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1983

140, . 3

534 + 538.114



-
. . , . .

1.
429
) (429). )
. (432).
2.
436
) (436). ) (438).
) (444).
3.
448
) (448). ) (449). ) .
(454).
4.
458

460
1.

25 (19561958 .)
, (-) - .
() , (., , 4 ' 5 ).

() , ,
( ) . ,
( ) .
,
.
1963
1965 . 6 - 1 1 . 7>8
, 6 10
' 12 22
~ . ()
(a-Fe 2 O 3 ) , <0
1-3

&

430

. . , . .

, (
),
.
6 ~ 9 ,
, () .
( )
,
. , , , ,
, ;
( ).
, .
,
, = 0 (
-*-0) , , = . , , , .
6 > 10 .
, .
1 0 ,
- ,
. , , .
1 0 ,

(Dy ) , > ~
~ 1 0 6 ( ).
1 3 > 1 4 . , - (
-) (
,
) ^ = 0: 0 = |=0 , 0 , , 13 > 14 ,
coh = () > 0. ; .
- ( - 0) ,
(frozen or free lattice model; .,
, l 2 ~ 2 1 ) . 2 2 ~ 2 4 .
*),
*) ,
, (frozenlattice)
, (free lattice).

431

, ,
. ,
.
(-) .
,
,

. (
6 9
" , . 2 5 " 3 3 ) , ( )
27 31 34 35
36 37
FeBO 3 , , , , , ,
( ,
&
, VFeO3)
38 42
(. ~ )
(MnF 2 23) 4 3 - 5 0 . 2 3 - (Co0i25Mn0i75Fe2O4),
"
() .
,
. 1.
( , -
.
) : - ( = 0) .
( ).
.
, , (). (
I () ()) .
1 , (1.1)
= 0, .
. , . ,
>1 ()
( > < > . .
, ).

(1.1), , (. 25-27,34,39-41^
= 0
4 2 .

432

. . , . .

)
.


, ,
, , , , . ,
, (. 5 1 ).
, ( u i 7 ),
() - 5 2 .

, . , ,

.
, ( !) ,
(1964 .).
5 3 , (., , 5 4 ).
, , , ,
,
( 6 4 , . * 56 > 66 ).
, , , (, ) ^ () (\i = 0, 1, 2, 3),
() =
= 1 + 1> , .
, (-).

(0 | | 0) = =+ *2' , (10> ) (, 2 ), , , 1 0
2 0
, ; (> 20) B - (^^)
. .

, , 0 , , = 0 +
+ ' ( (0 | ' | 0 > 0).
' , ,
| 0 | ZA^. , ,
^, ,
, ,

433

, . .
( )

1

,
u\f,
= + ;,- = uip +

Au(j.

,
Uij ( utj), ( (2.1)).
,
, ,
(. . ). (V ) 2 ,
()
oofe ~ 2. ( ) ( 0 ) () 2 ,
$ (
). - .
| 0 | 2 \,
.
, 1964 . , 0 .
->-0 , ()
, , ,
.
.
, ( ),
, , * ) .

%
() (
*) ,
,
, , . () , , . ,
, , ,
( ,
).

434

. . , . .

. 1). - , >- ,
5 7 , 5 8 > 5 9 .

(), () (. 2).
, , GHC , ( , u\j)
, -

. 2. .
.

(
), ( ) .

.
, (
) .
,
.
(1.1).
. GHG
. () , (
). ,
( Autj). > =
co|i .
cojj .

. , ,

= - ^ .

(1-2)

, , < 1.

435


(). -, , ,
( ).
,
,
:
,
, ,
.
(1.1) (
),
= 0 , , = 1.
, ,
CHG,

3.

>0 =

= 4- <
*,
(*) = 0.
ffljyj(D ( )

.
. . 1
,
.
. 2, ,
, >-0 () , () AM ,
.
.
(
--0) . , , , .
, , (, ,
) ,
, . ( ,
, .)
.
(. . 2): , ,
, ,
( ),
, . , ,
6 , . 140, . 3

436

. . , . .

(0, , ,
(. 3).
,

.
2.
)

,

(., , 0 , . 774780):
() = BammiTrijUni.

(2.1)

( , , ijnl : , , z.)
ijni ; m = ()/0 (), : 2 () = Ml, 2 = 1; ,
< ,
, *).
. ()
() .
m /:

W = Ai} --^
. . . - - 1 .

(2.2)

( Atj)
( ),
if(v) ( v = i ? 2, ...) . ^
2\> ( ).
, (
).
div ( + 4 ) = 0, rot = 0.

(2.3)

,
C u u

(2.4)

ijni ( ).
*)
, .
-,
.

437


, , .
( )
J(r)dr

(dr= dxdydz),

(2.5)

() = + + ,
(2.6)
( m = m <> =
= u[f, ),
Am = m m() huij = uij u\f'1
(2.7)
.
( , , utj ), ,
/ = 0 utj
(2.1) (2.4), (60,
. 778, 2 , . 57), (2.6)
(2.2).
, K[fnu
( ). ,
( ) , . *).
, -.
m <0) 1$,
= 0. (, , , , .)
(2.6) ,
(., , 63) '.

(2.8)

]
PU

'~

dxj dutj

(Z-y>

(6/6 , 6^- = 1 0
i = } i ]').
(2.7) (m<0>, ujj}'), . ,

,
.
, , ,
. ,
. *)
, ,
2 .
6*

438

. . , . .

: (2.8)
6 4 :

--J-IMM]

(2.10)

( ),
(2.9) 5

a'ij r\ijn iun t . ( r\ijni , Cijnl.)


)

, , , [001] || Z. ( )
(2.1) (2.4) , , ,
,
(2.1) (2.4) [ . ,

, , ,
, :
= 1 ,

== 2,

zz = 3, yz = zy E= 4>

zx = xz == 5,
(,

xy = == 6.

^ = ^*'' ^ ~ ~ =

, ,

'
.)

2) _ &) _ 1^(2) _ ~(2) _ (2) _ 1


: 1 3 = - 3 1 =-44 =-55 =-6 ^ " g "

(2.13)

.
, % (2.5) (2.2) (2.4)
\ = = const,

m (2.1) (2.6), :

= const + * (&4 + ocgal + c&d) - ,

439

,
: -^*,
* , (
).
. , * ,
* ,
: * > 0 , * < 0 .
AM Auij || || Z, , (2.14),
,,(0)

()

-12)(11+212

( 11

12
1

<)

Uyy =UXX = i / t - ( c 1 1 - C 1 2 ) ( C

" =

,
(. . k||cc||Z), (2.8), (2.9)

(wh + ) m+ (k) + ikyjjf- () = 0,


^

(27>

tkB
2

() + [ - ! ()] () = 0,
[ ()-] () = 0;

coft = ^ - [2 + 2, (Ut - U) + *) +

(2.18)
(2.19)

(2.16)
(. . );

;
- .
(2.18) , ; =S|/c
,
(2.17) :
( iuy = imy = 0) ,

+ ) (? - 2) - >0? = 0;

(2.20)

( + = + imy = 0)
(cofcco)(co?-co2)-c;cuocof = O.
(2.21)
(2.20) (2.21)

440

. . , . .

= (
) (2.20) (2.21)
( == 0).
\ 0 ,
, .
, ()

(2.16),
: -v * (2.15). : | | | | [001]
(, , ).
\ (2.23)
*).
,
0 (2.23) (2.15) :
(2 24)
= 0 | | [001] ,

* = 0 + .

= -Js-.

(2.25)

, *
: 0 ||[001]
| | [111].
1

^ - .

(2.26)

/ 4 1

- , ,
.
, - .
- ()
* (2.15),
(),
* + 1/2. , \ ( )

, *. = 0 0 (2.23) B\l%Ck^ * (2.15).
*) , : -* + BJ/(C U ] 2 ) , .
.
: || [001] ,
|| [111] , || [110] ,
. . 0 , ,
.

441

,

2

"

--0.

(2.27)

(2.26).
,
(2.20) (2.21) 0. , .

*0

|| [001] . 4.
.
) & 1); ) ( = 1). (J)
() ,
() . (I) (II, III).

,
, (2.21). (-),
, , (-).
Z, < 1,
, . . 4 ,
,
( )
,
stk = (oft coo.
(2.28)
,
(2.29)
sf ( <t; cob,
= /2 , a ooD = st/a
( ). (2.28)
J--3,63,66. , = (O0/st = 0

(2.30)

442

. . , . .


:
co

(O

*- iii

, coj < 0, (2.21)


-\- ,
()>*,
(2.62,)
.

(2.33)

(2.33) (
, ), , :
4(1-).

(2-34)

, (2.22) (2.23), Z, ,
. , --1.
(2.34) , (2.21)
= 1 < &0 *):

^ ( ) , 1

>

= {akf

()2

(2-35)

(-),

(2.36)

(-).

(2.37)

,
: ( 2 - -),
2 (.
4, ).

, ,
, *- 0 coi =
. , : , - (2.35) (), (2.36)
() , ,
- , , (2.17)

. ( < ^)
:
.

*) , (2.21), -

443

*)
(2.38)

iku_ = ^ -p- m_;


C00

44

(2.39)

(2.38) _ ,
- , , ,
. > 0 _
.,

.
. (2.39)
( )
? - > 1 CkJB2. (2.39) (2.14), ,
: ( -, -)
, . : 6 3 , , ,
(2.2). - , (2.4) (2.1) ,
.
Autj AM <^,0 (. 4, ) 4 4 .
1 = 0 1 = 0 ( ml = 1 % 2) , uyz ( ), (2.16) ,

-= -2 (+

' ,? =-

(+

Bj

1 uyz.
(2.40)

(2.6),
" "

,
1
44=

*
=

^^ -^7-

. . . .
(2 41)

(2.34), , (2.41), 44 ,
= 1.
AM ^-,
, . ,
*) \ (), . ,
.

444

. . , . .

, , ,
.
,
(
' (2.40)).

,
= 0, 1 = 2 - 1 = 2 44 .
(2.42)
,
: ( = 0), ( , ).
, , ( (2.10) (2.11)
).
, .
)
()
, ,
GHG , , , (, ) ,
, ( ). ()
,
87 219 . = 0 ,
> 6 . ,
, , (),
, (., , 67> 1 2 > 2 0 ' 2 l ) .

(AZ/Z ~ BIC ~ 10~310~2) Kf 6-8 /3, .
'
Dy ,
, ( = 4,2 if(3)
106107 /3). ,
. - 1^,
, (2.1), . .

, .
Z,
, X [100] [010] , , (2.6) -

445

, (
(2.12) ): = 5 2 2 , 21 = 12, 33, 5 4 4 = 5, 6,
= , = $ = /12, = 2 2 , 3 3 , 1 2 = 2 1 , 1 = 2 3 =
= 31 = 3 2 , 4 4 = 5 5 , 6 . (
, (2.13),
.)
, , , [100], || || X.
ujj"
AM ^ ,
.
X (. .
).
(2 -

2) [( 0 2 _

2)

((0

2 _ ^

2 _

22)

- ^ ^

2 _ ,2^ __ U U c o K c o j y = 0;

(2.43)

(2.44)
(, , ),

.(2.45)

,
. . (2.44)
],
, 4 :
(2.46)
(2.47)

*0

4 = 7 v ^ -

48

( - )

(2.46) (2.47) ()
KQ, ,
.
, ,
:
)

(2.49)

(2-50)

446

. . , . .

(2.43) . ,

-g-

(2.51)

(||),

(2.53)

(2.54)
(2.55)

, ( ) , (2.46)
> 0.
(2.56)
^" 4 > , 4 <^1

(2.57)

,
coiv (ot2, = ,
.
, ,
6 = 6ft | fe=0 ( )
.
, (
= 0) : } > 0 ( ) , HQ <^ 0 .
, ,
* 1 = 0.

. , || X, <;0
( ), = | |.

-> 1 ( ,
) .
,
( ) ,
Dy , , ,
( (2.52) (2.55)).
, . . = | |,
:
0)1

HI

(a*) 2

(2-59)

447

;
| | + 4 )

(2.60)

, = /0 = Y#A .
( ,
) ||
. , ,
(2.3), () . (. . (2.51)) ,
<& || || X:

Xj/(^/c

+ # + # n + 4nM0sin2(pft + # M y6) , (2.61)

+ + [( )2
- sin* 2cpfe ( + 12) ( - - 266)] 1/2}1/2 - J L .

(2.62)

( II k, e I V J_ , Z),

l/

4 4

c o s

i^
VP

9 f t

(2.63)
(2.64)

"+

(2.49)). , cpft 0
(
) . , , ,
8 (cpft) <^ 1 (. . + HQ =
= 0). = /2

, ( ,
, ).
, (2.52) (2.55) (2.61)
(2.63) ( <| 0,
) ,
(- X)
^ | \. + = 0
4->1 .
, , ,
.
, ,

448

. . , . .

( ).
(2.8) (2.9) (2.10) (2.11), , ,
(2.54),
.

= + iT:

2
. = 21 , = 1/
.
(2.51)

(. . 6 -> 1) (2.67) (2.59)


, , cujmm> =
,
1

(2.68)

< 1 ,
(2.68) ,
( ) . (2.59) . ,
.
, (Dy ).
,
17 > 18
( 1 0 - 1 ). , (2.60),
( = | |)
( ~ 106 104 ).
2 0 , (2.54)
-.
6 ( (2.64))
50%. ( -
.) *)
3.


1
1

Mt2
20

*) :

. . .
(>

449

2 : Mj = \ = \,
2 + I 2 = 1, ml = 0.
(3.3)
( ) = ,
1 | 1 | = 1, a m 0.
= 1 -+ 2 ,
: 2 ( , ), ,
2 < 1 (, , I 2 1).
(3.4)
, , , , ,
, :
1) (2.1)
m > 1.
2) (2.2)
; , (2.2).
3) 2?
(3.5)

,
, () m = 0 I = 1 ( > 0).
4) (
1 m =/= 0, (3.4))

(3.6)

d^ 68 62
> .
(1 <0) , ( 0 ) , 4;')

, (2.9)
(2.8)
( = 1, 2) .

GHC
42
ErFeO 3 .
- .
, , GHG,
9 38
1
, -* .

450

. . , . .

(
, . 449) :
;
, 131, [\', = ^ " ;
, 12, 13, 21, , , S 4 4 , B5i
;
1, 1 2 , 13 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 6\ 4 , 5
,

d31mzlx,

62

(3.7)

.
ErFeO 3 TmFeO 3 ,
&,
4,0

2,0

. 5. ( k || Z)
.
). (* > 2\); ) ( 2 < 7\). ffli s
2 = ( ) = 5 .

coo (Tt) = ? 1 / " ( 5 +

: ,
(, = 88,5 ),
1 || ( Z), ,
7*2 ( % = 98,1 ), 1 || ( X).
< < 2 (. 5)
1 X , Z
. ,
1, ,
0 m Z /2 0.
, .

( = 0) .
1 m (. . 5)
X, Z , Y || b
1. (
, )
K[v <, 0 <q 0.

451

:
= ? - + 2 - 2 + d3l (d3i - di3) - + **,

=%

- 2/rj -f - (d31 - diZ)t -L+%.

(3.8)

(:)

(3.8) (3.9), , \ 4 .
, . 5, ,
, > 0. ,
,
:
1) ( ^ ) 0 = /2 m =
= d13'A0
() < -2 ().
(3.9)
2) ( ^ ^ 2) sin 3 6 = Ki/2Kn
2 () < () < 0.

(3.96)

3) ( ^ 2) 0 = 0 m =
= m z fa d/A0
> 0.
(3.9)
, < 0, (. 5, ),
2 < 7V
:
1)
2)

9 = /2 (< 1), Kf
= 0 ( 5 2 ),

(< 2 ^ !i (;
>0.

(3 .10)
(3 .106)


. 2 .
.
9 = 0 (
(3.9) (3.106) > 0 < 0),
k || Z || .

( , 1
X, Z)
% || X || . (
)
1

coft - [ (0-^ + .- + 5 )]/,

(3.11)
(3.12)

sak,

# = 0/20 , 5 = 8?5//055 .
, , , :
2

!, = ~ [? -- I KK-co?) +4o)?a) M y 5 ],

(3.13)

= V V ,
# 5 . ,
7 , . 140, . 3

452

. . , . .


, ( GHG) . (3.13)
>1 ( = 0) = (,11+5),

(3-14)

, , .
( = 0) = 0,
.
\ (3.14)
. 5, , . , Ki = 0, 0 = 0 ( > 0) ( < 0).
(3.14) ,
:
(3.15)
< ^ CO0/COD7 =
QU ( , ),
) a COD ,
(3.13)
coir ~ cob (oft)a (1 - Q + %- t<4 ~ (1 - ] (,

(3.16>

. , 5 = 1,

,
( e t || X) s a = /fc
-*-6, 5 -> 1.
k || Z ( <1 , . . 5), 0 = /2, . .
m l k . -
(3.13), , :
col = 2 [AM'W-iKi

+ 2) - + + 5 ] ,

(3.19)

= 8nM0d\3/Al , . -
, Kj + 2 = 0, 5 = / +
+ ) < 1 ( 2 , 5 = !)
s a -
, , ,
2 .
3 9 ^ 4 1 (. 6).

453

, 3 9 ~ 4 1 (^1%),
- .
0 < 6 ^ /2, < ^ ^
( \\ > 0),
4 2 . , ,
.
3 . 6.


4 2

= (3.18)

5 -* 1 ( -* 2) ,
<

-2?),

(3.20)
(3.21)

(-
- - 6- v
J
J

),
ErFeO, k || Z.

( )
, ( <,) = ). , (3.21)
/0, ,
, 1
, ,
.
s a < 5 2 , ( (3.20)),
sa .


3 8 ^ 4 2 . ,
3SI~41 ,
. ,
, (3.20),
sa .
,

.
3 9 ^ 4 1
1%, , , , 5

7*

454

. . , . .

.
, (.
. )). -,
( ) , 7 0 , ,
. , 7 0 , , .

.
)
.

,
, (a-Fe2Oa)
(FeBO3).
20% 2 5 - 2 8 . , 5 ' 2 8 29 > 30 (,
)
.
X, ,

. 7.
, .
=
= Mi + M2, a ij) =
= 2 cos 1|>.

.
Kl1},
,
(. 450),
= 2 2 = ^ia + 2 , 13 = 23,
44

^55i

^22

^12 " 2 6 ,

1 = 23,

t-44 = C55.

,
, (3.6)

d (lxmy

lymx).


( 2
X, Y), ^ > 0.
2 2 (. 7). , (3.1) (3.3), = ( + 2)/2 ,
2
2
ty = ( 2)/2 : m = cos i|).
, X ( ) = .
> 0 < 0.

455


(2.6)
.

, ,

:
1. , ^ ,
(3.23)
m || X ( = 0). AiJ) = (/2) |) =
= ( -f- Hd)/HE , , = ( + Hd)/HE.
2. > 0, > ,

(3.24)

^ =

, =
; m
m || X m || Y (

~%^>

HHd/HE).

< 0 () 1.
, > 0 . ,
: = 0 ,
(3.24), m || Y,

/_ + -

(3.25)

= /2 = 0,
( X, Y,
) ^ * 1
m || .
,
: || || X.
,
( ),
:
1.
= 2 (-2 +
2.

).

(3.26)

~^

{ - ) + sin* ] ,
(3.27)

456

. . , . .

, , . 1
( > 0) - 0,
,
1 (. 8, ) 2, (3.23).
( 2) ,
(3.27),
, , m ||
(3.24) . , = (3.23),
:
= = -

(3.28)

, ,
.
. 8, , 0
( ) (3.28)
tor

*
a)

*
S)

. 8. > 0 ()
|| () ().
1 = 0, 2 > 0, II < 0, J. , 3 > 0, < 0, .

= * (3.25). 1 , = 0
( * = 0), 2 .
:
< < 0 | = 0
*).

2 8 .
( ^ >
~> %) ,
< ff>0/si :
>i = col + ?6ftft>| ;
= stk ,
;
<*> = stk .
*) , , ,
tub | fe^0, (3.27),
, ,
.
0 = 0.

457

, ,
.
1

si = P" ( - U ^ e e sin 2q>),

s\ = p~iCm (1 - cos 2cp),

(3.29)

= 0 1 ( ^ )
{3.24) 2 ( ^ 1 > ) . ,
(3.26) (3.27).
(
-> 0)
. 9 3 0 . 2 5 ~ 2 8
= 0 a-Fe 2 O 3 FeBO 3
s(H).
( = = *),
t,s->- 1 st ( >-0) ,

; ()
(3.18) *
5 5 -> .
(3.20) (3.21)
,
.
9.

,
(1) ( .
)
, , (2)
L _L Z
|| || X, > 0,
1 .
(. ) . 2). ,
( ) , = /. , ,
(3.18) ( 5 >- 6) (2.59)
-> . , , ,
, , ( ) .
, - - ,
^ 0 m || ||
( 1).
(2.61) (2.64), ,
col =

6 + *- + 80 ( + Hdf sin

(3.30)

4fe = 0 () (3.28).
GHC . -

458

. . , . .

, , .
6,
(2.50) (3.29)
() 6 = # 6 ( # + # - # 6 ) - 1 ,
(3.31)
() ?6 = ^ 6 ( ^ 2 + 6 ) - 1
(3.32)
( = Hd = 0).
, ( + = 0
= 0), , 6 = 1.
# ( ^ 1 )

, <^ 1 (
CHG ).
, = 1 , 6
1 ,
,
, (
).

( 106 ) , 6
1/2, 103 . , GHG , ( Dy ).
4.

() ,
( ) . ,
.
, -, :
, ,
, ( ,
, ).

,
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