllable is not a matter of phonological contrast,

being determined by the nature of the vocalic elements present in a word. Discounting /ə/ which may never be stressed, stress occurs on the last vocalic element in a word, with the following exceptions:

(i) Unless in pause and followed by an emphatic pronominal suffix, a finite verbal morph containing a long vowel is not stressed. (ii) The nominal plural morph /i/ is unstressed if the preceding syllable contains a long vowel. (iii) Minor exceptions best treated taxonomically. See Ó Cuív 231-258 and Breatnach 359-411.

8. In the body of this work a slightly modified form of the standard orthography of

Modern Irish will be used, reserving "emics" for morphological structures and "etics" tor specific problem words. The correspondences between the modified form of standard orthography here adopted and the phonological inventory are as follows:

9. VOCALIC ELEMENTS IN COMBINATION WITH THE PROSODIC ELEMENT

 

A-system

AY-system

YA-system

Y-system

/æ/

a

ai

ea

eai

/œ/

o

oi

eò, e

ei

/y/

u

ui

io

i

/ə/

a

ai

ea, e

i

/a/

á

ái

eái

/e/

ao

aoi

éa

éi

/i/

aío

ío

í

/o/

ó

ói

eo

eoi

/u/

ú

úi

iúi

/iə/

ia

iai

/uə/

ua

uai

/əi/ is written with three elements:

(i)

a, ai, ea, ei

(ii)

dh~gh;bh, mh (after ai, ei only)

(iii)

a, ai, ea, e, i or consonant

/əu/ is likewise written with three elements:

(i)

a, ea, o

(ii)

bh, mh;gh (after o only)

(iii)

a, ai or consonant

The diphthongal elements /ai/ /au/ peculiar to (1) will be noted specially whenever they occur.

Written ó/ói/eo/eoi in contact with a nasal, including written mh, represents /u/ in (1, 20-23) Standard orthography has no unambiguous sign for /ə/. The orthographic rule here adopted is:

(i) a, ai, e, ea, i represent /ə/ in non-initial syllables. (ii) when the short vocalic elements /æ/ /œ/ /y/ occur in non-initial syllables they are marked with a grave accent e.g. agùm coileàch aigè. In such cases the short vowel in the initial syllable represents /ə/. (iii) all other occurrences of /ə/ will be noted specially.

10. CONSONANTAL ELEMENTS

Written svmbols c g t d p b

Consonantal elements /k/ /g/ /t/ /d/ /p/ /b/

ch

/x/ - but /h/ in non-initial Y-system

gh, dh

(i) word-initial /γ/

(ii)

word-medial see /əi/ /əu/

(iii)

word-final /0/ ln A- and /g´/ in Y-systems

f

/f/

bh, mh

(i) word-initial and -final /v/

(ii)

word-medial /v/ but see /əi/ /əu/

s

/s/

th

/h/

n

/n/ - but /ŋ/ before /k/ /g/

ng

/ŋ/

nn

/nn/

m

/m/

l

/l/

ll

/ll/

r

/r/

rr

/rr/

gc dt bp

/g/ /d/ /b/ in morphological alternation with /k/ /t/ /p/

(ng) nd mb ph fh sh

/ŋ/ /n/ /m/ in morphological alternation with /g/ /d/ /b/ /f/ /0/ /h/ in morphological alternation with /p/ /f/ /s/

bhf

/v/ in morphological alternation with /f/

h

/h/ in morphological alternation with /0/

ts

/t/ in morphological alternation with /s/

h j mb nd ts

/h/ /dž/ /mb/ /nd/ /tš/ (in loanwords)

11. When /ə/ is historically a svarabhakti vowel it is not reflected in standard orthography and this usage has been followed here. For its occurrence see Ó Cuív (1944) 318 ff. and Breatnach (1947) 469 ff.

II.II.II.II. WORDWORDWORDWORD LEVELLEVELLEVELLEVEL

MORPHOLOGICAL SANDHI RULES

12. Two sets or sandhi rules must be distinguished for any inflecting language. The

first, possessed by all languages, are phonetic sandhi rules by which a given phonological structure is realized in a given phonetic form in a given context. The second, which occur only in inflecting languages, are morphological sandhi rules which govern the production of morphologically marked forms from the corresponding unmarked forms. In Munster Irish, as in all forms of Gaelic from Old Irish onwards, two forms or morphological sandhi must be distinguished. The first is external sandhi and the second is internal sandhi. The first deals with the morphologically motivated variation of the word-initial element in response to a preceding word or particle contained in the same phrase. This is "initial mutation". The second deals with the effect on the structure of a word provoked by the suffixing of morphs.

13. Three forms of INITIAL MUTATION are to be distinguished. They are lenition,

nasalization and what I shall call spiration.

14. LENlTION affects all plosives and /m/ /f/; /s/ is also affected when not in the

clusters /sk/ /st/ /sp/ /sm/ (but note that in Dún Chaoin, point 20, /sm/ may also be affected).

BASE ELEMENT

LENITED FORM

EXAMPLES

/k/

/x/

aaaa chapallchapallchapallchapall his horse

/g/

/γ/

anananan ghrianghrianghrianghrian the sun

/t/

/h/

aaaa thighthighthighthigh his house

/d/

/γ/

aaaa DhónaillDhónaillDhónaillDhónaill Donald!

/p/

/f/

aaaa phócaphócaphócaphóca his pocket

/b/

/v/

aaaa bhrógabhrógabhrógabhróga his shoes

/f/

/0/

(15) aaaa fhearaibhfhearaibhfhearaibhfhearaibh men!

/m/

/v/

aaaa mháthairmháthairmháthairmháthair his mother

/s/

/h/

aaaa shúileshúileshúileshúile his eyes

(20) shmaoiníosshmaoiníosshmaoiníosshmaoiníos I thought Lenition of /t/ and /d/ is checked after the article anLanLanLanL and after aonLaonL.aonLaonL Lenition of /p/ and /b/ is checked after the possessive pronoun mLmLmLmL my (but not apparently in points 1, 22, 23). The lenited torm of /s/ is /t/ atter the article anLanLananLL and after aonLaonL.aonLaonL The lenited torm of /m/ is /b/ after the possessive pronoun mLmLmLmL my in points 11-20.

15. NASALIZATION affects all plosives and /f/ and zero-onset; /s/ followed by a

vocalic element is affected in certain idiolects in (11).

BASE ELEMENT

NASALISED FORM

EXAMPLES

/k/

/g/

aaaa gcearcagcearcagcearcagcearca their hens

/g/

/ŋ/

aaaa ngabharngabharngabharngabhar their goat

/t/

/d/

aaaa dtighdtighdtighdtigh their house

/d/

/n/

aaaa ndorasndorasndorasndoras their door

/p/

/b/

asasasas anananan bpócabpócabpócabpóca out of the pockeT

/b/

/m/

arararar anananan mbótharmbótharmbótharmbóthar on the road

/f/

/v/

(20) leisleisleisleis anananan bhfaillbhfaillbhfaillbhfaill down the cliff

/s/ (11)

/z/

(11m) árárárár saolsaolsaolsaol /ar zel/ our life

/0/

Nasalization of /t/ and /d/ is checked after the article anNanNanNanN obligatorily in Ring (1) and optionally in Co.Clare (22-23). Note that nasalization of zero-onset is not written after the article anNanNanNanN although it is

present.

/n/

árárárár n-asaln-asaln-asaln-asal our donkey

16.

SPIRATION affects zero-onset only.

BASE ELEMENT

ASPIRATED FORM

EXAMPLES

/0/

/h/

nananana hamadáinhamadáinhamadáinhamadáin the idiots nánánáná hoscailhoscailhoscailhoscail éééé don't open it

The spirated torm is /t/ after the article anHanH.anHanH

17. The following word categories are affected by initial mutation:

1. Nouns (including compounded nouns)

2. Adjectives

3. Verbs

18. In this work reference will be made whenever necessary to initial mutation rules

simply by suffixing the following abbreviations to the particles, morphs or structures provoking mutation.

MUTATION TYPE

SIGN

EXAMPLES

lenition

L

aLaLaLaL his in aaaa chapallchapallchapallchapall his horse

big men

/Y/L plural morph in firfirfirfir mhóramhóramhóramhóra

nasalization

N

árNárNárNárN our in árárárár bpocbpocbpocbpoc beagbeagbeagbeag our little

he-goat

spiration

H

aHaHaHaH her in aaaa hathairhathairhathairhathair her father /u/H ordinal morph in anananan tríútríútríútríú

huairhuairhuairhuair the third time

19. The RULES FOR SUFFIXING MORPHS set down here cover only morphological

sandhi occurring when base-rule morphs are suffixed. Morphological sandhi occurring in connexion with secondary rules will be dealt with on an ad hoc basis when describing those rules.

20. /CLOSURE/ - by which is meant zero-suffix to a verbal stem - affects only vocalic

elements or /ə/ plus /n/, /r/, /l/.

Examples:

suí-suí-suí-suí- suighsuighsuighsuigh sit! oscal-oscal-oscal-oscal- oscailoscailoscailoscail open! but cuir-cuir-cuir-cuir- cuircuircuircuir put! dún-dún-dún-dún- dúndúndúndún shut!

21. /CLOSURE/ is realized as /g´/ following a vocalic element.

Example:

BUT it is realised as /0/ in bí-bí-bí-bí- bíbíbíbí be! and as /v/ in the following:

bailí-bailí-bailí-bailí- bailibhbailibhbailibhbailibh (18, 20) collect! (11) kill! beirí-beirí-beirí-beirí- beiribh-beiribh-beiribh-beiribh- (11-20) boil! machnaí-machnaí-machnaí-machnaí- machnaimhmachnaimhmachnaimhmachnaimh (11) think! maí-maí-maí-maí- maímhmaímhmaímhmaímh (18) boast!

lé-lé-lé-lé- léighléighléighléigh read!

maraí-maraí-maraí-maraí- maraibhmaraibhmaraibhmaraibh (15-20) mairibhmairibhmairibhmairibh

scrí-scrí-scrí-scrí- scríbhscríbhscríbhscríbh (15, 22-23) write! sná-sná-sná-sná- snáimhsnáimhsnáimhsnáimh (15) swim! sní-sní-sní-sní- snímhsnímhsnímhsnímh (11,15, 23) spin!

22. Before /CLOSURE/, /i/ is reduced to /y/ in monosyllables and /ə/ in

polysyllables:

Examples:

suí-suí-suí-suí- suighsuighsuighsuigh sit! ceannaí-ceannaí-ceannaí-ceannaí- ceannaighceannaighceannaighceannaigh buy!

BUT it is unaffected in bí-bí-bí-bí- be maí-maí-maí-maí- boast scrí-scrí-scrí-scrí- (11-23) write and sní-sní-sní-sní- (11-23) spin. In

the last two cases Ring (1) has scrighscrighscrighscrigh snighsnigh.snighsnigh

23. /CLOSURE/ is realized as /Y/ after /ə/ + /n/, /l/, /r/.

Example:

ceangal-ceangal-ceangal-ceangal- ceangailceangailceangailceangail tie!

24. /Y/ - by which is meant transforming the last prosodic system of a word to a Y-

system - affects only consonantal elements in A-systems.

Examples:

firfirfirfir puillpuillpuillpuill genitive singular forms of fearfearfearfear man and pollpollpollpoll hole but máistirmáistirmáistirmáistir pócapócapócapóca fiafiafiafia gen. singular forms of máistirmáistirmáistirmáistir master pócapócapócapóca pocket

fiafiafiafia deer

BUT it is realized as /g´/ after vocalic elements in the following:

(i) The marked form is genitive singular (masculine nouns):

AthAthAthAth RuadhRuadhRuadhRuadh ÁthÁthÁthÁth RuaidhRuaidhRuaidhRuaidh (20) field name madamadamadamada ruadhruadhruadhruadh madamadamadamada ruaidhruaidhruaidhruaidh (11-20) fox

barrabarrabarrabarra barraigbarraigbarraigbarraig (11, 18, 20) top market botabotabotabota botaigbotaigbotaigbotaig (11) cart brosnadhbrosnadhbrosnadhbrosnadh brosnaidhbrosnaidhbrosnaidhbrosnaidh (11-15) brushwood summer ceoceoceoceo ceoigceoigceoigceoig (11-20) mist cogadhcogadhcogadhcogadh cogaidhcogaidhcogaidhcogaidh (11, 18) war deireadhdeireadhdeireadhdeireadh deiridhdeiridhdeiridhdeiridh (11-20) end geatageatageatageata geataiggeataiggeataiggeataig (11-20) gate

margadhmargadhmargadhmargadh margaidhmargaidhmargaidhmargaidh (15) bargain,

pápápápá páigpáigpáigpáig (11-20) pay samhradhsamhradhsamhradhsamhradh samhraidhsamhraidhsamhrasamhraidhidh (11-20)

seoseoseoseo seoigseoigseoigseoig (20) humour, fun siopasiopasiopasiopa siopaigsiopaigsiopaigsiopaig (11) shop slabhradhslabhradhslabhradhslabhradh slabhraidhslabhraidhslabhraidhslabhraidh (15) chain sluaghsluaghsluaghsluagh sluaighsluaighsluaighsluaigh (15) crowd

geimhreadhgeimhreadhgeimhreadhgeimhreadh geimhridhgeimhridhgeimhridhgeimhridh (11-20) winter grease lochtalochtalochtalochta lochtaiglochtaiglochtaiglochtaig (20) loft snow machamachamachamacha machaigmachaigmachaigmachaig (11-18) milking place

(ii) The marked form is prepositional singular (feminine nouns):

beathabeathabeathabeatha beathaidhbeathaidhbeathaidhbeathaidh (11-20) life leabaleabaleabaleaba leabaidhleabaidhleabaidhleabaidh (20) bed

smearadhsmearadhsmearadhsmearadh smearaidhsmearaidhsmearaismearaidhdh (15-20)

sneachtasneachtasneachtasneachta sneachtaigsneachtaigsneachtaigsneachtaig (11-20)

troscadhtroscadhtroscadhtroscadh troscaidhtroscaidhtroscaitroscaidhdh (15) fast

tuaghtuaghtuaghtuagh tuaightuaightuaightuaigh (15-20) axe

25. When an A-system consonantal element becomes a Y-system element after /Y/ has been suffixed, the vocalic element preceding it also changes system. An original A-system becomes an AY-system and an original YA-system becomes a Y-system. This gives rise to the following vowel shifts:

(i) When an A-system becomes an AY-system /æ/ is raised to /y/ in the following

items only: ballballballball bancbancbancbanc bratbratbratbrat catcatcatcat (1,22-23) clannclannclannclann cranncranncranncrann (1-20) dalldalldalldall gasgasgasgas (20) glasglasglasglas glanglanglanglan laglaglaglag macmacmacmac mallmallmallmall rámhannrámhannrámhannrámhann /rænn/ (20) spratspratspratsprat sreangsreangsreangsreang tarbhtarbhtarbhtarbh (1, 22-23).

Example:

/œ/ is raised to /y/ EXCEPT in coscoscoscos clochclochclochcloch dorasdorasdorasdoras (11-15) dorndorndorndorn (11-15) obairobair.obairobair

Example:

/e/ is raised to /i/ EXCEPT in aeraeraeraer braonbraonbraonbraon faobharfaobharfaobharfaobhar /fer/ (11-15) saolsaolsaolsaol saorsaorsaorsaor ("mason" 1, 15, 20)

Example:

(ii) When a YA-system becomes a Y-system, /æ/ is raised to /y/ as in fearfearfearfear man firfirfirfir

men. BUT it is raised to /œ/ in beachbeachbeachbeach breabbreabbreabbreab ceardceardceardceard cleathcleathcleathcleath deasdeasdeasdeas (1, 23) fearsadfearsadfearsadfearsad leathanleathanleathanleathan meadarmeadarmeadarmeadar neadneadneadnead (11-20) sceachsceachsceachsceach (15-23) spealspealspealspeal AND is unchanged in neadneadneadnead (1) sceachsceachsceachsceach (1, 11) /iə/ is fronted to /e/ as in iasciasciasciasc gen.sing. éiscéiscéiscéisc fish BUT it becomes /œ/ (15-23))and /y/ (1, 11) in scianscianscianscian AND is unchanged in diabhaldiabhaldiabhaldiabhal /d´iəl/ fiachfiach.fiachfiach

glasglasglasglas lock gluisgluisgluisgluis locks

pollpollpollpoll hole puillpuillpuillpuill holes

naomhnaomhnaomhnaomh saint naoimhnaoimhnaoimhnaoimh /niv´/ saints

26. Word-final /x/ combines with /Y/ to give /h´/ in monosyllables and /g´/ in polysyllables. This /g´/ becomes /g´/ when word-final but combines with a following /ə/ to give /i/.

Examples:

clochclochclochcloch /x/ prep.sing. cloichcloichcloichcloich /h´/ gen.sing. cloichecloichecloichecloiche /h´/

stone

baintreachbaintreachbaintreachbaintreach /x/ prep.sing. baintrighbaintrighbaintrighbaintrigh /g´/ gen.sing.

baintrighe>baintríbaintrighe>baintríbaintrighe>baintríbaintrighe>baintrí widow

27. A short vowel immediately before or after a long vowel is deleted. A short vowel following a short vowel is deleted unless the first short vowel is stressed, in which case /h/ is inserted between them.

/skr´im´/ I write

(gen.sing.)

(ii)

(iii)

oícheoícheoícheoíche + morph /Yə/ gives oícheoícheoícheoíche night

sleasleasleaslea + morph /ənə/ gives sleathannasleathannasleathannasleathanna spears.

28. /h/ is deleted after plosives, /s/ and /x/; a preceding voiced plosive is devoiced.

Examples:

tógfaidhtógfaidhtógfaidhtógfaidh /tokəg´/ will take NOTE The future-base morph is written f even when structurally it is /h/. See section

129 below.

cloisfimídcloisfimídcloisfimídcloisfimíd /klœs´əm´id´/ we shall hear

29. /h/ is deleted before a suffix with consonantal onset.

Example:

caith-caith-caith-caith- /kæh/ with morph /t´ə/ gives caitecaitecaitecaite thrown.

30. A vocalic element is reduced to /ə/ immediately before the plural morph /h´ə/.

Examples:

ceardaíceardaíceardaíceardaí ceardaitheceardaitheceardaitheceardaithe tradesmen fínnéfínnéfínnéfínné fínnithefínnithefínnithefínnithe (20) witnesses giorriagiorriagiorriagiorria giorraithegiorraithegiorraithegiorraithe hares

31. The /t/ in verbal morphs /ta/ /ti/ /t´i/ /tər/ has the following allomorphs:

In (11-18) optionally /h/ after /r/ /r´/ and /əh/ after plosives.

Examples:

In (18) optionally /əh/ after /rr/ /ll/ /ll´/.

Examples:

In (22-23) optionally /t/ after a Y-system consonantal element. Example: cuirtar~cuirtearcuirtar~cuirtearcuirtar~cuirtearcuirtar~cuirtear

cuirtar~cuirtharcuirtar~cuirtharcuirtar~cuirtharcuirtar~cuirthar tugtar~tugathartugtar~tugathartugtar~tugathartugtar~tugathar

gearrtar~gearrathargearrtar~gearrathargearrtar~gearrathargearrtar~gearrathar cailltar~cailleatharcailltar~cailleatharcailltar~cailleatharcailltar~cailleathar

32. The verbal adjective morph /t´ə/ has the following allomorphs:

/t´əh´ə/ in (18, 23) optionally when suffixed to a verb ending in /s´/.

Examples:

/həh´ə/ when suffixed to verbs ending in a plosive.

Examples:

/əh´ə/ when suffixed to verbs ending in /m´/ and in (18) optionally when sufifixed

to verbs ending in /m/ /ll/ /ll´/.

Examples:

/h´ə/ when suffixed to polysyllabic bases ending in a vowel.

Example:

/hə/ when suffixed to verbs ending in /m/ /r/ /r´/.

Examples:

/tə/ when suffixed to verbs ending in /x/ /s/ /n/ /nn/ /ll/, to monosyllabic bases

ending in /l/ and to polysyllabic bases ending in /ən´/.

Examples:

Before the verbal adjective morph /i/ is reduced to /y/ in monosyllabic and to /ə/ in

polysyllabic bases. Examples:

BUT this does not occur in scrí-scrí-scrí-scrí- scrítescrítescrítescríte (11, 18, 20) sní-sní-sní-sní- snítesnítesnítesníte (18)

cloistithecloistithecloistithecloistithe institheinstitheinstitheinstithe

ceap-ceap-ceap-ceap- ceapaitheceapaitheceapaitheceapaithe tóg-tóg-tóg-tóg- tócaithetócaithetócaithetócaithe (see 28 above)

foghlaimithefoghlaimithefoghlaimithefoghlaimithe (18) cromaithecromaithecromaithecromaithe caillithecaillithecaillithecaillithe

ceannaí-ceannaí-ceannaí-ceannaí- ceannaitheceannaitheceannaitheceannaithe

crom-crom-crom-crom- cromthacromthacromthacromtha cuir-cuir-cuir-cuir- curthacurthacurthacurtha

crochtacrochtacrochtacrochta castacastacastacasta déantadéantadéantadéanta teanntateanntateanntateannta polltapolltapolltapollta moltamoltamoltamolta aitheantaaitheantaaitheantaaitheanta

suí-suí-suí-suí- suitesuitesuitesuite ceannaí-ceannaí-ceannaí-ceannaí- ceannaitheceannaitheceannaitheceannaithe

33. The following items present irregularities with /CLOSURE/:

fagh-fagh-fagh-fagh- foighfoighfoighfoigh get choose gabh-gabh-gabh-gabh- (20 gaibh-gaibh-)gaibh-gaibh- goibhgoibhgoibhgoibh take, go 20) treibhtreibhtreibhtreibh (18) plough leá-leá-leá-leá- leighleighleighleigh (1) leaighleaighleaighleaigh (15, 20) melt

togh-togh-togh-togh- toightoightoightoigh (1, 23) toibhtoibhtoibhtoibh (15, 22)

treabh-treabh-treabh-treabh- treightreightreightreigh (1) treaibhtreaibhtreaibhtreaibh (15,

34. The following items present irregularities with /Y/:

banbhbanbhbanbhbanbh bainbhbainbhbainbhbainbh piglet bolgbolgbolgbolg builgbuilgbuilgbuilg stomach, bellows

gearbgearbgearbgearb girbgirbgirbgirb scab leanbhleanbhleanbhleanbh linbhlinbhlinbhlinbh child

brothallbrothallbrothallbrothall broithillbroithillbroithillbroithill (1, 15) close heat cúramcúramcúramcúram cúirimcúirimcúirimcúirim (11, 20) responsibility dabhachdabhachdabhachdabhach daibhichdaibhichdaibhichdaibhich /dəux dəih´/ (11) vat dealgdealgdealgdealg dilgdilgdilgdilg thorn dorasdorasdorasdoras doirisdoirisdoirisdoiris (1, 15) duirisduirisduirisduiris (1, 20-23) door 23) muinílmuinílmuinílmuiníl neck dorndorndorndorn doirinndoirinndoirinndoirinn (11, 15) duirinnduirinnduirinnduirinn (1, 18-23) fist (18) spade driofúrdriofúrdriofúrdriofúr drifírdrifírdrifírdrifír (11, 18) sister fearsadfearsadfearsadfearsad feirsidfeirsidfeirsidfeirsid spindle fiachfiachfiachfiach fiaighfiaighfiaighfiaigh crow 22-23) bull fraochfraochfraochfraoch fraoighfraoighfraoighfraoigh heather gabhaggabhaggabhaggabhag gaibhiggaibhiggaibhiggaibhig /gəug gəig/ (22) cove

macmacmacmac micmicmicmic son mairtéalmairtéalmairtéalmairtéal mairtílmairtílmairtímairtíll mortar meadarmeadarmeadarmeadar meidirmeidirmeidirmeidir churn MícheálMícheálMícheálMícheál MíchílMíchílMíchílMíchíl (15, 20) Michael muineálmuineálmuineálmuineál (15-20) muinéalmuinéalmuinéalmuinéal (1, 22-

rámhannrámhannrámhannrámhann ráimhinnráimhinnráimhinnráimhinn /rəun rəin´/

stólstólstólstól stúilstúilstúilstúil (1) stool talamhtalamhtalamhtalamh tailimhtailimhtailimhtailimh (11-20) land tarbhtarbhtarbhtarbh tairbhtairbhtairbhtairbh (11-20) tuirbhtuirbhtuirbhtuirbh (1,

tarractarractarractarrac tairrictairrictairrictairric (11-20) pull

35. The following items present irregularities with /Yə/:

álainnálainnálainnálainn áilleáilleáilleáille (15) beautiful baintreochbaintreochbaintreochbaintreoch baintreoichebaintreoichebaintreoichebaintreoiche (11) widow 15) sweet balbhbalbhbalbhbalbh bailíbailíbailíbailí (15) dumb coinnealcoinnealcoinnealcoinneal coinlecoinlecoinlecoinle candle craobhcraobhcraobhcraobh craícraícraícraí (18) branch cruaidhcruaidhcruaidhcruaidh cruacruacruacrua hard (18) spade dabhachdabhachdabhachdabhach daibhchedaibhchedaibhchedaibhche /dəih´ə/ vat (22) rin´ə (23)/ spade deargdeargdeargdearg dirgedirgedirgedirge red (15-23) fat deochdeochdeochdeoch dídídídí drink dubhdubhdubhdubh duíduíduíduí black fearsadfearsadfearsadfearsad feirsefeirsefeirsefeirse spindle gainimhgainimhgainimhgainimh gainígainígainígainí sand garbhgarbhgarbhgarbh gairígairígairígairí rough gormgormgormgorm guirmeguirmeguirmeguirme blue lá(i)mhlá(i)mhlá(i)mhlá(i)mh lálálálá hand leathanleathanleathanleathan leithneleithneleithneleithne (15) broad

marbhmarbhmarbhmarbh mairímairímairímairí dead, numb milismilismilismilis milsemilsemilsemilse (1, 18-23) míslemíslemíslemísle (11,

nimhnimhnimhnimh níníníní poison obairobairobairobair oibreoibreoibreoibre work praiseàchpraiseàchpraiseàchpraiseàch praiscepraiscepraiscepraisce mess, pottage rámhannrámhannrámhannrámhann ráimhneráimhneráimhneráimhne /rəun rəin´ə/

rámhannrámhannrámhannrámhann ráimhneráimhneráimhneráimhne /run ryn´ə

reamharreamharreamharreamhar reimhrereimhrereimhrereimhre /rəur rir´ə/

salàchsalàchsalàchsalàch suilichesuilichesuilichesuiliche dirty searbhsearbhsearbhsearbh searaísearaísearaísearaí (15) seiríseiríseiríseirí (1) bitter seilbhseilbhseilbhseilbh seilíseilíseilíseilí (1) possession sluasadsluasadsluasadsluasad sluaistesluaistesluaistesluaiste shovel tráightráightráightráigh trátrátrátrá beach tiubhtiubhtiubhtiubh títítítí thick uaighuaighuaighuaigh uauauaua (1, 18) grave uasaluasaluasaluasal uaisleuaisleuaisleuaisle noble

36. The following items present irregularities with /ə/:

dubhdubhdubhdubh dúdúdúdú (1-20) black lá(i)mhlá(i)mhlá(i)mhlá(i)mh lálálálá hand

scianscianscianscian sceanasceanasceanasceana knife

37. The following items present irregularities with /ənə/:

tráightráightráightráigh tránnatránnatránnatránna beach

uaighuaighuaighuaigh uannauannauannauanna (1, 18) grave

38. In the following items, in all subdialects treated except (23), an underlying /ə/

becomes stressed /æ/ in A- and YA-systems but remains /ə/ in AY- and Y-systems. The short vowel of the initial syllable is reduced to /ə/ before stressed /æ/.

Example:

YA-SYSTEM cailleàchcailleàchcailleàchcailleàch /kəl´æx/ cailleàchacailleàchacailleàchacailleàcha /kəl´æxə/

Y-SYSTEM caillighcaillighcaillighcailligh /kæl´əg´/ caillighe>caillícaillighe>caillícaillighe>caillícaillighe>caillí /kæl´i/

athàchathàchathàchathàch or athachathachathachathach giant bacàchbacàchbacàchbacàch beggar, lame ballàchballàchballàchballàch connor (fish) bodàchbodàchbodàchbodàch "peasant" bradàchbradàchbradàchbradàch thieving brollàchbrollàchbrollàchbrollàch breast, chest bromàchbromàchbromàchbromàch (bramaigh)(bramaigh)(bramaigh)(bramaigh) colt cailleàchcailleàchcailleàchcailleàch hag

datàchdatàchdatàchdatàch smoke earràchearràchearràchearràch spring gealàchgealàchgealàchgealàch moon gliomàchgliomàchgliomàchgliomàch (gleamaigh)(gleamaigh)(gleamaigh)(gleamaigh) lobster meanàchmeanàchmeanàchmeanàch (1) awl misneàchmisneàchmisneàchmisneàch courage portàchportàchportàchportàch bog praiseàchpraiseàchpraiseàchpraiseàch mess, pottage

coileàchcoileàchcoileàchcoileàch cock collàchcollàchcollàchcollàch boar curàchcuràchcuràchcuràch coracle curràchcurràchcurràchcurràch marsh cladàchcladàchcladàchcladàch shingle beach

saileàchsaileàchsaileàchsaileàch willow scartàchscartàchscartàchscartàch dung searràchsearràchsearràchsearràch (siorraigh)(siorraigh)(siorraigh)(siorraigh) foal sionnàchsionnàchsionnàchsionnàch (seannaigh)(seannaigh)(seannaigh)(seannaigh) fox tosàchtosàchtosàchtosàch front

39. The following items present irregular development with /t´ə/:

fagh-fagh-fagh-fagh- fachtafachtafachtafachta (18, 20) foitefoitefoitefoite (1, 22, 23) get gabh-gabh-gabh-gabh- (20 gaibh-gaibh-)gaibh-gaibh- goitegoitegoitegoite (1, 11, 15) gofagofagofagofa (15, 20-23) take, go ia-ia-ia-ia- iataiataiataiata shut leá-leá-leá-leá- leiteleiteleiteleite (1, 22-23) leachtaleachtaleachtaleachta (15-20) melt lobh-lobh-lobh-lobh- lofalofalofalofa (15, 20) rot scrí-scrí-scrí-scrí- scríofascríofascríofascríofa (15, 22-23) write sní-sní-sní-sní- sníofasníofasníofasníofa (11, 15, 23) spin togh-togh-togh-togh- toitetoitetoitetoite (1).tofatofatofatofa (15, 22-23) choose treabh-treabh-treabh-treabh- treitetreitetreitetreite (1) treafatreafatreafatreafa (15) treòfatreòfatreòfatreòfa (22-23) plow

THE NOUN

40. Nominal flexion in Munster Irish is concerned with one invariable (gender - which

in rare instances may be variable) and two variables (number and case).

41. Every non-plural noun is either masculine or feminine. Gender is usually

invariable i.e. a noun is either masculine throughout or is feminine throughout. There are, however, two rare types of deviation from this rule:

(i) comharsacomharsacomharsacomharsa neighbor may be either masculine or feminine.

(ii) eascúeascúeascúeascú eel is masculine except for the genitive singular, when it is feminine. Hence (20) anananan t-eascút-eascút-eascút-eascú mórmórmórmór the big eel but ceannceannceannceann nananana heascúnheascúnheascúnheascún the eel's head. imimimim butter acts in the same way only in Ring (1). Hence (1) anananan t-imt-imt-imt-im maithmaithmaithmaith the good butter but blasblasblasblas nananana himehimehimehime the taste of the butter. geimhreadhgeimhreadhgeimhreadhgeimhreadh winter is feminine only in Dún Chaoin (20) but in the genitive singular it is everywhere masculine. Hence (20) anananan gheimhreadhgheimhreadhgheimhreadhgheimhreadh winter (came) but (20) iiii rithrithrithrith anananan gheimhridhgheimhridhgheimhridhgheimhridh during the winter. In certain cases a masculine personal pronoun (ééé)é corresponds to feminine noun (e.g. áitáitáitáit place) or a feminine personal pronoun (ííí)í corresponds to a masculine noun (e.g. cailíncailíncailíncailín girl bádbádbádbád boat gluaisteángluaisteángluaisteángluaisteán car). Gender is not operative in the plural except insofar as certain plural morphs are selected on the basis of the noun's gender. Hence /YL/ occurs in báidbáidbáidbáid boats because bádbádbádbád is masculine, while /ə/ occurs in cearcacearcacearcacearca hens because cearccearccearccearc is feminine.

42. In any given form a noun must be either singular or plural or numeralized. By

"numeralized" I mean that a cardinal number governs the noun and that the noun consequently has the shape proper to it when following that cardinal number (i.e. although semantically non-singular, it may be formally singular). See further under section 81 below. The contrast singular:plural is basic to noun flexion in Munster Irish.

43. Case as a morphological feature has been redundant in Irish since the Old Irish

period. It has, however, persisted and is present in Munster Irish. Nevertheless a distinction must be clearly made between the number of case distinctions theoretically possible and the number actually found in any one paradigm. A further distinction must be made between the maximum signaling recordable for a given paradigm and the restricted signaling which is the observable norm. Most nouns, in fact, end up with no marked case-forms or with at most a marked genitive singular only.

44. The maximum spread of distinguishable cases is as follows:

BASE - the unmarked singular or unmarked plural of the noun. GENITIVE - used (a) as possessor in possessor noun phrases and (b) after certain prepositions. See 96-97, 154 below. PREPOSITIONAL - used after prepositions which do not govern BASE or GENITIVE. See 94-95 below. VOCATIVE - used after the particle aLaLaLaL to form a type V sentence. See 260 below.

45. Neutralization of these theoretical contrasts by the operation of sandhi rules or

by built-in absence of contrast will be dealt with when describing the actual forms.

Let it suffice here to point out that the genitive, which in the singular at least is a contrastive form in a large number of noun classes, is further limited in use by the following structural restrictions:

(i) A noun already governed by a possessor has no inflected genitive case. Thus

caipíncaipíncaipíncaipín anananan fhirfhirfhirfhir the man's cap occurs but *caipín*caipín*caipín*caipín firfirfirfir anananan phuistphuistphuistphuist the postman's cap does not. We find instead caipíncaipíncaipíncaipín fhearfhearfhearfhear anananan phuistphuistphuistphuist where lack of flexion is compensated by

lenition. See further under 154 below.

(ii) A noun followed by an adjective usually has no inflected genitive case. When it

has, it usually turns out to be a petrified form. Thus (20) ceannceannceannceann nananana gégégégé the goose's

head but ceannceannceannceann anananan ghéghéghéghé bhánbhánbhánbhán the white goose's head; on the other hand féféféfé bhunbhunbhunbhun nananana PáircePáircePáircePáirce BáineBáineBáineBáine below the White Field (petrified form). It is an observable fact, however, that attributive adjectives typically occur only in the following contexts:

(a)

madramadramadramadra bánbánbánbán abeaabeaabeaabea éééé it was a white dog - predicative use with noun

(b)

bhíbhíbhíbhí madramadramadramadra bánbánbánbán aigeaigeaigeaige he had a white dog

In both cases, further reference eschews repetition of the adjective. Consequently, apart from petrified use in - for the most part - place names, the group "noun plus adjective" is a rare occurrence in genitive position.

(iii) A noun preceded by anything other than a definite article within the noun phrase

may have no inflected genitive case. Hence (20) níníníní rabhasrabhasrabhasrabhas iiii dteantadteantadteantadteanta aonaonaonaon bheanbheanbheanbhean I wasn't with any woman.

(iv) In Ring (1), apart from petrified forms, a feminine singular noun preceded by the

definite article appears to have no inflected genitive case. Thus (1) lelelele linnlinnlinnlinn anananan trioblóidtrioblóidtrioblóidtrioblóid during the Troubles (1) crócrócrócró anananan tsnáthaidtsnáthaidtsnáthaidtsnáthaid the eye of the needle BUT (1) muintirmuintirmuintirmuintir nananana RinneRinneRinneRinne the people of Ring

46. In the singular base form GENDER is distinguished. Masculine is unmarked,

feminine is marked /L/. The contrast - as far as the noun itself is concerned - is realizable only when an adjective or noun with lenitable onset follows.

Examples:

MASCULINE (20) fearfearfearfear mórmórmórmór a big man FEMININE (20) caoraLcaoraLcaoraLcaoraL maolL>caoramaolL>caoramaolL>caoramaolL>caora mhaolmhaolmhaolmhaol a hornless sheep

47. In NUMBER, singular is unmarked and plural is marked. A large number of plural

morphs occur but the basic rule may be described as follows:

1. A noun which is monosyllabic in its unmarked form takes the suffix /ənə/.

Examples:

beiltbeiltbeiltbeilt beilteannabeilteannabeilteannabeilteanna belts fiafiafiafia fiannafiannafiannafianna deer

maitsmaitsmaitsmaits maitseannamaitseannamaitseannamaitseanna matches gégégégé géannagéannagéannagéanna geese (for sandhi, see

27)

2. A noun which is polysyllabic in its unmarked form takes the suffix /i/ which has

an allomorph /h´ə/ occurring after long vowels and diphthongs.

Examples:

aimsiraimsiraimsiraimsir aimsiríaimsiríaimsiríaimsirí times gloinegloinegloinegloine gloinígloinígloinígloiní glasses

buachaillbuachaillbuachaillbuachaill buachalllíbuachalllíbuachalllíbuachalllí boys pócapócapócapóca pócaípócaípócaípócaí pockets (for sandhi,

see 27)

ceardaíceardaíceardaíceardaí ceardaitheceardaitheceardaitheceardaithe tradesmen (for sandhi, see 30)

3. Notwithstanding what has been stated in 1 and 2 above, nouns ending in an A-

system consonantal element take the suffix /YL/ if they are masculine and the suffix /ə/ if they are feminine.

Examples:

bádbádbádbád báidLbáidLbáidLbáidL boats

adharcadharcadharcadharc adharcaadharcaadharcaadharca horns

48. There are a large number of secondary plural morphs, most of which are limited

to a few items in any given subdialect. The choice of plural morph for a given item is by no means necessarily the same in all subdialects or indeed in all idiolects within the same subdialect.

49. /ənə/ occurs outside the main rule

(i) suffixed to a polysyllable in

coiscéimcoiscéimcoiscéimcoiscéim coiscéimeannacoiscéimeannacoiscéimeannacoiscéimeanna (11, 20) BUT coiscéimícoiscéimícoiscéimícoiscéimí (1) steps Compare the simplex céimcéimcéimcéim céimeannacéimeannacéimeannacéimeanna step, grade.

(ii) suffixed to monosyllabic masculine nouns ending in an A-system consonantal

element (which has occasionally been pluralized already according to section 3 of the base rule outlined in 47 above) in:

altaltaltalt altannaaltannaaltannaaltanna (15, 22) ailtailtailtailt (1, 20) joints

gléasgléasgléasgléas gléiseannagléiseannagléiseannagléiseanna (15)

instruments amamamam amannaamannaamannaamanna (1, 20) times

amhasamhasamhasamhas amhaiseannaamhaiseannaamhaiseannaamhaiseanna (15) whores

(cards)

bancbancbancbanc buinceannabuinceannabuinceannabuinceanna (18) buincbuincbuincbuinc (1, 20-22) banks béasbéasbéasbéas béasannabéasannabéasannabéasanna (1, 15) manners biorbiorbiorbior biorannabiorannabiorannabioranna (15-18) points bioránbioránbioránbiorán /br´an/ -anna-anna-anna-anna (1) bioráinbioráinbioráinbioráin (15) needles bláthbláthbláthbláth bláthannabláthannabláthannabláthanna (11, 15, 20) flowers brobhbrobhbrobhbrobh brobhannabrobhannabrobhannabrobhanna (22) bruibhbruibhbruibhbruibh (1, 11) straws sons cáscáscáscás cásannacásannacásannacásanna (20) cáiscáiscáiscáis (1) cages cíoscíoscíoscíos cíosannacíosannacíosannacíosanna (1, 15) rents

guthguthguthguth guthannaguthannaguthannaguthanna (11) voices harthartharthart hartannahartannahartannahartanna (1-23) hearts

iasciasciasciasc éisceannaéisceannaéisceannaéisceanna (1) éiscéiscéiscéisc (15) fishes leigheasleigheasleigheasleigheas leigheasannaleigheasannaleigheasannaleigheasanna (11) cures leigheasleigheasleigheasleigheas leighiseannaleighiseannaleighiseannaleighiseanna (20) cures lioslioslioslios liosannaliosannaliosannaliosanna (1-15) fairy rings lochlochlochloch lochannalochannalochannalochanna (1-15) lakes macmacmacmac macannamacannamacannamacanna (1) micmicmicmic (15-20);

méarméarméarméar méireannaméireannaméireannaméireanna (11, 18) fingers nósnósnósnós nósannanósannanósannanósanna (11, 15) customs

ciothciothciothcioth ceathannaceathannaceathannaceathanna (1-22) showers pens cleascleascleascleas cleasannacleasannacleasannacleasanna (15) tricks cliabhcliabhcliabhcliabh cléibheannacléibheannacléibheannacléibheanna (18-20) creels drinks)

clósclósclósclós clóiseannaclóiseannaclóiseannaclóiseanna (15) yards cnámhcnámhcnámhcnámh cnánnacnánnacnánnacnánna (1, 15) bones cuascuascuascuas cuaiseannacuaiseannacuaiseannacuaiseanna (11, 20) coves dathdathdathdath dathannadathannadathannadathanna (11-11, 18) colors deimheasdeimheasdeimheasdeimheas /d´ais/ deimheasannadeimheasannadeimheasannadeimheasanna (1) shears 23) hawks dromdromdromdrom dromannadromannadromannadromanna (1, 15) backs farcfarcfarcfarc farcannafarcannafarcannafarcanna (1) forks fiachfiachfiachfiach fiachannafiachannafiachannafiachanna (23) fiaighfiaighfiaighfiaigh (20) crows lightning feamfeamfeamfeam feamannafeamannafeamannafeamanna (11, 20) seaweeds fragfragfragfrag fragannafragannafragannafraganna (1, 11) frogs frogfrogfrogfrog frogannafrogannafrogannafroganna (15, 20) frogs (15, 20) udders gasgasgasgas gasannagasannagasannagasanna (11) gaisgaisgaisgais (1, 15) guisguisguisguis (20) stalks

(iii) suffixed to monosyllabic feminine nouns ending in an A-system consonantal

element in:

basbasbasbas basannabasannabasannabasanna (15) basabasabasabasa (22) palms of hands problems breabbreabbreabbreab breabannabreabannabreabannabreabanna (15) bribes ears cáógcáógcáógcáóg /kag/ cáógannacáógannacáógannacáóganna (15) jackdaws 20) dishes craobhcraobhcraobhcraobh craobhannacraobhannacraobhannacraobhanna (15) branches croscroscroscros crosannacrosannacrosannacrosanna (11, 18) crosses hawthorns

cuachcuachcuachcuach cuachannacuachannacuachannacuachanna (11) cuachacuachacuachacuacha (1, 15) cuckoos 18) brooms deochdeochdeochdeoch deochannadeochannadeochannadeochanna (1-23) drinks tufts deordeordeordeor deorannadeorannadeorannadeoranna (11) tears, drops

(iv) suffixed to a monosyllabic noun but with change from Y- to A-system in the final

consonantal element in greimgreimgreimgreim greamannagreamannagreamannagreamanna (1-15, 20) grips (v) suffixed to polysyllables in cuislecuislecuislecuisle cuisleannacuisleannacuisleannacuisleanna (15, 18) cuislícuislícuislícuislí (20) pulses and ceathrúceathrúceathrúceathrú ceathrúnaceathrúnaceathrúnaceathrúna (18, 20) quarters

seálseálseálseál seálannaseálannaseálannaseálanna (15) shawls snáthsnáthsnáthsnáth snáthannasnáthannasnáthannasnáthanna (1) threads splancsplancsplancsplanc splancannasplancannasplancannasplancanna (11) flashes of

peannpeannpeannpeann peannanapeannanapeannanapeannana /p´aunənə/ (1)

pubpubpubpub pubannapubannapubannapubanna (20) pubs randrandrandrand randannarandannarandannarandanna (20) rounds (of

rásrásrásrás ráiseannaráiseannaráiseannaráiseanna (1, 15, 20) races rósrósrósrós róiseannaróiseannaróiseannaróiseanna (15) roses rothrothrothroth rothannarothannarothannarothanna (11) wheels sámsámsámsám sámannasámannasámannasámanna (15) psalms seabhacseabhacseabhacseabhac seabhacannaseabhacannaseabhacannaseabhacanna (11-18,

sruthsruthsruthsruth sruthannasruthannasruthannasruthanna (1) streams taobhtaobhtaobhtaobh taoibheannataoibheannataoibheannataoibheanna (20) sides úthúthúthúth úthannaúthannaúthannaúthanna /uxənə/ (1) /unə/

fadhbfadhbfadhbfadhb fadhbannafadhbannafadhbannafadhbanna (15, 20)

léasléasléasléas léasannaléasannaléasannaléasanna (15) léasaléasaléasaléasa (1) corn

miasmiasmiasmias miasannamiasannamiasannamiasanna (15) miasamiasamiasamiasa (1, 11,

rothrothrothroth rothannarothannarothannarothanna (1) wheels sceachsceachsceachsceach sceachannasceachannasceachannasceachanna (20)

scuabscuabscuabscuab -anna-anna-anna-anna (11, 15) scuabascuabascuabascuaba (1,

stothstothstothstoth stothannastothannastothannastothanna (15) stothastothastothastotha (20)

50. /i/ occurs outside the main rule (i) with /t´/ inserted between it and a preceding /n/ /l/ /s/ in:

AirdínAirdínAirdínAirdín AirdíntíAirdíntíAirdíntíAirdíntí (20) name of certain fields bailebailebailebaile bailtíbailtíbailtíbailtí (20) homesteads, villages sermons briseadhbriseadhbriseadhbriseadh bristíbristíbristíbristí (20, 23) breakers certain fields fuithinfuithinfuithinfuithin fuithintífuithintífuithintífuithintí (1) shelters afternoons lánúinlánúinlánúinlánúin lánúintílánúintílánúintílánúintí (1) married couples

(ii) suffixed to polysyllabic masculine nouns ending in an A-system consonantal

element (occasionally to a form already pluralized according to section 3 of the base rule outlined in 47 above and occasionally with /t´/ inserted as in (i) above) in:

abhrasabhrasabhrasabhras abhraistíabhraistíabhraistíabhraistí (11-18) yarn aifreannaifreannaifreannaifreann aifrinnaifrinníaifrinnaifrinn (1) aifrinntíaifrinntíaifrinntíaifrinntí (11, 20) masses accoutrements amhránamhránamhránamhrán amhráintíamhráintíamhráintíamhráintí (18w) songs árasárasárasáras áraistíáraistíáraistíáraistí (18-20) pots diseases bácúsbácúsbácúsbácús bácúisíbácúisíbácúisíbácúisí (15) ovens drink) bascaodbascaodbascaodbascaod bascaodaíbascaodaíbascaodaíbascaodaí (15-20) baskets knees BlascaodBlascaodBlascaodBlascaod BlascaodaíBlascaodaíBlascaodaíBlascaodaí (20) the Blaskets halfdoors buaiceasbuaiceasbuaiceasbuaiceas buaiceasaíbuaiceasaíbuaiceasaíbuaiceasaí (15-18) wicks bucaodbucaodbucaodbucaod bucaodaíbucaodaíbucaodaíbucaodaí (11, 18) buckets diamonds (cards) neomatneomatneomatneomat neomataíneomataíneomataíneomataí (11-18) minutes parlors cairéadcairéadcairéadcairéad cairéidícairéidícairéidícairéidí (1, 115) carrots of paper casúrcasúrcasúrcasúr casúirícasúirícasúirícasúirí (1) hammers captaoncaptaoncaptaoncaptaon captaonaícaptaonaícaptaonaícaptaonaí (15-20) captains blankets cleamhnascleamhnascleamhnascleamhnas cleamhnaistícleamhnaistícleamhnaistícleamhnaistí (15-20) betrothals saibhristísaibhristísaibhristísaibhristí (11) riches costascostascostascostas costaisícostaisícostaisícostaisí (1-15) costs spades (cards) criatharcriatharcriatharcriathar créithrícréithrícréithrícréithrí (11) sieves cúntascúntascúntascúntas cúntaisícúntaisícúntaisícúntaisí (1-15) accounts wheels cúramcúramcúramcúram -aí-aí-aí-aí (15) cúraimícúraimícúraimícúraimí (1) cúirimícúirimícúirimícúirimí (11) cares

(1) turnips

droicheaddroicheaddroicheaddroichead droicheadaídroicheadaídroicheadaídroicheadaí (1, 15) bridges urchairurchairurchairurchair (1, 15) shots dualgasdualgasdualgasdualgas dualgaisídualgaisídualgaisídualgaisí (1, 15) duties

(iii) suffixed to polysyllabic feminine nouns ending in an A-system consonantal

element in:

banríonbanríonbanríonbanríon banríonaíbanríonaíbanríonaíbanríonaí (1, 15, 20) queens (15) shovels

maighistreásmaighistreásmaighistreásmaighistreás maighistreásaímaighistreásaímaighistreásaímaighistreásaí (1) mistresses needles máistreásmáistreásmáistreásmáistreás máistreásaímáistreásaímáistreásaímáistreásaí (15, 20) mistresses

(iv) suffixed to monosyllabic unmarked forms in:

altaltaltalt altaíaltaíaltaíaltaí (11) ailtailtailtailt (1, 20), joints aeaeaeae aeíaeíaeíaeí (23) aennaaennaaennaaenna (1-20) livers cínícínícínícíní (1, 15, 23) breasts spades

mílemílemílemíle míltímíltímílmíltítí (15, 20) miles seanmóinseanmóinseanmóinseanmóin seanmóintíseanmóintíseanseanmóintímóintí (15-20)

SúilínSúilínSúilínSúilín SúilíntíSúilíntíSúilíntíSúilíntí (20) name of

tráthnónatráthnónatráthnónatráthnóna tráthnóintítráthnóintítráthnóintítráthnóintí (11-20)

tuiletuiletuiletuile tuiltítuiltítuiltítuiltí (22) high tides

faiseanfaiseanfaiseanfaisean faisintífaisintífaisintífaisintí (11) fashions ---- fearaistífearaistífearaistífearaistí (20) gear,

gainéadgainéadgainéadgainéad gainéadaígainéadaígainéadaígainéadaí (18) gannets galargalargalargalar galairígalairígalairígalairí (20) galairgalairgalairgalair (1-15)

- hararsaíhararsaíhararsaíhararsaí (20) the horrors (of

ioscadioscadioscadioscad ioscaidíioscaidíioscaidíioscaidí (1, 20) hollows of

leathdorasleathdorasleathdorasleathdoras leathdoraisíleathdoraisílealeathdoraisíthdoraisí (1)

- mangalsaímangalsaímangalsaímangalsaí (20) mangelwurzels muilleatmuilleatmuilleatmuilleat muilleataímuilleataímuilleataímuilleataí (1-20)

parlúsparlúsparlúsparlús parlúsaíparlúsaíparlúsaíparlúsaí (18) parlúisparlúisparlúisparlúis ((15)((

páipéarpáipéarpáipéarpáipéar páipéirípáipéirípáipéirípáipéirí (15, 20) scraps

peilliúrpeilliúrpeilliúrpeilliúr peilliúirípeilliúirípeilliúirípeilliúirí (20) pillows plaincéadplaincéadplaincéadplaincéad plaincéidíplaincéidíplaincéplaincéidíidí (15, 20)

saibhreassaibhreassaibhreassaibhreas saibhrisísaibhrisísaibhrisísaibhrisí (1, 15)

spéirtheatspéirtheatspéirtheatspéirtheat spéirtheataíspéirtheataíspéirtheataíspéirtheataí (1-23)

súgánsúgánsúgánsúgán súgáintísúgáintísúgáintísúgáintí (22w) straw ropes turnturnturnturn /tyrən/ turnaíturnaíturnaíturnaí (20) spinning

turnapturnapturnapturnap turnapaíturnapaíturnapaíturnapaí (11-20) turnaipturnaipturnaipturnaip

urcharurcharurcharurchar /ryxər/ urchairíurchairíurchairíurchairí (11)

sluasadsluasadsluasadsluasad sluasaidísluasaidísluasaisluasaidídí (22) sluaistísluaistísluaistísluaistí

snáthadsnáthadsnáthadsnáthad snáthaidísnáthaidísnáthaidísnáthaidí (11, 15, 20)

piastpiastpiastpiast piastaípiastaípiastaípiastaí (1-20) worms rudrudrudrud rudaírudaírudaírudaí (1-23) things rámhannrámhannrámhannrámhann /rann/ rámhainnírámhainnírámhainnírámhainní (15)

coróinncoróinncoróinncoróinn /kronn/ coróinnícoróinnícoróinnícoróinní (23) crowns

staicstaicstaicstaic staicístaicístaicístaicí (11) staiceannastaiceannastaiceannastaiceanna (1, 15)

stacks

cuIaithcuIaithcuIaithcuIaith /klyh´/ culaithículaithículaithículaithí (1) suits gégégégé géígéígéígéí (23) géannagéannagéannagéanna (1-20) geese lochtlochtlochtlocht lochtaílochtaílochtaílochtaí (15-18) faults

(v) suffixed with various irregularities in:

ÁthÁthÁthÁth RuadhRuadhRuadhRuadh ÁthÁthÁthÁth RuaitíRuaitíRuaitíRuaití (20) field name

eyebrows

gnógnógnógnó gnóthaígnóthaígnóthaígnóthaí (11, 15) affairs

milIs

lualualualua luaitíluaitíluaitíluaití (1) IuannaIuannaIuannaIuanna (18) lead weights

chimneys

sruthsruthsruthsruth sruthaísruthaísruthaísruthaí (20) streams tochttochttochttocht tochtaítochtaítochtaítochtaí (11) mattresses

malamalamalamala mailímailímailímailí (22) malaímalaímalaímalaí (1)

muileannmuileannmuileannmuileann muiltímuiltímuiltímuiltí (15) muilinnmuilinnmuilinnmuilinn (11)

simnésimnésimnésimné simnéithísimnéithísimnéithísimnéithí (20) simnithesimnithesimnithesimnithe (1)

51. /ə/ occurs outside the main rule (i) suffixed to unmarked forms not ending in an A-system consonantal element in:

airdairdairdaird airdeairdeairdeairde (15, 20) cardinal points

bráthairbráthairbráthairbráthair bráithrebráithrebráithrebráithre (1-20) brothers (in religion) cnuimhcnuimhcnuimhcnuimh cnuimhe>cnuícnuimhe>cnuícnuimhe>cnuícnuimhe>cnuí (11-20) worms

weeks

glúinglúinglúinglúin glúineglúineglúineglúine (1-23) knees eannaeannaeannaeanna (1) nits gualainngualainngualainngualainn guailleguailleguailleguaille (1) shoulders lorgainlorgainlorgainlorgain loirgneloirgneloirgneloirgne (15) shins * form used only after numerals

(ii) suffixed to masculine nouns ending in an A-system consonantal element in:

bláthbláthbláthbláth bláthabláthabláthablátha (1) flowers

ceannceannceannceann ceannaceannaceannaceanna AND cinncinncinncinn (1, 15) heads cnámhcnámhcnámhcnámh cnámha>cnácnámha>cnácnámha>cnácnámha>cná ( 15-22) bones

pens

cranncranncranncrann crannacrannacrannacranna AND cruinncruinncruinncruinn (11-18) trees díondíondíondíon díonadíonadíonadíona (1, 20) roofs

fiachfiachfiachfiach fiachafiachafiachafiacha (11, 18) fiaighfiaighfiaighfiaigh (20) crows

(iii) suffixed to nouns ending in a Y-system consonantal element which is changed to

an A-system element before taking the suffix in:

airdairdairdaird ardaardaardaarda (1) cardinal points bliainbliainbliainbliain blianablianablianabliana (1-23) (after numerals) years casóigcasóigcasóigcasóig casógacasógacasógacasóga (1) coats

claisclaisclaisclais clasaclasaclasaclasa (1, 18, 22) claiseannaclaiseannaclaiseannaclaiseanna (15) furrow cluaiscluaiscluaiscluais cluasacluasacluasacluasa (1, 23) ears coiscoiscoiscois cosacosacosacosa (1, 20) feet, legs crúibcrúibcrúibcrúib crúbacrúbacrúbacrúba (1) hoofs fiacailfiacailfiacailfiacail fiaclafiaclafiaclafiacla (1, 23-22) teeth fuinneoigfuinneoigfuinneoigfuinneoig fuinneogafuinneogafuinneogafuinneoga (20p) windows

(iv) suffixed to nouns ending in an A-system consonantal element which is changed

to a Y-system element before this suffix in:

I

asalasalasalasal asaileasaileasaileasaile (23) asailasailasailasail (1-22) donkeys bótharbótharbótharbóthar bóithrebóithrebóithrebóithre (1-20, 23) roads

words

capallcapallcapallcapall capaillecapaillecapaillecapaille (22-23) capaillcapaillcapaillcapaill (1-20) horse carncarncarncarn /kærənn/ cáirnecáirnecáirnecáirne (1, 11) heaps

spades

cloigeanncloigeanncloigeanncloigeann cloignecloignecloignecloigne (15) skulls

shovels

coinnealcoinnealcoinnealcoinneal coinlecoinlecoinlecoinle (1-23) candles criatharcriatharcriatharcriathar créithrecréithrecréithrecréithre (15-20) criathaircriathaircriathaircriathair (1) sieves dorndorndorndorn /dœrənn/ doirnedoirnedoirnedoirne (1-23) fists

gamhaingamhaingamhaingamhain gamhnagamhnagamhnagamhna (23) calves láimhláimhláimhláimh lamha>lálamha>lálalamha>lámha>lá (1) hands leathóigleathóigleathóigleathóig leathógaleathógaleathógaleathóga (1) plaice muicmuicmuicmuic mucamucamucamuca (1) pigs ordóigordóigordóigordóig ordógaordógaordógaordóga (1) thumbs putóigputóigputóigputóig putógaputógaputógaputóga (1) guts scamóigscamóigscamóigscamóig scamógascamógascamógascamóga (1) lungs snidhsnidhsnidhsnidh sneadha>sneásneadha>sneásneadha>sneásneadha>sneá (18-23) nits

pinginpinginpinginpingin pingine*pingine*pingine*pingine* (1-20) pence scilinnscilinnscilscilinninn scilinne*scilinne*scilinne*scilinne* (1-20) shillings seachtainseachtainseachtainseachtain seachtaine*seachtaine*seachtaine*seachtaine* (1-20)

snidhsnidhsnidhsnidh snidhe>snísnidhe>snísnidhe>snísnidhe>sní (11, 15) snigsnigsnigsnig ----

súilsúilsúilsúil súilesúilesúilesúile (1-23) eyes uairuairuairuair uaire*uaire*uaire*uaire* (1-23) times

lúnlúnlúnlún dubhdubhdubhdubh lúnalúnalúnalúna dúdúdúdú (15) blackbirds míolmíolmíolmíol míolamíolamíolamíola (1-23) insects peannpeannpeannpeann peannapeannapeannapeanna (23) pinnpinnpinnpinn (15)

triantriantriantrian treanatreanatreanatreana (20) thirds úllúllúllúll úllaúllaúllaúlla (1-23) apples

fearsadfearsadfearsadfearsad feirsefeirsefeirsefeirse (15, 20) spindles focalfocalfocalfocal focailefocailefocailefocaile (23) focailfocailfocailfocail (1-22)

piastpiastpiastpiast péistepéistepéistepéiste (22-23) worms rámhannrámhannrámhannrámhann /rann/ rámhainnerámhainnerámhainnerámhainne (1)

sluasadsluasadsluasadsluasad sluaistesluaistesluaistesluaiste (1-11, 18-20)

solassolassolassolas suilsesuilsesuilsesuilse (1-20) lights súgánsúgánsúgánsúgán súgáinesúgáinesúgáinesúgáine (22w) straw ropes ubhubhubhubh /œv/ uibhe>uíuibhe>uíuibhe>uíuibhe>uí (1-20) eggs

dorasdorasdorasdoras dóirsedóirsedóirsedóirse (1-23) doors

II

This second group includes masculine nouns ending in /əx/ which by section 26 above gives /i/ when first /Y/ and then /ə/ are suffixed. It also includes nouns ending in /əv/ in which the same result has been obtained. In three items aonachaonachaonachaonach

domhnachdomhnachdomhnachdomhnach smaoineamhsmaoineamhsmaoineamhsmaoineamh /t/ resp. /t´/ has been inserted before the resulting /i/.

aonachaonachaonachaonach aontaíaontaíaontaíaontaí (1-15, 2C) fairs árthachárthachárthachárthach árthaíárthaíárthaíárthaí (1-20) vessels banbhbanbhbanbhbanbh banaíbanaíbanaíbanaí (1-23) piglets

thoughts

béarlachbéarlachbéarlachbéarlach béarlaíbéarlaíbéarlaíbéarlaí (20d) muzzles clúdachclúdachclúdachclúdach clúdaíclúdaíclúdaíclúdaí (1) clúdaighclúdaighclúdaighclúdaigh (15) covers 23) bulls

domhnachdomhnachdomhnachdomhnach domhntaídomhntaídomhntaídomhntaí (18-20) Sundays

wakes

éadachéadachéadachéadach éadaíéadaíéadaíéadaí (1-22) clothes

ursalursalursalursal ursaileursaileursaileursaile (15) tongs

leanbhleanbhleanbhleanbh leanaíleanaíleanaíleanaí (1-23) children orlachorlachorlachorlach orlaíorlaíorlaíorlaí (1-20) inches smaoineamhsmaoineamhsmaoineamhsmaoineamh smaointísmaointísmaointísmaointí (15)

soitheachsoitheachsoitheachsoitheach soithísoithísoithísoithí (11-23) vessels tarbhtarbhtarbhtarbh taraítaraítaraítaraí (15-20) tuirbhtuirbhtuirbhtuirbh (1, 22-

tóramhtóramhtóramhtóramh tóraítóraítóraítóraí (15) tóraimhtóraimhtóraimhtóraimh (11)

uallachuallachuallachuallach ualaíualaíualaíualaí (1-22) loads

52. A plural morph /əxə/ occurs

(i) suffixed to feminine nouns in:

I

análanálanálanál análachaanálachaanálachaanálacha (15) breaths asnaasnaasnaasna asnachaasnachaasnachaasnacha (23) asnaíasnaíasnaíasnaí (11-15) ribs

abhainnabhainnabhainnabhainn abhainneachaabhainneachaabhainneachaabhainneacha (1) rivers

ships

ainmainmainmainm ainmeachaainmeachaainmeachaainmeacha (1-15 20) names

mothers

bearnabearnabearnabearna bearnachabearnachabearnachabearnacha (15) gaps

mornings

carraigcarraigcarraigcarraig carraigeachacarraigeachacarraigeachacarraigeacha (1-15, 20-22) rocks

churns

ceirtceirtceirtceirt ceirteàchaceirteàchaceirteàchaceirteàcha (15-18) rags

parties

cistincistincistincistin -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (15, 20) -í-í-í-í (1, 11) kitchens

claisclaisclaisclais -eàcha-eàcha-eàcha-eàcha (11, 18-20) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna (15) furrows (20d) nests cleathcleathcleathcleath cleathachacleathachacleathachacleathacha (15) rods, wattles cnuimhcnuimhcnuimhcnuimh cnuíochacnuíochacnuíochacnuíocha (22-23) worms comhlacomhlacomhlacomhla comhlachacomhlachacomhlachacomhlacha (20) doorleaves 15) gables

comhr-acomhr-acomhr-acomhr-a -acha-acha-acha-acha (20d, 23) -aí-aí-aí-aí (20p) coffins (11) roots craobhcraobhcraobhcraobh craobhacha>craochacraobhacha>craochacraobhacha>craochacraobhacha>craocha (20) branches (15-20) roots cuigeanncuigeanncuigeanncuigeann -acha-acha-acha-acha (15) -a-a-a-a (11) churns (1) sheaves cuingcuingcuingcuing -eàcha-eàcha-eàcha-eàcha (11-15) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna (20) yokes

pieces

culaithculaithculaithculaith /klyh'/ culaitheachaculaitheachaculaitheachaculaitheacha (18) suits

cemeteries

deimheasdeimheasdeimheasdeimheas /d'is/ deimiheasachadeimiheasachadeimiheasachadeimiheasacha (20) shears deordeordeordeor deorachadeorachadeorachadeoracha (15-18) tears, drops dingdingdingding dingeàchadingeàchadingeàchadingeàcha (15) wedges

heels

driofúrdriofúrdriofúrdriofúr -acha-acha-acha-acha (22-23) driféarachadriféarachadriféarachadriféaracha (1-20) sisters

feirmfeirmfeirmfeirm feirmeachafeirmeachafeirmeachafeirmeacha (1-20) farms

leitirleitirleitirleitir leitireachaleitireachaleitireachaleitireacha (1-15, 20) letters loglogloglog logachalogachalogachalogacha (20d) rockpools lúnglúnglúnglúng lúngachalúngachalúngachalúngacha (15) lúngalúngalúngalúnga (23)

máthairmáthairmáthairmáthair máithreachamáithreachamáithreachamáithreacha (1-20)

maidinmaidinmaidinmaidin maidineachamaidineachamaidineachamaidineacha (1, I8-20)

meadarmeadarmeadarmeadar meadarachameadarachameadmeadarachaaracha (1, 15-20)

meithealmeithealmeithealmeitheal -acha-acha-acha-acha (15-18) reaping

muingmuingmuingmuing muingeàchamuingeàchamuingeàchamuingeàcha (15) manes

neadneadneadnead -àcha-àcha-àcha-àcha (11, 20p) neadachaneadachaneadachaneadacha

obairobairobairobair oibreachaoibreachaoibreachaoibreacha (1-15, 20) works paidirpaidirpaidirpaidir paidireachapaidireachapaidireachapaidireacha (1-23) prayers pinniúirpinniúirpinniúirpinniúir -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (11) pinniúirípinniúirípinniúirípinniúirí (1,

pnéamhpnéamhpnéamhpnéamh pnéamhacha>pnéachapnéamhacha>pnéachapnéamhacha>pnéachapnéamhacha>pnéacha

préamhpréamhpréamhpréamh préamhacha>préachapréamhacha>préachapréampréamhacha>préachahacha>préacha

punannpunannpunannpunann -acha-acha-acha-acha (15-20) punannapunannapunannapunanna

réalréalréalréal réalacharéalacharéalacharéalacha (20) sixpenny

reiligreiligreiligreilig -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (1, 22) -í-í-í-í (15-20)

sailsailsailsail saileàchasaileàchasaileàchasaileàcha (15) willows sailmsailmsailmsailm sailmeachasailmeachasailmeachasailmeacha (20) psalms sálsálsálsál -acha-acha-acha-acha (18) sálasálasálasála (1-15, 20, 23)

scairbhscairbhscairbhscairbh -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (20) rocky seabed

scraithscraithscraithscraith -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (20-23) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna

(1) scraws of turf

féithféithféithféith -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (1,15,22-23) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna (18-20) veins 20) scythes fuithinfuithinfuithinfuithin fuithineachafuithineachafuithineachafuithineacha (20) shelters flashes of lightning

gearbgearbgearbgearb gearbachagearbachagearbachagearbacha (11) gearbagearbagearbagearba (1, 15-20) scabs

girths

gráinn-egráinn-egráinn-egráinn-e -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (11-18c) -í-í-í-í (23) grains ialliallialliall iallachaiallachaiallachaiallacha (1, 15, 20) bootlaces (1, 15) stacks

inseinseinseinse inseachainseachainseachainseacha (20) water meadows

storms

iomair-eiomair-eiomair-eiomair-e -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (20) -í-í-í-í (1-15, 22-23) ridges 15) stooks ladhar-achaladhar-achaladhar-achaladhar-acha (11, 18) -a-a-a-a (1) palms (of hands) teangaíteangaí(1)teangaíteangaí tongues leacleacleacleac leacàchaleacàchaleacàchaleacàcha (11-22) IeacaIeacaIeacaIeaca (1) slabs léasléasléasléas léasachaléasachaléasachaléasacha (11, 18-20) léasaléasaléasaléasa (1) corn ears elder trees láthairláthairláthairláthair láthaireachaláthaireachaláthaireachaláthaireacha (20) areas, sites 11, 18, 22) carts léimléimléimléim léimeachaléimeachaléimeachaléimeacha (20) leaps

elbows

II

The following items show change of system (A to Y or Y to A):

cabhailcabhailcabhailcabhail cabhlachacabhlachacabhlachacabhlacha (1, 20) carcasses cairtcairtcairtcairt cartàchacartàchacartàchacartàcha (1, 18-20) cairteannacairteannacairteannacairteanna (1) carts cathaircathaircathaircathair cathrachacathrachacathrachacathracha (1, 18) cities cathaoircathaoircathaoircathaoir /kæhir´/ cathaoireachacathaoireachacathaoireachacathaoireacha (1-23) chairs

spealspealspealspeal spealàchaspealàchaspealàchaspealàcha (1) spealaspealaspealaspeala (11-

splancsplancsplancsplanc splancachasplancachasplancachasplancacha (15-20)

sratharsratharsratharsrathar sratharachasratharachasratharachasratharacha (20) saddle

sriansriansriansrian srianachasrianachasrianachasrianacha (15) bridles staicstaicstaicstaic staiceachastaiceachastaiceachastaiceacha (20) staiceannastaiceannastaiceannastaiceanna

stoirmstoirmstoirmstoirm stoirmeachastoirmeachastoirmeachastoirmeacha (1, 15, 20)

stuaicstuaicstuaicstuaic -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (20) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna (11-

teangateangateangateanga teangachateangachateangachateangacha (15-20)

tóntóntóntón tónachatónachatónachatónacha (20) bottoms tromtromtromtrom tromachatromachatromachatromacha (20) tromatromatromatroma (15)

trucailtrucailtrucailtrucail -eacha-eacha-each-eachaa (1, 15, 20) -í-í-í-í (1-

uillinnuillinnuillinnuillinn uillinneachauillinneachauillinneachauillinneacha (1, 20)

láirláirláirláir lárachalárachalárachaláracha (1-23) mares lasairlasairlasairlasair lasrachalasrachalasrachalasracha (1-15, 20) flames méarméarméarméar méireachaméireachaméireachaméireacha (22-23) fingers rásúirrásúirrásúirrásúir rásúracharásúracharásúracharásúracha (20) razors

craobhcraobhcraobhcraobh craoibheacha>craíochacraoibheacha>craíochacraoibheacha>craíochacraoibheacha>craíocha (18) branches easaireasaireasaireasair easrachaeasrachaeasrachaeasracha (1-20, 23) litters of straw

stallions

eòchaireòchaireòchaireòchair eòchrachaeòchrachaeòchrachaeòchracha (1-20) keys

gabháilgabháilgabháilgabháil gabhálachagabhálachagabhálachagabhálacha (1, 20) armfuls

panniers

inneoininneoininneoininneoin inneonachainneonachainneonachainneonacha (1-20) anvils

(ii) suffixed to masculine nouns in:

anamanamanamanam anamachaanamachaanamachaanamacha (1, 15, 20) souls

athairathairathairathair aithreachaaithreachaaithreachaaithreacha (1-23) fathers

griddles

braonbraonbraonbraon braonachabraonachabraonachabraonacha (11-18) drops 11,20) meshes ceangalceangalceangalceangal -acha-acha-acha-acha (15, 20) ceangailíceangailíceangailíceangailí (1) bonds 15, 20) clouds clárclárclárclár clárachaclárachaclárachacláracha (1-20) boards of time

coinníollcoinníollcoinníollcoinníoll -acha-acha-acha-acha (15) coinníllcoinníllcoinníllcoinníll (18) conditions tobairtobairtobairtobair (1) wells coiréalcoiréalcoiréalcoiréal coiréalachacoiréalachacoiréalachacoiréalacha (15) quarries

porpoises

driotháirdriotháirdriotháirdriotháir driotháireachadriotháireachadriotháireachadriotháireacha (1-23) brothers giallgiallgiallgiall giallachagiallachagiallachagiallacha (22-23) jaws

scairscairscairscair scaràchascaràchascascaràcharàcha (1) chips, portions stailstailstailstail stalachastalachaststalachaalacha (23) staileannastaileannastaileannastaileanna (20)

ubhubhubhubh uibheachauibheachauibheachauibheacha (23) eggs úimúimúimúim úmachaúmachaúmachaúmacha (1, 18-22) double

giobalgiobalgiobalgiobal giobalachagiobalachagiobalachagiobalacha (15) rags greidealgreidealgreidealgreideal -acha-acha-acha-acha (18) greidilgreidilgreidilgreidil (1)

mogallmogallmogallmogall -acha-acha-acha-acha (18) mogaillmogaillmogaillmogaill (1-

scamallscamallscamallscamall -acha-acha-acha-acha (18) scamaillscamaillscamaillscamaill (1-

tamalltamalltamalltamall tamallachatamallachatamallachatamallacha (1, 20) periods

tobartobartobartobar toibreachatoibreachatoibreachatoibreacha (11-20,23)

tóithíntóithíntóithíntóithín -eacha-eacha-eacha-eacha (11) -í-í-í-í (20)

ubhubhubhubh uibheachauibheachauibheacuibheachaha (22) eggs

53. Certain "extended plurals" occur. These are based on plural forms ending in /i/ to which a further plural morph has been added. It is immaterial whether this /i/ represents an original plural morph /i/ or is the result of sandhi as in 51 (iv) above.

(i) the second plural morph is /h´ə/; by 30 above, /i/ becomes /ə/ before it.

bácaeirbácaeirbácaeirbácaeir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d) -í-í-í-í (1, 15) bakers 15) millers búistéirbúistéirbúistéirbúistéir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (18,20d,23) -í-í-í-í (1,15,22) butchers parishes ceannaitheoirceannaitheoirceannaitheoirceannaitheoir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (15,20d,23) -í-í-í-í (1,11) buyers

muilteoirmuilteoirmuilteoirmuilteoir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (18, 20d ) -í-í-í-í (1-

paróist-eparóist-eparóist-eparóist-e -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (15) -í-í-í-í (1, 18, 20)

portàchportàchportàchportàch portaitheportaitheportaitheportaithe (15-20) bogs

cladàchcladàchcladàchcladàch cladaithecladaithecladaithecladaithe (20p) shingle beaches cladàchcladàchcladàchcladàch cludaithecludaithecludaithecludaithe (20d) shingle beaches cladachcladachcladachcladach cladaithecladaithecladaithecladaithe (23) shingle beaches 18,22-23) soldiers coinleoircoinleoircoinleoircoinleoir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d) -í-í-í-í (1, 15) candlesticks cormorants colmóircolmóircolmóircolmóir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d) -í-í-í-í (18) hake (15-23) fairies curràchcurràchcurràchcurràch curraithecurraithecurraithecurraithe (1, 20) bogs 15, 20) shops cuairteoircuairteoircuairteoircuairteoir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d) -í-í-í-í (11, 201) visitors shopkeepers custaiméircustaiméircustaiméircustaiméir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (15,18, 20p) -í-í-í-í (1) customers carpenters domhnachdomhnachdomhnachdomhnach domhnaithedomhnaithedomhnaithedomhnaithe (11) Sundays 20) reapers

eachtr-aeachtr-aeachtr-aeachtr-a -aithe-aithe-aithe-aithe (18) -aí-aí-aí-aí (1) adventures, stories 11, 20) strangers feirmeoirfeirmeoirfeirmeoirfeirmeoir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (18,20p) -í-í-í-í (1-15,20,22) farmers dreams grásaeirgrásaeirgrásaeirgrásaeir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d) pig dealers 22-23) tailors

iascair-eiascair-eiascair-eiascair-e -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe ((18)((

-í-í-í-í (1-15, 20-23) fishermen

portachportachportachportach portaitheportaitheportportaitheaithe (23) bogs prionsúirprionsúirprionsúirprionsúir -ithe-ithe-i-ithethe (20d) pincers saighdiúirsaighdiúirsaighdiúirsaighdiúir -ithe-ithe-i-ithethe (18,20d) -í-í-í-í (1-

seag-aseag-aseag-aseag-a -aithe-aithe-aithe-aithe (1) -aí-aí-aí-aí (11, 18)

síobhr-asíobhr-asíobhr-asíobhr-a -aithe-aithe-aithe-aithe (1) síofrasíofrasíofrasíofra -aí-aí-aí-aí

siop-asiop-asiop-asiop-a -aithe-aithe-aithe-aithe (1, 18, 23) -aí-aí-aí-aí (11-

siopadóirsiopadóirsiopadóirsiopadóir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d)

siúinéirsiúinéirsiúinéirsiúinéir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (20d) -í-í-í-í (1-15)

spealadóirspealadóirspealadóirspealadóir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (15-20d) -í-í-í-í (1,

stróinséirstróinséirstróinséirstróinséir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (18-20d) -í-í-í-í (1,

taidhreamhtaidhreamhtaidhreamhtaidhreamh taidhrithetaidhrithetaidhrithetaidhrithe (11-20)

táilliúirtáilliúirtáilliúirtáilliúir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (18-20d) -í-í-í-í (1-15,

tincéirtincéirtincéirtincéir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (18, 23) -í-í-í-í (1-15, 22)

tinkers jabaeirjabaeirjabaeirjabaeir -ithe-ithe-ithe-ithe (15, 18, 20d) cattle jobbers (ii) the second plural morph is /əxə/; by 27 above, it becomes /xə/ after /i/.

arthaarthaarthaartha arthaíochaarthaíochaarthaíochaarthaíocha (1, 18) charms eyelashes asnaasnaasnaasna asnaíochaasnaíochaasnaíochaasnaíocha (1, 18-22) asnaíasnaíasnaíasnaí (11-15) ribs welcomes baidhtebaidhtebaidhtebaidhte baidhtíochabaidhtíochabaidhtíochabaidhtíocha (1) baidhtíbaidhtíbaidhtíbaidhtí (18-23) baits bailebailebailebaile bailtíochabailtíochabailtíochabailtíocha (1,11,15) homesteads, villages

fabhr-afabhr-afabhr-afabhr-a -aíocha-aíocha-aíocha-aíocha (18w) -aí-aí-aí-aí (1-23)

fáiltefáiltefáiltefáilte fáiltíochafáiltíochafáiltíochafáiltíocha (11) fáiltífáiltífáiltífáiltí (15-20)

feilefeilefeilefeile feilíochafeilíochafeilíochafeilíocha (23) felloes gálagálagálagála gálaíochagálaíochagálaíochagálaíocha (11) gálaígálaígálaígálaí (1) gales

barrabarrabarrabarra barraíochabarraíochabarraíochabarraíocha (11, 20) barraíbarraíbarraíbarraí (I18) tops idhidhidhidh (15) winters bearnabearnabearnabearna bearnaíochabearnaíochabearnaíochabearnaíocha (1-11, 20) gaps (23) grains bonnbonnbonnbonn bonnaíochabonnaíochabonnaíochabonnaíocha AND buinnbuinnbuinnbuinn (20) soles meadows blúireblúireblúireblúire blúiríochablúiríochablúiríochablúiríocha (11, 20-22) crumbs (11-15) meals braonbraonbraonbraon braonaíochabraonaíochabraonaíochabraonaíocha (1, 20) drops 18, 20) parishes buillebuillebuillebuille builtíochabuiltíochabuiltíochabuiltíocha (1) builllíbuilllíbuilllíbuilllí (15-20) blows 23) pieces cófr-acófr-acófr-acófr-a /korhə/ -aíocha-aíocha-aíocha-aíocha (1) -aí-aí-aí-aí (18-23) chests holes comhlacomhlacomhlacomhla comhlaíochacomhlaíochacomhlaíochacomhlaíocha (18) doorleaves

hairs cóstacóstacóstacósta cóstaíochacóstaíochacóstaíochacóstaíocha (18) cóstaícóstaícóstaícóstaí (1) coasts samhr-adhsamhr-adhsamhr-adhsamhr-adh -aíocha-aíocha-aíocha-aíocha (1-11,20) -aí-aí-aí-aí (15)

geimhr-eadhgeimhr-eadhgeimhr-eadhgeimhr-eadh -íocha-íocha-íocha-íocha (1-11,20) ----

gráinn-egráinn-egráinn-egráinn-e -íocha-íocha-íocha-íocha (1, 18w-22) -í-í-í-í

inseinseinseinse insíochainsíochainsíochainsíocha (20d) water

méileméileméileméile méiltíochaméiltíochaméiltíochméiltíochaa (1) béilebéilebéilebéile béilíbéilíbéilíbéilí

paróist-eparóist-eparóist-eparóist-e -íocha-íocha-íocha-íocha (11, 18s) -í-í-í-í (1,

píos-apíos-apíos-apíos-a -aíocha-aíocha-aíocha-aíocha (20) -aí-aí-aí-aí (1, 18,

pollpollpollpoll pollaíochapollaíochapollaíochapollaíocha AND puillpuillpuillpuill (20)

riberiberiberibe ribíocharibíocharibíocharibíocha (1) ribíribíribíribí (11-15)

summers coróinncoróinncoróinncoróinn coróinníochacoróinníochacoróinníochacoróinníocha (11) crowns

culaithculaithculaithculaith /klyh´/ culaithíochaculaithíochaculaithíochaculaithíocha (11) suits stailstailstailstail stailíochastailíochastailíochastailíocha (11) staileannastaileannastaileannastaileanna (20) stallions

cranncranncranncrann crannaíochacrannaíochacrannaíochacrannaíocha AND cruinncruinncruinncruinn (20) trees 22-23) bulls

cúinn-ecúinn-ecúinn-ecúinn-e -íocha-íocha-íocha-íocha (1-15) -í-í-í-í (20) corners tarainn-etarainn-etarainn-etarainn-e -íocha-íocha-íocha-íocha (1) -í-í-í-í (11-20) nails

cuislecuislecuislecuisle cuislíochacuislíochacuislíochacuislíocha (11) cuislícuislícuislícuislí (20) pulses tongues deordeordeordeor deoraíochadeoraíochadeoraíochadeoraíocha (1) tears dearnadearnadearnadearna dearnaíochadearnaíochadearnaíochadearnaíocha (1) handfuls (11) wakes deireadhdeireadhdeireadhdeireadh deiríochadeiríochadeiríochadeiríocha (18) ends tides

(iii) the second plural morph is /əntə/; by 27 above, it becomes /ntə/ after /i/. This

type of "extended plural" is found exclusively in Ring (1).

bearnabearnabearnabearna bearnaíontabearnaíontabearnaíontabearnaíonta (1) gaps girths coircecoircecoircecoirce coircíontacoircíontacoircíontacoircíonta (1) sorts of oats dreams eornaeornaeornaeorna eornaíontaeornaíontaeornaíontaeornaíonta (1) sorts of barley bulls iothlaiothlaiothlaiothla /æhələ/ iothlaíontaiothlaíontaiothlaíontaiothlaíonta (1) haggards

scáinn-escáinn-escáinn-escáinn-e -íocha-íocha-íocha-íocha (1) -í-í-í-í (15) skeins

tarbhtarbhtarbhtarbh taraíochataraíochataraíochataraíocha (11) tuirbhtuirbhtuirbhtuirbh (1,

teang-ateang-ateang-ateang-a -aíocha-aíocha-aíocha-aíocha (11) -aí-aí-aí-aí (1)

teorateorateorateora teoraíochateoraíochateoraíochateoraíocha (1, 20) limits tóramhtóramhtóramhtóramh tóraíochatóraíochatóraíochatóraíocha (18) tóraimhtóraimhtóraimhtóraimh

tuiletuiletuiletuile tuiltíochatuiltíochatuiltíochatuiltíocha (1, 15-18) high

sratharsratharsratharsrathar sratharaíontasratharaíontasratharaíontasratharaíonta (1) saddle-

taidhreamhtaidhreamhtaidhreamhtaidhreamh taidhríontataidhríontataidhtaidhríontaríonta (1)

tarbhtarbhtarbhtarbh taraíontataraíontataraíontataraíonta AND tuirbhtuirbhtuirbhtuirbh (1)

tóramhtóramhtóramhtóramh tóraíontatóraíontatóraíontatóraíonta (1) wakes

54. The following minor plural morphs occur:

(i) /əg´L/ in beachbeachbeachbeach beachaigbeachaigbeachaigbeachaig (11) beachabeachabeachabeacha (1, 15-23) bees (1,15, 22-23) mice (ii) /əv´/ in altaltaltalt altaibhaltaibhaltaibhaltaibh (18w) ailtailtailtailt (1, 20) joints (20d) nests

blasblasblasblas blasaibhblasaibhblasaibhblasaibh (20d) tastes binnbinnbinnbinn binnibhbinnibhbinnibhbinnibh (22) gables 23) heels bratbratbratbrat brataibhbrataibhbrataibhbrataibh AND bruitbruitbruitbruit (20d) cloaks bunbunbunbun bunaibhbunaibhbunaibhbunaibh (20d) bases

ceannceannceannceann ceannaibhceannaibhceannaibhceannaibh AND cinncinncinncinn (1, 20d, 22) ones scythes

deordeordeordeor deoraibhdeoraibhdeoraibhdeoraibh (20d) tears, drops fearfearfearfear fearaibhfearaibhfearaibhfearaibh AND firfirfirfir (1, 20-23) men, menfolk thirds namhaidnamhaidnamhaidnamhaid -ibh-ibh-ibh-ibh (20d) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna (15) enemies

(iii) /əntə/ in

ceathrúceathrúceathrúceathrú ceathrúntaceathrúntaceathrúntaceathrúnta (1) quarters lálálálá laethantalaethantalaethantalaethanta (1-23) days méarméarméarméar méireantaméireantaméireantaméireanta (15, 20) fingers

(iv) /tə/ with allomorph /hə/ after /r/ and change of a preceding Y-system to A-

system in bánbánbánbán bántabántabántabánta (1) dry meadows 15) books béalbéalbéalbéal béaltabéaltabéaltabéalta (1) mouths bliainbliainbliainbliain bliantabliantabliantablianta (1-23) years braonbraonbraonbraon óilóilóilóil braontabraontabraontabraonta óilóilóilóil (20) (alcoholic) drinks earthenware pots bruíonbruíonbruíonbruíon bruíontabruíontabruíontabruíonta (1, 15, 20) fights

cliamhaincliamhaincliamhaincliamhain /kl´iən´/ cliamhantacliamhantacliamhantacliamhanta (1) sons in law

cráincráincráincráin crántacrántacrántacránta (1-22) sows cuancuancuancuan cuantacuantacuantacuanta (1-11, 18, 20) harbors

luchluchluchluch luchaidhluchaidhluchaidhluchaidh (11-20) luchaluchaluchalucha

neadneadneadnead neadaibhneadaibhneadaibhneadaibh AND neadachaneadachaneadachaneadacha

peannpeannpeannpeann peannaibhpeannaibhpeannaibhpeannaibh (20d) pinnpinnpinnpinn (15) pens sálsálsálsál sálaibhsálaibhsálaibhsálaibh (20d) sálasálasálasála (1-15, 20,

scianscianscianscian scinibhscinibhscinibhscinibh (22) knives

scuabscuabscuabscuab -aibh-aibh-aibh-aibh (20d) -a-a-a-a (1, 18) brooms

spealspealspealspeal -aibh-aibh-aibh-aibh (20d, 22) -a-a-a-a (11-20)

sreangsreangsreangsreang sreangaibhsreangaibhsreangaibhsreangaibh (20d) cords triantriantriantrian treanaibhtreanaibhtreanaibhtreanaibh AND treanatreanatreanatreana (20d)

oícheoícheoícheoíche oícheantaoícheantaoícheantaoícheanta (1-23) nights uairuairuairuair uaireantauaireantauaireantauaireanta (1-23) times

IeabharIeabharIeabharIeabhar -tha-tha-tha-tha (18-20) leabhairleabhairleabhairleabhair (1-

líonlíonlíonlíon líontalíontalíontalíonta (1-20, 23) nets lúnlúnlúnlún dubhdubhdubhdubh lúntalúntalúntalúnta dúdúdúdú (1) blackbirds oigheanoigheanoigheaoigheann oigheantaoigheantaoigheantaoigheanta (11-15, 20)

pianpianpianpian piantapiantapiantapianta (1-20) pains réalréalréalréal réaltaréaltaréaltaréalta (1) sixpenny pieces

scéalscéalscéalscéal scéaltascéaltascéaltascéalta (1-23) stories seolseolseolseol seoltaseoltaseoltaseolta (1-23) sails

díondíondíondíon díontadíontadíontadíonta (11-15) roofs geallgeallgeallgeall gealltagealltagealltageallta (1) wagers giallgiallgiallgiall gialltagialltagialltagiallta (1) jaws gleanngleanngleanngleann gleanntagleanntagleanntagleannta (1-20, 23) valleys

gléasgléasgléasgléas gléastagléastagléastagléasta (1) instruments (v) /t´ə/ with allomorph /h´ə/ after /r/ (and occasionally after a vowel) and change of a preceding A-system to Y-system in

aillaillaillaill aillteaillteaillteaillte (22-23) cliffs abhainnabhainnabhainnabhainn abhainnteabhainnteabhainnteabhainnte (22) rivers bánbánbánbán báintebáintebáintebáinte (15) dry meadows boghaboghaboghabogha boghaiteboghaiteboghaiteboghaite (20) bows stewards

bróbróbróbró bróitebróitebróitebróite (1, 18-20) querns (11) mills claíomhclaíomhclaíomhclaíomh cluitecluitecluitecluite (11-20, 23) swords cloidheamhcloidheamhcloidheamhcloidheamh /klaiv/ cluitecluitecluitecluite (1) swords earthenware pots cliamhaincliamhaincliamhaincliamhain cleamhnaithecleamhnaithecleamhnaithecleamhnaithe (11-15,20) sons in law spades cnócnócnócnó cnóitecnóitecnóitecnóite (1) cnóannacnóannacnóannacnóanna (15-18) nuts

coillcoillcoillcoill coilltecoilltecoilltecoillte (1-22) woods

cráincráincráincráin cráintecráintecráintecráinte (23) sows crócrócrócró cróitecróitecróitecróite (1, 15-20) crowbars,sties,needle eyes 20) masons crúcrúcrúcrú cruitecruitecruitecruite (1-23) horseshoes 20) spears croícroícroícroí croíthecroíthecroíthecroíthe (11) hearts cúcúcúcú cuitecuitecuitecuite (20) dogs cúlcúlcúlcúl cúiltecúiltecúiltecúilte (1) coves dlídlídlídlí dlitedlitedlitedlite (1, 11) dlithedlithedlithedlithe (15) laws

draoidraoidraoidraoi /dre/ draoithedraoithedraoithedraoithe (11) fishing lines tightightightigh tithetithetithetithe (1-20) tetetete teitheannateitheannateitheannateitheanna (22-23) houses

dródródródró doirithedoirithedoirithedoirithe (1) fishing lines drúdrúdrúdrú doirithedoirithedoirithedoirithe (18) druitedruitedruitedruite (20-23) fishing lines (measure) gleanngleanngleanngleann glinnteglinnteglinnteglinnte (22) valleys 15) axes guíguíguíguí guitheguitheguitheguithe (1) prayers, wishes

(vi) /həxə/ with variants /hrəxə/ and /rəxə/ and allomorphs /təxə/ and /trəxə/ after

/n/ /l/ and change of a preceding Y-system to A-system in

bléanbléanbléanbléan bléantrachabléantrachabléantrachabléantracha (1, 15) groins beds boahaboahaboahaboaha boghathachaboghathachaboghathachaboghathacha (11) bows (22) beds claíclaíclaíclaí clathachaclathachaclathachaclathacha (1-20) hedges (11-18) beds cloidhecloidhecloidhecloidhe /kləi/ clathachaclathachaclathachaclathacha (22) hedges cloidhecloidhecloidhecloidhe /kləi/ cluthachacluthachacluthachacluthacha (23) hedges of lightning cneacneacneacnea cneathachacneathachacneathachacneathacha (18-20) wounds cnuimhcnuimhcnuimhcnuimh cnathachacnathachacnathachacnathacha (1, 20) worms ropes croícroícroícroí crathachacrathachacrathachacrathacha (15) hearts tongues dingdingdingding deangthachadeangthachadeangthachadeangthacha (11) wedges tongues éanéanéanéan éantrachaéantrachaéantrachaéantracha (1) éinéinéinéin (11-20) birds leabaleabaleabaleaba leabthacha>leapàchaleabthacha>leapàchaleabthacha>leapàchaleabthacha>leapàcha (1, 20) beds

síolsíolsíolsíol síoltasíoltasíoltasíolta (1-15, 20, 23) seeds spealspealspealspeal spealtaspealtaspealtaspealta (23) scythes sriansriansriansrian sriantasriantasriantasrianta (1, 18, 23) bridles tírtírtírtír tíorthatíorthatíorthatíortha (1, 20) lands, countries

laolaolaolao laoithelaoithelaoithelaoithe /leh´ə/ (11) calves líonlíonlíonlíon líntelíntelíntelínte (22) nets mámámámá máitemáitemáitemáite (20) mánnamánnamánnamánna (15) trumps maormaormaormaor maoirthemaoirthemaoirthemaoirthe (23) maoirmaoirmaoirmaoir (1-20)

muileannmuileannmuileannmuileann muiltemuiltemuiltemuilte (1, 20) muilinnmuilinnmuilinnmuilinn

níníníní nithenithenithenithe (15, 18) things oigheannoigheannoigheannoigheann oighinnteoighinnteoighinnteoighinnte (18)

rámhannrámhannrámhanrámhannn /rann/ rámhainnterámhainnterámhainnterámhainnte (11)

réréréré réiteréiteréiteréite (1) heather moors

rírírírí riteriteriterite (1-20, 23) kings

rónrónrónrón róinteróinteróinteróinte (1-11, 18-23) seals saorsaorsaosaorr saoirthesaoirthesaoirthesaoirthe (23) saoirsaoirsaoirsaoir (1, 15,

sleasleasleaslea sleaitesleaitesleaitesleaite (1) sleathannasleathannasleathannasleathanna (18-

slíslíslíslí sliteslitesliteslite (1-20) ways sliabhsliabhsliabhsliabh sléitesléitesléitesléite (1-23) mountains sluaghsluaghsluaghsluagh sluaitesluaitesluaitesluaite (1-15, 20) crowds ---- táintetáintetáintetáinte (20) herds of cattle

tlútlútlútlú tluitetluitetluitetluite (18-20) tongs troightroightroightroigh troithetroithetroithetroithe (1-23) feet

tuaghtuaghtuaghtuagh tuaitetuaitetuaitetuaite (1, 20) tuannatuannatuannatuanna (11-

tuiletuiletuiletuile tuiltetuiltetuiltetuilte (20) high tides

leabaleabaleabaleaba leabthacha>leapachaleabthacha>leapachaleabthacha>leleabthacha>leapachaapacha (23)

leabaleabaleabaleaba leabthracha>leaprachaleabthracha>leaprachaleabthracha>leapraleabthracha>leaprachacha

leabaidhleabaidhleabaidhleabaidh leabthacha>leapàchaleabthacha>leapàchaleabthacha>lealeabthacha>leapàchapàcha

neadneadneadnead neadrachaneadrachaneadrachaneadracha (1, 15) nests splancsplancsplancsplanc -racha-racha-racha-racha (1, 22-23) flashes

stailstailstailstail staltrachastaltrachastaltrachastaltracha (22) stallions téadtéadtéadtéad téadrachatéadrachatéadrachatéadracha (15) téadatéadatéadatéada (1, 20)

teangateangateangateanga teangthachateangthachateangthachateangthacha (18, 23)

teangateangateangateanga teangthrachateangthrachateangthrachateangthracha (22)

tírtírtírtír tíorthachatíorthachatíorthachatíorthacha (11) countries tonntonntonntonn tonntachatonntachatonntachtonntachaa (18-20)

tonntrachatonntrachatonntrachatonntracha (1,22) waves (vii) /h´əxə/ with variants /hr´əxə/ and /r´əxə/ and allomorphs /t´əxə/ and /tr´əxə/ after /n/ /l/ and change of a preceding A-system to Y-system in

binnbinnbinnbinn binnteachabinnteachabinnteachabinnteacha (20) gables, peaks chair wings bléinbléinbléinbléin bléinteachabléinteachabléinteachabléinteacha (20) groins

buailebuailebuailebuaile buailteachabuailteachabuailteachabuailteacha (20) manure yards léin-eléin-eléin-eléin-e -teacha-teacha-teacha-teacha (15-20,23) -treacha-treacha-treacha-treacha (1,22) shirts

carraigcarraigcarraigcarraig carraigreachacarraigreachacarraigreachacarraigreacha (15-18, 22) rocks chimneys ceiríceiríceiríceirí ceirítheachaceirítheachaceirítheachaceirítheacha (1-15) poultices cuingcuingcuingcuing -theacha-theacha-theacha-theacha (1, 20d) -eanna-eanna-eanna-eanna (20p) yokes

slingslingslingsling slingtheachaslingtheachaslingtheacslingtheachaha (1) slates stailstailstailstail stailteachastailteachastailteachastailteacha (1, 15) stallions tin-etin-etin-etin-e -teacha-teacha-teacha-teacha (11-20,23) ----

dingdingdingding -theacha-theacha-theacha-theacha (1,18-20) -threacha-threacha-threacha-threacha (22) wedges treachatreachatreachatreacha (1,22) fires faillfaillfaillfaill -teacha-teacha-teacha-teacha (11,18-20) -treacha-treacha-treacha-treacha (1) cliffs

(viii) /sL/ - with two exceptions limited to loan words from English in the material

examined - in baitearaíbaitearaíbaitearaíbaitearaí baitearaíosbaitearaíosbaitearaíosbaitearaíos (15) batteries associates

cangarcangarcangarcangar cangarscangarscangarscangars (1, 18) conger eels

caraibheancaraibheancaraibheancaraibhean caraibheanscaraibheanscaraibheanscaraibheans (20) caravans peairtípeairtípeairtípeairtí peairtíospeairtíospeairtípeairtíosos (20) parties

feaigfeaigfeaigfeaig feagsfeagsfeagsfeags (20) fags fiúsaIfiúsaIfiúsaIfiúsaI fiúsaíosfiúsaíosfiúsaíosfiúsaíos (20) fuchsias sappers

leaidleaidleaidleaid leadsleadsleadsleads (15) leaideannaleaideannaleaideannaleaideanna (20) lads leòraíleòraíleòraíleòraí leòraíosleòraíosleòraíosleòraíos (20) lorries mótarmótarmótarmótar mótarsmótarsmótarsmótars (20) cars (1,15-18) turkeys

This morph forms an "extended plural" in the following items:

cíncíncíncín cíníoscíníoscíníoscíníos (20-22) breasts kids

gégégégé géíosgéíosgéíosgéíos (22) géannagéanna(1-20)géannagéanna

(ix) /nəxə/ /n´L/ /n´ə/ /n´əxə/ /n´i/ /nn´ə /nn´i/ /nt´ə/ in

abhaabhaabhaabha (20 abhainnabhainn)abhainnabhainn aibhneaibhneaibhneaibhne /əinn´ə/ (11) aibhníaibhníaibhníaibhní /əinn´i/ (15) aibhnteaibhnteaibhnteaibhnte /əint´ə/ (18, 20) rivers bróbróbróbró bróintebróintebróintebróinte (11-18, 22) querns comhracomhracomhracomhra comhrannachacomhrannachacomhrannachacomhrannacha (18, 22) comhrainneachacomhrainneachacomhrainneachacomhrainneacha (23) coffins comharsacomharsacomharsacomharsa comharsaincomharsaincomharsaincomharsain (1-22) neighbours cúcúcúcú cuincuincuincuin (15, 23) cuintecuintecuintecuinte [kint´ə] (1) dogs

dealgdealgdealgdealg dilgnedilgne(15,dilgnedilgne

eascúeascúeascúeascú eascúineascúineascúineascúin (1-20, 23) eels gabhagabhagabhagabha gaibhnegaibhnegaibhnegaibhne /gəinn´ə/ (1-11, 22-23) gaibhnígaibhnígaibhnígaibhní /gəinn´i/ (15) gaibhntegaibhntegaibhntegaibhnte /gəint´ə/ (18-20) smiths

gualagualagualaguala gualannachagualannachagualannachagualannacha (22) gualainneachagualainneachagualainneachagualainneacha (23) shoulders

iongaiongaiongaionga (1, 22-23 iongainiongain)iongainiongain ingneingne(11-18)ingneingne

lachalachalachalacha lachainlachainlachainlachain (1-23) ducks lánúlánúlánúlánú lánúnachalánúnachalánúnachalánúnacha (18) married couplss lorgalorgalorgalorga loirgneloirgneloirgneloirgne (11, 20) loirgneachaloirgneachaloirgneachaloirgneacha (18) lorgaílorgaílorgaílorgaí (1) shins luibhluibhluibhluibh (1 luigeluige)luigeluige luibheannacha>luíonnachaluibheannacha>luíonnachaluibheannacha>luíonnachaluibheannacha>luíonnacha (11-18) luibheannaluibheannaluibheannaluibheanna (20) luigíluigíluigíluigí (1) herbs uilleuilleuilleuille uillinneuillinneuillinneuillinne (11-15) elbows (x) The following plural forms are morphological "sports":

arúrarúrarúrarúr arúintíarúintíarúintíarúintí (1, 15) grain crops beanbeanbeanbean mnámnámnámná (1-23) women bóbóbóbó babababa (1-23) cows caoracaoracaoracaora /kirə/ caoirecaoirecaoirecaoire (1,15-23) sheep fox caoracaoracaoracaora /kirə/ caoirighcaoirighcaoirighcaoirigh (11) sheep

gualagualagualaguala guailteachaguailteachaguailteachaguailteacha (20) shoulders,

léimléimléimléim léimreachaléimreachaléimreachaléimreacha (1) leaps

simnésimnésimnésimné simnéitheachasimnéitheachasimnéisimnéitheachatheacha (11-18)

pairtípairtípairtípairtí páirtíospáirtíospáirtíospáirtíos (20) companions,

pílearpílearpílearpílear pílearspílearspílearspílears (1, 18) policemen

pupaíospupaíospupaíospupaíos (20) puppies saparsaparsaparsapar saparssaparssaparssapars AND sapairsapairsapairsapair (20)

slaparslaparslaparslapar slaparsslaparsslaparsslapars (20) branches tractartractartractartractar tractarstractarstractarstractars (20) tractors turcaíturcaíturcaíturcaí turcaíosturcaíosturcaíosturcaíos (20) turcaitheturcaitheturcaitheturcaithe

scoláirescoláirescoláirescoláire scoláiríosscoláiríosscoláiríosscoláiríos (20) school

geese

18c) dilgneachadilgneachadilgneachadilgneacha (11, 18s) dilgnídilgnídilgnídilgní (1) thorns

ingneachaingneachaingneachaingneacha (20) iongainíiongainíiongainíiongainí (1, 22-23) nails

gualagualagualaguala guailleguailleguailleguaille (11-18) shoulders lunglunglunglung luingeasluingeasluingeasluingeas (18) ships laolaolaolao /le/ laoilaoilaoilaoi /li/ (1, 20-23) calves madamadamadamada ruaruaruarua madaraímadaraímadaraímadaraí ruaruaruarua (1, 15-23)

madamadamadamada ruaruaruarua madaraímadaraímadaraímadaraí ruatharuatharuatharuatha (11)

fox

duineduineduineduine daoinedaoinedaoinedaoine (1, 15-23) daoinídaoinídaoinídaoiní (11) people weddings éanéanéanéan éanlaitheéanlaitheéanlaitheéanlaithe (1, 15-22) birds, fowls

feafeafeafea feáfeáfeáfeá (18-23) feathannafeathannafeathannafeathanna ((1,((

gníomhgníomhgníomhgníomh gníomhartha>gníorthagníomhartha>gníorthagníomhartha>gníorthagníomhartha>gníortha (15, 20) acts

11, 20) fathoms

pósadhpósadhpósadhpósadh pósaíochtapósaíochtapósaíochtapósaíochta (11, 20)

pósadhpósadhpósadhpósadh póstaípóstaípóstaípóstaí (1, 15) weddings pósadhpósadhpósadhpósadh póstaíochapóstaíochapóstaíochapóstaíocha (18) weddings talamhtalamhtalamhtalamh talúintítalúintítaltalúintíúintí (1-20) lands

55. In CASE, base is unmarked and genitive, prepositional and vocative are marked.

The basic rules may be described as follows:

56. In the SINGULAR MASCULINE, prepositional is identical to base while genitive and

vocative are marked by the morph /YL/.

Examples:

bádbádbádbád báidbáidbáidbáid boat cailíncailíncailíncailín cailíncailíncailíncailín girl (for sandhi, see 24) málamálamálamála málamálamálamála sack (for sandhi, see 24)

(20) samhradhsamhradhsamhradhsamhradh samhraidhsamhraidhsamhraidhsamhraidh summer (for sandhi, see 24) Notwithstanding what has been stated above, a masculine noun the BASE form of which ends in a long vowel + /r´/ is marked in the GENITIVE by changing the final Y- system into an A-system and adding the morph /ə/:

Examples:

(15) pinsinéirpinsinéirpinsinéirpinsinéir pinsinéarapinsinéarapinsinéarapinsinéara pensioner (1-20) muilteoirmuilteoirmuilteoirmuilteoir muilteoramuilteoramuilteoramuilteora miller (1-20) saighdiúirsaighdiúirsaighdiúirsaighdiúir saighdiúrasaighdiúrasaighdiúrasaighdiúra soldier

57. In the SINGULAR FEMININE, (i) vocative is identical to base and (ii) prepositional is

identical to base except in (11)(18) where it is marked /YL/ and in (15)(23) where it is optionally so marked while (iii) genitive is marked /Yə/.

Examples: (ii)

(11-18, 23) fuinneogfuinneogfuinneogfuinneog fuinneoigfuinneoigfuinneoigfuinneoig window (11, 18) téadtéadtéadtéad téidtéidtéidtéid rope (11, 18) áitáitáitáit áitáitáitáit place (for sandhi, see 24) (11, 18) gloinegloinegloinegloine gloinegloinegloinegloine glass (for sandhi, see 24)

(iii) cearccearccearccearc circecircecircecirce hen (for sandhi, see 25) áitáitáitáit áiteáiteáiteáite place (for sandhi, see 24) gégégégé gégégégé goose (for sandhi, see 24 and 27)

58. In the PLURAL vocative, prepositional and genitive are identical to base except in

the following cases:

(i) In (11), (18) and to a markedly lesser extent in (15), a marked prepositional occurs in certain nominal paradigms. It is marked by suffixing the morph /əv´/ to the plural base. If the latter ends in a consonantal element, this is changed from a Y- to an A- system before adding the morph. This marked prepositional occurs in petrified prepositional noun phrases and in the structure

NUMERICAL EXPRESSION de PLURAL NOUN (11) báid:báid:báid:báid: arararar nananana bádaibhbádaibhbádaibhbádaibh on the boats (18) súile:súile:súile:súile: trítrítrítrí shúilibhshúilibhshúilibhshúilibh anananan chaitchaitchaitchait through the cat's eyes (15) caoire:caoire:caoire:caoire: cúigcúigcúigcúig nónónónó sésésésé dodododo chaoiribhchaoiribhchaoiribhchaoiribh five or six sheep (18) comharsain:comharsain:comharsain:comharsain: duineduineduineduine dodododo snasnasnasna comharsanaibhcomharsanaibhcomharsanaibhcomharsanaibh one of the

neighbors

(ii) In all subdialects but (1) and (22), a marked genitive occurs in the case of plurals ending in a Y-system consonantal element or ending in an A-system consonantal element followed by a plural morph /ə/. In the first case the Y-system is changed into an A-system; in the second the plural morph /ə/ is deleted.

Examples:

Examples:

(15) gabhairgabhairgabhairgabhair gabhargabhargabhargabhar goats (20) lachainlachainlachainlachain lachanlachanlachanlachan ducks (20) cosacosacosacosa coscoscoscos feet

60.

In the SINGULAR MASCULINE

(i)

Genitive is identical to base in lioslioslioslios (1) fairy ring rudrudrudrud (15, 20) thing sossossossos (20) rest

(ii)

The genitive morph is /A/ in athairathairathairathair atharatharatharathar (1-23) father and driotháirdriotháirdriotháirdriotháir driothárdriothárdriothárdriothár (1-

22) BUT driotháradriotháradriotháradriothára (23) brother.

(iii) The genitive morph is /ə/ with change of' preceding Y-system to A-system in

buachaillbuachaillbuachaillbuachaill buachallabuachallabuachallabuachalla (1-20) boy caccaccaccac cacacacacacacaca (20) shit ciothciothciothcioth ceathaceathaceathaceatha (11-18, 22) shower cíoscíoscíoscíos cíosacíosacíosacíosa (1, 15-18) rent new milk cliamhaincliamhaincliamhaincliamhain cleamhnacleamhnacleamhnacleamhna (11) son in law cnámhcnámhcnámhcnámh cnámha>cnácnámha>cnácnámha>cnácnámha>cná (1-20) bone anananan ComComComCom anananan ChomaChomaChomaChoma (20) place name dreamdreamdreamdream dreamadreamadreamadreama (15) group dromdromdromdrom dromadromadromadroma (1-23) back drúchtdrúchtdrúchtdrúcht drúchtadrúchtadrúchtadrúchta (20) dew fíonfíonfíonfíon fíonafíonafíonafíona (1-11, 18) wine (18) pilgrimage fiosfiosfiosfios feasafeasafeasafeasa (1-15, 20) knowledge (in set phrases)

(iv) The following genitive forms are morphological "sports":

biabiabiabia bídhbídhbídhbídh (11-20) bíbíbíbí (1, 23) food cúcúcúcú conconconcon (15) dog calf diadiadiadia dédédédé (1-20) god gnógnógnógnó gnóthagnóthagnóthagnótha (11-15) business imimimim imeimeimeime (11-23) butter

gamhaingamhaingamhaingamhain gamhnagamhnagamhnagamhna (1-15, 20) calf greimgreimgreimgreim greamagreamagreamagreama (1-15, 20) grip gleanngleanngleanngleann gleannagleannagleannagleanna (1-23) valley leamhnachtleamhnachtleamhnachtleamhnacht leamhnachtaleamhnachtaleamhnachtaleamhnachta (18-20)

leasleasleasleas leasaleasaleasaleasa (15) profit, betterment lioslioslioslios leasaleasaleasaleasa (15, 20) fairy ring lochlochlochloch lochalochalochalocha (20) lake rothrothrothroth rotharotharotharotha (15-20) wheel siocsiocsiocsioc seacaseacaseacaseaca (1-20, 23) frost sruthsruthsruthsruth srothasrothasrothasrotha (15) stream turasturasturasturas /trys/ turasaturasaturasaturasa (20) turaisturaisturaisturais

lálálálá laelaelaelae (1-23) day laolaolaolao /le/ laoilaoilaoilaoi /li/ (1-11, 20, 23)

sliabhsliabhsliabhsliabh sléslésléslé (1-23) mountain tightightightigh títítítí (1-23) house

61. In the SINGULAR FEMININE

Note that nouns listed below in sections (i)-(vi) have no marked prepositional unless

they also figure in sections (vii)-(xi).

(i)

Genitive is identical to base in iascaireachtiascaireachtiascaireachtiascaireacht (1) fishing maighistreásmaighistreásmaighistreásmaighistreás (1) mistress

(ii)

The genitive morph is /A/ in

abhainnabhainnabhainnabhainn abhannabhannabhannabhann (20-22) river baclainnbaclainnbaclainnbaclainn baclannbaclannbaclannbaclann (1) bosom CáiscCáiscCáiscCáisc CáscCáscCáscCásc (22-23) Easter cistincistincistincistin cisteancisteancisteancistean (15-20) kitchen Saints' day

gualainngualainngualainngualainn gualanngualanngualanngualann (1) shoulder iongainiongainiongainiongain ionganionganionganiongan (1) nail

(iii) Tha genitive morph is /ə/ with change of preceding Y-system to A-system in

bliainbliainbliainbliain blianablianablianabliana (1-23) year CáiscCáiscCáiscCáisc CáscaCáscaCáscaCásca (1, 13) Easter draíochtdraíochtdraíochtdraíocht draíochtadraíochtadraíochtadraíochta (15-20, 23) magic feoilfeoilfeoilfeoil feolafeolafeolafeola (1-23) meat, flesh fuilfuilfuilfuil folafolafolafola (1-23) blood wool iascaireachtiascaireachtiascaireachtiascaireacht iascaireachtaiascaireachtaiascaireachtaiascaireachta (15) fishing Saints' day lochlochlochloch lochalochalochalocha (1-15, 22-23) lake

(iv) The genitive morph is /əx/ frequently with change of a preceding Y-system to A-

system in beoirbeoirbeoirbeoir beorachbeorachbeorachbeorach (20) beer cabhaircabhaircabhaircabhair cabhrachcabhrachcabhrachcabhrach (1, 20) carcase cabhaircabhaircabhaircabhair cabhrachcabhrachcabhrachcabhrach (1-11) help cathaoircathaoircathaoircathaoir cathaoireachcathaoireachcathaoireachcathaoireach (1-23) chair "brains", memory cathaircathaircathaircathair cathrachcathrachcathrachcathrach (1, 18) city

lorgainlorgainlorgainlorgain lorganlorganlorganlorgan (15) shin máthairmáthairmáthairmáthair mátharmátharmátharmáthar (1-23) mother NollaigNollaigNollaigNollaig NollagNollagNollagNollag (1-23) Christmas SamhainSamhainSamhainSamhain SamhanSamhanSamhanSamhan (20-23) All

uillinnuillinnuillinnuillinn uilleannuilleannuilleannuilleann (1, 20) elbow

luachairluachairluachairluachair luachraluachraluachraluachra (1, 15-18) rush milmilmilmil mealamealamealameala (1-11, 22) honey móinmóinmóinmóin mónamónamónamóna (1-23) peat muirmuirmuirmuir maramaramaramara (1-11, 18-23) sea olannolannolannolann ollaollaollaolla (15-18) olainneolainneolainneolainne (1)

SamhainSamhainSamhainSamhain SamhnaSamhnaSamhSamhnana (11-18) All

sruthsruthsruthsruth sruthasruthasruthasrutha (20) stream

lasairlasairlasairlasair lasrachlasrachlasrachlasrach (1-11, 20) flame leitirleitirleitirleitir leitreachleitreachleitreachleitreach (1-15, 20) letter mallúirmallúirmallúirmallúir mallúrachmallúrachmallúrachmallúrach (1) neap tide meabhairmeabhairmeabhairmeabhair meabhrachmeabhrachmeabhracmeabhrachh (1-15)

paidirpaidirpaidirpaidir paidreachpaidreachpaidreachpaidreach (1-20) prayer

coróinncoróinncoróinncoróinn coróinneachcoróinneachcoróinneachcoróinneach (11, 18) crown cráincráincráincráin cránachcránachcránachcránach (1-20) sow easaireasaireasaireasair easracheasracheasracheasrach (1-20, 23) straw litter eòchaireòchaireòchaireòchair eòchracheòchracheòchracheòchrach (1-20) key girth feirmfeirmfeirmfeirm feirmeachfeirmeachfeirmeachfeirmeach (1, 18-20) farm stallion gabháilgabháilgabháilgabháil gabhálachgabhálachgabhálachgabhálach (1, 20) armful glúinglúinglúinglúin glúineachglúineachglúineachglúineach (11) glúineglúineglúineglúine (11-20, 23) knee country inneoininneoininneoininneoin inneonachinneonachinneonachinneonach (1-20) anvil 22) cart láirláirláirláir lárachlárachlárachlárach (1-23) mare pannier

práinnpráinnpráinnpráinn práinneachpráinneachpráinneachpráinneach (1) necessity rásúirrásúirrásúirrásúir rásúrachrásúrachrásúrachrásúrach (20) razor spéirspéirspéirspéir spéireachspéireachspéireaspéireachch (18-22) sky sratharsratharsratharsrathar srathrachsrathrachsrathrachsrathrach (20) saddle

stailstailstailstail stalachstalachstalachstalach (23) stailestailestailestaile (1-20)

stiúirstiúirstiúirstiúir stiúrachstiúrachstiúrachstiúrach (1, 18-20) rudder tírtírtírtír tíreachtíreachtíreachtíreach (1, 18) tíretíretíretíre (11-15)

trucailtrucailtrucailtrucail -each-each-each-each (18-20) -e-e-e-e (1-15,

úimúimúimúim úmachúmachúmachúmach (1, 18-22) double

(v) The genitive morph is /n/ in

abhaabhaabhaabha abhannabhannabhannabhann (11-18) river baclabaclabaclabacla baclannbaclannbaclannbaclann (15) bosom bearnabearnabearnabearna bearnanbearnanbearnanbearnan (I5-20) bearnabearnabearnabearna (1) gap comharsacomharsacomharsacomharsa -n-n-n-n (11-20, 23) -0-0-0-0 (1) neighbor ceártaceártaceártaceárta ceártanceártanceártanceártan (1-20) smithy comhracomhracomhracomhra comhranncomhranncomhranncomhrann (15-20) coffin cuileàchtacuileàchtacuileàchtacuileàchta -n-n-n-n (18s) -0-0-0-0 (1, 18c, 20) company eyebrow cuislecuislecuislecuisle cuisleanncuisleanncuisleanncuisleann (15) pulse dearnadearnadearnadearna -nn-nn-nn-nn (15, 20) -0-0-0-0 (1, 22) handful eascúeascúeascúeascú eascúneascúneascúneascún (1-20) eel

(vi) The following genitive forms are morphological "sports"

beanbeanbeanbean mnámnámnámná (1-23) woman

caoracaoracaoracaora /kirə/ caoireachcaoireachcaoireachcaoireach /ker´əx/ (1-23) sheep

(18) bed

driofúrdriofúrdriofúrdriofúr driféardriféardriféardriféar (1-23) sister

ÉireÉireÉireÉire ÉireannÉireannÉireannÉireann (1-23) Ireland gualagualagualaguala gualanngualanngualanngualann (11-23), shoulder iongaiongaiongaionga ionganionganionganiongan (11-18) nail lachalachalachalacha lachanlachanlachanlachan (1-22) duck lánúlánúlánúlánú lánúnlánúnlánúnlánún (18) married couple leiteleiteleiteleite leiteanleiteanleiteanleitean (1-22) porridge malamalamalamala malannmalannmalannmalann (15) malamalamalamala (1, 23)

teangateangateangateanga teanganteanganteanganteangan (1-22) tongue uilleuilleuilleuille uilleannuilleannuilleannuilleann (15, 18c) elbow ursaursaursaursa ursannursannursannursann (15) door post

leabaleabaleabaleaba leapanleapanleapanleapan (1, 20-23) bed leabaidhleabaidhleabaidhleabaidh leapanleapanleapanleapan (11-15) leapaleapaleapaleapa

talamhtalamhtalamhtalamh talúntalúntalúntalún (1, 15, 20) land

(vii)

marked prepositional forms, following the basic rule, occur outside the points

(11)

(15) (18) (23) ln the following subdialects and items:

(1) clannclannclannclann children gealàchgealàchgealàchgealàch moon

(20) adharcadharcadharcadharc horn báisteachbáisteachbáisteachbáisteach rain cearccearccearccearc hen cluascluascluascluas ear clannclannclannclann children croscroscroscros cross féasógféasógféasógféasóg

beard fearsadfearsadfearsadfearsad spindle gealàchgealàchgealàchgealàch moon gríosachgríosachgríosachgríosach embers lámhlámhlámhlámh hand IeabaIeabaIeabaIeaba bed leacleacleacleac

slab raithneachraithneachraithneachraithneach fern sálsálsálsál heel scornachscornachscornachscornach throat sluasadsluasadsluasadsluasad shovel tonntonntonntonn wave tuaghtuaghtuaghtuagh axe

(22) cluascluascluascluas ear coscoscoscos foot gealàchgealàchgealàchgealàch moon griangriangriangrian sun lámhlámhlámhlámh hand mucmucmucmuc pig srónsrónsrónsrón nose

(viii) The prepositional morph is /n´L/ in bearnabearnabearnabearna bearnainbearnainbearnainbearnain (15-18) gap eel bóbóbóbó buinbuinbuinbuin (11, 18) bóbóbóbó (15, 23) cow

ceathrúceathrúceathrúceathrú ceathrúinceathrúinceathrúinceathrúin (18, 20) quarter

(23) duck

ceártaceártaceártaceárta ceártainceártainceártainceártain (1, 15-18) ceártaceártaceártaceárta (23) smithy comharsacomharsacomharsacomharsa comharsaincomharsaincomharsaincomharsain (11-20, 23) neighbor cuileàchtacuileàchtacuileàchtacuileàchta cuileàchtaincuileàchtaincuileàchtaincuileàchtain (18s) company

(ix) The prepositional morph is /nn'L/ in

abhaabhaabhaabha abhainnabhainnabhainnabhainn (11-18) river shoulder baclabaclabaclabacla baclainnbaclainnbaclainnbaclainn (15) bosom comhracomhracomhracomhra comhrainncomhrainncomhrainncomhrainn (15, 18) coffin limit cuislecuislecuislecuisle cuislinncuislinncuislinncuislinn (15) pulse elbow dearnadearnadearnadearna dearnainndearnainndearnainndearnainn (15) handful

malamalamalamala malainnmalainnmalainnmalainn (15) eyebrow teorateorateorateora teorainnteorainnteorainnteorainn (11-20) teorateorateorateora (20)

eascúeascúeascúeascú eascúineascúineascúineascúin (11-18) eascúeascúeascúeascú (23)

iongaiongaiongaionga iongainiongainiongainiongain (11-18) nail lachalachalachalacha lachainlachainlachainlachain (11-18, 22) lachalachalachalacha

lánúlánúlánúlánú lánúinlánúinlánúinlánúin (18) married couple leabaleabaleabaleaba leabainleabainleabaleabainin (22-23) bed teangateangateangateanga teangainteangainteangaiteangainn (11-18) tongue

gualagualagualaguala gualainngualainngualainngualainn (11-18, 22-23)

uilleuilleuilleuille uillinnuillinnuillinnuillinn (15-18c) uilleuilleuilleuille (18w)

ursaursaursaursa ursainnursainnursainnursainn (15) doorpost

ÉireÉireÉireÉire ÉirinnÉirinnÉirinnÉirinn (11-20, 23) Ireland

(x) The following prepositional form is a morphological "sport"

beanbeanbeanbean mnaoimnaoimnaoimnaoi (18s, 22) beanbeanbeanbean (11-18, 23) woman

(xi) The vocative morph is /YL/ in

cailleàchcailleàchcailleàchcailleàch aaaa chaillighchaillighchaillighchailligh (1, 15, 20) hag léirmheirdreachléirmheirdreachléirmheirdreachléirmheirdreach aaaa léirmheirdrighléirmheirdrighléirmheirdrighléirmheirdrigh (20) hussy

óinseachóinseachóinseachóinseach aaaa hóinsighhóinsighhóihóinsighnsigh (20) idiot striapachstriapachstriapastriapachch aaaa striapaighstriapaighstriapaighstriapaigh (20) whore

62. In the PLURAL (i) The following genitive forms are morphological "sports"

babababa bóbóbóbó (15) babababa (1-11, 18-23) cows caoire*caoire*caoire*caoire* caoireachcaoireachcaoireachcaoireach /ker'əx/ (1-23) sheep glúineglúineglúineglúine glúnglúnglúnglún (11-20) knees * (11) caoirighcaoirighcaoirighcaoirigh

(ii) The following prepositional form is a morphological "sport"

babababa buaibhbuaibhbuaibhbuaibh (11-10) cows

(iii) The following vocative form is a morphological "sport"

firfirfirfir aaaa fhearaibhfhearaibhfhearaibhfhearaibh (15) men

mnámnámnámná banbanbanban (11-20) women súilesúilesúilesúile súlsúlsúlsúl (11-23) eyes

THE ADJECTIVE

63. Adjectival flexion in Munster Irish is limited to the attributive adjective and the

formation of the comparative. The predicative adjective is indeclinable.

64. It is true, if misleading, to say that the attributive adjective agrees with its noun

(which it follows) in gender, number and case. GENDER contrasts are limited to the singular only. Concord in NUMBER is automatic except for a noun plus adjective preceded by the numeral dhádhádhádhá 2. In this case the noun has the singular prepositional form and the adjective has the plural form with initial lenition where possible. As has been pointed out in section 45 above, the group noun plus adjective is a rare occurrence in genitive position. In prepositional position it is less infrequent. In vocative position it is exceedingly rare in normal discourse. The basic rule appears to be: in petrified expressions both noun and adjective have marked case forms but in spontaneously generated expressions case contrasts are neutralized and only the base form is used.

65. The flexion of the base form is as follows:

SINGULAR MASCULINE is unmarked.

Example:

SINGULAR FEMININE is marked /L/.

Example:

bhagarthachbhagarthachbhagarthachbhagarthach a bad tempered PLURAL is marked /ə/.

Examples:

(20) leaidleaidleaidleaid deasdeasdeasdeas séimhséimhséimhséimh a nice quiet lad

(20) caoraLcaoraLcaoraLcaoraL maolLmaolLmaolLmaolL bagarthachLbagarthachLbagarthachLbagarthachL >>>> caoracaoracaoracaora mhaolmhaolmhaomhaoll

(1) bliantabliantabliantablianta maithemaithemaithemaithe good years (11) cnaipícnaipícnaipícnaipí beagabeagabeagabeaga little buttons (15) cailínícailínícailínícailíní ógaógaógaóga young girls (20) seomraíseomraíseomraíseomraí aiteaiteaiteaite curious rooms

hornless sheep

66. When the plural morph is added to an unmarked form ending in /ul´/, the final

Y-system consonantal element is changed into an A-system element.

Example:

(20) buachaillíbuachaillíbuachaillíbuachaillí éifeachtúlaéifeachtúlaéifeachtúlaéifeachtúla competent lads

67. If the unmarked form ends in /əx/, the plural morph appears not to be realised.

Example:

(15) daoinedaoinedaoinedaoine míámharachmíámharachmíámharachmíámharach unfortunate people

68. In (11), if the unmarked form ends in a long vocalic element, /h/ is inserted

between it and the plural morph.

Examples:

(11) rudaírudaírudaírudaí nóthanóthanóthanótha new things In the case of the adjective breábreábreábreá fine, the plural form breáthabreáthabreáthabreátha occurs in points (1-22).

(11) cnaipícnaipícnaipícnaipí beagabeagabeagabeaga buíthebuíthebuíthebuíthe little yellow buttons

69. The following irregular plural forms occur:

breábreábreábreá breáchabreáchabreáchabreácha (23) fine dubhdubhdubhdubh dúdúdúdú (1-22) black milismilismilismilis milsemilsemilsemilse (1-20) míslemíslemíslemísle (11-15) sweet

ísealísealísealíseal ísleísleísleísle (15-20) low tetetete teoteoteoteo (18) hot uasaluasaluasaluasal uaisleuaisleuaisleuaisle (1-20) noble

70. In case flexion, the adjective follows the basic rule for the noun in the singular

see sections 56 and 57 above) and has no flexion in the plural. Consequently, taking sandhi rules into account, only the following contrastive forms may occur:

(i) SINGULAR MASCULINE GENITIVE of items ending in A-system consonantal elements.

Examples:

(11) scéalscéalscéalscéal anananan GhadaíGhadaíGhadaíGhadaí DhuibhDhuibhDhuibhDhuibh the tale of the Black Robber

(11) tightightightigh anananan RidireRidireRidireRidire ChaomhánaighChaomhánaighChaomhánaighChaomhánaigh the house of the

Kavanagh knight

(20) iiii gcionngcionngcionngcionn tamailltamailltamailltamaill mhóirmhóirmhóirmhóir after a good while

(ii) SINGULAR FEMININE GENITIVE of items ending in consonants.

Examples:

(1) cloigtheàchcloigtheàchcloigtheàchcloigtheàch AirdeAirdeAirdeAirde MóireMóireMóireMóire the Ardmore round tower

(18) DiarmaidDiarmaidDiarmaidDiarmaid nananana FéasóigeFéasóigeFéasóigeFéasóige DirgeDirgeDirgeDirge Diarmaid Redbeard (20) turasturasturasturas CilleCilleCilleCille BigeBigeBigeBige the Cill Bheag pilgrimage (20) iiii lárlárlárlár nananana PáircePáircePáircePáirce BáineBáineBáineBáine in the middle of the White Field

(iii) SINGULAR FEMININE PREPOSITIONAL of items ending in A-system consonantal

elements.

Example:

(1) inininin AirdAirdAirdAird MhóirMhóirMhóirMhóir in Ardmore

71. The COMPARATIVE FORM of the adjective is formed by adding the morph /Yə/ to

the unmarked form. Examples:

(1) deasdeasdeasdeas deisedeisedeisedeise nice (sandhi, see 25) (20) soibhirsoibhirsoibhirsoibhir soibhiresoibhiresoibhiresoibhire rich (sandhi, see 24) (20) tanaítanaítanaítanaí tanaítanaítanaítanaí thin (sandhi, see 24 and 27) (1-15) salàchsalàchsalàchsalàch suilichesuilichesuilichesuiliche dirty (sandhi, see 35)

72. The following secondary rules occur:

(i) The morph is /i/, before which /x/ becomes /h/, in

balbhbalbhbalbhbalbh balbhaíbalbhaíbalbhaíbalbhaí (11) bailíbailíbailíbailí (15) dumb baochbaochbaochbaoch baothaíbaothaíbaothaíbaothaí (1-15) thankful cúngcúngcúngcúng cúngaícúngaícúngaícúngaí (15) cúingecúingecúingecúinge (20) narrow well off dánadánadánadána dánaídánaídánaídánaí (22) bold, bad dealbhdealbhdealbhdealbh dealbhaídealbhaídealbhaídealbhaí (15) poor satisfied folamhfolamhfolamhfolamh folamhaífolamhaífolamhaífolamhaí (11-15) empty clear

(ii) The morph is /hə/ (1-22) /xə/ (23). The unmarked forms are monosyllables

ending in a long vowel or diphthong. beobeobeobeo beothabeothabeothabeotha (22) beochabeochabeochabeocha (23) lively

breábreábreábreá breáthabreáthabreáthabreátha (1-22) breáchabreáchabreáchabreácha (23) fine buíbuíbuíbuí buíthebuíthebuíthebuíthe (11) yellow

(iii) The following items are morphological sports

aibidhaibidhaibidhaibidh aibiúlaaibiúlaaibiúlaaibiúla (15, 20) ripe ardardardard aoirdeaoirdeaoirdeaoirde (1-23) high beagbeagbeagbeag lúlúlúlú (1-23) small críonacríonacríonacríona sinesinesinesine (11-15, 20) old dánadánadánadána dáinedáinedáinedáine (11-15) bold, bad deòcairdeòcairdeòcairdeòcair deòcradeòcradeòcradeòcra (15) difficult fat dóchadóchadóchadócha dóichídóichídóichídóichí (11-20) probable settled dubhdubhdubhdubh duítheduítheduítheduíthe (22) duíochaduíochaduíochaduíocha (23) black fadafadafadafada siasiasiasia (1-22) siathasiathasiathasiatha (23) long (time) fadafadafadafada siasiasiasia (1-18, 22) siathasiathasiathasiatha (23) fuidefuidefuidefuide (20) far fuiristfuiristfuiristfuirist fusafusafusafusa (1, 15-23) easy gearrgearrgearrgearr giorragiorragiorragiorra (1-20) short

gnáchgnáchgnáchgnách gnáthaígnáthaígnáthaígnáthaí (11) accustomed minicminicminicminic minicíminicíminicíminicí (1-23) often neaspleáchneaspleáchneaspleáchneaspleách neaspleáthaíneaspleáthaíneaspleáthaíneaspleáthaí (11-15)

sámhsámhsámhsámh sámhaísámhaísámhaísámhaí (15) soft sástasástasástasásta sástaísástaísástaísástaí (15) sástasástasástasásta (20)

soiléirsoiléirsoiléirsoiléir soiléirísoiléirísoiléirísoiléirí (15) soiléiresoiléiresoiléiresoiléire (20)

nónónónó nóthanóthanóthanótha (11-15) new ruaruaruarua ruatharuatharuatharuatha (11-15) russet red

gránnagránnagránnagránna gráinnegráinnegráinnegráinne (1-11, 22) ugly leathanleathanleathanleathan leitheleitheleitheleithe (1, 15) broad maithmaithmaithmaith fearrfearrfearrfearr (1-23) good mórmórmórmór mómómómó (1-23) big olcolcolcolc measameasameasameasa (1-20) bad reamharreamharreamharreamhar reimhereimhereimhereimhe /rai/ (1) /ri/ (11)

socairsocairsocairsocair socrasocrasocrasocra (11) socraísocraísocraísocraí (15)

tapaidhtapaidhtapaidhtapaidh tapúlatapúlatapúlatapúla (11-20) fast tetetete teoteoteoteo (1, 15-20) teochateochateochateocha (23) hot teasaíteasaíteasaíteasaí teoteoteoteo (11) hot tréantréantréantréan treisetreisetreisetreise (11-18) strong tirimtirimtirimtirim tíormatíormatíormatíorma (11) dry

THE ARTICLE AND OTHER NOMINAL PARTICLES

73. The only article which occurs in Munster Irish is the definite article. In semantic

content it is both particularizing and universalizing - as opposed to, say, the English definite article which is particularizing only. Thus nananana daoinedaoinedaoinedaoine are either "the people we are talking about" or "people in general" in contrast to daoinedaoinedaoinedaoine "some people".

74. The definite article accords with its noun in gender, number and case with the

solitary exception that the genitive plural form of the article is used in constructions requiring the genitive, no matter what restrictions are placed on the noun. Thus (20) GortGortGortGort nananana mBaintreachamBaintreachamBaintreachamBaintreacha Widows' Field where naNnaNnaNnaN is genitive in form and function whereas baintreachabaintreachabaintreachabaintreacha is the plural base of baintreachbaintreach,baintreachbaintreach not the genitive plural.

75. The forms of the definite article are as follows:

 

S.MASCULINE

S.FEMlNINE

PLURAL

BASE

anHanHanHanH

anLanLanLanL

naHnaHnaHnaH

GENITIVE

anLanLanLanL

naHnaHnaHnaH

naNnaNnaNnaN

PREPOSITIONAL

anNanNanNanN

anNanNanNanN

naHnaHnaHnaH

76. A secondary form of the prepositional singular, anLanLanLanL (both genders) occurs in the

following cases:

In (1) after the prepositions agagagag dededede dodododo féféféfé gogogogo dtídtídtídtí iiii trítrítrítrí before a noun with onset /k/ or /p/. In (11-20) obligatorily and in (22-23) optionally after the preposition iiii before all onsets but /f/. In (11-18, 22-23) after the prepositions dededede dodo.dodo In (20) after the preposition 'o'o.'o'o

77. AnAnAnAn nananana are realized phonetically as [ən] resp. [nə] except that anananan is realized as [n]

after vowels and optionally as [ə] between two consonants.

78. The demonstrative particles follow the noun (see further at section 151 below)

and must be accompanied by the article. Those with /s/-onset have two forms in (1-

20), the first being used after words ending in an A-system and the second after words ending in a Y-system. They are:

THIS (near speaker) THAT (near addressee) THAT (near neither)

sosososo seòseòseòseò (1-20) seòseòseòseò (22-23) sansansansan /syn/ sinsinsinsin (1-20) sinsinsinsin (22-23) údúdúdúd

79. The emphatic particle féinféinféinféin /f´en´~h´en´/ (11-18 variant féinigféinig)féinigféinig follows the

noun (see further at section 151 below) and must be accompanied by the article unless the noun is a proper name.

80. The indefinite/negative particle aonLaonLaonLaonL and its compound gachgachgachgach aonLaonLaonLaonL (11-20

variant nachnachnachnach aonLaonL)aonLaonL precede the noun and are indeclinable. GachGachGGachach every and gachaireHgachaireHgachaireHgachaireH every second behave in the same way as aonLaonLaonLaonL in these respects.

THE NUMERALS

81. The following numerical forms occur:

The cardinal numerals not before a noun (a) and immediately followed by a noun (b). The collective numerals (c). These are used only for persons except in (11) whern they may be used in place of the construction with ceannceannceannceann to refer to any countable

object. Thus (11) cúigearcúigearcúigearcúigear five (ones) in place of cúigcúigcúigcúig cinncinn.cinncinn The ordinal numerals (d).

1. (a) haonhaonhaonhaon (b) (aonL)(aonL)(aonL)(aonL) SINGULAR noun amháinamháinamháinamháin (c) no special form (d) chéadLchéadLchéadLchéadL

2. (a) dódódódó (b) dháLdháLdháLdháL SINGULAR PREPOSITIONAL noun (after the article anananan the form is

dáL)dáL)dáL)dáL) (c) beirtLbeirtLbeirtLbeirtL (d) taraHtaraHtaraHtaraH (1) tarnaHtarnaHtarnaHtarnaH [tarnə] (11-23)

3. (a) trítrítrítrí (b) tríHtríHtríHtríH PLURAL noun (preferred structure) tríLtríLtríLtríL SINGULAR noun (possible

structure) (c) triúrartriúrartriúrartriúrar (1) triúrtriúrtriúrtriúr (11-23) (d) trígiúHtrígiúHtrígiúHtrígiúH (1) tríúHtríúHtríúHtríúH (11-23)

4. (a) ceathairceathairceathairceathair (b) cheithrecheithrecheithrecheithre (1-15, 20) ceithreceithreceithreceithre (18, 22-23) PLURAL noun (preferred

structure) cheithreLcheithreLcheithreLcheithreL (1-15, 20) ceithreLceithreLceithreLceithreL (18, 22-23) SINGULAR noun (possible

structure) (c) ceathrarceathrarceathrarceathrar (1-20) creathrarcreathrarcreathrarcreathrar (22) creatharcreatharcreatharcreathar (23) (d) ceárthúHceárthúHceárthúHceárthúH (1) cearthúHcearthúHcearthúHcearthúH

(11-23)

5. (a) cúigcúigcúigcúig (b) chúigchúigchúigchúig (1-15) chúigNchúigNchúigNchúigN (20) cúigNcúigNcúigNcúigN (18) cúigcúigcúigcúig (22-23) PLURAL noun

(preferred structure) chúigLchúigLchúigLchúigL (1-15, 20) cúigLcúigLcúigLcúigL (18, 22-23) SINGULAR noun (possible

structure) (c) cúigearcúigearcúigearcúigear (d) cúigiúHcúigiúHcúigiúHcúigiúH

6. (a) sésésésé (b) séHséHséHséH PLURAL noun (preferred structure) séLséLséLséL SINGULAR noun (possible

structure) (c) seisearseisearseisearseisear (d) séigiúHséigiúHséigiúHséigiúH (1) séúHséúHséúHséúH (11-23)

7. (a) seachtseachtseachtseacht (b) seachtNseachtNseachtNseachtN PLURAL noun (preferred structure) seachtNseachtNseachtNseachtN SINGULAR noun

(possible structure) (c) móireisearmóireisearmóireisearmóireisear (d) seachtúHseachtúHseachtúHseachtúH

8. (a) hochthochthochthocht (b) ochtNochtNochtNochtN PLURAL noun (preferred structure) ochtNochtNochtNochtN SINGULAR noun

(possible structure) (c) ochtarochtarochtarochtar (d) ochtúHochtúHochtúHochtúH

9. (a) naoinaoinaoinaoi (b) naoiNnaoiNnaoiNnaoiN PLURAL noun (preferred structure) naoiNnaoiNnaoiNnaoiN SINGULAR noun

(possible structure) (c) naonúrnaonúrnaonúrnaonúr (d) naoigiúHnaoigiúHnaoigiúHnaoigiúH (1) naoiúHnaoiúHnaoiúHnaoiúH (11-23)

10. (a) deichdeichdeichdeich (b) deichNdeichNdeichNdeichN PLURAL noun (preferred structure) deichNdeichNdeichNdeichN SINGULAR noun

(possible structure) (c) deichniúrdeichniúrdeichniúrdeichniúr (d) deichiúHdeichiúHdeichiúHdeichiúH

11. (a) haonhaonhaonhaon déagdéagdéagdéag /hen d´eg/ (1) /henn´eg/ (11-20) (b) aonLaonLaonLaonL SINGULAR noun déagdéagdéagdéag

(c) éinneéinneéinneéinne déagdéagdéagdéag (1) aonfhearaonfhearaonfhearaonfhear déagdéagdéagdéag (11-23) (d) aoúHaoúHaoúHaoúH

12. (a) dódódódó dhéagdhéagdhéagdhéag (b) dháLdháLdháLdháL SINGULAR PREPOSITIONAL noun dhéagdhéagdhéagdhéag (c) d(h)áréagd(h)áréagd(h)áréagd(h)áréag (15-

déagdéagdéagdéag (15) chéadLchéadLchéadLchéadL

déagdéagdéagdéag (20)

20) (d) taraH

13-19. These are formed by adding déagdéagdéagdéag to the corresponding forms 3-9. In (b) déagdéagdéagdéag follows the noun and has the form dhéagdhéagdhéagdhéag in the "possible" structures. No

further (c) forms have been noted other than (20) trítríttrírí fearafearafearafeara déagdéagdéagdéag 13 men.

20. (a) fichefichefichefiche (b) fichefichefichefiche SINGULAR noun (d) fichiúHfichiúHfichiúHfichiúH

21-30. Mutatis mutandis these are formed as 13-19 but with isisisis fichefichefichefiche (1) arararar fhichidfhichidfhichidfhichid

(11-18) ficheadficheadficheadfichead (20) replacing déagdéag.déagdéag 31-39. Mutatis mutandis these are formed as 13-19 but with déagdéagdéagdéag isisisis fichefichefichefiche (1, 20) déagdéagdéagdéag arararar fhichidfhichidfhichidfhichid (11-18) replacing déagdéag.déagdéag

40. (a) dathaddathaddathaddathad (b) dathaddathaddathaddathad SINGULAR noun (d) unattested

41-59. These are formed as 21-39 replacing isisisis fichefichefichefiche etc. by isisisis dathaddathad.dathaddathad 60-79. These are formed as 40-59 with trítrítrítrí fichidfichidfichidfichid replacing dathaddathad.dathaddathad 80-99. These are formed as 40-59 with cheithrecheithrecheithrecheithre fichidfichidfichfichidid (1-15, 20) ceithreceithreceithreceithre fichidfichidfichidfichid (18, 22-23) replacing dathaddathad.dathaddathad 100. (a) céadcéadcéadcéad (b) céadcéadcéadcéad SINGULAR noun (d) unattested; céadcéadcéadcéad functions as a noun in higher combinations but always takes the "possible" construction after digits (trítrítrítrí

chéadchéadchéadchéad etc.). 1000. (a) mílemílemílemíle (b) mílemílemílemíle SINGULAR noun (d) unattested; mílemílemílemíle functions as a noun in higher combinations but always takes the "possible" construction after digits (trítrítrítrí mhílemhílemhílemhíle etc.)

taraH

taraH

taraH

tarnaH

déagdéagdéagdéag (1) tarnaH

tarnaH

tarnaH

déagdéagdéagdéag (11-20)

82. The following "approximate" numerals also occur: dosaondosaondosaondosaon a dozen scórscórscórscór (1) a

score fichidífichidífichidífichidí (20) scores céadtacéadtacéadtacéadta hundreds míltemíltemíltemílte (1, 15-20) míltímíltímíltímíltí (11) thousands

83. When handling large numbers, including dates and ages over about 50, English numerals are frequently used.

Examples:

(1) thitthitthitthit sansansansan amachamachamachamach thimpeallthimpeallthimpeallthimpeall nineteennineteennineteennineteen fiftyfiftyfiftyfifty that happened around 1950 (20) tátátátá sésésésé seventyseventyseventyseventy fivefivefivefive anoisanoisanoisanois he is 75 now.

PRONOUNS

84. In Munster Irish there are only two classes of genuine pronouns: the personal and

the demonstrative pronouns. Functions, fulfilled in other languages by pronouns, are carried out by verbal particles (e.g. the relative particles) or by specialized nominal forms (duineduineduineduine ceannceannceannceann etc).

55. The basic forms of the PERSONAL PRONOUNS are:

(a) The base form occurring in nominal functions. This may have a secondary form,

given below in brackets, used as a verbal subject.

(b) The possessive form occurring in the possessive noun phrase (see 152 below).

This has a secondary form, given below in brackets, used after prepositions ending in vowels.

 

(a)

(b)

S.1.

memememe (mé)(mé)(mé)(mé)

moLmoLmoLmoL

(mL)(mL)(mL)(mL)

S.2.

tutututu (tú)(tú)(tú)(tú) (1, 22-23) tutututu thuthuthuthu (tú)(tú)(tú)(tú) (11-20)

doLdoLdoLdoL (dL)(dL)(dL)(dL)

S.3m.

éééé (sé)(sé)(sé)(sé)

aLaLaLaL (naL)(naL)(naL)(naL)

S.3f.

íííí (sí)(sí)(sí)(sí)

aaaa (naH)(naH)(naH)(naH)

P.1.

sinnsinnsinnsinn (1-22) sinnsinnsinnsinn (muid)(muid)(muid)(muid) (23)

árNárNárNárN

(nárN)(nárN)(nárN)(nárN)

P.2.

sibhsibhsibhsibh (1-22) sibsibsibsib (22-23)

úrNúrNúrNúrN

(núrN)(núrN)(núrN)(núrN)

P.3.

iadiadiadiad (siad)(siad)(siad)(siad)

aNaNaNaN

(naN)(naN)(naN)(naN)

86.

(i) moLmoLmoLmoL doLdoLdoLdoL have the forms mmmm tttt before vowel onset.

(ii)

aLHNaLHNaLHNaLHN combine in (11-23) with the prepositions dededede dodododo to give dáLHNdáLHN;dáLHNdáLHN likewise dárdárdárdár

dúrdúrdúrdúr are formed from árárárár úrúr.úrúr But in (1) obligatorily and in (20) optionally donadonadonadona donárdonárdonárdonár donúrdonúrdonúrdonúr are the forms. (iii) the following special forms are found with the preposition agagagag in the Converb with

AG (see 194 below): amLamLamLamL adLadLadLadL áLáLáLáL áHáHáHáH árNárNárNárN úrNúrNúrNúrN áNáNáNáN

87. The personal pronouns may be emphasised by the emphaticparticle féinféinféinféin (see 79

above) or by the emphatic particles

-sa,-sa,-sa,-sa, -se-se-se-se (all persons but S.3m., P.1. and P.3.) -san,-san,-san,-san, -sean-sean-sean-sean (S 3m. and P.3.)

-na,-na,-na,-na, -ne-ne-ne-ne (P.1. and, in (20), P.2. also) Of these particles, the first forms are used after words ending in A-systems and the second after words ending in Y-systems. The particles are placed immediately after form (a) or, in the case of (b), in the appropriate slot following the noun (see further at 152 below). If form (a) as such disappears through fusion with a verb or preposition (see 101, 113, 120-132 below), the emphatic particles follow the synthetic pronominal verbal form or the pronominalized preposition. The following non-predictable forms occur with (a):

S.1.

misemisemisemise

S.2.

tusatusatusatusa (tusa(tusa(tusa(tusa BUT 11 túsa)túsa)túsa)túsa)

S.3m.

---- (seisean)(seisean)(seisean)(seisean)

S.3f.

---- (sise)(sise)(sise)(sise)

88. The DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS éééé seòseòseòseò this (near speaker) éééé sinsinsinsin that (near

addressee) and éééé siúdsiúdsiúdsiúd that (near neither) are formally identical to the personal pronouns of the third person plus the demonstrative particles, which function exactly

as the emphatic particles described in section 87 above. These demonstrative particles are:

-so-so-so-so -seò-seò-seò-seò (1-22) -seò-seò-seò-seò (23) this (near speaker) -san-san-san-san -sin-sin-sin-sin (1-22) -sin-sin-sin-sin (23) that (near

addressee)

-súd-súd-súd-súd -siúd-siúd-siúd-siúd (1-20) that (near neither) Where there are two forms, the first is used after words ending in A-systems and the second after words ending in Y-systems. Note, however, the combinations with the preposition marmarmarmar like: marmarmarmar seòseòseòseò marmarmarmar sinsinsinsin marmarmarmar siúdsiúd.siúdsiúd There are in addition the neuter forms:

sosososo (1-22) seòseòseòseò (23) this sansansansan /syn/ (1-22) sinsinsinsin (23) that

89. There are two NOMINALISING RELATIVE PARTICLES:

anananan tététété he who", for persons (followed by a

relative particle)

aNaNaNaN all that, for things (see further under 286

below)

Examples:

building houses

(20) sinsinsinsin aaaa n-ólasn-ólasn-ólasn-ólas dodododo that's all I drank of it More common than these structures, however, are constructions with pseudo- pronouns. The examples cited might equally well have been: anananan duineduineduineduine aaaa bheadhbheadhbheadhbheadh agagagag tógainttógainttógainttógaint tithetithetithetithe and sinsinsinsin éééé anananan méidméidméidméid aaaa ólasólasólasólas dodo.dodo

(20) anananan tététété aaaa bheadhbheadhbheadhbheadh agagagag tógainttógainttógainttógaint tithetithetithetithe whoever would be

90. The most important PSEUDO-PRONOUNS are:

duineduineduineduine person, hence "someone", "one"

Examples:

(11) duineduineduineduine dodododo snasnasnasna seandaoineseandaoineseandaoineseandaoine one of the old men (11) anananan duineduineduineduine eileeileeileeile the other (person) (23) duineduineduineduine acuacuacuacu one of them

Compound forms:

aonduine>éinneaonduine>éinneaonduine>éinneaonduine>éinne anyone, no one (with negative) gachgachgachgach aonduine>gachaonduine>gachaonduine>gachaonduine>gach éinneéinneéinneéinne everyone duineduineduineduine éiginéiginéiginéigin someone

rudrudrudrud or níníníní thing

Example:

Compound forms:

aonrudaonrudaonrudaonrud (1, 22-23) aonní>éinníaonní>éinníaonní>éinníaonní>éinní (11-20) anything, nothing (with negative) gachgachgachgach aonrudaonrudaonrudaonrud (1, 22) gachgachgachgach rudrudrudrud (20, 23) gachgachgachgach éinníéinníéinníéinní (18) gachgachgachgach uileuileuileuile rudrudrudrud (23) everything gachgachgachgach rudrudrudrud eileeileeileeile (23) everything else éinníéinníéinníéinní eileeileeileeile (18) anything else rudrudrudrud éiginéiginéiginéigin (1-20) something

(1) anananan rudrudrudrud aaaa bhíonnbhíonnbhíonnbhíonn agamsaagamsaagamsaagamsa what I have

ceannceannceannceann head, hence "one"

Examples:

(1) nananana ceannaibhceannaibhceannaibhceannaibh atháatháatháathá sasasasa siopasiopasiopasiopa the ones that are in the shop

(11) ceannceannceannceann dodododo snasnasnasna beithíghbeithíghbeithíghbeithígh one of the animals (15) dodododo cheannsacheannsacheannsacheannsa yours (18) anananan tarnatarnatarnatarna ceannceannceannceann the second one (20) ceannceannceannceann acuacuacuacu one of them (23) ceannceannceannceann dodododo snasnasnasna capaillecapaillecapaillecapaille one of the horses

cuidcuidcuidcuid portion, hence some of, part of

Examples:

(1) anananan chuidchuidchuidchuid isisisis mómómómó acuacuacuacu most of them (1) cuidcuidcuidcuid dodododo mhuintirmhuintirmhuintirmhuintir anananan tSeanaphobailtSeanaphobailtSeanaphobailtSeanaphobail some of the people of Old Parish (15) cuidcuidcuidcuid dodododo snasnasnasna pinsinéirípinsinéirípinsinéirípinsinéirí some of the pensioners

(18) arararar anananan gcuidgcuidgcuidgcuid eileeileeileeile on the others

(22) cuidcuidcuidcuid dodododo chineálchineálchineálchineál anananan mhaidrínmhaidrínmhaidrínmhaidrín sinsinsinsin part of the breed of that little dog

A secondary use of cuidcuidcuidcuid is in expressions of partitive possession with the plural of

countable nouns and the singular of mass nouns.

Examples:

(1) aaaa gcuidgcuidgcuidgcuid fearaibhfearaibhfearaibhfearaibh their menfolk (11) momomomo chuidchuidchuidchuid airgidairgidairgidairgid my money (11) aaaa gcuidgcuidgcuidgcuid éiscéiscéiscéisc their fish

méidméidméidméid measure, hence all that (with relative or noun phrase).

Examples:

(1) anananan méidméidméidméid atháatháatháathá uathuuathuuathuuathu all they want (1) anananan méidméidméidméid dodododo snasnasnasna drilleannadrilleannadrilleannadrilleanna atháatháatháathá fágthafágthafágthafágtha agamagamagamagam all the drills I have left (11) anananan méidméidméidméid constáblaconstáblaconstáblaconstábla atáatáatáatá inininin ÉirinnÉirinnÉirinnÉirinn arararar fadfadfadfad all the constables in the

whole of Ireland (15) anananan méidméidméidméid tailimhtailimhtailimhtailimh atáatáatáatá annannannann what land there is (15) anananan méidméidméidméid sinsinsinsin that much (20) anananan méidméidméidméid seoseoseoseo adéarfaidhadéarfaidhadéarfaidhadéarfaidh mémémémé leatleatleatleat what I am going to tell you (23) anananan méidméidméidméid sinsinsinsin airgidairgidairgidairgid gogogogo léirléirléirléir all that money (23) anananan méidméidméidméid aaaa thugthugthugthug anananan garsúngarsúngarsúngarsún leisleisleisleis insinsinsins anananan mhálamhálamhálamhála all the boy brought away in the bag

91. More restricted in use are the following:

dadadadadadadada (1, 22-23) faicfaicfaicfaic (1-20) nothing (with negative) puinnpuinnpuinnpuinn (11-18) little or nothing (with negative) anananan oireadoireadoireadoiread 90- much, as much (usually with demonstrative particle)

anananan iomarcaiomarcaiomarcaiomarca (20) anananan iomùrcaiomùrcaiomùrcaiomùrca (1, 22-23) iomùrcaiomùrcaiomùrcaiomùrca (11) too much anananan iomadiomadiomadiomad (11-20) too much gogogogo leorleorleorleor enough beagánbeagánbeagánbeagán a little móránmóránmóránmórán (1-23) seoseoseoseo (11) scatascatascatascata (20) carncarncarncarn (1) much

aaaa

lánlánlánlán (1-20) a lot

aaaa

thuillethuillethuillethuille (1, 15-20) tuilletuilletuilletuille (11, 22) more (French davantage)

aaaa

bhfurmhórbhfurmhórbhfurmhórbhfurmhór (1-20) most, the majority

aaaa

chéilechéilechéilechéile esch othar (reciprocal pronoun)

dóthain(t)dóthain(t)dóthain(t)dóthain(t) (1-20) daochaintdaochaintdaochaintdaochaint (22) dóchaintdóchaintdóchaintdóchaint (23) enough. In the material examined this item always requires a possessive pronoun before it:

(15) momomomo dhóthaintdhóthaintdhóthaintdhóthaint enough for me (20) dodododo dhóthaintdhóthaintdhóthaintdhóthaint cabhrachcabhrachcabhrachcabhrach enough help for you leithéidleithéidleithéidleithéid (1-20) leithéideleithéideleithéideleithéide (22-23) the likes of. This is a feminine noun and always requires a possessive pronoun before it:

(1) donadonadonadona leithéidleithéidleithéidleithéid sinsinsinsin d'fheard'fheard'fheard'fhear to a man like that (20) dodododo leithéidleithéidleithéidleithéid someone like you Note that those items which begin in aaaa contain a petrified third personal possessive. After prepositions ending in a vowel the form nananana replaces aaaa wherever appropriate (see 87 above). This does not apparently always apply to aaaa chéilechéilechéilechéile which presents forms such as (20) lélélélé chéilechéilechéilechéile (22) féféféfé chéilechéile.chéilechéile

PREPOSITIONS

92. Prepositions can best be classified according to the nominal case which follows

them.

93. The following prepositions take the BASE form:

gogogogo dtídtídtídtí /gəd´i d´i/ (11-18) until, to

Examples:

(15) gogogogo dtídtídtídtí anananan creamerycreamerycreamerycreamery to the creamery (18) gogogogo dtidtidtidti anananan pollpollpollpoll to the hole

idirLidirLidirLidirL /d´œr´ d´yr´/ between, among

Example:

seachasseachasseachasseachas (20) compared to Examples:

(11) idiridiridiridir nananana mucamucamucamuca among the pigs

(20) seachasseachasseachasseachas áiteannaáiteannaáiteannaáiteanna eileeileeileeile compared to other places (20) seachasseachasseachasseachas anananan fearfearfearfear eileeileeileeile compared to the other man

94. The following simple prepositions take the PREPOSITIONAL:

agagagag /əg´œ/ (1, 18-20) /əg´œ~œg´/ (11-15, 22-23) at

Examples:

(11) agagagag anananan bpáistebpáistebpáistebpáiste sinsinsinsin "with" that child (20) agagagag anananan dtighdtighdtighdtigh at the house

In the Converb with AG (see 191-194 below) the form is /əg/ before vocalic onset, otherwise /ə/:

Examples:

(1) agagagag imeàchtimeàchtimeàchtimeàcht /əg´əm´æxt/ going sway (1) agagagag caintcaintcaintcaint /əkænt´/ talking

arararar arLarLarLarL /œr´/ on Examples:

(1) arararar anananan mbótharmbótharmbótharmbóthar sansansansan on that road

(1) arararar thaobhthaobhthaobhthaobh anananan bhóthairbhóthairbhóthairbhóthair at the roadside (1) arararar taobhtaobhtaobhtaobh dodododo láimhláimhláimhláimh chléchléchléchlé on your left (20) arararar thaobhthaobhthaobhthaobh nananana lálálálá disedisedisedise on the right (20) arararar barrabarrabarrabarra nananana haillehaillehaillehaille at the top of the cliff (20) arararar anananan gclochgclochgclochgcloch féinféinféinféin on the stone itself asasasas (1-18, 22-23) asasasas asLasLasLasL (20) out of

ExampIes:

(11) asasasas anananan dtighdtighdtighdtigh out of the house (20) asasasas dhaoinedhaoinedhaoinedhaoine out of people

(20) asasasas BéarlaBéarlaBéarlaBéarla in English The form aHaHaHaH is found in some petrified forms in (11-15):

Example:

deLdeLdeLdeL /də gə ə/ from (formally indistinguishable from doLdoL)doLdoL

(11) aaaa halmóirhalmóirhalmóirhalmóir out of a closet

Examples:

(1) dondondondon eascúineascúineascúineascúin from the eel (23) dondondondon chapallchapallchapallchapall from the horse

doLdoLdoLdoL /də gə ə/ to Examples:

(1) dondondondon cheannaitheoircheannaitheoircheannaitheoircheannaitheoir to the buyer

(15) dodododo mhullàchmhullàchmhullàchmhullàch anananan chnuicchnuicchnuicchnuic to the top of the hill In (20) differentiation has taken place in combination with the singular definite

article: do'nNdo'nNdo'nNdo'nN to (dative) as in (20) thugasthugasthugasthugas do'ndo'ndo'ndo'n bpáistebpáistebpáistebpáiste éééé I gave it to the child: 'o'nL'o'nL'o'nL'o'nL to (allative) as in (20) bhíbhíbhíbhí sésésésé agagagag duldulduldul 'o'n'o'n'o'n'o'n DaingeanDaingeanDaingeaDaingeann he was going to Dingle; likewise 'o'n'o'n'o'n'o'n OileánOileánOileánOileán to the Island (Great Blasket) and 'o'n'o'n'o'n'o'n bheairicbheairicbheairicbheairic to the garda station. féLféLféLféL under

Examples:

(11) fénfénfénfén ngallánngallánngallánngallán under the monolith ganLganLganLganL (/t//d/ are not lenited after gangan)gangan without

Examples:

(1) féféféfé thalamhthalamhthalamhthalamh under ground

(15) gangangangan phraisighphraisighphraisighphraisigh without pottage (20) gangangangan mhaithmhaithmhaithmhaith useless (20) gangangangan dabhtdabhtdabhtdabht doubtless

goHgoHgoHgoH /gə/ to (allative) Examples:

(20) gogogogo tightightightigh KrugerKrugerKrugerKruger to Kruger's gogogogo dtídtídtídtí /gəd´i~d´i/ (1, 20-23) to, until

Examples:

(1) gogogogo SasanaSasanaSasanaSasana to England

(1) gogogogo dtídtídtídtí anananan ngovernmentngovernmentngovernmentngovernment to the government (20) gogogogo dtídtídtídtí anananan dtobardtobardtobardtobar to the well (23) gogogogo dtídtídtídtí anananan bhfearbhfearbhfearbhfear oibreoibreoibreoibre to the workman

iNiNiNiN /ə/ (11-23) iN~iniN~iniN~iniN~in /ə~ən/ (1) in

Examples:

(1) iiii gclasagclasagclasagclasa in furrows (1) inininin cúplacúplacúplacúpla áitáitáitáit eileeileeileeile in a couple of other places (18) iiii gcluaisgcluaisgcluaisgcluais momomomo chaipínchaipínchaipínchaipín in the ear of my cap (23) iiii dtóindtóindtóindtóin anananan títítítí at the back of the house

leHleHleHleH /l´œ/ with, since Examples:

(1) leisleisleisleis anananan gCogadhgCogadhgCogadhgCogadh MórMórMórMór since the Great War (15) lelelele beanbeanbeanbean anananan títítítí with the lady of the house (18) leisleisleisleis anananan gclaíomhgclaíomhgclaíomhgclaíomh with the sword

marLmarLmarLmarL as, like Examples:

(1) marmarmarmar choláistecholáistecholáistecholáiste as a college (20) marmarmarmar anananan gcéannagcéannagcéannagcéanna in the same way

óLóLóLóL from

Examples:

(11) ó'nó'nó'nó'n mbáistighmbáistighmbáistighmbáistigh from the rain (20) ó'nó'nó'nó'n bhfaillbhfaillbhfaillbhfaill from the cliff (20) óóóó MheiriceáMheiriceáMheiriceáMheiriceá from America

roimhLroimhLroimhLroimhL /ryv'/ (11, 22-25) roimLroimLroimLroimL [rim´] (15-20) roimhigroimhigroimhigroimhig /raig'/ (1) before

Examples:

(1) roimhigroimhigroimhigroimhig lá'llá'llá'llá'l PádraigPádraigPádraigPádraig before St Patrick's day (1) roimhe'nroimhe'nroimhe'nroimhe'n CháiscCháiscCháiscCháisc seoseoseoseo caitecaitecaitecaite againnagainnagainnagainn before last Easter

(11) roimhroimhroimhroimh lálálálá before daybreak

tharthartharthar tharLtharLtharLtharL across, past Examples:

(1) tharthartharthar anananan gcoláistegcoláistegcoláistegcoláiste past the college (15) tharthartharthar anananan ndroicheadndroicheadndroicheadndroichead across the bridge

(15) tharthartharthar teorainnteorainnteorainnteorainn arararar fadfadfadfad way beyond the limit (22) tharthartharthar ceártainceártainceártainceártain past a smithy (22) tharthartharthar chloidhechloidhechloidhechloidhe across a hedge tríLtríLtríLtríL (1, 15, 20-23) tríLtríLtríLtríL thríLthríLthríLthríL (11, 18) through

Examples:

(23) trídtrídtrídtríd anananan bhfuinneoigbhfuinneoigbhfuinneoigbhfuinneoig through the window umLumLumLumL /əm/ at (time). In petrified phrases only.

Examples:

(11) thrímthrímthrímthrím shicéadshicéadshicéadshicéad through my jacket

(11) umumumum thráthnónathráthnónathráthnónathráthnóna in the afternoon (15) umumumum NollaigNollaigNollaigNollaig at Christmas

95. The following complex prepositions follow their simplex and take the

PREPOSITIONAL:

agagagag déanadhdéanadhdéanadhdéanadh arararar (22-23) towards agagagag trialltrialltrialltriall arararar (11-20) towards arararar mhaithemhaithemhaithemhaithe lelelele (1) for the sake of chomh*chomh*chomh*chomh* fadafadafadafada lelelele (11, 22-23) as far as, up to chomh*chomh*chomh*chomh* maithmaithmaithmaith lelelele (1, 15, 22) as well as of geallgeallgeallgeall lelelele (22) almost inininin aiceaiceaiceaice lelelele (15, 20) near, next to inininin éindíéindíéindíéindí lelelele (23) with, together with concerning inininin éineachtéineachtéineachtéineacht lelelele (15-20) with, together with * 1 chónchónchónchón 22 comhcomhcomhcomh

laisteaslaisteaslaisteaslaisteas dededede (20) to the south of laistighlaistighlaistighlaistigh dededede (1, 20) inside laistíoslaistíoslaistíoslaistíos dededede (20) below lasmuighlasmuighlasmuighlasmuigh dededede (1, 20) outside lastalllastalllastalllastall dededede (23) on the other side

lastuaslastuaslastuaslastuas dededede (20-22) above marmarmarmar gheallgheallgheallgheall arararar (11) because of marmarmarmar gheallgheallgheallgheall arararar (1, 15-22) about,

chunchunchunchun to, up to In the material examined, this preposition occurs in allative sense only with pronouns in points (1-15, 22-23). In (18) the form is /xyn/ and in (20) /xyg´ə/.

Examples:

(20) chuigechuigechuigechuige anananan ChomaChomaChomaChoma to Com (place name) The forms occurring in the prepositional converb (see 1-89 below) are chúnchúnchúnchún (1) chunchunchunchun

(11-18, 22-23). In (20) chunchunchunchun occurs before consonantal and chuigechuigechuigechuige hefore vocalic onset.

Examples:

(18) chunchunchunchun nananana ceártanceártanceártanceártan to the smithy

(20) chunchunchunchun duldulduldul 'o'n'o'n'o'n'o'n OileánOileánOileánOileán to go to the Island (20) chuigechuigechuigechuige aaaa bheithbheithbheithbheith agagagag scríobhscríobhscríobhscríobh in order to write

coiscoiscoiscois (22) near, beside Example:

dáladáladáladála (1-11) like, similar to Example:

used to be long ago

tartartartar éiséiséiséis /tr´es´/ (1, 15, 20-22) /hr´es´/ (11, 18) after

Examples:

(22) coiscoiscoiscois nananana haillehaillehaillehaille by the cliff

(1) dáladáladáladála anananan iarainniarainniarainniarainn aaaa bhíodhbhíodhbhíodhbhíodh fadófadófadófadó annannannann like the iron there

(11) thréisthréisthréisthréis anananan chogaidhchogaidhchogaidhchogaidh sinsinsinsin after that war (20) tréistréistréistréis anananan aifrinnaifrinnaifrinnaifrinn after mass

timpealltimpealltimpealltimpeall (18-23) thimpeallthimpeallthimpeallthimpeall (1) around, about

Examples:

(1) thimpeallthimpeallthimpeallthimpeall anananan chuntaechuntaechuntaechuntae around the county (22) timpealltimpealltimpealltimpeall nananana páircepáircepáircepáirce around the field (23) timpealltimpealltimpealltimpeall nananana cisteancisteancisteancistean around the kitchen

urasaíurasaíurasaíurasaí (23) as, in guise of Example:

dwelling house

(23) urasaíurasaíurasaíurasaí aaaa dtighdtighdtighdtigh cónaithecónaithecónaithecónaithe féinféinféinféin (used) as their own

97. The following complex prepositions, analysable as preposition + noun, take the

GENITIVE:

arararar aghaidhaghaidhaghaidhaghaidh (18) in front of accompanying arararar chúlaibhchúlaibhchúlaibhchúlaibh (18) behind of time) arararar chumachumachumachuma (20) like 22) against arararar fhaidfhaidfhaidfhaid (23) for (a time/distance) arararar feadhfeadhfeadhfeadh /œr´ f´aeg/ (1-20) for (a time/distance) arararar fuaidfuaidfuaidfuaid (1-20) arararar fhuaidfhuaidfhuaidfhuaid (23) all over (area) arararar nósnósnósnós (18-2o) like arararar thuairiscthuairiscthuairiscthuairisc (22) looking for asasasas radharcradharcradharcradharc (18, 23) out of the sight of d'ainneoind'ainneoind'ainneoind'ainneoin (15-20) in spite of dededede bharrbharrbharrbharr (18) as a result of dededede dheascaibhdheascaibhdheascaibhdheascaibh (11) as a result of (1)/ (used) for dededede dhruimdhruimdhruimdhruim (1, 15-22) over (a wall, a gate etc.) féféféfé bhunbhunbhunbhun (20-22) under féféféfé dhéindhéindhéindhéin (15) towards above, over gogogogo ceannceannceannceann (20, 23) for (a limited time) opposite iiii bhfochairbhfochairbhfochairbhfochair (1, 18, 22-23) with, accompanying

iiii dteantadteantadteantadteanta (11-20) with,

iiii gceanngceanngceanngceann (1, 20-23) within (period

iiii gcoinnibhgcoinnibhgcoinnibhgcoinnibh (15-20) iiii gcoinnegcoinnegcoinnegcoinne (1,

iiii gcóirgcóirgcóirgcóir (1-11) for iiii lárlárlárlár (11, 20) in the middle of iiii láthairláthairláthairláthair (18) in the presence of iiii meascmeascmeascmeasc (20, 23) among inininin aiceaiceaiceaice (15, 20) near inininin áitáitáitáit (1) instead of iiii ndiaidhndiaidhndiaidhndiaidh (1-20) after iiii rithrithrithrith (20) during lelelele haghaidhhaghaidhhaghaidhhaghaidh /l´œ həi (20-23) hi

lelelele haishaishhaisais (18) beside lelelele linnlinnlinnlinn (1, 20) in the time of ósósósós cionncionncionncionn /æs k´ynn/ (1-20, 23)

ósósósós coinnecoinnecoinnecoinne /æs kynn´ə/ (1)

98. Certain prepositions have secondary forms with the articles anananan nananana and with gachgach.gachgach

These forms are:

 

++++ anananan

++++ nananana

++++ gachgachgachgach

agagagag

agagagag anananan

ageageageage snasnasnasna (1-22)

agesagesagesages gachgachgachgach (18-20)

chunchunchunchun

chuige'nchuige'nchuige'nchuige'n (20)

chunchunchunchun nananana (20)

chunchunchunchun nachnachnachnach (20)

de,de,de,de, dodododo

do'ndo'ndo'ndo'n

dodododo snasnasnasna (1-22)

dosdosdosdos gachgachgachgach (18)

féféféfé