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. .

2003

512.542(075.8)+51:53(075.8)
22.14473
48

:
- , . . ;
- . . ;

.
(. - ,
. . )

. .
48
: . / . . . .: , 2003. 222 .: .
ISBN 985-445-965-9.

, .
. .

512.542(075.8)+51:53(075.8)
22.14473

ISBN 985-445-965-9

. ., 2003
, 2003


.......................................................................................................... 5
1.
1.1. ............................................................... 7
1.2. ......................................................... 10
1.3. . ................................................... 17
2.
2.1. ................................................................. 21
2.2. Cn, Sn, Cnh, Cnv, Dn, Dnh, Dnd, T, Td, Th,
O, Oh, Y, Yh .............................................................................................. 24
2.3. ........................................ 32
3.
3.1. .................................................................... 36
3.2. ............................................................................. 36
3.3. . ................................... 38
3.4. ............................ 49
3.5.
............................................................. 52
3.6. D3.................................................. 57
3.7.
( D3) .............................................. 58
3.8. .
......................... 68
3.9. ........................................................ 72
4.
4.1. ........... 77
4.2. H+2 : ..................................... 80
4.3. H+2 : ........................................ 83
4.4. ......... 84
4.5. ....................... 87
4.6.
..................................................... 88
4.7.
................................................. 91
4.8. ........................................ 96
4.9.
................................ 97
4.10.
........................................................................ 101

5.
5.1. NH3 ......................................102
5.2. .
....................................................................104
5.3. . sp3-
CH4 .....................................................................................108
5.4. sp3- .............112
6.
6.1. () .................................................114
6.2. .................................................120
6.3. ..............................129
7.

7.1. .................................................................................132
7.2. .
. ......................133
7.3.
..........................................................136
7.4.
.............................................................................141
. ..................................................................153
. ............................................169
. .................................................................................186
.
........................................................................................198
. ....................................................201
.
H2O.............................................203
. ................................................................212
.......................................................................................................218
.........................................................................................................222



. , .
, . .
, , XIX .,
, . : ( , , ),
( ), ( ), ( ), ( ). 14 . 230 .
,
. , ( ) CH4 ,
.
. , . ,
, .
,
,
.
.

. .
, .
. -

.
. 47
,
. , ,
. , , (. 6) () .
, . ,
.
, ,
. 3.12 . 12 . 3.
. ,
(2.3.5) (5) 3 . 2.
. , (4.7)
(7) 4 .
(, # 5.3. 3 . 5; !).
.
, , ,
.
, ( ) . () .
. . . . . . .
.
. .

1

1.1.
() .
,
.
, .

,
() (. ).
,
. D O
RD RO (. 1.1).
R O,
RO O. O
D
D O

D RO.
R
S T, ,
, . 1.1. - R O
D
. , SoT, T
S, R .
,
E, . ,
,
SoS 1 = E.
So(ToR) = (SoT)oR .
, SoT ST ST,
, SoT : S + T.
o () , ,
.

1.
1.1

E
Cn

1
n

C2', U2

1 /m

Sn

n/m = n

I = S2


2/n. n ( n)
,

,

,

,

,
,
Cn
(
)

, , . ,
(. . 1.1).
. C ( cyclic ) ,
; D (diagonal ) C2',
; S (sphenoidal ) - . T O (tetrahedral
octahedral ) . Y (icosahedral )
. () , , . n = 1, 2, 3, C, D, S n . : i, s, h, v d.
: i (inversion) , s (single) , h (horizontal)
, v (vertical) , d (diagonal) , . .
, ( ) .

1.1.

(1, 2, 3, ),
m 2 , C2' . , m ,
, . , 4mm
4- , ; 4/m , 4-
. 3, 4,
6 - .
, , .
: ; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; , ; ; ; , ; , ; , , ;
; ; (eikosi
+ hedra , ).
: , ,
,
. , , C2 .
,
. .

.
(, ),
,
. , ,
, ( -) ( ). , ,

, , , , - -, .

10

1.

1.2.
Y G,
( o) ,
Y , G.
, : ()
J(Ny) = (JoN)y, (yJ)N = y(JoN) y
Y, J, N G.
,
JoN N,
J; . . 1.2.
1.2
D3
D3

1 a

( )

E:

N o J = M
1

J (= C3):
2/3
1

K (= C32):
4/3

L (= C'2a):
aa
2

M (= C'2b):
bb
1

N (= C'2c):
cc


D3

D3
E
J
K
L
M
N

E
E
J
K
L
M
N

J
J
K
E
N
L
M

K
K
E
J
M
N
L

L
L
M
N
E
J
K

M
M
N
L
K
E
J

N
N
L
M
J
K
E

{X1}
{X2}
X1 o X2
X1
X2 .

D3 : E,
J, K L, M, N. , J,

1.2.

11

N, N o J = M ( ). D3
(N o J J o N), .
O , O , ,
() O. . 1.3.
1.3

D3

G D3 E J K L M N

{X1 = E, X2, X3, , Xg}
E E J K LMN
J J K EMN L
, K K E J N LM
: 1) , 2) L L NME K J
, 3) M ML N J E K
E, 4)
N NML K J E
1
1
X , X X = E
2 g
g=6
G ( G. ( g |G|)
,
)
1

3
X
(
ord(X))

p ,
J 3, X p = E. {X, X 2,
p
, X = E} {J, K, E}
X,
, X

H G,
- {E, J, K}, {E, L},
{E, M}, {E, N}
G

, G {E} ( G
{E} , )

6 ,

G

Xi Xj = Xj Xi , i, j = 1, , g

H1 = {E, J, K},
H2 = {E, L},
H3 = {E, M},
H4 = {E, N}
D3 .

12

1.
. 1.3

D3

()

{Xi , Xj , {J, K}{L, M} =


} {Xk , Xl , } G, = {L, M, N}

{Xi, Xj, }{Xk, Xl, } = {Xi Xk ,
Xi Xl , , Xj Xk , Xj Xl , },

8 (
)
H,

XG



H4 = {E, N}
{E, N}, {J, L}, {K,
M}; H4 {E,
N}, {J, M}, {K, L}

n = g/h g
G h H1 = {E, J, K }
H. n - 2

9
n := [G:H]
H
G
10

(
Zg)

11

12

(
Ci)


HX ( XH).
H
G H\G ( G/H).
H h

G,

X m, m = 1, 2, , g,
X G; X g = E. X ()
G
Xi Xj ,
X G,
Xj = X 1Xi X. Xi = X 1Xi X
X G, Xi

()

. .
, (
)


H1, H2 ,
H3 , H4
D3

L N
,
K 1LK = N;
(
E)
:
C1 = {E},
C2 = {J, K},
C3 = {L, M, N}

1.2.

13
. 1.3

D3

13




,
, .
CiCj

Ci Cj .
(. )

C2C3 = 2C3 ,
2
, C3
C2C3 .
C2C2 = (J + K)2 =
= J 2 + JK + KJ +
+ K 2 = 2C1 + C2

14

H H' G ,
X
G, H' = X 1 HX ( )

H2 = {E, L} H4 =
= {E, N}
( , X K)

15
( )

H G , H = X 1HX
X
G (
), . . :
HX = XH. ,
, (E G),
16 -
G/H G ( ) H
H G/H (= H\G)
, -. n := [G:H]
H

H1 = {E, J, K}

H1 = {E, J, K}

C3 = {L, M, N} =
= H1L
:
D3
H1 C3
H1
H1 C3
C3
C3 H1

14

1.

17

G G'
, (Xi , Xj'),
Xi G, Xj' G'.
G G'
(Xi, Xj')(Xk, Xl') = (Xi Xk , Xj' Xl').
G G' gg'

18
(
)


, .
, .

19
(
f : G G')

f G
G', , . . f (Xi Xj) = f (Xi) f (Xj)
Xi , Xj G (
).

20
G

G

()
V, . . : G Aut(V). (), .

V
'
G V' V . ' ,
V' V X G v V'
'(X)v = (X)v, . .
X G
'(X) = (X)|V'

21 '
G

. 1.3
D3

H1 = {E,
J, K} H2 = {E, L},
D3 , C6 =
= H1 H2 = {(E, E),
(E, L), (J, E), (J, L),
(K, E), (K, L)} . C6
(J, L)
D3 C6 =
= H1H2 (. )
.
H1 = {E, J, K} D3
{(E, E),
(J, E), (K, E)} C6
D3
H2 ,
E, J, K E, L, M,
N L,
D3 H2 = {E, L}, , MN LL =
= E
MN = K E

E 1, L 1,
J 1, M 1,
K 1, N 1
D3
= ' '',
' ''

.
(:

)

1.2.

15

# 1.1. G E, A, B, C, () o , :
1) A B
AoB G;
2) , . . (AoB)oC = Ao(BoC);
3) G E, . . EoA = A = AoE A G;
4) A G , . .
A1 G, A1oA = E.

: A p = E; A1 = A p 1, p A.
() 1) 4) . , 1), 2), 3), G . !
# 1.2. (. 1.4) :
( ).
1.4

: A B AB
: E
: A1

: A + B
: 0
: A

() (, E1 E2 , E1 = E1E2 = E2 = E ),
A (, X Y A, X = XE = X(AY) = (XA)Y = EY = Y),
E A1 . (AB)1 = B 1A1,
(AB)1 A1B1. !
. () .
. G = {G1 = E, G2 , , Gg},
g , : Ga
, Gb
, GbGa ( GaGb)
. , Gc
Gb Ga = Gb1Gc . Gb Ga
. , GbGa = GbGc, ,
Gb1 , Ga = Gc , . ,
Ga GbGa . ( .)
: f ,
, Ga f (Ga Gb) = Ga f (Ga), . .
( G) Gb .

16

1.

. .
. A, B, E. AoB = AB = AB A ( B), B = E (
A = E). , AB = E. , BA = E. AA
E, A = A1, , , A = B A = E, . AA = A, A = E, .
AA = B. BB = A. ,
. .
# 1.3. G H
. . , .
. H = {H1 = E, H2, H3, , Hh} h G g X2 G.
X2 H = {X2, X2 H2, X2 H3, , X2 Hh}.
X2 H, X2 H H.
X2 H, X2 H G
H, X2 , H2 H3
X2 H2 X2 H3 .
, ( ,
E). H X2 H
. , X2 Hj = Hk
X2 = Hk Hj1, X2 H, Hk Hj1 , , X2 H.
, , .
X3 G, H, X2H. X3H, H, X2 H. ,
G. G = H X2H
Xn H . ( Xk Hi =
= Xk Hj , Hi = Hj , . . .)
h , g = nh. ,
. !

g. {0, 1, , g 1}
g, . . Ga = a, Gb = b

1.3. .

Ga oGb = aob =

17

a + b,
a + b < g,
0,
a + b = g,
a + b g, a + b > g.

, , 0, a o E = a + 0 = a.
a1 :
a o a1 = E = 0 = a a = a + g a,
. . a1 = a = g a.
g - Zg = Z/gZ Z gZ , g.
().
g 1. ,
1a = 1 + 1 + + 1 = a; 1g = g = 0 = E.
g = 12 g = 24 . Z12 : 1 + 1 = 2; 1 + 1 + 1 = 3; 6 + 7 = 12 + 1 = 1.
Z12 2, 3, 4, 6- , : 6, 12 (= 0); 4, 8, 12 (= g0); 3, 6, 9, 12 (= 0); 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 (= 0).
1 .

. exp(i2) = cos2 + isin2 = 1,
g
1 = exp(i2/g), i 2 = 1. () Zg ( g) exp(i2/g).
: exp(i2/g), exp(i4/g), exp(i6/g), ,
exp(ig2/g) = exp(i2) = 1. Gk =
= exp(ik2/g), Gk1 = exp(i(g k)2/g).
g-
. g g 1. g = 4.
i, 1, i, 1, . . . , i i = exp(/2).

1.3. .
S(n) ( )
{1, , n} .
fog f g S(n) ,
i f (g(i)).
, f S(n)
(1, 2, , n), ( f (1), f (2), , f (n)).
S(n) , . . n! = 123n.

18

1.

f a1, a2 , , an , ai =
= f (i),
1 2 n
,
a1 a2 an

Pa =

P a = (a1, a2, , an). Pa 1 a1, 2 a2, , n an. , k = 1, 2, , n ak . ,


, , k ak .
, . n
S(n).
, .
. , ,
, . A(n). A(n) n!/2 S(n).
S(n) Pa .
Pa Pb , Pb , Pa , i aj , j = bi .
,
.
, S(n)
.
1) , , . ,
fog x y , f (g(x)) = f (g(y)). f , g(x) = g(y).
, g x = y.
2) . ,
( fog)oh fo(goh) x f (g(h(x))).
: (Pa Pb) Pc = Pa (Pb Pc).
1 2 n
3) PE =
. 1 2 n
E S(n).
4) Pa

1.3. .

19

a1 a2 an
.
1 2 n

Pa1 =

, Pa Pa1 = PE = Pa1Pa .
, S(n) n! n
, .
Pa ,
q(Pa), +1 1 ,
. q S(n)
{1, 1} ( Z2 ). : Pa
.
. G g S(g).
, ( ) .
. G = {X1 = E, , Xg}
g, X1 = E . G , i, j = 1, , g
k , Xi Xj = Xk .
1) Xi G Qi S(g), j k, Xi Xj = Xk.

Xi1, Xj = Xi1Xk . k i j
G.
, {Q1, , Qg} S(g) Xi Qi G
{Q1, , Qg}.
2) Q1 , Q2 , , Qg . , Q1, X1 Xj = Xj .
3) {Q1, , Qg} .
Qi Qj k m,
. Qj k l, Xj Xk = Xl , Qi l m, Xi Xl = Xm . Xj Xk
Xl , Xi Xj Xk = Xm . , Qi Qj, Xi Xj , k m. , Qi Qj Xi Xj G.

20

1.

4) . Xj
Xi . Qj Qi , 3)
Xj Xi = X1 Qj Qi , Xi Xj Qi Qj . ,
Qj Qi = Qi Qj = Q1.
, {Q1, , Qg} S(g).
5) , {Q1, , Qg} G. , 3) , G
.
, .
, (.
) G
G
G. ( . 3 .)
( , ) ? X g , . . XX X. (X2
g2 ) gg . , , . .
g . , g
, g, .
g g.
# 1.4. S(3)
D3 (. 1.2). S(3):
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
P1 =
= E; P2 =
= J; P3 =
= K;
1 2 3
3 1 2
2 3 1
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
P4 =
= L; P5 =
= M; P6 =
= N.
1 3 2
3 2 1
2 1 3
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
P2 P4 =

=
= P5 = JL = M.
3 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 1
, ,
D3
S(3) .
, , 2 3
1 2 3 2 3
, P4 P4 = , P2 P4 =
.
3 2
3 1 2 3 2
P2 :
1 2 3 1 3 2 3
P2 =
= , . . P2 . !
3 1 2 3 1 3 2

2

2.1.
, ( ), , .
: / .
(, ),
(),
. , , ,
.
2/n Cn ( ),
p(2/n) Cnp. n p, Cnp = Cn/p. , Cnn = E
, n2/n = 2,
1
, C1 = E; (Cnk) = Cnk = Cnn k, k = 1,
2, , n 1. , , ,
, ,
, ,
( ). ,
, .
;
, 2 = E . ( n)
. , , v (vertical), ,
, h (horizontal).
- Sn
Cn
= 2/n
:
P
(1)
hCn = Cnh = Sn .
() Sn P ( . 2.1
h
) 2/n
P'
h, Cn .
(1) :
. 2.1

22

2.

hC2 = C2h = S2 = I,
(2)
I ; S1 = h.

I x, y, z C(2)
P'
, . . I{x,y,z} = {x,y,z},
2
'

v
O
. (2)
P''
: Ih = C2
IC2 = h
C2, h I. P'''
. 2.2
.
, . , (. . ).
v'v 2 , , . .
v'v = C(2).
(3)
(3) . 2.2 (, ).
(3) c v , v2 = E,
(3)
v' = C(2)v ,
. . v C(2) v', v , .
P P'''. , Cn
v , n 1 , , /n.
, C2', Cn , n 1 C2', Cn ,
/n. ,
C3 C2' (. 1.2).
, , , ():
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) , ;
P

2.1.

23

5) ( ) ,
( ), . . I
.
D3 ,
( 1.2). .
C H C G H, , H.
.
,
( )
, , ( ).
. 2.3 a b, R
a b, Cn(a) Cn(b) 2/n a b. R1Cn(b)R a b, 2/n, a . , 2/n
a, . . Cn(a) = R1Cn(b)R. , Cn(a) Cn(b)
. .
, , .

(. 2.3). , k-
Cnk (k = 1, 2, ..., n 1) Cn n- Cnk = Cnn k, . . (n k)(2/n) ( 2k/n ).
(
a
a
- a R
b
a
), ,
,
a'
Cnk Cnk '
C2
h
- O
. h v
,
, a'
a'
;
. 2.3

24

2.

, h . h Cnk Cnk .
v , , , , Cnk = v Cnk v1;
v = v1 Cnk Cnk . , .

2.2.
Cn, Sn, Cnh, Cnv, Dn, Dnh, Dnd, T, Td, Th, O, Oh, Y, Yh
14 ,
.
G M G. ,
M G,
( C1) G.
I. Cn . Cn n- , . . 2/n. Cn
, n : Cn,
Cn2, , Cnn = E.
n. C1 , O
C1 = E. O
()
: 2, 3,
C3
C2
4 . . . 2.4
. 2.4
C2 C3.
II. Sn. Sn -
Sn = Cnh. n = 2p + 1
, C2p+1 h. , S2p2p++11 =
= h2p + 1 = h, Cnh (. ); g =
+ 1)
= C2p4p++12 = E.
= 2(2p + 1), S2p2(2p
+1
S2p , 2p : S2p, S2p2 , , S2p2p = E,
. S2
: S2 = C2h = I S22 = E ; Ci . n = 4p + 2, (S4p + 2)2p + 1 = C2h = I. : S4p + 2 = C2p + 1 Ci = C2p + 1, i .
, S4, 2/4 h, O

2.2.

25

, )
)
)

(. 2.5, ). ,
,
O
O
, O
,
Ci .
III. Cnh .
Cnh Cn
C2h
C4v
S4
h .
. 2.5
2n : n Cn n : Cnkh, k =
= 1, n; k = n Cnnh = h. (), ( = 2n). C1h
: E h; Cs . n (n = 2p + 1),
Cnh Cn Cs.
n (n = 2p), Cnh (): C2pp
h = C2h = I. n = 2p C2p,h = C2p Ci, Ci = {E, I}. C2h . 2.5, .
, ,
Cs .
IV. Cnv . Cnv Cn
v. n 1 ,
Cn , /n. Cnv 2n : n Cn n v. v Cn .
Cnv
n.
n (n = 2p + 1), v , , n . Cn , k
k
(C2p+1
C2p+1
, k = 1, 2, , p) ,
2p+1
p. , C2p+1
= E
. , = p + 2 .
n (n = 2p), ;
, ,
. , C2p2p = E C2pp = C2
, (2p 2) (p 1) . ,
C2p,v = 2 + 2 + (p 1) = p + 3.

26

2.

. 2.5, , C4v (
v ; , ).
V. Dn . Dn
Cn C2'.
n 1 C2', /n (. 2.1).
g = 2n, n Cn n C2'.
Cnv , n- Cn .
n = 2p + 1, C2' , n = 2p . D2p+1 (p + 2) : E, (2p + 1) C2' p
. D2p
(p + 3) : E, 2 p C2'
, C2 (p 1) O
.
, D3 D2
(. 1.2). D2 (
V ) . 2.6
(. 2.6).
VI. Dnh . Dnh
Dn h . n v , Cn
C2' ( (2.1.3), v h 2 = ). Dnh 4n
: 2n Dn n v n Cnkh . n . . 2.7 , D2h .
h , Dnh
Dn Cs ( Cnv Cs), Cs = {E, h}. n = 2p,
D2p,h I, D2p, h = D2p Ci .
Dnh O
Dn. Dn ( ),
h. v
D2h
( n )
( n). - . 2.7
hCnk hCnk .
VII. Dnd . Dnd Dn
, Cn Dn ,

2.2.

27

C2'. (n 1) , Cn . Dnd n- ,
/n. . 2.8
, D2d .
Dnd 4n : 2n
Dn n , d (diagonal), n C2'd.
(2.1.3) C2' = hv, v O
, C2'. C2'd = h v d ( v, h
Dnd ). v d n- - D
2d
, (/2n)(2k + 1), k = 1, 2, , (n 1). d v . 2.8
/2n, (2.1.3) v d = C2n2k + 1. ,
, C2' d = hC2n2k + 1 = S2n2k + 1, . . - , n- , 2n- .

,
( ,
n). , . S2n2k + 1 S2n2k 1 : d S2n2k + 1d1 = d h C2n2k + 1d1 = h d C2n2k + 1d1 = h C2n2k 1 = S2n2k 1.
n = 2p + 1
( , C2'
d),
D2p+1, d = D2p+1 Ci , D2p+1, d = 2p + 4 , (p + 2) D2p+1.
n = 2p D2p,d = 2p + 3 : E, C2 n- , (p 1) , 2p C2', 2p d p - .
VIII. T. T () C3
C2, , . 2.9, , .
. 2.9, ( C2 ,
C3 ). 12
: E, 3C2, 4C3, 4C32 (= 4C31). C2 (), C3 , ,

28

2.

C3 C2. T :
E; 3C2; 4C3; 4C32.
z
C3
a
d

C2

a)

)
x

y
c

C2

C3

. 2.9

T (. Td). , T, ( C1)
T.
IX. Td . Td
. C2 , C3 d . . 2.10, ,
d , , . Td
- S4 = C4 h.
, C2(x)d C2(x) x
(. 2.9, ) d aOd ( d )
: a c, b c a, c b d,
d b. , C4(z)h = S4 C4(z)
z /2 (
) h ( xy)
: a c, b a, c d, d b, C2(x)d . , S4 Td , C4 h Td .
C3 ,
C3

C3
a)

d
C2 , S4
Td

. 2.10

S4
d

2.2.

29

, , C3 C32 = C31
. . Td 24
: E, 8(C3 , C32), 6d , 6(S4 , S43), 3C2 , 8(C3 , C32) = 4C3 + 4C32, 6(S4 ,
S43) = 3S4 + 3S43, C2 = S42. S(4).
X. Th . Th T
(), Th = T Ci .
h ,
C2 , C3 -
S6. 24 8
(. 2.11, , ).
C3

C2

C2

a)

S6

Th

. 2.11

XI. O. O
(). C4,
, C3 , , C2d = C2', (. 2.12, ).
, .
O 24 :
E, 8(C3 , C32), 3(C2 = C42), 6C2d , 6(C4, C43).
O Td .
C3

C4

C4
S6

a)

)
C2'

C2d

. 2.12

Oh

30

2.

XII. Oh . Oh ().
(). I
O, Oh = O Ci. , Oh
Td Ci = {E, I},
. . Oh = Td Ci . Oh 48 (= 242),
10 (= 52).
Oh O ( Td) E I ( ,
Oh O ( Td), I). I
d,
( , (1.2)).
C3 - S6 (. 2.12, ),
4- - S4, h , ,
. . .
XIII. Y. Y
; Y = {E, 12C5, 12C52, 15C2, 20C3}. 60 ( 20- ) ( 12- ), 6 , 10 15 . Y . A(5) (. ).
XIV. Yh . Yh Y : Yh = YCi , 120 (. 2.13).
C5

C3

a)

C5

)
C2
C3
C2

. 2.13. (Yh): )
(12 , 30 20 ); ) (20
, 30 12 ).

2.2.

31

14 (Cn , , Yh )
, .
,
, , , , .
# 2.1.

(, ) (, ).
. 5
( ): , (), , , . , n-, , 2,
: 3(n 2)/n < 2. n < 6, . .
, - .
3, 4 5 (, , ), 3
(), 3 ().
,
5 . , 5 . ( ,
, ,
, .)
, p , r s , : p r + s = 2.
. p () r .
,
s .
() . : () ,
( p r) s ; ,
, p (s r) . ,
.
p r + s , , p r + s = 1,
, .
. 2.14 , p = 9
, r = 15 s = 7 , .
, ,
, . , : p r + s = 2. , , .

32

2.

. 2.14.

, n , p = (5n + 6)/3, r = (5n + 6)/2, s = n + .


(5n + 6)/3 + n + (5n + 6)/2 = 2; , n = 12,
. = 0 : s = 12, r = 30, p = 20.
, n , p = 3n/5, r = 3n/2, s = n;
n = 20, : 20 , 30 12
. !
# 2.2. , C . , C60 , 60
, C 6- 5-.
( 12 ) 12 20 , 60 -
30 . C60 0.71 .
, .
Yh . ( ). (,
). .
() . !

2.3.
, - , (. 2.1). , () . . .
D3d
C3 , C2' d .
C3 , C3 = {E, C3 , C32}. -

2.3.

33
2.1

( )

Cn
S2n
Cnh
Cnv
Dn
Dnd
Dnh
T
Td
Th
O
Oh
Y
Yh

{Cn}
{S2n}
{Cn, h}
{Cn(z), v}
{Cn(z), C2'}
{Cn, C2', d}
{Cn, C2', h}
{C2(x), C3(xyz)}
{S4(z), C3(xyz)}
{C2(z), C3(xyz), I}
{C4(z), C3(xyz)}
{C4(z), C3(xyz), I}
{C5 , C3 , C2}
{C5 , C3 , C2 , I}

C1
Ci = {E, I} ( S2)
Cs = {E, } ( C1h)

T ;
xyz ,
()

C2'. () (
GC2' G C3) C2', 60 . D3 = {E, 2C3 , 3C2'}. d . C3 d (
d , 60 ) d C2'. . 2.15,
( 46) h , ( 13) h .
C2' d 60 ( S6).
,
d C2', S6, S63, ( S2, I) S65. D3d
{E, 2C3 , 3C2', 3d , I, 2S6}.
1
5

C2'
4

C3

3
6

4
C2'

5
2

6
2

. 2.15. D3d

34

2.

. 2.2 2.3. . 2.4 14 .


2.2

n ( 2/n)
p = 2n

Cn

Sp

,
,
( n)

v d

n, n ; p, n
( )
m ( )
1/m (
)
2

2.3


( )

Cn (Cn)

C5

Sp (Sp)

S4

n p

S6

Cnh (Cn, h)

C5h

n/m

5 /m

Cnv (Cn, v)

C3v

nm

3m

Dn (Cn, C2')
Dnd (Cn, C2', d)

D4
D3d

n2
p2m

42
32m

Dnh (Cn, C2', h)

D6h

n, n ; p,
n (p = 2n)
Ci ( S2) 2 m; Cs
1
C2v mm
2mm

p

n/m 2/m 2/m 6/m 2/m 2/m D6h = 6/mmm

# 2.3. , .
. , , .
.
. !

2n

Cnv

Dn

d?

2n

Dn

Dnd

h?
Dnh
T

4n

Dnh

C4?

4n

Dnd

Th

C5 ?

12

24

Td

d ?

24

Th

Td

C 4?

24

C 5?

. S2 = Ci = {E, I}; Cnv = {Cn , nv}; Cnh = {Cn , h}; C1h = Cs = {E, h}; Dn = {Cn , nC2'}; Dnh = Dn {nv , h};
=
Dnd Dn {nd}; S2n = C2nh ; I = C2h .

2n 2n

2n 2n

Cnv

Cnh

S2n?

n/2 + 3, n = 2p
n/2 + 3, n = 2p
n + 6, n = 2p
(n + 3)/2, n = 2p + 1 (n + 3)/2, n = 2p + 1 n + 3, n = 2p + 1 n + 3

S2n

Cn S2n Cnh

S2n?

Cn

v?

h?

Cn C2' ?

C3 C2?

14 :
?

10

48

Oh

Oh

Yh

10

60 120

Yh

2.4

2.3.
35

3

3.1.
G G . ,
.
,
G = {X1 = E, X2, , Xg} .
( (1g)) (. ). , Xi G, reg(Xi).
, D3 (. 1.2) J :

01 00 10 00 00 00
0 1 0 0 0 0
J(E, J, K, L, M, N) = (J, K, E, M, N, L) = (E, J, K, L, M, N)
.
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0
144424443
0 0 0 0 1 0
reg(J)

g (gg), ,
reg . ,
reg(E) . (g 1)
(., , reg(J)).

3.2.
V {n}.
G = {X1 = E, X2, , Xg} V G
V, X G (X) ( (X) X), {n}
(X). V
dim().
{n} V,
(X) mn(X) m | X | n, n, m = 1, 2, , l g.
, X

3.2.

37

, n :
X n mn(X) m.
m

G {(X)} :
(X) (X') = (XX'); (X 1) = ((X))1,

(1)

. . .
X X' G : X' = U 1X U, (1)
:
(2)
(X') = (U 1) (X) (U) = ((U))1 (X) (U),
U .
(X') (X), (2),
, (U) (). ,
mn(X') = m | U 1XU | n = mU 1 | X | Un = m' | X | n' = 'mn(X),

(3)

n' = U n , '(X) X G ,
{n' }. (2) (3),
'(X) = ((U))1 (X) (U).

(4)

. '
G V V' ,
'(X) = P 1 (X) P,
P V V', .
.
. (
.)
. ' '' G
V' V''
V' V'',
' '' = ' ''.
'(X)

(X) =

0
.
''(X)

(5)

+.
, (5), . -

38

3.

( , 0
V), .
, P,
{(X)}
P 1 (X) P =

0
(m1 m1)

m
)
(m
2
2

m
)
(m
3
3

0
O

(X) ,

(6)

mp mp (p = 1, 2, ),
, (X) . .

P, .
() . ' '' G V' V''
V' V'', () ' '' = ' ''.
(X) = '(X) ''(X).
.
,
.
, G, X G
(X) = Sp (X) Tr (X),
Sp (= ).
.
. (E) E , . . (E) = dim(V) = dim().
, . . ' '' =
= ' + '' . ()
, . . ' '' = ' '' .

3.3. .
G . -

3.3. .

39

. , . . ,
. . . ( ,
.)
.
G = {G1 = E, , Ga , , Gg} L, A
L, , . .
Ga G (Ga) A = A (Ga).
A () 1l, . . A = 1l,
.
. r A L , Ar = r. ra =
= (Ga)r A ,
Ara = A(Ga) r = (Ga) Ar = (Ga) r = (Ga) r = ra.
Ga G, ra , Gb G :
(Gb) ra = (Gb) (Ga) r = (Gb Ga) r = (Gc) r = rc ,
Gb Ga = Gc . L . , ,
ra , L. ,
L a cara, ca ,
A:
A cara = ca Ara = ca ra = cara,
a

a cara L, A = 1l.
A ,
.
,
. , , G. , Ga Gb G : (Ga) (Gb) =
= (Gb) (Ga). , (Gb) -

40

3.

, . . (Gb) = b1l. ,
(Gb) Gb , . ,
.
. 1 2 G L1 L2 l1 l2
. A () L2 L1, , . .
Ga G 1(Ga) A = A 2(Ga).
A = 0 ( ).
. l1 l2 .
1) l2 l1, A L2 LA lA l2 l1 L1. LA
Ar, r L2. , LA G,
1(Ga)Ar = A2(Ga)r = Ara ,
LA, ra = 2(Ga) r
L2 . 1 ,
L1 . , , LA (lA = 0), L1 (lA = l1).
, ) Ar = 0 r L2, . . A = 0, ) lA = l1 = l2,
lA l2 l2 l1.
) , 1 2 . , L1 L2
, A1, A, 1(Ga) A =
= A 2(Ga) , 1(Ga) = A2(Ga)A1, . .
1 2 . ,
), . . A = 0.
2) l2 > l1 , lA LA L1 lA < l2 . L2 r, A , . . Ar = 0.
L2 LB,
l2 lA. LB ,
ra = 2(Ga) r, Ara = A2(Ga)r = 1(Ga)Ar = 0, ,
ra LB. 2 ,
LB = L2, , Ar = 0 r L2. ,
, A = 0.

3.3. .

41



G . { ; = 1, , }
G
.
G L L . Y , L L.
A = (Gb)Y (Gb1),

(1)

Y ,
, . ,
(Ga)A = (Ga)(Gb)Y (Gb1) = (GaGb)Y (Gb1)(Ga1)(Ga) =
b

= (GaGb)Y ((GaGb)1)(Ga) = (Gc)Y (Gc1)(Ga) = A(Ga),


b

, Ga Gb = Gc ( Ga , Gb ) (. 1.2).
: 1) , = , 1- A = 1l; 2) , ,
2- A = 0.
A = 1l,

(2)

, . . = 0, , = 1, .
A (1)
(2)
g

1
mj (Ga ) = Aij = (Y) ij ,
ik()(Ga) Ykm ()

(3)

a = 1 m = 1k = 1

Ykm Y ;
Y .
Y
Ykm = kp qm , . . , , p- q- .

42

3.

Y pq = (Y), (3) ,
g

1
qj (Ga ) = pq ij .
ip()(Ga)()

(4)

a=1

(4) = i = j,
l

()
()
(Ga) qi
(Ga1)
ip

= pq 1 = pq l ,

i=1a=1

i=1

. .
g

qp()(E) = pq l ,
a=1

, ,
g
pq ,
l
E .
(4) pq ,
pq =

1
ij pq .
qj (Ga ) =
ip()(Ga) ()
l

(5)

a=1

, (5) .
(Ga1) (Ga) = (E) = 1, (Ga1) = ((Ga))1,
( = 1),
()

1
()
qj (Ga ) = jq (Ga) ,

(5)
g

jq (Ga) =
ip()(Ga) ()
a=1

g
ij pq.
l

(6)

, i, j, p, q (6) , . (6)
, , .
= , ,
, . . i j p q. = , i = j,
p = q, (6) :
g

| ip()(Ga) | 2 = l ;

a=1

= 1, 2, , .

3.3. .

43

(6) ,
()
ip
(Ga) , i p g- .
:
. (6) , i p.
.
, V ,
G :
g
1
(, ) = (Ga) (Ga).
g
()
ip

a=1


G
V, (6) .
3.1

D3
D3

E
J
K
2C3 = C2
C1
1
1
1 A1 1
1
1
2 A2 1
1 0 1 1 3 1 1 3
3 E

0 1 2 3 1 2 3 1
3'

1 0

0 1

0 1

1 1

1 1

1 0

L
1
1
1 0

0 1

M
N
3C2' = C3
1
1
1
1
1 1 3 1 1 3

2 3 1 2 3 1

1 1

0 1

1 0

1 1

0 1

1 0

D3 : C1, C2, C3, a) 3. x2 + y2; z; x, y a1, a2 D3 :

a1

(x, y)
x2 + y2

O
3

2
1 (
a)

x
A1)

a2
2 (A2)

3 (E)

(a1 + a2)
3'

3' 3 , . . U,
: 3' = U 3U 1. 3' , (5), (6).

44

3.

D3 ;
1 (= A1), 2 (= A2), 3 (= E) . 3.1 (. 3.6). 1 , 2 3 ( 3.2)
(6). , ,
l1 = 1, l2 = 1 l3 = 2, g = 6.
(6) , :
6

[(3)ip (Ga)]2 = 3 i p;
a=1
6

(3)ip (Ga) 2(Ga) = 0 i p.


a=1

# 3.1. 3'
D3 (. 3.1): a1 a2 xy.
y

1
c
J (=

(z)
C3 )

z 2
2
K (= C3 )

a1

x
3

' )
M (= C2b

a
' )
N (= C2c
'
L (= C2a)

a2

(a1 + a2)

. 3.1

3' . a1 a2 1 2 (. 3.1). 2/3 . a1 a2 J = C3 D3


(. ):
J = C3
1 1
= (a1; a2)3'(J).
(a1; a2) (a1 a2; a1) = (a1; a2)
1 0
K :
K = C32
0 1
= (a1; a2)3'(K).
(a1; a2) (a2; a1 a2) = (a1; a2)
1 1
LoJ :
LoJ
(a1; a2) L((a1; a2)3'(J)) = (a1; a2)3'(L)3'(J). !
# 3.2.
:
g ( ) G = {G1 = E, G2 , , Gg};

3.3. .

45

;
hi Ci ;
G
V ;
( D );
l ;
(R) ( , V ) , R (= Gr r) ;
ij()(R) (R).
: ,
(R) R, ; Mij = M0 ij .
:
M , M (R) = (R) M R
. : ) , M ; )
= , M .

( ):
1
qj (R ) =
ip()(R)()
RG

g
ij pq ,
l

G.
, :
g

ij pq ; (R)(R) = ij ij = g . !
jq (R) =
ip()(R)()
l
l
R

i, j

# 3.3. , . S1 ,
1 ( ).
X n
n . , f
Zn n S1 n : f (X m) = m m, X Zn . n Zn n k =
= exp(2i k/n), k = 0, 1, , n 1, n ( n-, S1 C). !
# 3.4. , -

46

3.

,
.
, ,
,
( ) . ,
, i- hi . ,

i = 1 hi = g, .
(6) i = p j = q, Ga R

(R) (R) = hi (Ci ) (Ci ) = g ,


R

(7)

, ; (R) , R . (7)

hi

g (Ci )

(Ci )
i=1

(Ci )

hi
g = .

(8)

hi/g Ui , (8)

*
i Ui

= ,

(9)

i=1

, Ui Ui* -
; i = 1, . , . . = 1, ; = 1, . ,
, . . U ! U = E. . , (9) U
! = E,
, U U U

(Ci )
=1

hi

(Cj )
g

hi
g = ij ,

. !
# 3.5.
1. R
(R) Sp (R) = ii(R).
i


G.

3.3. .

47

(. . 3.2).
(= ) (
) G, .
3.2
D3
D3

1
2
3

E
E
C1

J
K
(z)
2C3 (= C3 , C32)
C2

1
1
2

1
1
1

1
2
3

1
1
1

1
1
0

M
3C2'
C3

1
1
0

1
1
0

x2 + y2
z
x, y

2.

G g. , .
:

(R) (R)

RG

hi (Ci ) (Ci ) = g ,
i=1

( ), , hi Ci .
:
hi

(Ci ) (Cj ) = gij .


=1

3.
' G , = ' , . . (R) = ' (R) R . , ' = U 1U, Sp ' = Sp U 1 U = Sp UU 1 = Sp .
4.
G
. ,
.
(R)
,
n ( ):
= n1 1 + + n =

n , (R) =
=1

n (R);
=1

n n = 1g R (R)(R).

48

3.

5.
,
1
g

(R) (R)

n2,
=1

RG

n .
,
, ,
,
| (R) |2 = g .
R

6.
) reg l = dim(). ,
1
1
n = g reg(R)(R) = g reg(E)(E) = l ,
R

E .

) : = 1 (E) (E) = = 1 l2 = g.
7. ( )
A B A B A B , (A B)ij,kl Aik Bjl, ij kl
.
0 1
a b
A B : A =
, B =
.
c d
1 0
:
11 12 21 22
11 12 21 22
11 0 a 0 b
11 0 0 a b
12 a 0 b 0
12 0 0 c d
AB =
, BA =
21 0 c 0 d
21 a b 0 0
22 c 0 d 0
22 c d 0 0
(A B)21,22 = A22 B12 = 0, (B A)21,22 = B22 A12 = d.

, (R) = '(R) ''(R) ' '' . ,


{(R)} ,
R S (R)(S) = (RS). -

3.4

49

, , , , :
(R)(S)
=

ij,kl

ij,mn(R) mn,kl(S) =
m

= ' (R) ''(R)


m

'(S) ''(S)
=

ij,mn
mn,kl

= im
' (R)jn''(R)mk
' (S)nl
''(S) =
m

= im
' (R)mk
' (S) jn''(R)nl
''(S) = ik' (RS)jl''(RS) =
m

= '(RS) ''(RS)

ij,kl

= ((RS))ij,kl ij,kl(RS).

(
) :
Sp (A B) = (A B)ij,ij = Aii Bjj = Sp A Sp B.
ij

, D3 = 3 3 : = 32.
:
= 3 3 =

n = 1 + 2 + 3 ,

(R) =

=1

n =

n (R),
=1

1
1
(R)(R) = hi (Ci )(Ci ).

6
6 i=1
R D3

= 3 3 3 (= E) . 3.3, E D3 .
3.3
D3

C1 (= E)

C2 (= 2C3)

C3 (= 3C2')

3.4.
G = {G1 = E, , Gr = R, , Gg} g
V. ,
G , x, y, z.
G V, (x , y, z) = (r) -

50

3.

R G, R = R , 1):
(1)
R(r) = (R 1r) = R (r),
1
R r , R1, R. (1) : R(Rr) =
= (r); R = R R; (R)1(r) = (Rr); (R)1(R 1r) = (r).
, (1) R , G, . .
SR = SR.
(1a)
, (1)
SR(r) = SR (r) = R (S 1r) = (R 1S 1r) = ((SR)1r) = SR(r).
, (1), . R :
R(r) = (R r),
(1b)
. . G V.
(1a) SR = RS. - (1a)
, , R
R (1b), .

V. G V , d3r = dxdydz.
, G ( g R ; R G), V, . l g; 1, 2, , l l
G, 1 = .
i , i = 1, 2, , l, , , {i} ,
. {i } , , ,
, .
l, , . {i }, :
S i =

ki (S) k ,

(2)

k=1

1)


,
; R(x', y', z') = (x, y, z), {x', y', z'} = R{x, y, z}.

3.4

51

ki (S) l- (S). :

3
j (r) S i (r) d r =

k=1

ki (S)
j (r) k (r) d r =

ki (S) jk = ji (S),

(3)

k=1

{i }.
, (S) (2)
S {i }. (2)
T,
TSi = ji (TS) j = ki (S) Tk = ki (S) jk (T) j =
j

= jk (T) ki (S) j = ((T) (S))ji j ,


j

(TS) = (T)(S),

(4)

. . , TS,
T S.
(S) (2), S , , ,
. ,
, .
, . , , ( Ker())
-: G/Ker().
, (1b),
(4) (TS) = (S) (T), . . , . (1b)
!(TS) =
!(T)
!(S).
:
1
R R = E (4), :
(E) = (R 1) (R); (R 1) = (R)1,

(5)

E ; ij (E) = ij.
3

(i, j) =
i (r)j (r) d r = ij ,
(Ri, Rj) = ki (R) mj (R) (k, m) =
k

= ki (R) kj (R) = ik (R) kj (R) = ((R) (R))ij = ij ,


k

52

3.

, :
(R) (R) = 1l.

3.5.

. () G = {G1 = E, , Gg}, G g ( R G)
R = R

(1)

g- .
() G R
, P, Q, R G :
QR = QR = P P .

(2)

, (1) g-
G, (. 3.1). (2), , E, . . ,

g, R = E,

reg(R) =

0, R E.

, (1).
(. 3.1).

G, , g G, g. ( ).
. g- , R .
, , . , , , ik() ( R ):

3.5.

l
ik() = g

ik()(R)R = g ik()(R)R P ik(),

RG

53

(3)

RG

ik()(R)

R G
; P ik() P ().
(3) Q G,
:
l
l
Qik() = g ik()(R)Q R = g ik()(Q 1P) P ,
R

(4)

QR = P;
(. 1.2).

(. ):
ik()(Q 1P) = ij()(Q 1) jk()(P) = ji() (Q) jk()(P).
j

(5)

(5) (4),
Q ik() = ji()(Q) jk().

(6)

, ik() , l ik() ()
. k
l , . , ,
(. 3.6). , l (k), k
. .
(3) , , ,
l
P ik() = g ik()(R) R

(7)

2) .
l2 . l ,
2)

P ()
ik ; , , d- s- H.

54

3.

.
l .

G, G P ik() . ,
ik() , . 0 l .
P ik() (3) :
l
l
()
()
()
()
()

()
P ik()()

mn =
ik (R) R mn =
ik (R) jm (R)jn = km in ,

g
g
R

(8)

(6) g
.
: R ik()(R) ()
jm (R) =
l ij km
(8) , P ik() ,
. i = k P ii() ()
in
. , , (.
):
P ii() P ii() = P ii().
(9)
1) , ,
=

ii(),

(10)

=1 i=1

= 1, , i = 1, l
; ii() (3) i = k.
(10)
ii() (3) (R). 3)
1
(11)
= g l (R) R.

(11) = 1, ,
, (
):
3)

, (10).

3.5.

l (R) = (E) (R) = g ER .

55

(12)

(12) (11), , (10).


2) ik() , ik() (3).
, , , ,
S(; k, n)

() () 3
S =
ik mn d r = im

k n,
k = n,

(13)

d3r = dx dy dz; S(; k, n) k, n


i, m.
, ,
, , . (13) , (
):
() () 3
()
() 3
()
()
S =
R ik R mn d r = i (R) m(R) k n d r,

(14)

R d3r = d3r = dxdydz.


(14) . g . (3.3.6) ()
(R) ()
: R i
m(R) =

g
gS = im
l

g
.
l im

k()n() d3r.

(15)

=1

(15) k = n l . k n,
g
l

k()n() d3r = S(; k, n),

=1

(13).
,
ii(). ii() -

56

3.

.
P ii()
(i), . . .
(i), P ii() = 0.
(k), P ik() = 0.
# 3.6.
Ci = {E, I}, E
I ,
(. 3.4). Rx , Ry , Rz .
3.4
Ci

Ag

Au


1
[(x) + (x)]
xy yz zx Rx Ry Rz
2
1
[(x) (x)]
x
y
z
2

P ii(), , 1 2 . (x) , (7) :


1 (1)
1

[11 (E) E(x) + (1)


P (1)
11 (x) =
11 (I) I(x)] = [(x) + (x)],
2
2
1 (2)
1

[11 (E) E(x) + (2)


P (2)
11 (x) =
11 (I) I(x)] = [(x) (x)],
2
2
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
11 (E) = 1, 11 (E) = 1, E(x) = (x); 11 (I) = 1, 11 (I) = 1, I(x) = (x).
: l/g (3)
, .
, ,
P , ,
, . , , ,
. P = iP ()
ii .
(7)
l
l
P = g ii()(R)R = g
R

(R)R .

(16)

RG

P , - . , (16) ,
, , . ( ) . !

3.6. D3

57

# 3.7.
{j} . = n , . n
, , , , (n n). P = lg R (R) R n .
{j} = {1 , 2 , , l} l
l
(17)
j() = P j = g (R) R j ,
RG

n
n , . !

3.6. D3
R P1P2P3
< 0 ( ) P1 (x, y) P1' (x', y')
(. 3.2, ). P1' (.
):
x x' cos sin x
x
R = =
= (R) ,
y y' sin cos y
y
(z)
2
R = E, J (= C3 ), K (= C3 ) D3 (. 1.2) xy = 0,
2/3 4/3, . . ;

1
2
(J) =
3
2

3
1 3
2
2
2
1 0
, (K) =
.
(E) =
,
0 1
1
1
3

2
2
2
, (
L = C'2a, M = C'2b, N = C'2c), , (. 3.2, ): P1 = (0, 2/ 3 ),
P2 = (1, 1/ 3 ), P3 = (1, 1/ 3 ).
a
y

P1(0, 2 )
3
)
a)
P1(x, y)
P1'(x', y')
'
C'2b
C2c
O

P2 (1, 1 )
3

b
. 3.2

C'2a

P3 (1, 1 )
3
c

58

3.

L ( C'2a) P2
P3 , M P3 P1 , N P1 P2 . :
1 1 0 1 1
(L)

,
=
=
1/ 3 0 1 1/ 3 1/ 3
1
(M)
=
1/ 3

3 /2

1/2

1 0

=
,
1/2 1/ 3 2/ 3

3 /2

0 1/2
3 /2 0 1
=

=
.
2/ 3 3 /2 1/2 2/ 3 1/ 3
, 2 2 (. . 3.5)
D3 , . . (3.2.1). 3 E.

(N)

3.5
D3
D3

J (= C3)

K (= C32)

L (= C'2a)

M (= C'2b)

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1 0

0 1

D3

1
2
3

1
2
3

1
2
3
2

3
2
1

2

1
2
3
2

3
2
1

E
C1

(J, K)
C2

(L, M, N)
C3

1
1
2

1
1
1

1
1
0

1 0

0 1

1
3
2 2
3 1

2
2

N (= C'2c)

1
1

1
2
3
2

3
2
1

z2
z
x, y

x2 + y2
Rz
2
x y2, xy

xz, yz

Rx, Ry

D3 1 2 ,
.

. 3.5.
3.3.

3.7.
( D3)
, ,
, . , (. . 3.3, ),
, . 3.3, .

3.7.

59


u1, , u6 : u1 = x1, u2 = y1, u3 = x2 , u4 = y2 , u5 = x3 , u6 = y3 . . 3.3, x, y , xy u1, u3, u5 x, u2, u4, u6 y.
y
1
u2
a)
)
1
u1

u6

u4
2

2 u3

3 u5

. 3.3

.
1)
2

3
1
(u2 u6) +
W = [u5 u3]2 + (u1 u5) +
2
2
2

2
1

3
+ (u1 u3) +
(u2 u4) ,
2
2

() .

K = 1 m (u& 12 + u& 22 + u& 32 + u& 42 + u& 52 + u& 62),
2

m ; u& s = dus/dt, s = 1, , 6.

d K W

+
=0
dt u& s us
us (u1, , u6).

1/2
t ,
m

us = as exp(it) = as exp i

as , t , = m2/.
us,
as.
, ( ):

60

3.

D() =

1
4
3

4
5

4
3
4

1
4
3
4

3
4
3

4
3
4
3

3
4
3

= 0.

2
1
3

1
0
4
4
3
3

0
0

4
4
1
5
3
3

1
0

4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3

0
0

4
4
4
4
D (. . 3.4), = 3, 3/2, 3/2, 0, 0, 0 D() = 0.
0

D = 3 ( 3 )2 ( 3)
2
1

0
5
10
. 3.4

as ( D() = 0 ), , , . 3.6.
3.6
( D3)
as

3
3 /2
3 /2
0
0
0

a1

a2

a3

a4

a5

a6

0
( 3 )1
0
( 3 )1
0
( 3 )1

( 3 )1
0
( 3 )1
0
( 3 )1
0

1/2
(2 3 )1
1 /2
( 3 )1
0
(2 3 )1

(2 3 )1
1/2
(2 3 )1
0
( 3 )1
1 /2

1 /2
(2 3 )1
1/2
( 3 )1
0
(2 3 )1

(2 3 )1
1 /2
(2 3 )1
0
( 3 )1
1/2

3.7.

61

. 3.6, , ( = 0). ,
x 1/ 3 , y .
x (. 3.5, ). . 3.6
y (. 3.5, ).
z, . 3.5, .
, ,

.
. (. 3.5),
,
( = 0).
=3

a)

=3
2

=0

( )

. 3.5

2)
D3 e2
.
e1

c
b
e3
u1, , u6 ( . 3.3). V
u1, , u6 (e1, , e6 ), u1 u2 :
e6
e4
a
e5
e1 = u1 , e2 = u2 , e3 = Ku1 , e4 = Ku2 , e5 = Ju1 , e6 = Ju2
( . 3.6 . 3.3, ).
. 3.6.
. 3.6, - es (s = 1, , 6) V
3.7, , xy
D3 .
es

62

3.

, e1, , e6 D3
e1, , e6 , ( ).
3.7
D3

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

J (= C3)

K (= C32)

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

e5
e6
e1
e2
e3
e4

e3
e4
e5
e6
e1
e2

L (= C'2a)

e1
e2
e5
e6
e3
e4

M (= C'2b)

N (= C'2c)

e5
e6
e3
e4
e1
e2

e3
e4
e1
e2
e5
e6

() D3 e1, , e6
( . 3.7) :
J(e1, e2, e3, e4, e5, e6) = (e5, e6, e1, e2, e3, e4) = (e1, e2, e3, e4, e5, e6)(J),

(J) =

0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0

10
0
(L) =
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0

. ., (E) 6 6.
1, 2 3 (. 3.3).
1, 2 3 D3 ()
ij (R), = 1, 2, 3; R D3 , . 3.1 3.5.
, ,
ij()(E)

(2)
(1)
11 = 1, 11 = 1,
(3)
1 0
(3)
11 12
;
(3) (3) =
21 22 0 1

ij()(J )

(2)
(1)
11 = 1, 11 = 1,
(3)
1 2
/
(3)
11 12

(3) (3)
21 22 3 /2

3 /2

1/2

ij()(K) . . ij()(R ) (. 3.5):


l
P ij() = g ij()(R) R,
R

g = 6 R D3 ; l . ( l/g ,
P ij() .)

3.7.

63

(2)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
P (1)
11 , P 11 , P 11 , P 12 , P 21 , P 22
(e1, , e6) V, 36 (. 3.8).
(1)
(1)
P (1)
11 e1, , P 11 e6 ( P 11 (V)
P (1)
11 ) :

P (1)
11 e2 =

1
1
(1)
(E + J + K + L + M + N) e1 = (e2 + e4 + e6) = P (1)
11 e4 = P 11 e6;
6
3
(1)
(1)
P 11 e1 = P 11 e3 = P (1)
11 e5 = 0.

, P (1)
11 e1, , e6 P (1)
11 (V), (e2 + e4 + e6)/ 3 . q1 (e2 + e4 + e6)/ 3 , q1
, ,
. 3.7.
q1/ 3

q1/ 3

q1/ 3
. 3.7


(q1/ 3) cos30 = q1/2 ,
2(q1/2) = q1 ,
W=

1
3
(q12 + q12 + q12) = q12.
2
2

q& 1/ 3 ,
K=

1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
m q& 1 + q& 1 + q& 1 = m q& 12,
3
3 2
2 3

d K W

+
= 0 m q&&1 + 3 q1 = 0.
dt q& 1 q1
, ,

1/m = 3/m , 1 .
(. . 3.8), , P (2)
11 (V)
(2)
P 11 ,
(e1 + e3 + e5).
q2 (e1 + e3 + e5)/ 3 . 3.8. , . W = 0

64

3.

= 0 (2 = 0). 2 D3 .
q2/ 3
q2/ 3
q2/ 3
. 3.8

P (3)
11 , e1, , e6 ,
(2e1 e3 e5) (e4 e6).
[q3(2e1 e3 e5)/ 6 ] + [q4(e6 e4)/ 2 ] , .
. 3.9.
2q3/ 6
q3/ 6

q 4/ 2

q4/ 2

q3/ 6
. 3.9

W K
:
W=

3
1
1
1
1
(q3 q4)2 = 2Q 2 ; K = m (q& 32 + q& 42) = Q& 2 + Q& ' 2,
8
2
2
2
2

m
m
, Q' = (q3 + q4)
.
2
2
d K W
= 0 +
dt q& s qs

Q = (q3 q4)

q3 = a3 exp (it), q4 = a4 exp(it),


()
3 3
4
4
= 0,
3 3
4 4


3 = 3/2, 4 = 0.

3.7.

65


a3 = a4 ( 3 = 3/2) a3 = a4 ( 4 = 0). 3 = 3/2 , . 3.10, . 4 = 0
q3 = q4
(. 3.10, ).
2q3/ 6

a)

2q3/ 6

2q3/ 6
2q3/ 6

2q3/ 6

2q3/ 6
(3 = 3 ; q3 = q4)
2

(4 = 0; q3 = q4)
. 3.10

P (3)
21 e1, e2, , e6
P (3)
21 (V), (2e2 e4 e6) (e3 e5).

(q5/ 6 ) (2e2 e4 e6) + (q6/ 2 ) (e3 e5),
. 3.11.
2q5/ 6

a)

2q5/ 6

)
2q5/ 6

2q5/ 6

2q5/ 6

2q5/ 6

(5 = 3 ; q5 = q6)
2

(6 = 0; q5 = q6)
. 3.11


, (. 3.8), . ,
1 2 D3
(1 = 3, 2 = 0). , 3 ,
(3 = 5 = 3/2; 4 = 6 = 0). ,
2 = 4 = 6 = 0 , , ,
= (k/m)1/2 = 0.

P (2)
11

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

P (1)
11

0
(e1 + e3 + e5)/3
0
(e1 + e3 + e5)/3
0
(e1 + e3 + e5)/3

0
(e2 + e4 + e6)/3
0
(e2 + e4 + e6)/3
0
(e2 + e4 + e6)/3

P ()
ij es

q2
(e1 + e3 + e5)
3
m
K = q& 22; W = 0
2
: mq& 22 = 0

q1
(e2 + e4 + e6)
3
3 2
1
q
K = mq& 12; W =
2 1
2
:
d K W

+
=0
dt q& s qs
mq&&1 + 3q1 = 0; q1 = a1 exp(it)

2 = 0

12 = 1

1 = 3

q2
3

q1
3

3.8
e1, , e6 . D3

. es, s = 1, , 6, es
(. 3.6).

es

P ()
ij

P ()
ij

66
3.

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6

P (3)
11

P (3)
12

P (3)
21

P (3)
22

3 (e5 e3)/6
3 (e4 + e6 2 e2)/6
3 (e5 e3)/6
3 (2 e2 e4 e6)/6

3 (e3 e5)/6

3 (e6 e4)/3
3 (2 e1 e3 e5)/6
3 (e4 e6)/6
3 (e3 + e5 2 e1)/6
3 (e4 e6)/6

0
(2e2 e4 e6)/3
(e3 e5)/2
(e4 + e6 2 e2)/6
(e5 e3)/2
(e4 + e6 2 e2)/6

(2e1 e3 e5)/3
0
(e3 + e5 2 e1)/6
(e4 e6)/2
(e3 + e5 2 e1)/6
(e6 e4)/2

q5
q6
(2e2 e4 e6) +
(e3 e5)
6
2
1
K = m q& 52 + q& 62
2

3
W = (q5 q6)2
8
34 34

=0
3 3
4 4
: 5 = 3/2, 6 = 0
a5 = a6 (5 = 3/2); a5 = a6 (6 = 0)

q3
q4
(2e1 e3 e5) +
(e6 e4)
6
2
1
K = m q& 32 + q& 42
2

3
W = (q3 q4)2
8
34 34

=0
3
3

4 4
: 3 = 3/2, 4 = 0
a3 = a4 (3 = 3/2); a3 = a4 (4 = 0)
3
2

3
2

6 = 0

5 =

4 = 0

3 =

2q5
6

2q5
6

2q3
6

2q3
6

. 3.8
3.7.
67

68

3.

3.8. .


N > 2 ( ) 3N 6 ; 3N 4). ,
, :
E=

1
1
mi u&ij2 + ij, sq uij usq ,

2
2
i, j

(1)

i, j s, q

mi i- , uij j- i-
( i, s = 1, 2, , N; j, q = x, y, z), ij,sq uij usq. ( uij uij' / mi ) ( uij' ) (1)
.
1
1
2
E = Q&
+ 2
2
2
,

Q2 ,

(2)

=1

Q , .
, ( , ),
, =
= 1, 2, , l , , . . l , l = 3N 6.
(2) .
Q
2
, , = 1 Q
. ,
, , .
4)

, 3N 5 ( ;
).

3.8.

69

,
, . : ,
.

. ( ) : = v . ,

. ,
, ,
.

, (. 3.2, ). ,
uij .
, (R) R ( ),
. , 1 , 2, , R 1 2. , (. . ) . , R, ,
.
C() , N ,
> 0 ( ) . ux , uy , uz ,
. ,
, ( z ):

70

3.

ux' = ux cos uy sin ,


uy' = ux sin + uy cos ,
uz' = uz .
, . . , 1 + 2 cos . NC ,

NC (1 + 2 cos ).

(3)

3N
. (3) , () . P : , , 1 + 2 cos . A = 5).
A , P. A
, 1 + 2 cos . ,
NC (1 + 2 cos ) 2 (1 + 2 cos ). (C) C()
(C) = (NC 2) (1 + 2 cos ).

(4)

E ,
. . : (E) = 3N 6,
(4) NC = N = 0.
-
S(): z xy.
ux' = ux cos uy sin ,
uy' = ux sin + uy cos ,
uz' = uz ,
, (1 + 2 cos ).
, 3N ,
NS (1 + 2 cos ),

(5)

NS , S(); NS , , , . P
5)

, = A,

, .
= A , , (. ).

3.8.

71

S() ,
(1 + 2 cos ).
, - S()
S() = C() h = C() C2 I = C( + ) I,
. . ( + ) .
A,
. S(), A, C( + ), . . 1 + 2cos( + ) =
= 1 2 cos . S(), P A, (1 + 2 cos ) + (1 2 cos ) = 0, (5)
(S) -
S() :
(S) = NS (1 + 2 cos ).

(6)

, ( = 0) () = N ,
( = ) (I) = 3NI .
(= v ) (= v ), , , 3.3, .
.
3N 5. , , ,
6). N
N, .
, , N 1, ,
, N 1 . (3N 5)
(N 1) = 2N 4 , , N 2
( , ).
,
(
, ).
6)

,
.

72

3.

3.9.

(. 3.3). N
. 3N
3N , R G.
=

n ;

(1)

=1

1
n = g

(R)(R),
RG

, g , , (
). (spur, trace) (1),
(R) =

n (R),

(2)

=1

. .
n ( ).
, n ,
G ,
.
# 3.8. H2O
C2v C2 v .
. yz, . 3.12.
C2v = {E, C2(z), v(y, z), v' (x, z)}.

, -
, . .
,
.

3.9.

z C2(z)

y1
x1

z2

109.5

z1

y2

H
x2

73

z3
y3

H x
3

x
. 3.12. (a)
()

, , .
, , . .
H O, y, v'(x, z)
,
.
v' (x, z). v(y, z) , y, , Ty v(y, z).
()
, +1,
1, . 3.9 . . 3.9 A
C2(z), B . 1 2 A B

3.9

C2v
C2v

E
C2(z)
v(y, z)
v'(x, z)
C2v

1
2
3
4

A1
A2
B1
B2

C2(z)

C2(z)

E
C2(z)

E
v'(x, z)
v(y, z)

v(y, z)
v'(x, z)

v(y, z)

v'(x, z)

v(y, z)
v'(x, z)
E
C2(z)

v'(x, z)
v(y, z)
C2(z)
E

C2(z)

v(y, z)

v' (x, z)

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

Tz
xy; Rz
y; Ty ; Rx
x; Tx ; Ry

74

3.

v , , A B. Tx x , Rx H2O x . . C2v (. ): C2(z)Tz = Tz; v(y, z)Rz = Rz; C2(z)Ty = Ty; v(y, z)Ty = Ty . .
. 3.12,
H2O. C2v 3N = 9
9 ,
9 9. 9 .
(1) (2), , , . , x1, ,
+1. x1 (x1) 1.
x1 , , x2 , . , C2(z),
(. 3.10).
3.10

C2(z)

v(y,z)

C2(z)

v(y,z)

x1 x1
y1 y1
z1 z1
x2 x3
y2 y3
z2 z3
x3 x2
y3 y2
z3 z2

x1 x1
y1 y1
z1 z1
x2 x2
y2 y2
z2 z2
x3 x3
y3 y3
z3 z3

1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

(C2(z)) = 1

(v(y, z)) = 3

()
9 H2O (. 3.11).
3.11
C2v

C2(z)

v(y, z)

v' (x, z)

3.9.

75

(1) 9 C2v .
C2v (. 3.9), . 3.11.
,
1
1
nA1 = g A1(R)(R) = [1 9 + 1 (1) + 1 3 + 1 1] = 3,
4
R

, A1 3 .
, :
9 = 3A1 + A2 + 3B1 + 2B2.
9
,
(t) (r) (. . 3.9):
t, r = A1 + A2 + 2B1 + 2 B2,
. . 9
A1, B1 B2 A2, B1, B2.
v H2O :
3N = 3A1 + A2 + 3B1 + 2B2
t, r = A1 + A2 + 2B1 + 2B2
v = 2A1 + B1 .
, (2A1 + B1) (. 3.13; . ).
H2O.

)
)

O
H

O
H

H
O

H
O

H
O
H

A1
(3652 1)
B1
(3756 1)
A1
(1595 1)

. 3.13. H2O ( ):
) (A1); ) (B1); ) (A1).
1 1.24 !

76

3.

# 3.9. . ,
. .
. H2O C2v ; C2 ,
v . .
, , ( ).
, () , ,
.
, ,
, .
C1, Cs, Cn Cnv . Cn
Cnv ; Cs ,
. , , ,
, , . !
# 3.10. , ,
. ( . ) , .
,
. , ,
, , . . ,
(), , . ()
L ( . laevo ) D ( .
dextro ).

. , , () . . !

4

4.1.


.

:
) ;
) ,
,
, , ;
) .
, , , :
) , ;
) .
,
.
.

H(x) = E(x),

(1)

H(x) , x (
), (x) E, G. , H
G, H .
R G.
H G,
(1)
HR(x) = ER(x).

(2)

78

4.

(2) , R(x) E. .
1) E ,
R(x) = c(x),

(3)

, |c|2 = 1.
2) l- , . . l
i (x), (1) E. Ri (x)
(1) E,
l i (x), . .
Ri (x) =

ki (R) k (x)

(4)

k=1

R G. , i (x) l- G (. 3.4).
, , , ,
.

( ).
. , , .
, ,
. , , , , ,
( ).
.
, ,
, .

, . , ,

.
, , H2O.
C2v .

4.1.

79

C2v. C2v
, . , ( ). , C2v .
C3v ( NH3) .
. ,
.
# 4.1. ( . ) , . 4.1.
4.1

, , , . .
. ( , .) ,
. , , , .
, ,
, , . , ,
.
. , .
(
) .

, -

80

4.

() .
,
()
. !
# 4.2. H HE , E H. HE G, . H. G HE ,
E . (1- ), ().
, ,
E dim(HE) . ,
H G. E
H HE .
= H' Hq < 1.
H = H0 + H', H0
, H' = Hq , ,
. ,
: E0 + Es + , Es
H HE0 , s H. = 0
( H0). !

4.2. H+2 :
T FT
. (. 3.4), FT
FT , T{x, y, z}
{x, y, z}:
(1)
FT (x', y', z') = (x, y, z),
{x', y', z'} = T{x, y, z} . {x, y, z} = T 1{x', y', z'}, (1)
:

4.2. H+2 :

81

FT (x', y', z') = (T 1{x', y', z'}); FT (x, y, z) = (T 1{x, y, z}).



h2 2

+ V (x, y, z),
(2)
H=
2m0 x, y, z

m0, V(x, y, z) {x, y, z}.
H+2
() a b (. 4.1). z , . L 0.1 .
( e2/40, e , 0 ):
1 1
(3)
V(x, y, z) = + = Va + Vb.
ra rb
Va :
2 1/2
2
1
L

2
Va(x, y, z) = = x + y + z + .
ra
2

a)

{x, y, z}
ra
O

rb'

ra' {x, y, z}

C4(y)(ab)

rb
a

z'
{x', y, z'}

{x, y, z}

C4(y)(x, z)

ra
rb
a
y

(4)

ra '
x'

rb'
a

y' = y

. 4.1. ) ab /2; ) x, y, z

82

4.

(4)
z, x y .
/2 y, Va = 1/ra Va' =
= 1/ra'.
(
/2 y) : x x' = z = z, y y' = y, z z' = x
(. . 4.1, ).
a :
1/2

2
1
L 2

2
Va' (x', y', z' ) =
= z + y + x .
(5)
ra'
2

(4) (5) , Va Va' ,


{x, y, z} {x', y', z'}. , Va
. Vb Vb',
, Va Va'. ( (e2/40L) H+2
.)
( L ) y, y .
x x' = x = x, y y' = y, z z' = z,
. , Va' = Vb Vb' = Va , {x, y, z}
, . .

V'(x, y, z) = Va' + Vb' = Vb + Va = V(x, y, z).

(6)

, V(x, y, z) (2) , :
1) x : V(x,y,z) V(x, y, z);
2) y : V(x, y, z) V(x, y, z);
3) z ;
4) : V(x, y, z) V(x, y, z);
5) xy: V(x, y, z) V(x, y, z);
6) , z.
, () H+2
, .
,

( ). , , .

4.3. H+2 :

83

4.3. H+2 :
() {x, y, z}
2 2 2
= 2 + 2 + 2 = 2x, y, z .
x y z
2

(1)

, 2T{x, y, z} , T , ,
{x', y', z'} = T{x, y, z} = {z, y, x}

(2)

(. . 4.1, ) y
/2 ( V (x, y, z) ).
2x', y', z'

x'
2 2 2
y' z'
2
2
+
+
;

z, y, x
2+
2+
2 = x, y, z;
x y z
q x' q y' q z'

(3)

q = x, y, z

/(x') = 2/(z)2 = 2/(z)2; 2/(z')2 = 2/(x)2, . .


2 . T,
y .
(. ):
2

x' = x cos z sin ; y' = y; z' = x sin + z cos .

(4)


:
2
2
2
2
2
= cos
+ sin 2 + cos sin
+
,
x' 2
z'
x' z' z' x'
2
2
,
y' =
y' 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ cos 2 cos sin
+
z' = sin
.
x' 2
z'
x' z' z' x'
,
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
T{x, y, z} = x' + y' + z' ; x', y', z' =
+
+
.
x' 2 y' 2 z' 2

2x'

() T 1, T, :
2T 1{x, y, z}

2
2
2
2
=
2+
2+
2 = FT x, y, z ,
x'
y'
z'

. . FT 2 , , -

84

4.

(. 4.2):
FT 2x', y', z' = 2x, y, z .

(5)

2x, y, z = 2 FT2 2FT ,


. T
x x', y y', z z', (5) :
(6)
FT 2x, y, z = 2x', y', z'.
() FT , FT (x', y', z') = (x, y, z). ,
2 ,
2x, y, z FT (x', y', z') = (FT 2x, y, z)(x', y', z'),
. . FT 2x,y,z . (6),
2x, y, z(x, y, z) = 2x', y', z' (x', y', z'),

(7)

2 T. , (7) (x, y, z) (x', y', z'), (x, y, z) = (x', y', z') ,


{x, y, z} {x', y', z'},
T.
2
, ,
, ,
. , 2 .
, H = (h2/2m0)2x, y, z + V (x, y, z)
V,
V , 2.

4.4.

, ,
R. /
, . ,
, ,
, R H.

RH = HR RHR 1 = H.
(1)
, /
H RHR 1. -

4.4.

85

, , .
I
x = 0, x (x). , 1
(1), . .
H1 = E11.
(2)
(2) . , ( ),
(2)
IHI 1(I1) = H(I1) = E1 (I1).

(3)

(3) , I1
(2) E1,
1. E1 , . . ,
, I1 , 1 .
, I1 1 , . .
I1 = 1 1.

(4)

I 2, , E, (4) :
I 2 1 = 12 1 = 1.

(5)

(5) , 1 = 1, . . 1 , x = 0.
E1 ( 1 2 ), , I1
(2) E1, I1
1 2 . 2 I 1 2 .
I 1 = 11 1 + 21 2 ,
I 2 = 12 1 + 22 2 ,

(6)

ij , .
(6) ij , . ,
1 2 1' 2',

86

4.

. , 1,
2 1', 2',
1 = U11 1' + U21 2',
2 = U12 1' + U22 2',

(7)

Uij ,
I 1' = 1' 1',
I 2' = 2' 2'.

(8)

(6) (8) , U
. , , 1' 2'
+1 1. , , ,

. , , . .
I E, E , Ci = {E, I}. . = a1 + b2 a
- .
b
(6) = a1 + b2
(a11 + b12) 1 + (a21 + b22)2 ,
a
a
I = (I) , (I)
b
b
11 12
1 0
; (E) =
.
0 1
21 22

(I) =

(E) (I) Ci = {E, I} 1 2 .


1' 2', 1
2 (7), .
a' 1' + b' 2'
a'
a
,
b'
b
a'
a U11 U12 a
=U =
.
b'
b U21 U22 b

4.5.

87

a'
I
b'
a'
a
a'
I = U (I) = ' (I) , ' (I) = U (I) U 1.
b'
b
b'
a'
a'
, E = '(E) , '(E) = U(E)U 1 = (E).
b'
b'
(8) , ' (I) ' (E) :
1' 0
1 0
.
; ' (E) =
0 1
0 2'

' (I) =

' (E) ' (I) , (E) (I). . ' (E) ' (I) 1', 2'. , 1' 2', .

4.5.
G = {G1 = E, , Gr = R, , Gg}
V, 1, 2, , l. R V :
R k =

()
(R) m
mk

m=1

mk (R) m ,
m=1

()
(R)
mk

mk (R) , . .
. V , l .

m g n g. ()
:
: 1, 2 , , i , , m ;

: 1, 2 , , k , , n .

i k , i = 1, 2, , m; k = 1, 2, ,
n, mn. :
R (i k) = R i R k = ji()(R) j ()
pk (R) p =
=

j
()
()
ji (R) pk (R)jp

j, p

(R) = (R) (R).

p
()
= jp,
ik(R) j p ,
j, p

88

4.

,
.
, , .
= .

(R) (R) (1, 2) (1, 2)
, ()
(R) 1 = 11, 2 = 12 , 3 = 21 , 4 = 22 ;
Ri = k4 = 1 ki (R)k .
,
R1 = 11(R)1 + 21(R)2; R2 = 12(R)1 + 22(R)2;
R1 = 11(R)1 + 21(R)2; R2 = 12(R)1 + 22(R)2;
R1 = R(11) = R1 R1 = (111 + 212) (111 + 212) =
= 1111(11) + 1121(12) + 2111(21) + 2121(22).
R2 , R3 , R4 , (R) :

1111

(R) = 11 21
2111
2121

1112
1122
2112
2122

1211
1221
2211
2221

1212
1222
2212
2222

(R) = 11 + 22, (R) = 11 + 22,


(R) = 1111 + 1122 + 2211 + 2222 = (R)(R),
. . R G .

4.6.

3

1 2 |Mx |2, Mx
2 (r) x 1(r) d r ,
, x ,
; 1(r) 2(r) ; d3r = dxdydz.

: s-
s (r) = Rs(r),
p- ,

4.6.

89

: xRp(r), yRp(r), zRp(r) . . (. 4.7). 1 2 s-, Mx ,


x, x
+ . s-, p-, p- xRp(r) , , Mx 0.
, .
i
( i- , i li) k (
k lk)
Hq ( )

Mq
k Hq i dv,

(1)

dv = dx1dx2dxn x1, , xn
; = 1, li, = 1, lk.
,
Mq . ,
. ,
( i- )
dv = 0,
i

(2)

i 1 (= A1).
(2), . . i dv, R, R
G . :
dv = R R dv =
i
i

(i)(R) i dv,

(3)

, v' = Rv
; Ri = (i)
(R) i i (. 3.5).
(3) ,
(i)
(i)

g
i dv = (R)i dv = (R)i dv,

g .

(4)

90

4.

i 1, R (i)
(R) = 0,
(i)
(j)
R (R) (R) = (g/li)ij,
j = 1, i 1 (. 3.3). ,
(4) , , , (2) .
(1)
k , q i H0.
,
, k q i .
, (2) (1) .
, , k q i 1 (= A1).
q k
, q k,
k k . .
1
?
(. 3.3): n1 = 1g R (R)1(R).
1(R) = 1 ( R G
), n1 = 1g R (R).
q k
(R) = q(R)k(R), n1 = 1g R q(R) k(R).
( 3.3) ,
0, q k,

n1 =

1, q = k.

, k q i, k q i 1 (= A1)
Mq 0, Mq = 0.
+

n x m dx, m n, m
n. Z2 = {E, X}, Xx = x. h(n + 1/2), n = 0, 1, 2, , (),
n . n(x)
x n ( n = 0) n. n A1, A2. , () n () m A1 A2 A1 = A2 , . () n

4.7.

91

() m A1 A2 A2 = A1 ( ). n ,
m , , m = n 1, .
#4.3.
, : 1) Cn, 2) ,
3) Cn , ,
4) . CH4
, I , ! #.4.4.

3
3
| Hij Sij E | = 0, Hij =
i H j d r, Sij =
i j d r.
i ,
, Hij Sij , i j
, , Hij = Sij = 0 (.
3.5). , H
A1, H
. H , , . . , . G
, H
, G H.
Ga G (Ga) H .
H
H, .
HH H . , , H
H , - . !

4.7.

Ylm(, )
L Lz , z,
- :
2

L2 Ylm(, ) = l(l + 1)h2 Ylm(, ),


2

| Y (, ) |2 sin d d = 1,
lm

0 0

Lz Ylm(, ) = mhYlm(, ),
m=+l

| Ylm (, ) |2 =

m = l

2l + 1
,
4

l ; m = l, , 0, , +l; h
; 0 , 0 2.

92

4.

Ylm(, ) = Ylm(x, y, z)
l 0 m 0.
Ylm(, )
r
Yl, m(, ),
y , , ,
Lz ,
| lm | l, m (. . 4.2).
x
Lx , Ly , Lz . 4.3.
. 4.2
x = r sin cos,
y
=
r sin sin,
z
=
= r cos :

y = ih sin
+ ctg cos ,
z

+ ctg sin ,
Ly = ih x z = ih cos
x

Lx = ih z

4.2

Ylm(, ) = Ylm(x, y, z)

Y00 = 1 (2 )
Y10 = i

3
z
cos i
r
4

|s = Y00 = const
|pz = iY10

z
r

Y11 = i

3
x + iy
sin exp(i) i
r
8

|px =

i(Y11 Y1,1) x

r
2

Y1,1 = i

3
x iy
sin exp( i) i
r
8

|py =

Y11 + Y1,1 y

r
2

Y20 =

5
3z2 r2
(3cos2 1)
r2
16

|dz2 = Y20

Y21 =
Y2,1 =
Y22 =
Y2,2 =

15
z(x + iy)
sin 2 exp(i)
r2
32
15
z(x iy)
sin 2 exp( i)
r2
32
15
(x + iy)2
2
sin exp(2i)
r2
32
15
(x iy)2
sin2 exp(2i)
r2
32

3z2 r2
r2

|dxz =

Y21 Y2,1 xz
2
r
2

|dyz =

i(Y21 + Y2,1) yz
2
r
2

Y22 + Y2,2 x2 y2
|dx y =

r2
2
2

|dxy =

i(Y22 Y2,2) xy
2
r
2

4.7.

93

4.3
| s -, | p - | d -
( h = h/2)
(. , )

Lx

Ly

Lz

|s
|pz

0
i |py

0
i |px

0
0

|px

i |pz

i |py

|py

i |pz

i |px

|dz2

i 3 |dyz

i 3 |dxz

|dxz

i |dxy

i 3 |dz2 + i |dx2 y2 i |dyz

|dyz

i |dx2 y2 + i 3 |dz2

i |dxy

i |dxz

|dx2 y2

i |dyz

i |dxz

2i |dxy

|dxy

i |dxz

i |dyz

2i |dx2 y2

x = ih
.
y

Lz = ih y

nlm
(n = 1) (n = 2) (. 4.2) :
1
r
exp ,
100 = R10(r)Y00 = |1s = 3/2
aB

a
B

200 = R20(r)Y00 = |2s =

1
3/2
aB

210 = iR21(r)Y10 = |2pz =

r
r
2 exp
,
a
2a

B
B
32

1
3/2
aB

r
exp
cos ,
a
2a

B
B
32

i(Y11 Y1,1)/ 2
=
(Y11 + Y1,1)/ 2
|2p
cos
1
r

r
= x = 3/2
exp
,
sin
|2py aB
sin
2aB
32 aB

21, 1 = R21(r)

nlm Rnl (r)


Ylm Yl,m ; aB = 40h2/(m0e2) .

O . O -

94

4.

; = 1 l2 = g g = 24 = 5 l = 1; 1; 2; 3; 3.
O ,
C4 . E
(. . 4.2):
|dz2 = 3z2 r2 = 2z2 x2 y2; |dx2 y2 = x2 y2.
C3 (
1- ) , :
1
3
C3 (3z2 r2) = 3x2 r2 = (3z2 r2) + (x2 y2),
2
2
1
1
C3 (x2 y2) = y2 z2 = (3z2 r2) (x2 y2),
2
2
|dz2 1/2 3/2 |dz2

=
, , C3

|dx2 y2 1/2 1/2 |dx2 y2


E, C3 , = 1. C3 , = 1,
C3 . C2 |dz2 |dx2 y2 , . . = 2,
C2d C4 |dx2 y2 = x2 y2 , = 0. , . 4.4
E O.

# 4.5. ()
A B, () E, () T ( F), G, H. A B
, , Cn . 1
2 A B v , , A B, C2', . , I, g, u. , h , , ,
. D2 : C2 . () A, B1,
B2 , B3 . !

4.7.

95

4.4

-

Ci

C2

a)

Ag
Au

Cs
A'
A''

A
B
C4v
D4
D2d

A1
A2
B1
B2
E

1
2
3
4
5
O
Td

A1
A2
E
T1
T2

1
2
3
4
5

Y
A
T1 (F1)
T2 (F2)
G
H
a)

E
E
E
1
1

I
C2

1
1

Ci

C2

Rx ; Ry ; Rz
x; y; z

z
x; y

E
E
E
1
1
1
1
2

2C4(z)
2C4(z)
2S4(z)
1
1
1
1
0

C2(z)
C2(z)
C2(z)
1
1
1
1
2

2v
2C2'
2C2'
1
1
1
1
0

2d
2C2''
2d
1
1
1
1
0

E
E

8C3
8C3

3C2
3C2

6C2d
6d

6C4
6S4

1
1
2
3
3

1
1
1
0
0

1
1
2
1
1

1
1
0
1
1

1
1
0
1
1

x2 + y2 + z2
xyz
2
3z r2, x2 y2
x, y, z
xy, yz, zx

E
1
3
3
4
5

12C5 12C52 20C3 15C2


1
1
1
1
b)
0
1
1
1
0

1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

Cs
x; y
z

C4v
D4
2

D2d

z; x + y
xy(x2 y2)
x2 y2
xy
x, y; xz, yz

z
z; Rz
x2 y2
xy
x, y

x + y2
Rz
2
x y2
z; xy
x, y
Td

x2 + y2 + z2
|dz2, |dx2 y2
Rx, Ry, Rz
xy, yz, zx; x, y, z

Y
r = x + y2 + z2
Rx, Ry, Rz
2

3z2 r2, x2 y2, xy, xz, yz

A E,
T ( F), G, H. Cn , (Cn) = 1, A, ((Cn) = 1) B.
g u.
b)
= (1 + 5 )/2 = 1.618 .

96

4.

4.8.
n x1 , x2 , ,
xn , n- x = {x1, x2, , xn }.
(x)
H(x)(x) = E (x),
E H.
H
H = H0 + Hq , Hq H0 , . .
Hq H0
. Hq .
, . , ,
O , (. 4.5).
, , .
4.5
3C42 6C2d (= 6C2')

8C3

A1 1 A1
A2 2 A2
E 3 E
T1 4 T1

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
3

1
0

2
1

T2 5 T2

1
1
0
1
1

6C4

1
1
0
1

r2 = x2 + y2 + z2
xyz

xy, yz, zx

3z2 r2, x2 y2
x, y, z


O.
, O , .
E0 , H0 , Hq?
Hq H0 , E0 ,
Hq .
Hq .
Hq
H0 , ,
E0 Hq . -

4.9.

97

, ,
.
H0
O (. . 4.5).
T2 ( T2)
Hq D3, C3 C3
O? , 6 E, 2(C3, C32), 3C2d (= 3C2') O D3 . T2 |D3 T2
D3 (, D3 3). T2 |D3 T2 D3 .
T2(E) = 3, T2(C3) = 0, T2(C2d) = 1 ( E, 8(C3, C32)
6C2d 6C2'), 1, 2
3 D3 (. 3.3) :
T2 |D3 = n1 1 + n2 2 + n3 3 = 1 + 3 ,
1
n = [T2(E)(E) + 2T2(3)(3) + 3T2(2d)(2d)].
6
, T2
D3 1 3 . ( .)

4.9.



. ,
.
Ri , O,
, O. h C2 = I , . , , R.
, R , C
. Ri C R C I.
R , -

98

4.

R.
,
h2 2
+ V (r),
(1)
H(x, y, z) =
2m0
V (r) = V (x, y, z) 7); r2 = x2 + y2 + z2.
Hnlm = Enl nlm (1) :
(2)
nlm(x, y, z) = nlm(r, , ) = Rnl (r)Ylm(, ),
r, , ; n, l, m , ; Rnl ;
Ylm = Plm(cos)exp(im) ; Plm(cos ) ; Enl (2l + 1) m = l, , 0, , l.
,
,
z, (. 3.4)
nlm = nlm (r, , 1 ) = Rnl (r)Plm(cos )exp[im( )] =
=

[Dl ()]m'm nlm' = [Dl ()]m'm Rnl (r) Plm' (cos ) exp(im'),
m' = l

(3)

m' = l

Dl () (2l + 1)- , .
(3) ,
(4)
[Dl ()]m'm = m'm exp(im' ),
m'm .
l ( 2l + 1). , s- (l = 0), p- (l = 1), d- (l = 2) . . R - V (r).
( , R
.) Dl
l
l
sin (2l + 1) 2

.
(5)
l () = [Dl ()]mm = exp(im) =

sin
m = l
m = l
2
,
,
, .
.
7)

, V(r) .

4.9.

99

, , O, Dl (R) = Dl , R
O, O (2l + 1).
O , (2l + 1) > 3 Dl .
(. 4.1), ,
Dl (R) O, l O. (
, .)
(5), l ()
O. , l = 1 (p-) :
1(E) = 1(0) = lim sin(3/2)/sin(/2) = 3,
0
1(C3) = 1(2/3) = 0, 1(C2d) = 1() = 1, 1(C4) = 1(/2) = 1.
(5) . 4.6
Dl , O.
4.6
O

8C3

3C42

2/3

/2

6C2d (= 6C2')

6C4

l=0
1
2
3

D0
D1
D2
D3

0
1
2
3

1
3
5
7

1
0
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

. 4.5 4.6, ,
O
1
Dl = n; l (R) = n (R); n = 24
R l (R) (R); = 1, 5. s-, p-,
d- f- :
D0 = Al s-, ,
O;
D1 = Tl p-
;
D2 = E + T2 d- ,
O
; d- : - ;
D3 = A2 + T1 + T2 f-
.

100

4.

, I; Oh = O Ci . I
(2) : I (x) = (x) = (x),
, I 2 = E (I) = 1 (. 3.5 . 4.7).
, 4.7
+1, 1. Ci
E
I
(
) , .
1
1
1
I H,
1 1
2
. .
Dl
, Dl (I) = Dl ()
(+) (). (. 4.8). , Oh 2 , O.
O Oh , , . 4.5 : IE = I, 8IC3 ,
3I42 . .
. 4.5 ( ),
.
4.8
Oh = O Ci

C O Oh

C I Oh

(C )

(C )

(C )

(C )

. 4.7 1 , 2 ,
Oh ( I) , . 4.8,
(C ) . 4.5 O.
C C I
Oh (. 4.8) n = 1g R l (R) (R) Dl = n O. . 4.8
,
, g.
n , . 4.8, . .
O.

4.10.

101

4.10.


3

Mr
i r j d r j
i (). , , i , r j
3

.

i r j d r

, i r j A1 (= 1).
i j , i j 1; (. 4.6).
- r = (x, y, z) O T1 (. . 4.5): r' = Ur; T = SpU = 1 + 2 cos ,
1
= 0; 2/3; ; /2. , r = T1.
, () = (R) = (R)(R) R
, (. 4.9)
r j = T1 j , j O.
4.9
O
O

8(C3; C32)

T1 A1
T1 A2
T1 E
T1 T1
T1 T2

3
3
6
9
9

0
0
0
0
0

3C42

1
1
2
1
1

6C2d (= 6C2')

6C4

1
1
0
1
1

1
1
0
1
1

T1 {A1, A2, E, T1, T2}


O ( nj = 1g R (R) j (R) 3.3):
T1 A1 = T1 ; T1 A2 = T2 ; T1 E = T1 + T2 ;
T1 T1 = A1 + E + T1 + T2 ; T1 T2 = A2 + E + T1 + T2 .
, 3

Mr
i r j d r, r T1 O,
i j:
T1 " A1 , E, T1 , T2 ; T2 " A2 , E, T1 , T2 .
:
T1 " A2 , T2 " A1 , A1 " A2 , E " A2 , Mr = 0.

5


5.1. NH3

(
), .
, , C3v (. 5.1, . 5.1).
y
H a

5.1
C3v

C3v

H
b

1 = v

. 5.1. NH3 ( N )

E
C
C+
1
2
3

C+

E C C + 1
C C + E 2
C + E C 3
1 3 2 E
2 1 3 C
3 2 1 C +

2
3
1
C+
E
C

3
1
2
C
C+
E

. N, z, . 5.1,
, NH3 : ( E), ; z: 2/3 ( C C3(z)),
(C + 32); (1, 2 3) , ( ) z. . 5.1 X1 X2
{X1} {X2} X1 X2 . C3v
D3 (. 1.2).
. C3v xyz, z ( 1) xy ( 3). (x, y) xy
. :

5.1. NH3

103

x 1 0 x x
(1)
E =
= .
y 0 1 y y
1, (x, y) (x, y):
x

x
1 = 1 0 = x .
(2)
y 0 1 y y
C C + (x, y) (. 3.6 ):
cos sin x x'
(3)

= ,
sin cos y y'
< 0 ( )
, > 0 . = m 2/3 :
1 3
2
2 x x'
x
x
(4)
C m = (C m) =
= .
y
y
1 y y'
3

m
2
2
, 2 3 ,
1C = 3 1 C + = 2 .
. 5.2 , . 5.1. (x, y)
3 , x y, , 3 .
1 , 2 z Rz ( z).
, NH3 (
) . 5.2
, C3v
C3v

C C3

C + C32

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1 3
2
2
3 1
2 2

1 0

0 1

C3v

1
2
3

A1
A2
E

1
2
3
2

3
2
1

2

2C3

1
1
2

1
1
1

1
2
3
2

3
2
1

1 0

0 1

3v (= 1, 2, 3)

1
1
0

1
3
2 2
3 1

2
2

z
Rz
x, y

z2

x2 + y2

Rx , Ry

x2 y2, xy

xz, yz

104

5.

31013 . N
H . 23.87 .

5.2. .

( ), .
,
. , . ,
. .
, a, b, c ( , NH3 , C3v). a , b , c ,
|ls- (. 5.1), C3v .
, ()
(. 3.4). , E, C 1, C3v :
a 1 0 0 a a
E b = 0 1 0 b = b ,
c 0 0 1 c c
a 0 0 1 a c
a 1 0 0 a a

C b = 1 0 0 b = a , 1 b = 0 0 1 b = c .
c 0 1 0 c b
c 0 1 0 c b
; : (E) = 3, (C ) = 0 (1) = 1. ,
(. 3.3, . 5.3).
5.3

C3v

2C3 (= C , C )

3v (= 1, 2, 3)

= 1 + 3 ( = A1 + E)

5.2.

105

a , b , c , (. 3.5).
a , b , c = a ( b , c ). (3.5.11),
i C3v ( ):
i =

i(R)R,
R C3v

i = 1, 2, 3 .
A1 :
A1 = A1(R) R a = 2 (a + b + c).
R

b c . ,
A1 8)
A1 =

1
(a + b + c).
3

A2
A2 = A2(R) Ra = 0,
R

. . a ( b c) A2.
i = R i(R)R (
). - i ,
, .
E C3v :
E (a) = E (R) Ra = 2 a b c ,
R

E (b) = E (R) Rb = 2 b c a ,
R

E (c) = E (R) Rc = 2 c a b .
R

8)

3
a , b c , . .
a b d r =
a c d r =
bc d r = 0.

106

5.

E (a), E (b), E (c) , , ,


. (
):
1,E =

1
1
(2a b c), 2,E =
(2b c a).
6
6

, 1,E
2,E = (2,E + 1,E)

3
3
3
1,E 2,E d r = 1,E 2,E d r + 1,E 1,E d r = 0;

3
=
1,E 2,E d r =

1 2
1
2
2
3
( 2a 2b ) d r = + .
6
2

,
1
3
(b c),
2,E = 2,E + 1,E =
2
6
2,E = (b c)/ 2 .
, E
:
1,E =

1
(2 a b c),
6

2,E =

1
(b c).
2

1,E = | 1, E 2,E = | 2, E ,
E C3v . , . 5.2,
a , b , c H | 1, E | 2, E
NH3 . , 2/3
| 1, E | 2, E .
1/ 6

2/3
C

| 1, E :
1/ 6

= 1 | 1, E

1/ 6

1/ 6

2/3
1/ 2

0
C

| 2, E :
1/ 2

3
| 2, E ;
2

1/ 2

= 3 | 1, E 1 | 2, E .

1/ 2

. 5.2. C | 1, E 1,E | 2, E 2,E ,


E C3v

5.2.

107

, . (. 4.5). . 5.4 , ,
. A1
.
5.4
C3v
C3v

2C3 (= C3, C32)

3v (= 1, 2, 3)

A1A1, A2A2
EE
A1A2
A1E, A2E

1
4
1
2

1
1
1
1

1
0
1
0

A1
E + A1 + A2
A2
E

A2 C3v
|p1x- H . 5.3.
+

H | p1y

H |s
1

H + | p1x

| p2y
+

| p3y
H
+

| p2x H

c
+

H | p3x

. 5.3. NH3,
A1 A2
(. . 5.5).
p-

A1 s-
, 'A1 A2 p-. A1 'A1 = (| p1y + | p2y + | p3y)/ 3
A1 C3v . A2 = (| p1x + | p2x + | p3x)/ 3 A2 (. 5.5).
5.5
C3v | p1x
C3v

2C3

3v

A2

| p1x | p1x | p2x, | p3x

| p1x, | p3x, | p2x


A2

A2 =

1
(| p1x + | p2x + | p3x)
3

# 5.1. , , ,

108

5.

. , , . , ,
. , , H. 2s- 2p- ,
H, Ri
. , , . , p- , s . , ,
s- p- ( 1/r , , ).
, , ,
, p- ,
s-. (
.) !

5.3. .
sp3- CH4

. .
1. ,
;
.
2. ,
, .
NH3 .
ls2 2s2 2p3.
N H,
|1s-. N
H ( ), (. 4.7):

5.3.

109

211
|2px x,
210 |2py y,
21,1
|2pz z.
, 90
( 108).
CH4. ls2 2s2 2p2, , , ls2 2s 2p3. H |2s-,
|2px-, |2py-, |2pz- C. , CH4 . |2s-, |2px-, |2py-, |2pz-
,
( ). , |2s-, |2px-,
|2py- |2pz- ( 4.7):
|2s = Rs (r),
|2px = Rp(r) cos sin x,
|2py = Rp(r) sin sin y,
|2pz = Rp(r) cos z.

(1)

(1) rb = 1.268aB
, R20(rb) = R21(rb) ( Rp(rb) = 3 Rs(rb)),
:
|2sm = 1 ( ); |2pxm = 3 ( x);
|2pym = 3 ( y); |2pzm = 3 ( z).

(2)

(2) , , |2px, y, z-, 3


, |2s-.
(1)
|s- |p-
(3)
i = ai |2s + bi |2px + ci |2py + di |2pz,
i = 1, 4; im > 3 .
i , |2s , a1 = a2 = a3 = a4 4i = 1 ai2 = 1.
x 1, (3) :
(4)
1 = a1 |2s + b1 |2px.
ai2 + bi2 + ci2 + di2 = 1 (2),

1m = a1 +

3(1 a12) .

(5)

110

5.

1m a1, . . d1m/da1 = 0 (5) a1 = 1/2; b1 =

1 a12 = 3 /2. (4)

1
1
3
3
|2s +
|2px; 1m = +
3 = 2.
(6)
2
2 2
2
, , 1, , , |2px-, |2py-, |2pz-, 1m > 3 .
(1), (6)
. xy
(. 5.4, ).
2 (
|2px |2py ):
1 =

2 = a2 |2s + b2 |2px + c2 |2py.

(7)

3
(
12 d r = 0) 1 2

2m = a2 (1 cos ) + 3 4a22 sin ,


b2 = a2/ 3 , c2 = 1 4a22/3 .

(8)

(8) a2 .
2m/a2 = 0; 2m/ = 0,
a2 = 1/2, b2 = 1/(2 3 ), c2 = 2/3 , cos = 1/3.
(7)
2 =

1
1
|2s
|2px +
2
2 3

2
|2py; 2m = 2.
3

(9)

2m
x = 10928', cos = 1/3, sin = 2 2 /3. 10928' , ,
. xy y
y
a)

1
10928'

10928'

1
. 5.4.
1 () 2 () xy

5.3.

111

2 . 5.4, .

1
1
|2s
|2px +
2
2 3
1
1
|2px
4 = |2s
2
2 3

3 =

1
|2py
2
1
|2py
2

1
|2pz,
6
1
|2pz.
6

(10)

(10) , 3m = 4m = 2
1m 2m 10928'.
i , i = 1, 2, 3, 4, ( (6), (9), (10)), . ai , bi , ci di (3), ,
. , i :
1
1 = (|2s + |2px + |2py + |2pz),
2
1
2 = (|2s + |2px |2py |2pz),
2
(11)
1
3 = (|2s |2px + |2py |2pz),
2
1
4 = (|2s |2px |2py + |2pz).
2
(11) , , ,
(. 5.5). sp3- .
.
C3
a)
)
z
4m
1m
C2 d
H
1m
H
S4
4m
y
C
x

H
H

2m

3m

2m
3m

. 5.5. ) 1, 2, 3, 4
; ) sp3- Td

112

5.

5.4. sp3-

, , ,
Td (. 5.5, ). ,
.
Td , 1, 2, 3, 4 (. 5.5).
. 5.6 (. 3.3) = A1 + T2. A1 |2s, T2 |2px, |2py, |2pz, , sp3- |2s-, |2px-,
|2py-, |2pz-.
5.6

Td

|2s

|2px, |2py, |2pz

Td

1 A1
2 A2
3 E
4 T1
5 T2

1
1
2
3
3
4

8C3

1
1
1
0
0
1

3C2

1
1
2
1
1
0

6d

1
1
0
1
1
2

6S4

1
1
0
1
1
0

x + y2 + z2
Rx, Ry, Rz
x, y, z

# 5.2. ,
|2s 2p- (, |2px |2py).
sp2-p .
j = aj |2s + bj |2px + cj |2py.
, |2s
, :
a1 = a2 = a3 , a12 + a22 + a32 = 1, aj2 + bj2 + cj2 = l; j = 1, 2, 3.
a1 = a2 = a3 = 1/ 3 . x 1,
1
2
1 =
|2s +
|2px.
3
3
,

2 =

1
1
1
1
1
1
|2s
|2px +
|2py, 3 =
|2s
|2px
|2py.
3
6
2
3
6
2

5.4. sp3-

113

( )
1m = 2m = 3m = 1/ 3 + 2 1.998 2/3 =
= 120. , , sp2-p
, , sp3 . !
# 5.3. , , -. ( )
. , , , -. (
)
. ,
sp2-,
2/3 . |2pz-,
sp2-, -. !
# 5.4. ? ( . . ),
- ,
- (
0.142 ), -
(0.344 ).
, ,
,
. ,
(), .

( ).
, , . , , ,
. !
# 5.5. ( 600 C).
( 232 C,
2430 C) .
,
. !

6

6.1. ()
,
.
an = n1a1 +
+ n2a2 + n3a3, a1, a2, a3
; n1 , n2 , n3 .
, ,
. , a1 , a2 , a3 , (. 6.1). a1 , a2 , a3 .

a2
a1

. 6.1.
;

an = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3 a, n1, n2, n3, ,


a. E = an = 0. , an ,
an . T . T
, an .

, F. , R F an
an' , . . R an = an' .
{n1, n2, n3} , .
,
, . .
( ).

6.1. ()

115

F, .
1. an an
( ni ),
() I.
2.
2-, 3-, 4- 6- .
. Cn F, n > 1, P1 . P P P' = Cn(P)
, Cn .
P1'
. 6.2 P2'
md
Cn , P1 P2 , d
d
; d = |P1P2 |. Cn

= 2/n.
d
P1' P1
P1
P2
P1P2 P2 , P2' - . 6.2. P2 () - P2 . P1P2 P2'P1'
, P2'P1' = md, m ( ). . 6.2 , md = d + 2dsin[ (/2)],
2cos = l m. |cos| 1,
m = 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, = 2/2, 2/3,
2/4, 2/6, 2. ( . # 6.1.)
,
: C2 , C3 , C4 C6 . = 2 E .
3. Cn , n > 2,
Cnv ,
( . 6.2).
14 ( 2.2),
, ( , ) S2 , C2h , D2h , D3d , D4h , D6h , Oh

.
S2 , C2h D2h (
n = 2, ). , Cnv , Cnh (n > 2) Cnv.
D4h D6h . D3h D3d .

Oh .

116

6.

F (= S2 , C2h , D2h , D3d , D4h , D6h , Oh)


, ().
:
1) (S2) t,
2) (C2h) m,
3) , (D2h) o,
4) , (D4h) q,
5) , (D3d) rh,
6) (D6h) h,
7) , (Oh) c.
14 () , . ( )
32 (32 ). 32 14 , .
,
F, (m),
C2h = {E, C2 , h , I}.
a a', ,
C2 . (a + h a) (a' + h a')
(h a , a h) h . , , , a1 a3 h .
a2 = d1 + d2 , d1 ||C2
d2 C2. C2a2 a2 = C2(d1 + d2) d1 d2 = d1 d2 d1 d2 =
= 2d2 h, 2d2 = m1a1 + m3a3 , m1 m3 . ,
m
m
a2 = d1 + d2 = d1 + 1 a1 + 3 a3 .
2
2
, m1 m3 , :
1
1
1
1
1) a2 = d1; 2) a2 = d1 + a1 + a3 ; 3) a2 = d1 + a1; 4) a2 = d1 + a3 ,
2
2
2
2
3) 4) a1 a3, 4) 2), a3 (a1 + a3).
1)
(, 3)). :
1) a1, a3 a2 , 3) a1, a3 2a2 a1 .
, 1),
(m (P)), 3) (bm (C)).

6.1. ()

117

bm a2,
a2 + a3 (. 6.3).
.

. 6.3

, m (P) a1, a2 , a3 C2h . bm (C) a1,


a3 , (2a2 a1).
, 14 , . 6.4 . 6.1.
# 6.1. = 0, , 2/3, /2, /3.
, ai ; i = 1, 2, 3. ,
,

an = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3.
R an am (R: an am). R 3 3 (Rij), (n1, n2, n3) an :
Rij nj = mi , i, j = 1, 2, 3.
j

, , (n1, n2 , n3) = (1, 0, 0). ,


(m1, m2 , m3) am , R11
. , (i, j) Rij .
U (R R' = URU 1) z, Cn .
Sp (R') = 2 cos + 1
(. ). (Sp, Tr) , 2cos + 1 , , = 0, , 2/3, /2, /3. !

118

6.

. 6.4. () .
.
/2

a1 a2 a3 a1
= = = /2

a1 = a2 a3
= = = /2

() (o),

,
(q)

(c),

(h)

,
(rh)

a1 = a2 = a3
= = = /2

>==
3
2
a1 = a2 a3
= = /2, = 2/3
3

a1 a2 a3 a1
= = /2

(m)

a1 = a2 = a3

(t)

a1 a2 a3 a1
/2

D6h
Oh

P
I
F

D3d

D4h

D2h

C2h

Ci

P
C
P
C
I
F
P
I (= F)

P
2
1
m

m3m

6/mmm

6 2 2
mmm
4 2
3
m m

3m

4/mmm

mmm

2 /m

2
m
3

4 2 2
mmm

2 2 2
mmm

111




()

-Po, CsCl
W, V
Cu, Si, NaCl

Be, Zn, Cd

Hg, Al2O3

In, TiO2

Ga, I2 , Fe3C
PbSO4
KMnO4

CuO

K2CO3
H3BO3

6.1

119
6.

120

6.

# 6.2. ( )
: 1)
, , (. . ) , ,
; 2)
; 3)
(). ,
. . ,
. !

6.2.
G
, . G T F ( , ).
G.
E3 V
( E3) , . E3 V, E3 , V. (= ) V E3: v V a
E3 a + v. a E3 E3 V,
v + v. , a:
V E3 , ,
0. , E3 V . E3 .
{R|v}, R V v V. {R|v} E3 : {R|v}(a + r) = a + Rr + v, ,
E3 V, {R|v}r = Rr + v.
{S | w}({R | v}r) = {S | w}(Rr + v) = S (Rr + v) + w = (SR)r + w + Sv,
:
{S | w}{R | v} = {SR | w + Sv}.
, , (. 6.5).

6.2.

a)

121

C2

. 6.5. G:
) {C2 |}
C2 ; )
{|}
( , ! )

, () G =
= {R | (R) + an} G, R (,
, , )
, (R) R ( ). G
- r 9)
{R | (R) + an} r = R r + (R) + an ,

(1)

R : ,
.

G = {R | (R) + an}

(2)

, , (2) () (2).
1) (2) , {E | 0},
E F. , (1)
:
{E | 0}r = E r = r.
(3)
2) G
G 1 = {R | (R) + an}1 = {R 1 | R1(R) R1an}.

(4)

(1) :
G 1 G r = {R 1 | R1 (R) R1an}{R r + (R) + an} =
= R1 R r + R1 (R) + R1an R1 (R) R1an = r = {E | 0}r.

(5)

3) (2)
? R1 R2 F,
(1) r :
{R2 | (R2) + am}{R1 | (R1) + an}r = R2 R1 r + R2 (R1) + R2 an + (R2) + am . (6)
9)

() , r R,
, (R) + an (), .

122

6.

R2 R1r (6) (1), R2 R1 = R F.


:
R2 (R1) + R2 an + (R2) + am = (R) + ap ,

(7)

(R) R = R2 R1 , ap - .
(7)
(R1), (R2), (R2 R1) () a1, a2, a3. . . ,
(7), , 230
G . ,
(R) = 0 R, . (R) 0
R, . 73,
157.
(7)
R2 an + am = ap .

(8)

R2 , (8) C2, C3, C4, C6.


(2) :
G = {R | (R) + an} = {E | an}{R | (R)},
E F {R}.
{R | (R)} ,
a,
T.
R, {R | (R) + an} G ( , (R) 0), F, 32 . , (6) , R1 R2
, R2R1 = R .
,
T F,
T F, , .
# 6.3. , {R | a} r
, . ,
{E | a} r r', . . r r', . , {E | a}r = r + a;
{E | a}r' = r' + a, ( )
{E | a}r {E | a}r' = r r'.

6.2.

123

r r'
{E | a} = + a
{E | a}(r r') = (r r') + a,
{E | a}r {E | a}r' {E | a}(r r').
, {R|a} - r :
{R | a}r = Rr + a; {R | a} = R.
,
, O, r = O + . !
# 6.4.
, , F.
( ) F.
, .
, , G . T . 230 ,
17, 2.
230 73 () F G:
, . 157 () F G.
, . . ,
(. . 6.5). !
# 6.5.
, (). , ( ), .
. 2, 4, 3, 6 , .
, . -

124

6.

10 , (. 6.2).
,
, .
: (C2), (C2v), (C4v)
(C6v), .
. 6.2.
, . ,
. ,
6.2
( )

1 a)

1m

2mm

4mm

3m

6mm

C1 b)

C1v

C2

C2v

C4

C4v

C3

C3v

C6

C6v


()

()

(, )

C 1, C 2

C1, C1v, C2, C2v, C4, C4v

C1, C1v, C2, C2v, C3, C3v, C6, C6v

( ).

a)
b)

a1 a2
90
a1 a2
= 90
a1 = a2
= 90
a1 = a2
= 120

C1, C1v, C2, C2v

()


(
)

(P)

C2

(P),
(C)

C2v

2mm

5
2

(P)

C4v

4mm

(P)

C6v

6mm

.
.

6.2.

125

.
, . ,
, . . () ( C2v) (001) . !
# 6.6. . ()
(. . 6.2). ( P
C )
C1, C1v (Cs), C2 , C2v , C4 , C4v , C3 ,
C3v , C6 , C6v 17 . !
# 6.7.
() , . , .
() , . 6.3.
6.3
() ,

=2

17
()

()

( )
80
()
230
()

. , (,
), - , . . .
,
. -

126

6.

, C .
.

.
80 ()
. 230 ( ) .
, . , . 17
() . !
. 6.4 6.7. G :
, I, R, an = n1a1 + n2a2 + n3a3 (R) .
,

. 230
,
,
.
6.4

G,

{R | (R) + an}

gNt

T,
GF = G T,
-

{E | an}
{R | (R)}

Nt
g

F,


( );
Nt

an

32
R ,
,

6.2.

()

127

6.5

(P)

(P),
C1h = Cs
C2
(C)
C2h

E
Ci = S 2

1
1

1
1

m
2
2 /m

4
3
6

()- (P),
,
(C),
(F),
(I)

C2v
D2
D2h

mm2
222
2/m 2/m 2/m
(mmm)

22
9
28

, (P),

(I (= F))

C4
S4
C4h
C4v
D2d
D4
D4h

4
4
4 /m
4mm
42m
422
4/m 2/m 2/m
(4/mmm)

6
2
6
12
12
10
20

, (R)

C3
S6
C3v
D3
D3d

3
3
3m
32
3 2/m (3m)

4
2
6
7
6

(P)

C6
C3h
C6h
C6v
D3h
D6
D6h

6
6
6 /m
6mm
6m2
622
6/m 2/m 2/m
(6/mmm)

6
1
2
4
4
6
4

T
Th
Td
O
Oh

23
2/m3 (m3)
43m
432
4 /m 3 2 /m
(m3m)

5
7
6
8
10

32

230

(P),
(F),
(I)

14

128

6.
6.6

{R | (R) + an} {E | an}{R | (R)} G


{R | (R) + an}r = Rr + (R) + an

{E | an} T
{R | an} T

{a1, a2, a3} ;


R
-
14 ()

{R1 | (R1) + an}{R2 | (R2) + am} =


= {R | (R) + ap};
(R)

32

(1 ) + (1 ) 73
(1 ) + (1 ) + [ (R)] 230
6.7

( )


(- )

7
,

14 ()


(
,
)

32
(32
)
230

6.3.

E = (Ex, Ey, Ez)
J = (Jx, Jy, Jz) Ji = j ij Ej ,
ij , ; i, j = x, y, z.

6.3.

129

(, , )
, , , .
( ), , , . .
,
. .
, , ij Oh . , , .

. ,
. , . , , ij'.
U, -
() -. , z

1
U= 0
0

0 0
1 0 0
1
1 0 , U = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1
0 1

U (. ): ' = UU 1, U 1 , U.
z
, , , :

11
' = U 21
31

12 13
11 12 13
1
22 23 U = 21 22 23 .
31 32 33
32 33

, , , . . ' = , , 13, 23, 31 32 . , -

130

6.

x, , 12, 21 , , . /2 z, , 11 = 22,
/2 x, , 22 = 33. ,
Oh
:

1
= 0 0
0

0 0
1 0,
0 1

0 . , . , , .
,
.

.

, , ,
.

. , .

u(r) r.
ij = uj/xi.
P = (Px, Py, Pz)
ij ckij Pk = i, j ckij ij .
, , . .
, .
: c'kij = ckij , ,
. , . ,
, .
, (, ).

7


7.1.
, - r, r + a,
a = 3i = 1 ni ai , . , , Va(r)
- ,
:
Va(r) = Va(r + a) = Vb exp(i br) = Vb exp(i b(r + a)),
b

(1)

ba (b, a) = 2( ).
r, ,
exp (ikr), k , i .
k. b ,
k = b . , b , r a
exp(ibr) = exp(ib(r + a)), . .
b,
exp(iba) = 1.

(2)

(b, a1) = 2s1 , (b, a2) = 2s2 , (b, a3) = 2s3 ,

(3)

(1) (2) :
s1 , s2 , s3 ( ).
(3) b
:
b = [a1, a2] + [a2, a3] + [a3, a1] ,

(4)

, , .
(4) (3) , , , () :
b1 = 2 [a2, a3]/va , b2 = 2 [a3, a1]/va , b3 = 2 [a1, a2]/va ,
va = (a1, [a2, a3]) , vb =
= (b1, [b2, b3]) = (2)3/va .

132

7.

# 7.1.
F. R, - ,
r . R r
, R .
, ,
. , r 1 , r , Rr1
. , R, S, , ,
. , ,
, . , . !

7.2. .
.


3

a = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3 = ni ai ,

(1)

i=1

a1, a2, a3 () , ni .
T, G ,
:
T = {E | a} = {E | n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3} =
= {E | n1 a1}{E | n2 a2}{E | n3 a3} = Tn1 Tn2 Tn3 ,

(2)

R = E F .
(2) , T Ti
Tni = {E | ni ai}, i = 1, 2, 3.
( ),
, T
, . . . (
-

7.2.

133
g

g = (. 3.3). = 1 l2 = g, l = 1.)
,
,
Na1, Na2, Na3, N >> 1.
, (
,
. .)
r r + Nai , . . , .
,
N 3va , va = (a1, [a2, a3]) , Nt = N 3 .
10),
Nai {E|Nai} =
= {E|0}. , T Nt = N 3.
T =
= T1 T2 T3.
T1 a1,
Tn1 = {E | n1a1}, n1 = 0, 1, 2, , N 1.
{E | a1}
() s,
{E | a1} s.
()
T1 :
{E | 2a1} = {E | a1}{E | a1} s s = s 2,
.................................... ,
{E | N a1} = {E | 0} s N = 1,

(3)

{E | 0}
() .
(3) :
s=

2i

1 = exp

1 ,

(4)

1 = 0, 1, 2, , N 1.
(3) (4) , Tn1 = {E | n1a1} T1 N

10)

. 1.2 , .

134

7.
2i

1(Tn1) = s n1 = exp

1n1 ;

n1, 1 = 0, 1, 2, , N 1.

(5)

T2 T3 Tn2 = {E | n2 a2}
Tn3 = {E | n3 a3},
2i

2(Tn2) = exp

2n2 ; n2 , 2 = 0, 1, 2, , N 1,

2i

3(Tn3) = exp
3n3 ; n3 , 3 = 0, 1, 2, , N 1.
N

(6)

T
Tn1 , Tn2 Tn3 , T = T1 T2 T3
2i

1 2 3(T) = 1(Tn1) 2(Tn2) 3(Tn3) = exp

(1n1 + 2n2 + 3n3) ,

(7)

(5) (6).
(. 7.1)
k=

1
b1 + 2 b2 + 3 b3 ,
N
N
N

(8)

b1 , b2 , b3 ; (ai , bj) = 2ij .


(7) (8)
ika, T :
k(T) = exp(ika),

(9)

k .
(9) k k' = k + b, b = n1b1 + n2b2 + n3b3 ,
exp(ik'a) = exp(ika) exp(iba) =
= exp(ika) exp[(2i)( )] = exp(ika).
, k k' = k + b k(T), . .
.
k,
< (k, ai) < ,

(10)

ai .
(8) (10), : N/2 < i < N/2, . . i N , i = 1, 2, 3.
k
, (8) (10),

7.3.

135

vb = (2)3/va . , b1, b2, b3 , ,


( ).
(10), (
) .
b .
b, .
1 2
b (b, k) = 0,
(11)
2
k -,
. , (11)
k : (a, k' k) = 2sL = (a, b), sL , | k' | = | k |.
, (11), ( ). ( ) . (
,
, .)
, .
, , N 3 = Nt .

(2)3/va , Nt . , , Nt . ,
, . . vb = (2)3/va .

7.3.

T
k ()11)
; k k-
. k = exp(ika)
,
(1)
Tk(r) = k(T 1r) = k(r + a) = k k(r) = exp(ika) k(r),
11)

() ( ).

136

7.

T 1 a ; Tk(T r) =
= k(r); . 3.4, 4.2.
k (1),
k(r) = uk(r) exp(ikr),

(2)

uk , . .
uk(r + a) = uk(r).

(3)

(2)
.
. uk
( ) , .
()
n V (r) = V (r + a)
h2 2

H(r) njk(r)
+ V (r) njk(r) = En(k) njk(r),
2m0

(4)

H(r)
, En k m0 .

njk(r) = unjk(r) exp(ikr)

(5)

n j, n k ; {n, j}.
# 7.2. = (R),
a, k, :
Tk(r + ) = k(r + + a) = exp(ika) k(r + ).
k(r + ) = exp(ik) k(r) (1)(3),
, . T k(r + ) T k(r) = k(T 1r). !
G (. 7.2):
(6)
G = {R | + a}, G 1 = {R 1 | R 1 R 1 a},
= (R) , R F G.
G (4). V(r) = V(r + a)
( h2/2m0)2
(6), ,

7.3.

137

H(r)Gnjk(r) = En(k)Gnjk(r),

(7)

. . Gnjk(r) , En(k).
(6) (5)
Gnjk(r) = unjk(G 1r) exp(ikG 1r) =
= unjk(R 1r R 1 R 1a) exp[ik(R 1 + R 1a)] exp(ikR 1r),

(8)

R 1a ( , R 1 ).
, R, . .
(k, R1r) = (Rk, RR1r) = (Rk, Er) = (Rk, r),

(9)

(8)
G njk(r) = !
unjR k(r) exp(iRkr),

(10)

!
unjR k(r) = unjk(R 1r R 1) exp[iRk( + a)]
( , R 1a ).
(10) Rk
(4), (5)
En(k) = En(Rk).

(11)

, En(k) = const ( )
( ) .
Rk, R F , k.
,
(t t) En(k).

ih

= H
t

(12)

ih
= ih
= H,
(12a)
t
(t)
(): H = H. k ||2,

138

7.

.
(h/im0) : k k.
:
Hn = En n ,

(13)

Hn = En n,

(13a)

, , n n En .
n n , . (12) (13) , .

njk(r) = unjk(r) exp(ikr)

(14)

(5) k k. (5) (14) (4),


En(k) = En(k).

(15)

, En(k) = const , () . ( : En(k) = En(k), ,


.)
k - ,
F ,
Rk = k.

(16)

k ,
R k :
Rk = k bi ,

(16a)

bi () , i = 1, 2, 3.
G G , R (16)
(16a), Gk k.
Gk
njk k ()
. Gk
k(r) = uk(r) exp(ikr) k En(k)
( ) .
k(r) k--

7.3.

139

Gk .
(G) Gk k (R) Fk .
(R) Fk ,
R k , (16) (16). ( R k(r) k k' (r)
k', k' k R k-.)
, (R)
Fk , (G) Gk
k ( k ):
(G) = ({R | + a}) = (R) exp [ik( + a)] ,

(17)

G = {R | + a} Gk , R
Fk , a = (R).
(R) Fk
,
(R2 R1) = (R2) (R1).

(18)

(G2) (G1) = (R2) (R1) exp {i[k(2 + a2) + k(1 + a1)]}.

(19)

(17) ,
G2 G1 Gk (17)
(G2 G1) = ({R2 | 2 + a2}{R1 | 1 + a1}) =
= ({R2 R1 | R2 1 + R2 a1 + 2 + a2}) =
= (R2 R1) exp [ik(R2 1 + R2 a1 + 2 + a2)] .

(20)

(R2 R1) (20) (18) (R2) (R1) (19),

(G2 G1) = (G2) (G1) exp {i[k(R2 1 + R2 a1) k(1 + a1)]}.


(9),
(G2 G1) = (G2) (G1) exp [i(R21k k)(1 + a1)].

(21)

k , R21 k = k, (21) , ,
(G2 G1) = (G2) (G1).

140

7.

, (G), (17), Gk .
k , :
R21 k = k + b,
b . 1 = (R1) = 0 (21) :
exp(i [(R21 k k)a1]) = exp(iba1) = exp[(2i)( )] = 1.
, (G)
Gk k.
, k ,
( ) .

7.4.

Fk k ( ). a, 2/a (. 7.1). F
C4v (. 4.4): E; 4, C43; C2 ; x ,
y ; d , d', x v(y, z), y v(x, z) , C4(z) x, y ; d,
d' , C4 .
(. 7.1, )
x
ky
k

a)

2/a

k'

k
kx

d'

k'

. 7.1

k'

k'

k'

7.4.

141

k,
F = C4v ; Fk E.
) v , Fk k : E, v . )
; Fk k E d.
), ) ) k . kx(y) k'x(y) = kx(y) 2/a , ) k- ,
Fk k : E v. )
, Fk k
: E, C2 , 2v . , ) , Fk k C4v .
k ,
F = C4v ,
, k-. k ( , ), . (. 7.1, ).
k ,
. . , ( ) k, ; .
ky
M
. ( k-)

Z
(. 7.1, 7.2). X
C4v

kx
E , C4 ,
C43, C42 (= C2)
x , y , d , d'
7.2.
. x y - .
kx ky , d d'

.
, , , . M, ( ),
, . X,

142

7.

, ,
. , ,
X M, Z,
X M, , . ,
, , (. 7.1). g F, gk
Fk m {k} : g =
gk m.
k = k1
, m g
F . :
E(k1) = E(k2) = = E(kg),
= {n, j} n ()
j. E
|k1, |k2, , |kg,

F.
F.
G g Gk k.
k = k1
m k1, k2 , , km , F
: 1) , k1
( k1 , k1),
(k1x(y)
' = k1x(y) 2/a); 2) , k1 . 1 F ( ) Fk . , , (1, 2 , 3 , ) k1. m
ki (i = 1, 2, , m), :
|k11, |k21, , |km1 E1(k1),
|k12, |k22, , |km2 E2(k1),
........................................... ,
1, 2 , 3 , Fk
(, , Z, X, , M) .

7.4.

143

, k = k1,
(. 7.2), , (. 7.1, ).
, ,
E, y
1 2 , . 7.1. 1 2
:
|k11, |k21, |k31, |k41 E1(k1),
|k12, |k22, |k32, |k42 E2(k1).
Z,
.
X , . ( X)
(. 7.1).
, X.
7.1
, , Z, X,
, M

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
2

1
1

1
1

Z1
Z2

1
1

1
1

X1
X2
X3
X4

1
1
1
1

C42 = C2

1
1
1
1

C4v

A1
A2
B1
B2
E

1
2
3
4
5

M1
M2
M3
M4
M5

1
1
1
1
2

C4, C43

1
1
1
1
0

C2

1
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

2v (= y , x)

1
1
1
1
0

|pz z
|dxy xy
|py y
|px x
2d (= d', d)

1
1
1
1
0

z; 3z2 r2
xy(x2 y2)
x2 y2
xy
x, y; xz, yz

( )
|k| = 0. Fk = F0
F = C4v . C4v
. M.

144

7.

# 7.3.
(. 7.2),
kx , x.
|kx
G . , kx , kx .
E y, C4 , C43, C2 , x , d
d'. ky , kx ky . , kx ,
kx . Gk
: 1 2.
, , 1, Gk .
|kx , y . , ,
kx , |ky, |ky |kx. d' = C4y, y , d' C4
. , x = C2y C43 = d y ,
, x C2 , d C43
. , |kx, |ky, |ky |kx, Gk .

2. !
# 7.4.
,
, () s-, p-, d- (.
4.7).
s-
. p-
, :
| px x, | py y, | pz z.
d- :
|dxy xy; |dyz yz; |dxz xz;
|dx2 y2 x y2; |dz2 3z2 r2, r2 = x2 + y2 + z2.
2

7.4.

145

F = C4v ( )
. C4 C43, x y , d d'
. C4v (E,
2C4 , C2 , 2v , 2d) ( ). , (. 4.1).
|k| = 0
, .
s-. .
, 1, .
| px |dz2. | pz z ( x y), , ,
1, s-. , ,
|dz2 3z2 r2, r2
C4v. , 1
: |s, | pz |dz2.
2 , g- ( l = 4),
xy (x2 y2).
3 ,
C4v |dx2 y2 x2 y2.
:
E |dx2 y2 = |dx2 y2,
C43|dx2 y2 = (y)2 x2 = |dx2 y2,
d |dx2 y2 = (y)2 (x)2 = |dx2 y2,
d'|dx2 y2 = y2 x2 = |dx2 y2,

C4 |dx2 y2 = y2 (x)2 = |dx2 y2,


C2 |dx2 y2 = (x)2 (y)2 = |dx2 y2,
x |dx2 y2 = (x)2 y2 = |dx2 y2,
y |dx2 y2 = x2 (y)2 = |dx2 y2.

|dxy xy E, C2 ( ) d d' +1, C4 ( /2) C43 (


/2) x y 1. ( 4):
E|dxy = xy = |dxy,
C4|dxy = y(x) = |dxy,
3
C4 |dxy = yx = |dxy,
C2|dxy = x(y) = |dxy,
d |dxy = y(x) = |dxy,
x|dxy = xy = |dxy,
d'|dxy = xy = |dxy,
y|dxy = x(y) = |dxy.
|px x |py y.
4- x y y x.

146

7.

|px |py , ,
. , |px |py, .
5 :
x
x 1 0x
x 0 1x
x
C4 =
C43 = 0 1 ,
E =
,
,
y 0 1y
y 1 0 y
y 1 0 y
x 1 0 x
x 0 1 x
x 0 1x
C2 =
, d =
, d' =
,
y 0 1 y
y 1 0 y
y 1 0y
x
x
x 1 0 x
x = 1 0 , y =
.
y 0 1y
y 0 1 y
, |dxz xz |dyz yz 5 , |px |py, z
.
1, , 5
( ) . 7.1.

X, M, , , Z . !
# 7.5. G : 1) k, ; 2) Gk
. G
k Gk .
E
k : E(k)

12).
X (. . 7.2 7.1) k1x , k2x k2x = k1x 2/a, k2y = k1y
. x , , , E(k1x) = E(k2x). (3.15)
E(k1x) = E(k2x) = E(k1x). k1x +/a, k2x /a, ,
lim E(+/a ) = lim E(/a ) = lim E(/a + ). , +0

12)

+0

+0

, , , . . kE = 0. ,
( ). kE = 0,
kE 0, , .

7.4.

147

/a

kx , . . E kxkx = /a = 0.

, G ( ),
( )
.

- , , . .
E(k), |k k,
, ; = {n, j}.
F k , k1 = k, k2, , km.
,
G , k.
vc , , ;
v = vb/g, vb = (2)3/(a1, [a2, a3]) , g
F, va = (a1, [a2, a3]).
(3.4), ,
(l )

(2)

(1)
k , k , , k

()
k Gk
; l . (l)
(2)
(1)
k , k , , k |k, k, ()
k (G) G .
ml , m () k. , ,

(ml)2 = m2 gk ,

k v

k v

gk = l2 Fk k . mgk g
F ,

mg =

k v

g = Nt g,

k vb = gv

Nt T. !

148

7.

kz

a)

Z
kx

S
ky

W
U

a
. 7.3. ) ( , a 3 /4). ) ; kx, ky, kz
, a = 0.357

#7.6. ,
,
. , , , (-Sn), (GaAs), (InSb), (GaN)
, ( )
( ). 1/4
, 8 .
(. 6.4) .
, kx, ky, kz (14 ) (. 7.3).

, . . 7.2. ( 2/a = 17.62 1.)
. 7.3.
(Si, Ge, )
- (kx = ky = kz = 0).
v- -

7.4.

149

-. c- GaAs, InSb,
GaN -. 8
() L- ,
4 . 6 0.85(2/a) X. ,
Si, () c-
.
7.2

(. . 7.3)

= (0, 0, 0)

2
, 0
a

L= , ,
a a a
2

W = , 0,
a
a
3 3
K = , , 0
2a 2a
2

Z = , 0, kz
a

2
S = kx , , kx
a

= (0, 0, kz )
= (kx , kx , kx)
= (kx , kx , 0)
X = 0,

a)
b)

Fk

m a)

gkb)

Oh

48

D4h

16

E, 2C3 , 3C2 , I, 2S6 , 3d

D3d

12

E, 2S4 , C2 , 2C2', 2d

D2d

E, C2 , 2v

C2v

12

E, C2 , 2v

C2v

12

E, C2 , 2v

C2v

12

E, 2C4 , C2 , 2v , 2d
E, 2C3 , 3v
E, C2 , 2v

C4v
C3v
C2v

6
8
12

8
6
4

E, 8C3 , 3C42, 6C4 , 6C2 ,


I, 8S6 , 3h , 6S4 , 6d
E, 2C4 , C2 , 2C2', 2C2'', I,
2S4 , z , 2v , 2d

m () k
gk Fk k
7.3

k-
: k2 = (k b)2 b2 2(k, b) = 0, b . k k',
k = k' + b, .

150

7.
. 7.3


k(r) = uk(r) exp(i kr), uk(r + a) = uk(r) a . . . k(r)

k, uk(r),
k ,
.

,
, .
.

, .

k,
.
E(k) k , . .
k .
E(k), .
( ).
E(k)
.
k
, ,
, k- ,
.
E(k) .


k
, k.
. k , k ,
.

.

7.4.

151
. 7.3

() , k
. k.
k
. k
, . . .

, k
, . k .
( ),
. ,
,
. , , , .



/ . ,
.
. . , . .
. , , , .
. ( ) .
. ,
, ( ).
. , ( ) . .
. A K, A
K , , K
u, v A (uv) = (u)v = u(v).
. A = {A; f1, f2, , fn, }, A ; f1, f2, , fn, , . .
. , , , .
, , .
. o ,
AoBoC = (AoB)oC = Ao(BoC). , .
.
.
. , .
. .
. ,
.

153

, (. .
). 14
.
() ()
k, ,
, .
. . ai ,
. .
. V K. K u V u V, , K u, v
V ( + )u = u + u, (u + v) = u + v,
()u = (u), 1 K u V
1u = u.
.
| b , | a .
. ,
.
. f X
Y, f (x) = y x X
y Y.
. , .
. V
V1 V2, v V v1 + v2 , v1 V1
v2 V2 . : V = V1 + V2 V1 V2 = 0.
. , ( ).
. , |a . , |a (x) = a|x,
(p) =
exp(ipx) (x) dx = a|p.
. , .
. ,
. -

154

(
).
. . .
. ,
.
. ( ) ( ) , (x, y)
|x| = (x, x). A
H ( ), (Ax, Ay) =
(x, y) ( (Ax, y) = (x, Ay)), x, y H.
. ,
.
. G F : G F , (ab) = (a)(b) a
b G ( ab G,
(a)(b) F). ,
, . . . (
). ,
, ,
, ,
.
. ( ), , : ) , )
, ) , ) . {G; }, G
() ; ,
, G .
(). .
. ,
() .
. K[G] K,
G .
. {G; } ,
G G.
, . ( ), .

155

. ()

( ),
.
. , (). .
. A
A1. X AX = B XA = B.
. (, ) (, ), (A + B)C = AC + BC C(A + B) = CA + CB. , ,
. , .
. n , (a1, a2, , an), . .
.
. A
, A
, ( ).
. W V W' , V
W W'.
. , , .
. E G,
R G ER = RE = R.
, .
. ,
, .
. a ,
aa = a.
().
. , ,
, .
. . ,
y = ln x

156

. ,
(<) . y1 = ln x1,
y2 = ln x2 , (<): x1 y1, x2 y2, x1 x2 y1 + y2 , x1 < x2 " y1 < y2 .
, , X =
{x: x > 0} Y = { y: < y < +}, X
Y. : ,
. ,
.
. .
. .
.
. ,
.
.
. , .
.
.

- .
. ,

() . .
.
.
(, ) , .
() ().
. . .
. , . -

157

, . . .
. .
. {R; , }, {R; } ( + ), {R; } ( )
.
Z , .
. o , AoB =
= BoA A B. AoB o A B.
. , .
. . .
. , .
. .
. N n = 3N. . .
. . , .
. B
A ( ), BA
.
. H G R G, RH
RS, S H.
.
, .
.
( ) .
.
,
.

158

. ,
,
.
. , , .
.
. .
.
. . , .
.
.
. aij ,
, i ,
j . .
. . : Sp(2) Sp() = 1.
a a = Sp(a).
.
. , .
. .
. , .
. ,
, .
,
, ;
, , .
. . , .
. , .

159

. (, , , , . .),
(
) .
. , ( ) . : .
. , .
. . () A B, () E, () T ( F), G, H. A B , ,
Cn . 1 2 A B

v , , A B, C2',
. ,
I, g, u.
, h ,
, , .
. ,
, .
( )
, .
. ,
.
. ( ),
( ). : , .
. (r),
| |2 d3r = 1,

d3r ; .
( ). a
, (a, a) .
. , .

160

. bm = m1b1 + m2b2 + m3b3, m1, m2, m3 , b1, b2, b3 .


.
, .
. ( ) .
. , .
.
, ( ). , . n- ( n-),
n .
. ,
.
-.
.
,
.
. ,
.
(). ,


().
. a b ,
(a, b) .
12 d3r = 0,
. 1(r) 2(r),

d3r ; .
. f X Y
, x X f(x)
Y. f : X Y.
. ,
() , , .
. k- (
), ,
, ; , , -

161

, k = 0
, .
. , .
n {1, 2, , n} S(n).
. ,
, .
S(n)
, n .
. , . .
. , .
. ,
.
, .
, .
. , .
. .
( ). Q, R C .
. , , ,
.
. {F; }, , F.
. ,
, . . EX = XE = X X .
. .
. , .
X p, X p = E.
.
( ,
, ) .
. , , .

162

. X A, AX
E .
. H R G,
HR G
SR, S H.
.
.

. : , . . , . . .
.
.
. S(n) n.
. , ,
.
. , . . , , .
. ,
.
. V, (X)
X .
. .
.
, .
. , .
.
. .
() . .

163

. ij, , i j, , i = j. .
. - , . , .
. , ,
.
. . .
,
,
.
( n). n , S(n); n! = 123n.
. , , . ( , , . .).
.
. ( ), ( ). .
(). , ; .
. A. Sp A.
. , , .
.
.
. Av = v v A, v.
. |a A, A|a = |a ( )
|a 0.
, .
. A
v, Av = v
() .
. .
,
. -

164

. , , .
. ,
, .
. ,
,
. ,
(a-SiO2), ,
H2O SiO2 , ,
.
2/5. ( C5 .)
,
. , , ( ).
. .
. .
. , .
,
, . 1 2
= 11 + 22 , 1, 2
, | 1|2 + | 2 |2 0, .
. , .
. , n = m1 + + mk
n , m1 m2 mk. k ,
, i- mi , i = 1, , k.
, n 1, , n. .
. ,
(, ) . , .
. , , , . .

165

. aijk . , , ().
:
.
: G
S(g).
. , .
(). , .
. , . ().
. an = n1a1 + n2a2 + n3a3,
n1, n2, n3 , a1, a2, a3
(). .
. ,
.
. , .
. ( ), .
.
.
. , () .
. U , , . . (Uv, Uw) = (v, w) v w.
. .
.
Ar = r, r 0.
A.
. N
2n , n = 3N
n .
. , .

166

. ,

, , (, . .) , .
-. ,
( , ).
.
, .
. , ,
.
(). ,
. .
. , .
{E, X, X 2, , X p}, (p + 1) X.
. , , .
. ,
.
. S(n)
{1} .
1. ,
+1, 1.
.
; .
. .
. {G; } G, .
, .
. b1, b2, b3, a1, a2, a3 : b1 = (2/va) [a2, a3], b2 = (2/va) [a3, a1], b3 = (2/va) [a1, a2],
va = (a1, [a2, a3]) . (bi, aj) = 2ij , ij .

167

. (
) .
. . ,
.
. , : Mij = Mji.




. ,
, . , , .
,

.
.
. f X Y f : X Y. , f x y(x), f : x a y(x)
a, . f Z X f |Z . XY X Y (x, y) x X
y Y. f (x, y)
Z f : XY Z : (x, y) a f (x, y). X |X|.

G , (
) : G G G, (g, g') gg' = (g, g') .
(1) ( ) g(g'g'') = (gg')g''.
(2) e G, , eg = ge = g
g G.
(3) g G () h, . . gh = e.
h g, gh = e, h' h,
hh' = e. g = ghh' = h'. , h
g, . . hg = e. g , g1.
, ,
, . G
|G|. H G G/H [G:H] H G.
M G () G, G
M .

169


. : Y
FY , () Y e.
' '.
. Y
- FY/N, N FY ,
.
, n x xn = e. G = {e, x, ,
xn 1} Zn .
f G
G', G
, . . f (gh) = f (g) f (h). e G e' G', f (e) = e', f (g1) = ( f (g))1.
Ker f f
G, e' G', . . x G f (x) = e'. G.
f ( ),
f (). . .
f : G G' ,
: f (gg') = f (g') f (g). :
.

-. H G.
gH
gHg'H = gg'(g' 1Hg')H = gg'HH = gg'H,
G/H . - G H. : G G/H : g a gH.
G H GH, (g, h) g G h H, (g, h)(g', h') := (gg', hh'). : Z6 Z2 Z3.
.
,
.

170

, .
.
. G
H, : G Aut (H),
g g . G H (g, h)
(g, h)(g', h') = (gg', g'1(h)h')
GH , G H. G H
G{e} {e}H, . HG
(h, g)(h', g') = (hg(h'), gg'),
H G.
. G G H,
G H = {e}, GH = G ,
H (= ), G G H g : g a (h a ghg1).
, Dn
Zn Z2 . En , x En, T .
, ,
{e} G.
. H
G H G /H (= ). G G ( [G :H]),
G G H.

G X. G
X G X .
GX X,
(g, x) gx = (g, x) = g(x), x , g. , g'(gx) = (g'g)x. ,
g'g g.

171

(xg)g' = x(gg'), , gg'


g.
G, X, ( X ).
, .
.
,
, ,
(
). , ,
. , , . .
G X X', f : X X', , . .
f (gx) = g f (x) g G x X.
x X Gx
gx g G. X ,
. , X
. X/G X G.
x X Gx,
g G, x , . .
g gx = x. Gx
. .
G X ,
X . Gx
G/Gx . Gx .
, [G:Gx].
: Ggx = gGx g1. , h Ggx , hgx =
= gx, g1hgx = x, . . g1hg Gx .
Ker G
X . G, X . - G/Ker. , g , Ker = G.
G X, , X. , () FX X f a f o g1 (

172

)
f a f o g. 2X
X.
x X (), gx = x
g G. FX X , .
Y X , gY = Y
g G. .
G : , .
() L G :
L : G G G : (g, h) a Lg(h) = gh.
. H G H.
R G :
R : G G G : (h, g) a Rg(h) = hg.
() G
G G G : (g, h) a ghg1.
ZG .

G. . ,
. G .
, ,
, . , .

G (, )
V G V. , : G Aut(V).
(g)v gv. (= ) G V V,
dim() = dim(V). V .
( ) G ' ( )

173

f : V V' , g G v V f ((g)v) =
= '(g) f (v). ' Hom(, '), HomG (V, V').
, ', , A : V V' ,
, . . A(gv) = gA(v) g G v V.

(g) = Sp ((g)),
Sp ( ).
, g.

, ,
(g), g G.

1. ' G G V V' :
g(v v') = (g)v '(g)v',
g G, v V , v' V ' . '.
: = + .
2. . ' G V V' . ' G V V'
g : v v' a gv gv'. '. : =
= .
3. . ' G G
Hom(V,V') V V' g f (v) = '(g) f ((g1)v) g G f Hom(V,V'). HomG(V,V').
4. . G
() V, V
. A V A, x, Av = Ax, v v V x V .
(g) = ((g1)). .
5. . G V. H G ( H) H

174

H (h)v = (h)v v V. H , , H. H = |H .
6. .
G V ' G'
V'. ' G G' V V' (g, g') : v v' a gv g'v'.
.
7. .
GG' V V' ,
' G G' .
GG' V ' V G G' ,
, . . g G g' G'
(g)'(g') = '(g')(g).
8. .
G V. G
V n = V V:
g(v1 vn) = gv1 gvn .
S(n) V n, ;
S(n)
(v1 vn) = v1 v2 vn.
G S(n) V n ,
GS(n).
9. . H G
V ' G.
V' H- s : G V ( s , s(hg) = (h)s(g)
h H g G), G V' :
gs : g' a s(g'g). ' ( H). dim(') = dim()[G:H]).
V V' v sv , sv(g) = gv, g H,
sv(g) = 0, g H.
. G
, .

{e}.

175

V' V.
, V V , 0. , . f G
' , '.
( ) ,
1
g.
|G| g G
1. G . V
, g G
((g)v, (g)v') = (v, v'),
(v, v') () V.
2.
. ( ) G
.
3.
( , ).
4. FG ()
1
f f ' G ( f, f ') = |G|
g G f (g) f '(g1). ij () G
(dim())2 - , , (ij, kl) =
1
ik jl . ij (= |G|
) G '.
5. . G
, =

1
|G|

(g) (g),
gG

G. . , i, j = ij.

176

6. 1, 2, , d
, . d G.
7. (e) = dim(), (g1) = (g), |(g)| (e); (g) = 1 + 2 + + k ,
k = dim() i ord(g) ; ord(g) g.
G. R|G| {eg | g G}. () (g) : eh a egh
G R|G | G.
(gg')eh = e(gg')h = eg(g' h) = (g)eg' h = (g)(g')eh .
:
|G|, g = e,
reg(g) =
0, g e.
:
reg = dim() ,

G. , G , dim() .


,
. C[G] () G

a = g G agg ag C :

(ag bg')gg' =
ag g
bg g =
ag bg1hh,

gG
gG
g, g' G

h G g G

h = gg'. a : G C : g a ag , C[G] FG .
f f ' f, f ' FG :
( f f ')(g) =

f (h) f '(h1g).
h G

,
. . Z(G). C G

177

kC = c C c (
C), Z(G) . 1
1
|G|
g G g = |G|
kC . : kC kC' = C'' gC''
CC' kC''.
. ,

. ( ) G
: C[G] C.

Mn, n2. eij 1,
i- j- . : eij ekl = jkeil. ,
l , . .
, . ( )
1
1 = |G|
ni=1 eii.
n
Mn C ( ). , i- , , eii ( eji , ). e11 , , enn Mn ,
eii ejj = ij eii . , Mn
Mneii .
, C[G] , . .
()
C[G] Md1 Mdh .
(1)
2
2
|G| dim(C[G]) = d1 + + dh . ()
1 = e1 + + eh ,
2
ei = ei , ei ej = 0, i j. ei (, ) Mdi . e1, , eh
C[G]. , (
) .
x, (1),
x = x1 + + xh ,
xi = ei x = xei . , ei Mdi , di di . (1) h (= ) d1 , , dh .
G C[G] V ( C[G]- V):

178

ag g v =
ag gv, g G, v V.

gG

gG

G C[G]-.
( )
G V V .
, ij (g),
i, j = 1, , d = dim(). (. 3.3)
1
1
ij (g1)kl(g) = jk il .

|G|
d
gG

a C[G]
d
aij = ji (g1)g
|G|
gG

( ij). aij akl = jk ail . ,


d d
ji (g1)lk(h1)gh.
aij akl =

|G|
gG hG

h g' = gh, h = g1g', h1 = g' 1g,


, lk(h1) = lk(g' 1g) = s G ls(g' 1)sk(g),
d d
ji (g1)ls(g' 1)sk(g)gh.
aij akl =

|G|
gG hG sG


. , aij eij (1).

. ,
d

e = aii =
i=1

d
d
(g1)g = lC (C)kC ,

|G|
|G|
gG

lC = |C|. , Mdi .
, .
,
R[G] R-, Mn(R), R- :

179

Mn(C) Mn(H).
. .

S(n) {1, , n} . ,
n!.

1 2 n
,
i1 i2 in

, j ij . , , :
i1 i2 in
.
1 2 n

1 =


. , ,
, ,
. (i1, i2, , ik), , i1 i2 , i2 i3
. ., ik i1 . , . , . , . 2 .
. S(n)
n ( ).
n = k1 + k2 + + kd ,
k1, k2 , , kd.
1, ,
, ; , k1 k2 kd .

S(n) C[S(n)] C[S(n)]ha , a = (a1, a2 ,
, ad) n. ha , n , d , i- ai .
a, 1, 2, n,
.
, a = (3, 2) n = 5
51 34 2 . a

180

a : Pa ,
, Qa ,
. ha
C[S(n)] (), , a (, ), ha = (q)pq,
p Pa , q Qa , (q)
q. ,
( )
S(n) I a = C[S(n)]ha .
S(n) (n 1) i = (i,
i + 1), i = 1, , n 1, . . i i i + 1.
:
i2 = e,
ij = ji | i j | > 1,
ii + 1i = i + 1ii + 1 .

(2)

.
: S(n) Z2 ,
(i) = 1, (e) = 1.
(2) . k (1)k + 1. .
A(n) .
S(n). A(n) n!/2.
. n 5 A(n) , . . .
S(3) S(4) , ,
. A(4) ,
4!/2 = 12. , :
a = (1, 2)(3, 4), b = (1, 3)(2, 4), c = (1, 2, 3), : ab = ba, cac2 = ab,
c2ac = b. , a b , Z2Z2, c , : Z3 Aut(Z2Z2) A(4)
: (Z2Z2) Z3.
: , , ,
. , , : = S(4),
24; = S(4)C2 , 48; = Y ( = A(5), 60). Yh A(5) ( , Yh 120).

181

( ) Y
A(5)
. ,
A(5), . . ,

,
, , , . . .
G
, . .
. G , G e G, [X, Y], . GL(n, R) .
: SL(n),
SU(n), SO(n), Sp(2n).
. .
.
.
( ).
n- En
En , . , ,
. R.
R: Rx
x En T . T
() - R T Rx .
R En , Rx . n- Rn, Rx
O(n), T Rn. R
O(n) Rn, O(n) Rn.
O(3) : SO(3)
(, ) , . I
, O(3) = SO(3) ISO(3).

182

SO(3) , ,
. :

. ,
. (= ) , , 1 1.
. SO(3)
0
cos sin 0
1 0
(3)
g = sin cos 0 h = 0 cos sin ,
0
0 sin cos
0 1

g h g 0 , 2, /2 /2 ( ).
= 0,
. -
SO(3) . dg SO(3) :
dg = (82)1 sin ddd.
SO(3) .
R3 SO(3), R , = 0 . B SO(3),
. ,
SO(3) , , , S 3 c .
S 3 SO(3) S 3 , SU(2), SU(2) SO(3). SU(2)
l = n/2, n = 0, 1, 2, . Dl 2l + 1
SO(3), l . Dl
l ()
SO(3). D1/2
SU(2) C2.
Dj Dj' = D| j j' | D| j j' | + 1 Dj + j' .

183

SO(2) S1 (
),
a exp(im). , m
, m . Dl
SO(2) SO(3) 2l + 1 m = l, l + 1, , l 1, l.

O(3) g (3) (g) =
= 1 + 2 cos(), (I) = 3. l Dl
l (g) = (1)2l + 1

sin ((2l + 1)/2)

.
sin (/2)
g = g ,
sin((2l + 1)(/2))
0 l,
=
1 l.
sin(/2)
Dl l.
SO(3) B R3
. g , [0, ],
(3) (
). ,
. SU(2) , [0, 2].
() : R R () G R, G = 1(G) R.
G G

.
. S(3). 1, 2 (. (2))
a = 1 = (1; 2), b = 12 = (1; 2; 3) a2 = 1, b3 = 1,
ab = b2a. S(3) = {e, a, b, b2, ab, ab2},
C1 = {e}, C2 = {b, b2}, C3 = {a, ab, ab2},
, 1, 2 , 3
1, 2, 3. : 1 ,
2 , . . .1.
6 12 12 = 22, . . dim(3) = 2 = 3(e). 3 reg = 1 + 2 + 23.

184


.1
S(3)

C1 = {e}

C2 = {b, b2}

C3 = {a, ab, ab2}

reg
1
2
3

6
1
1
2

0
1
1
1

0
1
1
0

,
3: a1 = (3), a2 = (2; 1), a3 = (1; 1; 1) :
1 2 3 ,

3 .
2
1
P1 = G, Q1 = {e},
h1 =

2 3 ,
1

g = e + a + b + b2 + ab + ab2
gG

.
P2 = {e, 2 = ab}, Q2 = {e, 1 = a},
h2 = (e + ab)(e a) = e + ab a b2.
P3 = {e}, Q3 = G,
h3 = e a + b + b2 ab ab2.
. , . , h2, ah2 C[G]h2 .
ah2 = e + a + b ab2,
bh2 = e + a + b ab2,
b(ah2) = b + b2 ab + ab2 = h2 ah2.

0 1
0 1
; (b) =
.
1 0
1 1

(a) =

. , .


1. M (
), :
2-
2-
M11 M12 M13
M21 M22
.
M31

2. Mij mij M , j-
i- . M m n , (mn)-. m = n, M n- .
3. ; (M + N)ij = Mij + Nij
( M N ).
4. , . M N (MN)ij = k Mik Nkj ,
M N.
5. : Mij = ij, ij - .
E . : Mij = 0.
6. () : det M.
7. : M 1 , MM 1 =
= M 1M = E; , det M 0.
8. () : SpM = TrM = i Mii.
9. : (M )ij = Mij.
!)ij = Mji.
10. : (M
! )ij = Mji.
11. : (M )ij = (M
12. M = ABC, M 1 = C 1B1A1; SpM = SpBCA = SpCAB
! = C! B! A!; M = CBA.
SpBAC; det M = detA detB detC; M = ABC; M

: M = M
!
: M = M = M

Mij = Mij
! )ij
Mij = Mji = (M

: M = (M 1),
MM = M M = E
!) 1, MM
!=E
: M = (M
!
: M = M

k Mik Mjk = ij

(): det M = 0

k Mik Mjk = ij

Mij = Mji
Mij = Mi ij


1
(det M)2 = 1
Mi = M0 ,

186

1. M M' (), : M' = U 1MU, U , ,


; det U 0.
2. N N' ,

N = {N1, N2, }; N' = {N1', N2', },
U, Ni' = U 1NiU i.
3. .
0 1 1 0
,
;
1 0 0 1

N =

5 6 1 0
,

4 5 0 1

N' =

; U
1 2
U=
;
3 4

2
= 3
2

1
1 .

2

4. M M'
Sp M = Tr M = Sp M'; det M = det M'.

1.
) fQ() Q
: fQ() = det(Q E).
) : fQ() = 0.
) Q:
.
) Q ,
.
) , .
2.
) .
, .
) .
Q U,
. . U QU = D, D .
) ,
.
) Q ,
.

187

1.
M11 0
11 M12
M
,
M M
0 M
21

22
22

M11 , .
2. , (. . ).
3. , . .
4. :
) , , .
, , ,
;
) ( );
) , ;
) : ?
0 1 1 0
5. . N =
,
, 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
N' = UNU 1 =
,
, 0 1 0 1
1 1
1 1 1
1
U =
;U =
.
2 1 1
1 1

1. :
) M N nM nN .
M 0
M N M + N = , Sp (M + N) = Sp M + Sp N.
0 N

M + N nM + nN.
: , .
) M (m1m2)-, N (n1n2)-. M N M N
(M N)ij, kl = Mik Njl ,
Sp (M N) = Sp M Sp N.

188

M N (m1n1 m2n2).
,
.
:

(M N)(M' N') = MM' NN'.


2. :
) , ,
M = {M1, M2 , Mk}; N = {N1, N2 , Nk}

M + N = {M1 + N1, M2 + N2 , , Mk + Nk}
.
)
M N = {M1 N1, M2 N2, , Mk Nk}
.
)
{M1, M2, , Mk}; {N1, N2, , Nk'}
( kk')
M N = {M1 N1, M1 N2, , M1 Nk', M2 N1, , Mk Nk'}.
# .1. U , U U = E, . .
k uik ukj = k uki ukj = ij . U
, (Ux, Uy) = (x, y).

U=

u11
u21

un1

u12
u22

un2

u1n
u2n

unn

, . . UU =
= U U = E,
n

k=1

uik ujk

uki ukj = ij.


k=1


U ei = u1i e1 + u2i e2 + u2i e2 + + uni en ,
U ej = u1j e1 + u2j e2 + u2j e2 + + unj en

189

kn = 1 uki ukj ( e1, e2 , , en ),


(Uei, Uej) = ij , , Ue1, Ue2 , , Uen .
, : U , ,
e1, e2, , en ()
Ue1, Ue2, , Uen.
( ) . n- , : (Ux, Uy) = (x, y), x = in= 1 xi ei ; y = jn= 1 yj ej . !
# .2.
H , H = H, . . hik = hik .
H ,
(Hx, y) = (x, Hy).
.
. .
. H
. - x 0, Hx = x, , , xH = !
x, H = H. x
x, , xx = !
xx. x 0, x x > 0, = !
. !
# .3. . .
. R S G. (R) (S) . , . H
H (R) (R),

(1)

. H
, ,
, . H
H' ( ) U:
H' = U HU.

(2)

190

H' (2),
(R) :
H' = U (R)UU (R)U = '(R) ' (R),
R

(3)

UU = U U = E ; H' = (H' 1/2)2.


(3), H' 1/2. , '(R), :
1/ 2
1 2
''(R) = H' / '(R) H' .

(4)

, ''(R) :
1 2
1 2
''(R) '' (R) = ''(R) E '' (R) = ''(R) H' / H' H' / '' (R) =
1/ 2
1/ 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
= [H' / '(R) H' ] H' / '(S) ' (S) H' / [H' ' (R)H' / ] =
S

= H'

1/2

'(R) '(S) ' (S) ' (R) H'

1/2

(5)

(3) ' (S) ' (R) = ' (RS) .


'(R) '(S) = '(T), R, S T = RS .
(5) T '(T) ' (T). (3)
H', (5) :
1 2
1 2
''(R) '' (R) = H' / H' H' / = E.

(6)

(R) ''(R) U' = H' 1/2U , R .


, ,
. , .
.
G V. V. {e1, , en} V
n

v, w = vi wi,
i=1

v, w V, . v, w, , , . ., , Qv, Qw v, w; Q G.
:

1
(v, w) = g

191

Qv, Qw.
QG

, , , . .,
. ,
P G :
1
(Pv, Pw) = g

QPv, QPw = g Sv, Sw = (v, w),

QG

SG

S = QP .
, v 0

1
(v, v) = g

Qv, Qv > 0.
QG

(v,w) = (v,w), , C, . !
# .4. . , ,
X Y XY,
(x, y) x X y Y. , R2
R. X Y
(, , , ), , XY. , . ,
. .
V W , V W. {ei} V {f} V V W {(ei, 0), (0, f)},
. , , V W.
ei f . , C C,
, . , Mn Mm A 0
Mn + m , A Mn B Mm ; Mn
0 B
nn (. ). !
# .5.
a = (ax, ay, az) b = (bx, by, bz) :

192

bx
(a, b) = ab = (ax, ay, az) by = axbx + ayby + azbz .
bz
a = (ax, ay, az) b = (bx, by, bz)
i j k ay az ax az ax ay
: [a, b] = ab = ax ay az = i
j
+ k
,
by bz
bx bz
bx by
bx by bz
1
0
0
i = 0 , j = 1 , k = 0 , 0
0
1
.
c = (cx, cy, cz) a = (ax, ay, az) b = (bx, by, bz) cx cy cz ax ay az bx by bz
: (c,[a, b]) = ax ay az = bx by bz = cx cy cz . !
bx by bz cx cy cz ax ay az
# .6. . ,
, n- -
a1
b1
n
a2
b2
, b=
, c = (a, b) = !
a b = a i b i,
a=
M
M
i=1
an
bn
!
a - a.
a b ( b
). ,
xy,

c=
f (x, y) g(x, y) dx dy.

, , () n- a b, nn C
a1b1 a1b2 a1bn
a2b1 a2b2 a2bn
.
C = ab =
M
anb1 anb2 anbn

193

C 1 ( ). ,
a b
(). , 2n
n2 .

h(x, y) = f (x) g(y),
. . . !
# .7. T
A B. Ai Bj , Tij = AiBj . A = (Ax, Ay, Az) A = (Ax', Ay',
Az'), A = UA, B = UB, U ~
, . . U = (U) 1. Tij = k, l Uik Ak Ujl Bl = k, l Uik Ujl Tkl; T = UTU 1. !
# .8.
() . , . T {e1, , en} {e1', , en'} =
= T{e1, , en}.
ej' = Tij ei ,
i

Tij i- ej'
.
(e1', , en') = (e1, , en)T,
T T Tij .
x
x = xi ei = xj' ej' = xj' Tij ei .
i


x1
x1'
x1'
x = (e1, , en) M = (e1', , en') M = (e1, , en)T M .
xn
xn'
xn'
,
x1 x1'
x1' 1 x1
M = T M , M = T M .
xn xn'
xn'
xn

194

A, A e1, , en A' e1', , en'. A


A ( ) :
A' = T 1 AT; A = TA' T 1.
, A x y :
y1 x1 y1'
x1'
y = Ax, M = A M , M = A' M ,
yn xn yn'
xn'
T
T :
x1 x1' y1 y1'
M = T M , M = T M .
xn xn' yn yn'
, ().
, . !
# .9.
z P(x, y, z) {x', y', z'} ,
y
P(x, y, z)
y'
x' = x cos + y sin ,
x'
(1)
y' = x sin + y cos ,

z' = z.
x
z O
, (1) , , ,
+.
,
cos sin 0
(2)
Rz() = sin cos 0 ,
0
0 1
(1)

x'
x
y' = Rz() y .
z'
z

(3)

195

(3) ,
Rz() ,
.
Iz ,
Rz() :
Rz() = E + Iz + .

(4)

:
f () ( = 0) ,
f () . :

(5)
f () + .
f () = f (0) +

= 0
(4) (5) ,
Rz()
0 1 0

= 1 0 0 = Iz .
(6)
Rz()

= 0
0 0 0
Iz (2)
sin cos 0
Iz Rz() = cos sin 0
Rz().

0
0
0
, E + /. x y,
x' y'

L
=
+
=y x = z,
Iz =

x' y' = 0
x
y ih
Lz = ih[r,]z
( ) z.
,
x y,
Rx Ry . :

0
Ix = 0
0

0 0
0 1
1 0

0
Iy = 0
1

0 1
0 0
0 0

Ix, Iy, Iz :
[Iz, Ix] = Iz Ix Ix Iz = Iy , [Ix, Iy] = Iz , [Iy, Iz] = Ix .

(7)

(5) f () Rz(),

196

Rz() = Rz(0) +

Rz() + = E + Iz + .

= 0

(8)

(6) , , = 0,
1 0
(9)
Rz() 1 0 .
0 0 1
{x, y, z}
{x', y', z'}, x' = x + y , y' = x + y, z' = z.
0, sin cos 1, (9) (2). (8) (9) , . ,
z x
( ):
(E + Iz ) (E + Ix ) = E + (Iz + Ix) = (E + Ix ) (E + Iz ).

(10)

, (10),
,
- (7) (
). !
# .10.
, Rz(), f (x,y) :
Rz() f (x, y) = f (x', y'),
x' cos sin x
=
. , < 0 Rz()
y' sin cos y
||. !
# .11. - r r = [, r],
. f (r)
f (r + r) = f (r) + (r,f (r)) = {1 +
+ (, [r,])} f (r), . !
# .12. T(a) , x.
:
T(a) f (x) = f (x a). !




C2 , z , xp, yp, zp
OP xp, yp, zp, xp = xp, yp = yp; . . .1, a.
C2 OA . .1, . OA ,
, O A. C2 , z, OA OA',
'''. , O,
''' - . OA' O A'. . .1 , 2- (C2) . , 3-, 4- 6-
.
z

P'
a)

A'

xp O
yp

xp

'
'

za

yp

zp

'

zp
y
x

ya
xa O
ya

xa

za
y

. .1. 2- , z,
(a) ()

. .2 xy
. OP (. .2, )
OP', xp, yp, z p. . .2,
''', , O, . ,
OA'' O A'', OA'' xa, ya, za.
. .3 ()
O . . .3, ,

198

z
a)

A''
)

za

zp
xp
x

ya
O
xa
ya

O
yp

xa

za
y
za

zp

'

'

' A'

P'

. .2. xy (a)
()

OP OP' xp, yp, z p = zp . . .3,


''', O
, ''' .
O A, .
x, y, z x', y', z',
P(xp, yp, zp) {xp', yp', zp'} ( A(xa, ya, za)
{xa', ya', za'}).
, C2 z, ( p) ( a) :
z
z
)

a)

P
yp
zp
x

P'

xp

xp
O
yp

ya

zp
za

y
x

'

xa

xa

za

O
ya

'
A' '

. .3. () ()
()

199

xp'
xp
yp' = Up yp ;
zp'
zp

xa'
xa
ya' = Ua ya ,
za'
za

1
Up = 0
0

0 0
1 0 0
Ua = 0 1 0 .
1 0 ;
0 0 1
0 1
, xy, :
1 0 0
1 0 0
Up = 0 1 0 ;
Ua = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1
0 0 1
() :
1 0 0
1 0 0
Up = 0 1 0 ;
Ua = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1
0 0 1
# .1. -
, ( 1).
A ( P) BC, B C, G : G(P) = B'C' G(A) = B'C', B' = G(B) C' = G(C).
: r -, v = dr/dt , J , E .
: , Rx , Ry , Rz
( ), L ( ), B .

B
J

B
J

. .4. E . B . .1 .3
J

(P) (A)
: [P, P'] = A; [A, A'] = A''; [A, P] = P'; [P, A] = P'. !



, , . , .
,
, H. |, , .
H V H
V , , V. V (
), (V ) = V. H V V , . . | H | = |1 + |2 , |1 V
|2 V . P, |
|1 , V = P(H). Q 1 P V = Q(H) | |2 .
- , | | (
bracket ). - - ,
: | , | | , | | .

P P | | ,
| = 1. P - | u ,
P|u = ||u,

(1)

. . | .
(1), u
(. . .1). u
, (, ) = ||2 = 1, |u|cos,
(, u) = |u|cos. , (, u) = (, u) u .
,

201

P 2 = P,

(2)

. . . u
, P = P.

, P(H) Q(H) (, u)

, |P (1 P)| = 0 |, O

| H. P = P P, - . .1. ( u

P = (P P) = P P) P = P.
P
H
(1 P)(H) P(H). | u
| u = P | u + (1 P) | u .
Q Q 1 P P ,
Q P = PQ = 0.
, Q P = (1 P)P = P P 2 = 0.
| | , . . | = 0,

P P = P P = 0.
(2) , P :
0 1.
H0 = Q(H) H1 = P(H). ,
P , . . P = . ,
P , P 2 = P = 2 .
P 2 = P (P 2 P) = (2
) = 0, , 2 = 0. :
= 0, = 1.
() V H P
P(H) = V. P V. | 1 , | 2 , , | N V. P Nn = 1 Pn Pn | n n |
, | u , | 1 , , | N . Q = 1 P P
| u
, | 1 , , | N .



H2O
(. .1) C2v (. . .1). V e1x , e1y , ,
e3y , e3z , e1x x . .
z C2(z)
O

e1z
O

e2z
H
e2x

e1y
e3z

e1x

e2y

l 0.1

2 = 109.5

e3y

e3x

H
y

. .1. H2O
.1
C2v

C2v

2(z)

v(y, z)

v'(x, z)

E
2(z)
v(y, z)
v'(x, z)

E
v(y, z)
v'(x, z)

2(z)
E
v'(x, z)
v(y, z)

v(y, z)
v'(x, z)
E
2(z)

v'(x, z)
v(y, z)
2(z)
E

C2v

C2(z)

v(y, z)

v'(x, z)

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
2
3
4

A1
A2
B1
B2

2(z)

. .2
; . 3.7, 3.5. C2v l
: P = g R (R)R, g = 4 ; l = 1 ; R , (R) R. P(V) P

203

.2

e1x
e1y
e1z
e2x
e2y
e2z
e3x
e3y
e3z

C2v

C2(z)

v(y, z)

v'(x, z)

e1x
e1y
e1z
e2x
e2y
e2z
e3x
e3y
e3z

e1x
e1y
e1z
e3x
e3y
e3z
e2x
e2y
e2z

e1x
e1y
e1z
e2x
e2y
e2z
e3x
e3y
e3z

e1x
e1y
e1z
e3x
e3y
e3z
e2x
e2y
e2z

, .
P , = 1, 2, 3, 4, H2O.
1
1) P1 = (1E + 1C2(z) + 1v(y, z) + 1v'(x, z));
4
1
1
P1e1x = (e1x e1x e1x + e1x) = 0, P1e1y = (e1y + e1y e1y + e1y) = 0,
4
4
1
1
P1e1z = (e1z + e1z + e1z + e1z) = e1z, P1e2x = (e2x e3x e2x + e3x) = 0,
4
4
1
1
P1e2y = (e2y e3y + e2y e3y) = (e2y e3y),
4
2
1
1
P1e2z = (e2z + e3z + e2z + e3z) = (e2z + e3z),
4
2
1
P1e3x = (e3x e2x e3x + e2x) = 0,
4
1
1
P1e3y = (e3y e2y + e3y e2y) = (e3y e2y),
4
2
1
1
P1e3z = (e3z + e2z + e3z + e2z) = (e3z + e2z).
4
2
1
1
, e1z, (e2y e3y), (e2z + e3z) 2
2
1 (= A1).
P1(V) P1
(. . .1) :
q2
q3
q1e1z + (e2z + e3z) + (e3y e2y),
2
2
qs ; , qs , ; s = 1, 2, 3.
. .2 H2O:

204

q& 22 q& 32
1
2
K = mO q& 1 + mH + ,
4
2
4
mO , mH .
q1
e1z
e1y
O
e3z
e
O
2z
q2/2
q2/2
e1x

H
H e3y
q3/2 H
H q3/2
e2y
e2x
e3x
. .2

W = W1 + W2 W1 W2
. . .2 :

2
q2
q3
q3
2 q 2
W1 = 1 q1 cos cos + sin , W2 = 2 q1 sin + cos ,
2
2
2 2
2

1 O H; 2 H O H; (1 2). W K

(K W)
W
d (K W)
d K

=
+
= 0.
dt q& s
dt q& s
qs
qs
qs = as exp(it), as , qs s = 1, 2, 3,
. () D = 0 :

2 cos + 4 sin m cos 2 sinm 1( 2 )cossin


cos 2 sin 2 cos + sin 2 2 ( 2 )cossin = 0.
( 2 )cossin 1 ( 2 )cossin 1 ( sin + 2 cos ) m
2
2
2

D, 2 ( ):
21 2

2

2m
2m
= 0,
6 4 1 1 + H cos2 + 2 1 + H sin2 + 2
mO
mO
mO mH2
mH

mH
= mO + 2 mH H2O.
(a1, a2, a3).
12 = 0 a3 = 0 1 = 2/2, . ., . .1,
Tz z (. . .3).

205

O
H

. .3

, 22 32, :
1
2
2 1 2
2mH
2m
cos2 + 2 1 + H sin2 +
= 0.
1 +
mO
mO
mO m2H
mH

mH

4 2

2 , 3 :
mH

a1 = a2

mH
;
2 mO

a3 = a2

(1 22) sin cos


2

mO

1 sin + 2 2 cos

+ 1

mH 22,3

, 2 3 (. .4) ( H2O ; ):
O

. .4

1
2) P2 = (1 E + 1 C2(z) 1 v(y, z) 1 v'(x, z));
4
P2 e1x = P2 e1y = P2 e1z = P2 e2y = P2 e2z = P2 e3y = P2 e3z = 0,
1
1
P2 e2x = (e2x e3x + e2x e3x) = (e2x e3x),
4
2
1
1
P2 e3x = (e3x e2x + e3x e2x) = (e3x e2x).
4
2
, P2(V) P2 ,
q4(e2x e3x)/2. P2
Rz z, , HH (. .5). q& 24 q& 24 1
1
: W = 0, K = mH + = mH q& 24, . . q4 = a4 exp(i4t), 4 = 0.
2
4 4
4
O
H

H
. .5

206

1
(1 E + (1) C2(z) + 1 v(y, z) + (1) v' (x, z));
4
P3 e1x = P3 e1z = P3 e2x = P3 e3x = 0,
1
P3 e1y = (e1y + e1y + e1y + e1y) = e1y,
4
1
1
P3 e2y = (e2y + e3y + e2y + e3y) = (e2y + e3y),
4
2
1
1
P3 e2z = (e2z e3z + e2z e3z) = (e2z e3z),
4
2
1
1
P3 e3y = (e3y + e2y + e3y + e2y) = (e3y + e2y),
4
2
1
1
P3 e3z = (e3z e2z + e3z e2z) = (e3z e2z).
4
2
, P3(V) P3 () e1y,
(e2z e3z)/2, (e2y + e3y)/2, (. . .6):
q6
q7
q5 e1y + (e2z e3z) + (e2y + e3y).
2
2
3) P3 =

q6/2
H

q7/2

q5

q6/2

e1z
e2z

q7/2

e2x

e1x
H e
2y

e1y
e3x

e3z
H

e3y

. .6

:
1
m
2
2
2
32 q& 5 + q& 6 + q& 7 , m = mH, mO = 16mH = 32m;
2
2

2
q6
q7
q62
2 2
cos2 +
W = 1 q5 sin cos sin = 1 q5 sin +
2
2
4

2
q7
q6 q7

+
sin2 q5 q7 sin2 q5 q6 sin cos +
sin cos .
4
2

K=

K W
qs = as exp(it), s = 5, 6, 7.
as :

2 sin 32 m
sin cos
D() =
sin

1 sin cos
1
1 cos2 m2
2
1
sin cos
2 1

1
sin cos
2
= 0,
1
sin m
2

1 sin2
1

207


1
1
1

(2 1 sin2 32 m 2) 1 cos2 m2 1 sin2 m2 12 sin2 cos2 +


4
2
2

1
1

+ 1 sin cos 1 sin cos 1 sin2 m2 + 12 sin3 cos

2
2

1 2
1
1 sin2 1 sin2 cos2 + 1 sin2 1 cos2 m2 = 0.
2
2

:
D() = 16m6 1 4 (8 + sin2 ) = 0;

1 1
sin2 .
45,6 = 0 16m72 1 (8 + sin2 ) = 0; 72 = 1 +
m 2 16

2 = 1/m, :

1
1 2
1 + sin .
2
8

= 7
a5 , a6 , a7 . ,
2. :
a
32 7 a5 2 7 a7 = 0,
a5 = 7 .
16
5 = 0, 6 = 0, 7 =

, cos, ,
2sin, :
a
32 7 a5 cos 2 7 a6 sin = 0,
a5 = 6 tg .
16
, 7 (. .7) .
O
H

. .7

5 = 6 = 0 . a5 , a6 , a7 :

a sin cos + a 1 cos m + a 1 sin cos = 0,


2
2

a sin + a 12 sin cos + a 12 sin m = 0.

a5 (2 1 sin2 32 m2) a6 1 sin cos a7 1 sin2 = 0,


5

208

2 = 0 :

a sin cos + 1 a cos + 1 a sin cos = 0,


2
2

a sin + 12 a sin cos + 12 a sin = 0.

2a5 1 sin2 a6 1 sin cos a7 1 sin2 = 0,


5 1

6 1

5 1

7 1

6 1

7 1

(, (2tg ), (2)):
2a5 1 sin2 a6 1 sin cos a7 1 sin2 = 0.
.
3.1) a5 = 0 ( ; . . .8)
a7 = a6 ctg . Rx H2O x ( ).
a6/2
1

a7/2

a7/2

a6/2

. .8

. .8 : tg 1 = a7/a6 = ctg , . . 1 + = 90.


1
3.2) a7 = 0 (. .9): a5 = a6 ctg , . . 2
Rx' , ( )
( ).
a5
a6/2

O
3

H
a6/2

. .9

. .9 : tg 2 =

a6
a6
; tg 3 =
, . . 2 = 3.
2l sin
2l sin

209

3.3) a6 = 0, (. .10): a5 = a7/2, . . Ty


y.
a5

O
H
a7/2

4) P4 =

a7/2
. .10

1
(1 E + (1) C2(z) + (1) v(y, z) + 1 v' (x, z));
4

1
(e + e + e + e ) = e1x,
4 1x 1x 1x 1x
P4 e1y = P4 e1z = P4 e2y = P4 e2z = P4 e3y = P4 e3z = 0,
1
1
P4 e2x = (e2x + e3x + e2x + e3x) = (e2x + e3x),
4
2
1
1
P4 e3x = (e3x + e2x + e3x + e2x) = (e3x + e2x).
4
2
, P4(V) P4 , () e1x , (e2x + e3x)/2,
:
q9
q8 e1x + (e2x + e3x).
2
P4 e1x =

q8 = q9, Tx x (. . .11), . . q8 =
= q9 = a8 exp(i8t), 8 = 0.
e1z
e1y
O
O
e3z
e2z
q8
e
1x
H
H
H e
H e3y
2y
q9/2
q9/2
e2x
e3x
. .11

q8 = q9, Ry y (. . .12); 9 = 0.
2 l cos
3

O
H

. .12

, P , = 1, 4, e1x, e1y, , e3y, e3z C2v . (. . .2.12) . .3.

210


.3

C2v


H2O

3A1

1 = 0

;
T R

: Tx

H
O

2 0

H
O

3 0

O
A2

3B1

4 = 0

: Rz

5 = 6 = 0

: Rx

H
O

: Rx'

H
O

H
1/2
12
21 /
1
7
7 = 7 =
m
mH

1
27 = 1 1 + sin2
mH
8

2B2

8 = 9 = 0

: Ty

H
O
H

O
H

H
O

: Tx

: Ry



(, ) . , , .
,

. ,
, ,
,
. ,
( ).
, . . .
.
13) , s
, 2s + 1 , . .
. ,
s = 1/2 (x, y, z; sz) :
+ (x, y, z)
,
(x, y, z)

(x, y, z; sz) =

(1)

+ ,
z; sz = +1/2 sz = 1/2 . (1)

(x, y, z; sz) = +(x, y, z) +(sz) + (x, y, z) (sz),

1
0
+(sz) = , (sz) = .
0
1
13)

(2)

S 2, J 2 L2 s(s + 1), j(j + 1) l(l + 1). s, l,


j h = h/2.

212

(2) : +(1/2) = 1, +(1/2) = 0, (1/2) = 1, (1/2) = 0.


S 2,
S 2 = s(s + 1),
s S 2.
j, l s, 2j + 1 jm , m = j, , 0, , +j .
(2j + 1)- . ,
. j ,
j (2j + 1)- .
, jm
j 2.

. ,
- r r = [, r], .
f (r)
f (r + r) = f (r) + (r,f (r)) = {1 + (, [r, ])} f (r),
. L = [r, p] = i[r, ],
1 + i(, L), L . ,
x, y, z .
(x, y, z; sz)
z sz.
(sz) ( (sz))
R (sz) = (sz) + (sz) = {1 + i Sz}(sz),
z- Sz S
z :
1
11 0
Sz = z =
.
2
2 0 1
0 i
0 1
( x =
, y =
x-
1 0
i 0
y- x y .)
Sz (sz) = sz (sz), R (sz) = (sz){1 + isz }.
(sz) , ,

213

R (sz) = (sz) exp(isz ),


1
(sz )2 .
2!
= 2,

exp(isz ) = 1 + isz

2s

R = exp(2isz) = (1) z = (1)2s ,


2sz , 2s.
, 2 ,
. ,
2 E . , j : ( 0 2)
.
, .
2. E, : 2 = E. Cn n-
n-, 2n- :
Cnn = , Cn2n = .
I , , , , : I 2 = E.
= IC2
2 = , 4 = E.
,
,
. . .


.
,
() ( , E), ( ,
1, . . ,
1). , .

214

, ,
G, G. .
, :
1. Cn ()
2/n, Cn C n , C n =
= Cn , .
2. 1.
(n = 2), C2 C 2
, , ,
C2', C2 . (
C2 C21.)
3. (Cn) = (C n). ( 2), (C2) = 0.
,
,
; .
,

. , ,
. , , .
J.
j ,

,
.

Dj (), (5) 4.9 . 4, :

1
sin j +
2

.
j () =
sin (/2)

j , j + 1/2

1
1
sin j + ( + 2) = sin j + .
2
2

215

sin (( + 2)/2) = sin (/2), j


:
j (2 + ) = j (); j (0) = j (2) = 2 j + 1.
, 2, j () = j (3) = 0.
j () = j (4 ).
, . : 4, 2. , 4 ,
.
() O , 48 8 ; E, 6C4 8C3 O
O . 48 = 24 + 42 + 22 + 22 (24 = 5 = 1 l2 = 1 +
+ 1 + 22 + 32 + 32 ), O , .
. .1
O ( . 4.4; 4.5).

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

A1
A2
E
T1
T2
E1/2
E5/2
G3/2

8C3

3C 42
3C42

1
1
2
3
3
2
2
4

1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1

1
1
2
1
1
0
0
0

6C 2d
6C2d

6C4

1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
1
1
2
2
0

8C 3

1
1
2
3
3
2
2
4

1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1

.1
6C 4

1
1
0
1
1
2
2
0

x, y, z

. .2 , (2 j + 1)-
O . , j 3/2 .
.2
j

1/2

3/2

5/2

7/2

9/2

11/2

7 + 8

6 + 7 + 8

6 + 28

6 + 7 + 28

#.1. -
SO(3); . .
En ( ) -

216

Dl
SO(3) .
O(4), ,
En = (Ze2/40h)2(m0/2n2) ,
Dl l = 0, 1, 2, , n 1,
n , Ze , m0 .
l , m, SO(2), . !
# .2. H = H0 D1/2 ,
H0 , D1/2 , ( j = 1/2). H(n) n
Hn n , H. S(n) Hn, . , Hn S(n). ,
q, . ,
v P S(n) P(v) = q(P)v, q(P) P. , n ( , )
Hn. !
# .3. G . , G ( G) : G G, Z2 . Ker , . . E G, {E, E } .
G 2g G = G E G. G G o, G.
' G G, L G '(L) '( E L).
G G G. , , , G = GZ2 .
G , SU(2) SO(3) (. ). !


1.* . ( .)
2.* .
3.* A n G k
2, n 1 {2, 3, , n 1}. Ak.
4. g = 13.
5. , n 3 S(n) .
6.*
G F G = {E, A, B, C, } F = {E, X, Y, Z, }.
7. G F g f .
GF.
8.* , G{E} {E}F GF.
9.* A m G B n
F. (A, B) GF.
10. g G = {G1 = E, G2, , Gg} . .
11.
?
12. ,
.
13.* CiCj ?
14. D4 , . .
15. Y.
Y.
16. E B ,
. E B ? . , E , , .
17. C2v
H2O. C2v .
18. NH3 C3v .
.
19. . , , . .
OA , ,
*

(. ).

218

, O A.
20.*
G = {E, X, , X g 1} g.
21.* .
22.* 6- .
23. D3 , , , .
24.
reg?
25. Ga G ()
ij (Ga) = f () .
26. 3 3 D3 1, 2 , 3 .
27. O,
2/3.
28. O. , ) ,
; ) ?
29. O O.
D3. , .
30. , x, y z T1 O (. 4.7). ,
p- , .
31. C4v (. 4.7). ()
i , i = 1, , 5 C4v . (
) ,
: ) C4(z), )
? (
C4(z),
z.)

1. , 4, 1, 2, 4. 1 E. 1) -

219

, , . 2) ,
, . ,
: {X, X 2, X 3, X 4 = E} {X, X 2 = E}{X, X 2 = E}.
2. A B. E, A, B, B2. , AB, AB2, BA, B2A . . 1) AB = AB2, , A, B = B2,
B2 = E. . 2) AB = BA, AB . , .
3) AB = B2A, , B, AB2 = B2AB = B4A =
= BA. . {E, A, B, B2, AB = B2A, AB2 = BA}
C(DF) = (CD)F 63 .
, E , D, F C, D
{E, A} {E, B, B2}. ,
.
3. n k d. , n = dn' k = dk'. Ak n'. , (Ak)n' = Ad k' n' = (An)k' = E. ,
A, E. , (Ak)r = E. kr n, kr = nr' dk'r = dn'r'. , n' r.
6. GF G F. , (A, X)((B, Y)(C, Z)) = (A(BC),
X(YZ)). (E, E). (A, B)
(A1, B1).
8. G{E}
GF: (B, X)(A, E)(B, X )1 = (BAB1, E) G{E}.
9. m n d. , m = dm' n = dn'. (A, B) nm' = n'm,
. . m n. , (A, B)n m' = (A,
B)d n' m' = (Ad n' m', Bd n' m') = (E, E), .
13. CiCj 1 0. , ni Gi
ni . . , G 1(CiCj )G = G 1Ci GG 1Cj G = CiCj
G 1( ni Gi)G = ni G 1GiG.
20. ,
. , g . G
. (X) = C,

220

(X k) = k. , (X g) = (E) = 1, g = 1.
g 1 G.
21. G = {E, X, , X g 1} , , g . () g : = exp 2i gk, k = 0, 1, , g 1.

, g , e = gk gj =01 jX j, , , . ,
X,
, Xe = e . e ; .
22. (. 2).
(. 20).
G = {E, A, B, B2, AB = B2A, AB2 = BA} {E},
{A, BA, B2A}, {B, B2}. , H = {E, B, B2} .
- G/H {E, A}
A a 1 G. 6 = 12 + 12 + 22.
.
{E, A} . {e1, e2}
1 0
a b
(A) =
; (B) =
.
c d
0 1
a b
e2 ce2 , (B) =
.
1 d
a2 + b b(a + d)
a2 + b b(a + d)
a b
2
(B2) =
=
,
(AB)
=
,
(B
A)

2
2 .
1 d
a+d b+d
a + d b d
(AB) = (B2A) :
a = a2 + b; b = b(a + d); 1 = a + d; d = b d 2.
d = (1 + a). d,
a = 1/2. b = 3/4. , :
1/2 3/4
1 0
.
(A) =
; (B) =
0 1
1/2
1

1. .
. .: , 1977. 384 .
2. . . . .: , 1969. 408 .
3. . . .
.: . ., 1979. 208 .
4. . ., . . ( ). .:
, 1989. 768 .; . .: , 2001. . 1. 616 .
5. . . . .: , 1986. 224 .
6. ., . . .: , 1970. 424 .
7. . ., . . . .: , 2000. 280 .
8. . . . .: ,
1983. 400 .; . . .: , 1985. 472 .
9. . . .:
, 1966. 588 .
10. . . .: , 1963. 523 .
11. . . .: , 1968. 384 .
12. ., . : 2 . .: , 1983. . 1.
368 .; . 2. 416 .

1. . . . .: , 1976. 208 .
2. . . ( ). .: - , 2002. 192 .
3. . . . .: , 1978. 615 .
4. . . . .: ,
1981. 451 .
5. . ., . . .
.: , 1980. 136 .
6. . . .: , 1968. 152 .
7. . . .: , 1971. 320 .
8. . ., . . . .: ,
2001. 528 .
9. . . . .: , 2000. 40 .
10. . ., . ., . . . .: , 1990. 144 .
11. . . . :
, 2001. 117 .
12. . . .: ,
1965. 222 .
13. ., .-. . .:
, 1973. 439 .
14. . : 2 . .:
. . 1. 1982. 488 .; . 2. 1984. 382 .
15. / . . , . . .: , 1980. 271 .
16. . . .: , 1971. 262 .





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