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Chapter 9

Rome was built on a group of 7 hills along the Tibet River Steep hills helped protect the city against enemy attacks by land Also far enough inland to escape sea attacks Area offered fertile soil for farming Location was ideal for trade and communication with others

North of Rome Urban culture Traded with Greek colonies, and adapted the Greek alphabet Formed independent city-states
Each was governed by a King
Were elected, not given

United as a confederation

Group of governments joined together for a common purpose Allowed them to build a strong army

Romans rebelled against the Etruscans and formed new government Kept some features of Etruscans, such as electing leaders. Called the Republic
Citizens elect leaders to represent them in an assembly
Assembly makes laws and runs the government

Two elected leaders called consuls headed the republic and led the army
Shared power, but either could veto (Reject) the actions of the other Meant no one person could have too much authority Served for ONE year

In an emergency, the assembly could name a dictator to serve for 6 months

Ruler with absolute authority

Most powerful governing body in Rome Served for life Declared wars, made peace treaties, formed alliances Passed decrees (official orders), handled money Only patricians could serve
Wealthy descendants of Romes early settlers

All other Roman citizens (Common people) Craftworkers, farmers, foot soldiers, merchants Set up assembly and elected leaders called tribunes

Position in society based on family wealth and history Upper class enjoyed the best Rome had to offer
Important government officials Lived in large beautiful country homes

Lower class
Lived in apartment style homes

Slaves at bottom
Not citizens, and not protected under laws

Men were heads of household, though women had say in the decisions

As Rome grew, a rivalry with Carthage developed Fought for 3 years with Carthage for control of trade in the Mediterranean Sea First Punic War Second Punic War
Lasted 23 years, Rome conquered land 17 years, Rome won Wealthy Phoenician citystate in northern Africa

Third Punic War

3 years, Rome destroyed Carthage and enslaved the people

Julius Caesar
Gained control of Rome and conquered new land Became popular with citizens of Rome and his soldiers Became dictator of Rome for ten years
Helped the poor Created new jobs and gave citizenship to more people

Senators feared he was becoming too popular

Small group stabbed Caesar at a meeting Led to Civil war and unrest

Mark Antony
Romes new leader Hoped to carry out Caesars plans

Since Caesar had no son, people believed that Octavian should be leader
Caesars adopted great-nephew

Octavian, Caesar & Lepidus

Triumvirate Group of 3 leaders who share power

Caesar conquered Egypt and formed an alliance with Cleopatra Antony met with Cleopatra and formed a new alliance against Octavian Octavian defeated Antony & Cleopatra
Became the unchallenged ruler of Rome Given the title Augustus
Respected One or Holy One

Romes first Emperor

First to take a census

Count of a countrys people Helped make sure that Roman citizens paid taxes or gave military service they owed

Military made up of those who owned land

Believed that they would fight harder for Rome Well trained; Most successful in history

50,000 miles of roadways

Led to cultural diffusion (spread of ideas)

Rome was the capital of the Roman Empire Empires largest city, more than 4 million people Basilicas
Huge government buildings in the citys center

Public place where people could meet for business or recreation

Much like the Ancient Greeks Arches like the Etruscans Domes

Greek style columns


Temple of all the gods

Built by Vespasian Arena for sporting events Romans watched gladiator battles

Slaver or prisoner who often fought to death

Built aqueducts
System of bridges and canals used to carry water to a city

Ideas of Aristotle, Plato & Socrates spread to Rome Artists and writers brought out feelings of patriotism
Love of ones country

Written by Virgil Story about the legendary Trojan hero Aeneas, who escapes during the last hours of the Trojan War Stirred the patriotic feelings of Romans everywhere Was used as a textbook in Roman schools

Horace and Ovid


Livy and Tacitus


Gave important speeches

Pliny the Younger

Wrote letters

Spoke & wrote Latin Used in government and education Latin alphabet from Etruscans

Worship of gods was an important part of Roman public and private life Romans believed that proper worship of the gods protected the empire from harm Christianity
Name given to the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Promised salvation for believers
Saving of the human soul from evil with a promise of life after death

Taught belief in one God and in the Ten Commandments Wherever Jesus taught, he gained new followers
Group of men who were his closest followers

One belief of Judaism is that a messiah will come to bring justice to the world
Person sent by god Some people believed that Jesus was the Messiah

Roman governor of Judaea

Pontius Pilate Feared that conflicts over Jesus would stir rebellion against Roman rule Ordered that Jesus be put to death by being nailed to a cross and left to die
Common form of execution

On the third day, followers believed Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to them

Growing number of people started to believe in life, death and resurrection Peter (leader) became an apostle
Became known as Christians Person sent out to teach others Another important apostle

Paul of Tarsus

Many Christians became martyrs after Romans began to persecute

Seek out/punish People willing to die for their beliefs

Many of the writings by Paul to members of the communities now appear in the Christian Bible Gospels
Describe the life, death and resurrection of Jesus

Formed the New Testament

Old Testament contains the books of Hebrew Bible

Persecution of Christians stopped when Constantine became the new Roman Emperor Believed that the God of the Christians was powerful Issued the Edict of Milan

Christianity became the official religion of Rome under emperor Theodosius Churches came together under single leader called bishop The bishop of Rome became known as the pope
Leader of all bishops

Made Christianity an accepted religion in the Roman Empire