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- ( )

05.13.18
,

:
. .-. ., . . .

2005

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.1. . . . . . . . . .

0.2. . . . .

10

0.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

0.2.2. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . .

12

0.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

0.2.4. . . . . . . . .

14

1. . . . . . .

18

1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.3. . . . . . .

22

1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

1.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

1.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

1.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.4.5. , , 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

1.7. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

1.8. . . . . . . . . . .

42

1.8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

1.8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

1.8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

1.8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

1.8.5. . . . . .

52

1.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

1.9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

1.9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

1.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

1.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

1.12.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

58

2. . . . .

61

2.1. . . . . . . . . . . .

63

2.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

2.1.2.

65

2.2. . .

68

2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

2.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.6. . . . . . . . . . . .

85

2.7. . . . . . . . .

89

2.7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

2.7.2.

92

2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

3.

. 103

3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.1.2. . . . . . . . 106
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.3. . . . . . . . . . 110
3.4. . . . . . . . . 113
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.1. . . . . . . . . . 122
4.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.4. . . . . . . . 132
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.6. . . . . . . . . . 138
4.7. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.7.1. . . 147
5. . . . . 149
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.3.

160

6. 167
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
6.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
6.4. . . . . . . . . 176
6.5. . . . . . . . 177
6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

6.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
6.7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
6.7.2. . . . . . . 183
6.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
6.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.

198

7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
8.

209

8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.2. . . . . 214
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
8.3.1. . . . . . . . 219
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
8.4.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243



[15],
, , , .
,

- , . ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, , .
,
.
,
6

. , -, , .
,
(
, ..), . , ,
,

.
-
[5, 6].

0.1.

. .
.
. (mesh)
, ( ).
, , , . ,
(, , ).
(stencil)

(
),
.
(nite-dierence method)

, ( ) , . Uijn ( ),
(xi , yj ) tn :
Uijn u(xi , yj , tn ).
(nite-volume method), ,
u
 yj+1/2  xi+1/2
n
u(x, y, tn )dxdy.
Uij
yj1/2

xi1/2

, , . , , u
. , .
- , , .
, , , Uijn
.
, .

. 1. ()
(), .

, , (. 1)
.
(nite element method), , , [79], [10].
,
. -
.

,
(spectral volume method) [11] (spectral element
method) [12] . , , - .
[13] (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) [1416], [17] ,
.
- (grid-characteristic method) [18
34], , -
, -

10

, . , , , .
, .

0.2.

:
,

() .

.
0.2.1.

. 2. .

11

( (cartesian grid) ,
(. 2).

,
, . , .

. 3. . - , .

.
: ,
, (. 3).
- , [6], .
-
, -
.
, .
, ,

12



. ,
.
0.2.2.

(grid) ,
(
),

.

. 4. .

[35, 36], (body-tted grid), ,


.
. . 4
.
, .
, ,

13

.
[6]
.
:
,
,
, .

. 5. , .

. 5 ,
, , , ,
. ,
, . - , . , , ,
, .

0.2.3.

14

. -
. ,
,
, . , ,
. ,
.

. 6. .

(. 6) , (-) . .
0.2.4.

, , . , .
-.

15

.
[5]:
. ,
[19]. .
.
.
, , ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
. , , , ,
,
.
, .
. [37, 38].

16

, , . ,
.
.
- [19]. ,
, x- , y- .
- [39].
.
. [40]
.
. [13,17].
: , ,
.
[41].
(
) ,
[17].

17

(), [42].
,
.
, . , ,
, , .
, .

1


,
,
. , (,
) [43].
-
,
.
[19].

, .

18

1.

1.1.

19


, [5]

- . , :
T

v = T .
, v
, , T .
[5] T .
T

( T )k = (T )k = ( T)k =

i Tki ,

i . , (i, j, k, l, . . . ) 1,2,3. (T )
, T,
.

1
e = ( u + u ),
2
 + u), u (x = X
: (a b)ij = ai bj . (u )
u, :
( u + u )ij = i uj + j ui .
( ,
u .)

1.

20

( ):
T = (e : I)I + 2e,

(1.1)

, , (
), I
, : 1 ():

a : b = ij aij bij .

.
v = T,
= ( v )I + ( v + v ).
T

1.2.

(1.2)

,
(
)
(x1 , x2 , x3 ).
(1 , 2 , 3 ), .
, ( ) ,
r,i , r+,i :
r+,i r,i
i =
.
2
1

1.

21

u,
, i :
u+,i u,i
u
.

i
2
O(i 2 ) , r,i r+,i , O(i ) .
u ,


(x1 , x2 , x3 ) 
= 1 2 3 ,
(1 , 2 , 3 )

(1 , 2 , 3 )
=
(x1 , x2 , x3 )

(x1 , x2 , x3 )
(1 , 2 , 3 )

1


T

q
1

T
= q2 ,

T
q3

qi j = ij .

j
.
x
(q1 , q2 , q3 ) (1 , 2 , 3 ):
qj

q1 =

[2 , 3 ]
,



(1 , 2 , 3 )

q2 =

[3 , 1 ]
,



(1 , 2 , 3 )

q3 =

[1 , 2 ]
,



(1 , 2 , 3 )

,
.
c
qj (nj,0 , nj,1 , nj,2 ), nj,0 qj :

qj
, lj = qj ,
qj 
.

nj,0 =
nj,1 , nj,2

j, nj,0 0,
.
(1.2) ,
. , .

1.

22

= {1 , 2 , 3 } =

,
x

i =

.
xi

:
 j
,
i =
x

i
j
j

1.3.


.
= {1 , 2 , 3 } =
x 

(1.3)


u +

Aj

u
= 0,
j

(1.4)

u , (1.2)

u = {v , T} = {v1 , v2 , v3 , t11 , t12 , t13 , t22 , t23 , t33 } .


Aj , (1.3) , j :
=

j ,

j =

= qj
= lj nj
.
x j
j
j

j

lj nj

(1.5)

(1.2)
:

1
nj T)
v
(
.
Aj = lj
(nj v )I + (nj v + v nj )
T

(1.6)

Aj , .

1.

23

, , ,
, Aj .

, ,
, , .

1.4.

c u = {v , T} Aj :
Au = cu

(1.7)

( j ).
,
.
, A
{ci } {ui } ( , ), :
= diag{ci }
, A,
1 = {ui }
, ,
, . ,

1.

24

, ,
. ,
1 A

A1 = 1 .
:
A = 1 ,
:
A = .
,
A , ,
T

A . (1.7):
T

A u = cu.

(1.8)

,
, :
1 = I.
: ,
1 I.
1.4.1.

(1.7) (1.6)
v T,
n T = l1 cv ,
1

(n v )I + (n v + v n) = l cT.

(1.9)

1.

25


(n v )n + n (n v + v n) = l2 c2 v

n (n v + v n) = (n v )n + v

( + )(n v )n = (l2 c2 )v .
.
1. v n , c2 = l2 +2
.
(
)


+ 2

c1 =

(1.10)


c = lc1 ,

v = n,

T = (I + 2n n),
c1

.
2. v n v = 0. . ,
: c2 = l2 .
( )


(1.11)
c2 =


c = lc2 ,

n v = 0,

T = (n v + v n).
c2

n v = 0 , ,

1.

26

{v , T}, , .
3. ,
. (1.9)
:
c = 0,

v = 0,

n T = 0.

(1.12)

n T = 0 ,
, T , , .
(1) 2 , (2) 4 3 (3). , 9
: .
1.4.2.

Aj (1.6)
T

u1 Aj u = u Aj u1 .
:


v1
v
1
Aj = lv (nj T1 ) + lT : [(nj v1 )I + (nj v1 + v1 nj )] =

T1
T
1
= lT1 : (v nj + nj v ) + lv1 [(T : I)nj + 2nj T] .
2

v
(T : I)nj + 2nj T
T
.
(1.13)
Aj = lj
1
T
v nj + nj v )
2 (
(1.8), v T
.

1.

27

, :
c = lc1 ,
c = lc2 ,
c = 0,

v = n,

n v = 0,
v = 0,

T=

T=

n n;
c1

1
(n v + v n);
2c2

(T : I)n + 2n T = 0.

(1.14)


, , ,
.
Nij = Nji
1
Nij = (ni nj + nj ni ). (i, j = 0, 1, 2)
2
Nij
:
i j, k l :

Nij : Nkl = ik jl

1 + ij
.
2

, , ,

a a : I = a2 ,

a b : a b = a2 b2 ,

a b : b a = (a b)2 ,

a a : a b = a a : b a = a2a b,
a b.
, Nij nk :
i, j, k :

1
Nij nk = ((nj nk )ni + (ni nk )nj ).
2

N11 , N12 , N22 , n , ,


.

1.

28

Nij
T
i, j :

Nij : T = ni T nj ,

(1.15)


i, j :

Nij : I = ni nj = ij .

N00 + N11 + N22 = I.

(1.16)

v :
v = (n v )n + (n1 v )n1 + (n2 v )n2 ,

(1.17)


1
(n v + v n) = (n v )N00 + (n1 v )N01 + (n2 v )N02 .
2

(1.18)

N00 , N01 , N02 , N12 , N11 N22 , N11 + N22


, (N = N : N), ,
T
T =(N00 : T)N00 + 2(N01 : T)N01 + 2(N02 : T)N02 + 2(N12 : T)N12 +
1
1
+ ((N11 N22 ) : T)(N11 N22 ) + ((N11 + N22 ) : T)(N11 + N22 ).
2
2
(1.19)
(1.17) T n
T n = (n T n)n + (n1 T n)n1 + (n2 T n)n2 =
= (N00 : T)n + (N01 : T)n1 + (N02 : T)n2 .

(1.20)

(1.18) T n
1
((T n) n + n (T n)) = (T : N00 )N00 + (T : N01 )N01 + (T : N02 )N02 .
2
(1.21)

1.

1.4.3.

29

{vd , Td },
1 , {vc , Tc },
,
( ):
vd vc + Td : Tc = 1.
, .

c = lc1 ,

vc = n,

Tc =

1
N00 ,
c1

vd = n,

Td = (I + 2N00 ),
c1


, =

l2
1+l2 .


c = lc2 ,

vc = nk ,

Tc =

1
N0k ,
c2

vd = nk ,

Td =

2
N0k ,
c2

(k = 1, 2) .
1.4.4.

{0, Tc,i },
Tc,1 = N12 ,

Tc,2 = N11 N22 ,

Tc,3 = N11 + N22

2
N00 ,
+ 2

(1.14).
, (1.12),
:
Td,1 = 2N12 ,

1
Td,2 = (N11 N22 ),
2

1
Td,3 = (N11 + N22 ).
2

,
i, j :

Tc,i : Td,j = ij .

1.

1.4.5.

30

, , 1

, , A:
= l diag{c1 , c1 , c2 , c2 , c2 , c2 , 0, 0, 0},

w1
n v c11 N00 : T

n v + c11 N00 : T
2

n1 v c21 N01 : T


3

w

n1 v + c21 N01 : T
4

v
w = =
n2 v c21 N02 : T
5

T
w6

n2 v + c21 N02 : T


w7

N12 : T

w8

(N11 N22 ) : T

(N11 + N22

w9

2
+2 N00 )

(1.22)

(1.23)

:T

, (1.7) 1 , T

 : w
 1 , : 1 w,
.
 u =
u = 1 w,
w.
 (1.23)
n v =

w 1 + w2
,
2

n1 v =

w 3 + w4
,
2

n2 v =

w 5 + w6
.
2

(1.17),
v =

w 5 + w6
w3 + w 4
w 1 + w2
n +
n1 +
n2 .
2
2
2

:
N00 : T = c1

w 2 w1
,
2

N01 : T = c2

w4 w 3
,
2

N02 : T = c2

w 6 w5
.
2


N12 : T = w7 ,

(N11 N22 ) : T = w8 ,

(N11 +N22 ) : T = w9 +

c1
(w2 w1 ).
+ 2

1.

31

(1.19) N11 + N22 (1.16):

(w1 + w2 )n + (w3 + w4 )n1 + (w5 + w6 )n2


(w

w
)[(c

c
)N
+
c
I]+
v
1
2
1
1
3
00
3
.
= 1 w
=

2
+2c2 (w4 w3 )N01 + 2c2 (w6 w5 )N02 +
T

+4w7 N12 + w8 (N11 N22 ) + w9 (I N00 )

(1.24)


1 . ,
:

 ,i 1ei ,
, , (1.24) wj = ij .
1 :

n1
n
n
n1
1
1 =
2 [(c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I] [(c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I] 2c2 N01 2c2 N01

n2
n2
0
0
0
.
2c2 N02 2c2 N02 4N12 N11 N22 I N00
(1.25)

1.5.


(1.4) , -

,

u
= 0.
u + Aj
j

(1.26)

f :
un+1 = fj (Aj )un .

1.

32


f , , : f .
, ,
:
j < jmax =

1
cmax
j

1
,
c1 lj

cmax
Aj , c1 j
(1.10). ,
j .
, (1.26),
(1.4), . ( ) ,
.

(un+1 = F (A1 , A2 , A3 )un )



1
j fj
Aj
F (A1 , A2 , A3 ) =

j
j

j = 1,

(1.27)

j > 0

,
(fj ) . {j }
cmax
cmax
cmax
1
= 2 = 3 ,
1
2
3

cmax
i
.
i = max
c1 + cmax
+ cmax
2
3

1.

< max =




1
cmax
j


=

c1

33

1
lj

(1.28)

, , ,
.
fj (Aj ) , , , ,
(1.27) :
F (A1 , A2 , A3 ) =

fj (Aj ).

{j } , .

,
,
1 
fi (Ai )fj (Aj )fk (Ak ),
F (A1 , A2 , A3 ) =
6

(1.29)

i=j=k=i

(1,2,3).
fj ( j ):

1 
1
max
max
<
= max{cj }
= c1 max lj
.
j

(1.29) (1.27) .
(1.29).

1.

34

3! 3 = 18 f u :
u := f3un , u := f2u , un+1 := f1u .
u := f3un , u := f1u , un+1 := un+1 + f2u .
...
u := f1un , u := f3u , un+1 := un+1 + f2u .
u := f1un , u := f2u , un+1 := 16 (un+1 + f3u ).
f 15
u :
u := f3un , u := f2u , un+1 := f1u ,
u := f1u , un+1 := un+1 + f2u .
...
u := f1un , u := f3u , un+1 := un+1 + f2u ,
u := f2u , un+1 := 16 (un+1 + f3u ).
f (1.27).

, (1.29)
, ,
F (A1 , A2 , A3 ) = f3 (A3 )f2 (A2 )f1 (A1 ),

(1.30)

(1.29).
, (1.29).
(1.30):
u = f1un ,

u = f2u ,

un+1 = f3u ,

, (1.27),
, (un , u , u , un+1 ) .

1.

35


, , , .
, , [31], ,
(1.28).

1.6.

(1.26), j,
.
[44]

un+1 = un Aun + 2un ,

(1.31)

A (1.6),
1
un = (un+1 un1 ),
2

1
2un = (un+1 2un0 + un1 ).
2

[45]
:
un+1 = un +

dun 2 d2un
+ O( 3 ).
+
2
dt
2 dt

(1.26)

2
u
d2u
u
du
2 
=A
,
= A ,
2
dt

dt
2

 n

2 n
1


u

u
un+1 = un A
A
+ O( 3 ),

2 2

:
un+1 = un A(un A2un ).

(1.32)

1.

36

[46]

un+1 = un Aun + 1 ||2un ,

(1.33)

|| , .
(1.23) (1.24):


c1 (n v )n + c2 (n1 v )n1 + c2 (n2 v )n2


v

||
= l c1 (T : N00 )N00 + 2c2 ((T : N01 )N01 + (T : N02 )N02 )+ .

T
+c3 (T : N00 )(N11 + N22 )
n1 , n2 , (1.17) (1.15), (1.16),
(1.21) .


c2v + (c1 c2 )(n v )n


v

1
|| = l (T : N00 )[(c1 2c2 c3 )N00 + c3 I]+ .

T
+c2 [(T n) n + n (T n)]

un+1 = un 1 + un 1 +un ,

+un = un+1 un0 ,

un = un0 un1 ,

+ , ,
.
, ,
1 + + 1 = A,
1 + 1 = 1 || :

1.

1
(T

37

n)
c2v + (c1 c2 )(n v )n +

(
n


v
)I
+
(
v


n
+

n


v
)+

v
l
1

,

=

2
+(T : N00 )[(c1 2c2 c3 )N00 + c3 I]+
T

+c2 [(T n) n + n (T n)]

1
c2v + (c1 c2 )(n v )n (T n)

(
n


v
)I

(
v


n
+

n


v
)+

v
l
.
1 + =

2 +(T : N00 )[(c1 2c2 c3 )N00 + c3 I]+

+c2 [(T n) n + n (T n)]



,
:
un+1 = un Aun + 1 || 2un ,

(1.34)

|| || .
= 1 (1.33), = 2 (1.32). = 0 ,
(1.31): ||
I .
[47] , , . (1.34) = 0
. ,
1 (I ||0 )2un
, .
(0, 2) , - ,

1.

38


c2 v + (c1 c2 )(n v )n


v

||
= l (T : N00 )[(c1 2c2 +2 c1 )N00 + +2 c1 I]+ .

+c2 [(T n) n + n (T n)]


(1.35)
, = 2:
c21 =

+ 2
,

c22 =

c21 2c22

c21 = 0,
+ 2

(1.6):


2
+ ( + )(n v )n
v
v
l
= A2 .
1 ||2 =
(T : N00 )I + [(T n) n + n (T n)]
T
T
= 0:

v
v
.
1 ||0 =
T:N00
n) n + n (T n)]
T
+2 [2( + )N00 + I] + [(T 
(1.36)
4-
:
dun 2 d2un 3 d3un 4 d4un
+
+
+
+ O( 5 );
2
3
4
dt
2 dt
6 dt
24 dt
2
2
3
3
4
u
d u
d u
d4u
du
u
u
u
2 
3 
4 
= A ,
=A
,
= A
,
=A
;
2
2
3
3
4
dt

dt

dt

dt
4

 n
 3 n
 2 n
4 n
1


u

u

u

u
1
1
+ O( 3 );
= un A
A
A
A
2
3
4

2
6
24
un+1 = un +

un+1

un+1 = un A(un A(2un A(3un A4un ))).

(1.37)

1.

39

4- :
1
(2un+2 + 16un+1 16un1 + 2un2 ),
24
1
2un = (un+2 + 16un+1 30un0 + 16un1 un2 ),
24
1
3un = (2un+2 4un+1 + 4un1 2un2 ),
24
1
4un = (un+2 4un+1 + 6un0 4un1 + un2 ).
24
un =

1.7.

-
(1.26),

.. ,
:
u
= 0,
u + 1

(1.38)

- [22],
. ( ), .
, (1.38)
v
= 0. (v u)
v +

(. 1.1).
m n + 1, , . n
n+1
:
v m

vin+1 (m ) = vin (m i ).

1.

40

n+1
t

l>0

l=0

m-1

l<0

m+1

lt
. 1.1. - .

m , vin+1 = vin (i ).
, ().
- . [22] -
( ) ( )
.
, v , :
un+1 = 1v n+1 .
- .
.



 ,i

n+1
1 n
1 i
n
= vi (i ) =
 =

 i un (i )
u
 u (i ) =




 ,i
=
 i un (i ),
i

 ,i i- 1 . Xi =
 ,i
 i,

 i i- ,

1.

41


un+1 =

Xiun (i ).

(1.39)

,
:
X =
c

 ,i
 i.

i =c

I=

T

Xi ,

Xi = I

i =0

Xi ,

i =0

(1.39) :
un+1 = un +

Xi [un (i ) un ] .

(1.40)

i =0

,
- , ,
.

X , (1.25) (1.23):

v
n
1
1
=
N00 : T)
Xc1 = (n v
2
c

1
T
[(c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I]

1
(n v )n c1 (N00 : T)n
1
,
=
T:N
00
2 (n v )[(c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I] +
(I + 2N00 )
+2

1.

42

v
n1
1
1
+
N01 : T)
Xc2 = (n1 v
2
c

2
2c2 N01
T

n2
1
1
.
N02 : T)
+ (n2 v
2
c2
2c2 N02
n N00 , (1.17), (1.18), (1.20), (1.21).

1

v (n v )n c2 [T n (N00 : T)n]


v
1

c2
X
=
.
c2 [n v + v n 2(n v )N00 ]+
2

T
+(T n) n + n (T n) 2(T : N00 )N00
()
:


v
v
X = (Xc1 + Xc2 ) =
T
T

1
1 1
1
(1.41)
v c2 T n ( c2 c1 )(N00 : T)n

= (n v )[(c1 2c2 c3 )N00 + c3 I] c2 (n v + v n)+ .


2

T:N00
+ +2 [I 2( + )N00 ] + (T n) n + n (T n)
, X + X+ = 1 ||0 , . (1.36).

1.8.


(1.39) (1.40)

, un (i ), .

[22]. , , (. 1.1).

1.

43


Bun+1 = b,

(1.42)

B , b .
A
: int out . , (1.39)
, un (i ), i out
, (1.42):
B

Xiun (i ) = b,

Xiun (i ) +

i in

i
 ,i = b,

i out

i ,  ,i
. uin ,

i ,out
:



 = b.
B uin + ,out


 ,
:

1

 = B,out
(b Buin ).
(1.39),

1
(b Buin ).
un+1 = uin + ,out B,out

(1.43)

1.

44

). n
{B, b}.
(1.43) , :
B,out .
, (1.6)
.
1.8.1.

, . ,
. :
Tp = f,
p ( ) ,
, f . , .
(1.42),

v
B = Tp,
T

b = f.

(1.43)

1 in
(T p f),
un+1 = uin ,out B,out
uin = {v in , Tin }.

(1.44)

1.

45

,out (1.24):

w
1 1
w1n + w2n1 + w3n2

,
,out w2 =
2 [w1 ((c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I) + 2c2 (w2 N01 + w3 N02 )]
w3

w1


B,out w2 = [w1 ((c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I) + 2c2 (w2 N01 + w3 N02 )]p,
2

w3
, .
(1.44)
1

2
w
z
 = B,out

2
B,out w
 = z

w
 z = Tin p f, 2
 . z = 2 B,out w
n, n1 , n2 :
n z = w1 c1 (n p) + w2 c2 (n1 p) + w3 c2 (n2 p),
n1 z = w1 c3 (n1 p) + w2 c2 (n p),
n2 z = w1 c3 (n2 p) + w3 c2 (n p).

w1 =

(n p)(n z) (n1 p)(n1 z) (n2 p)(n2 z)


,
c1 (n p)2 c3 [(n1 p)2 + (n2 p)2 ]

w2 = n1 b, w3 = n2 b,


1
b(z)
(z w1 c3 p) .
(1.45)
c2 (n p)
,
n1 n2 ,
. , a b
(n(0) , n1 , n2 ):


i

(ni a)(ni b) = (a b),

1.


w1 (z) =

2(n p)(n z) (p z)


.
(c1 + c3 )(n p)2 c3 p2

46

(1.46)

, (1.18) b,

1

1
[(w1 b n)n + b]
,
,out B,out
z =



[(c1 c3 )w1 2c2 (n b)]N00 + c3 w1 I + c2 (b n + n b)
b w1 z = Tin p f: (1.45) (1.46) .

,
, , . , ,
, .
, . ,
p = n,
, .
, z = Tinn f,




1
1
1
c
(
n


z
)
c
3
3
n , n b = (n z) 1
z
.
w1 = (n z), b =
c1
c2
c1
c2
c1
(1.44) , n,
v n+1
T

n+1

1
1
= v in
z +
c2

1
1

c2 c1


(z n)n,

(z = Tinn f)

z n
(I 2( + )N00 ),
= T [z n + n z]
+ 2

(1.47)

in

, , ,
.

1.

1.8.2.

47

, , , ,
. , .
:
v = V ,
V . , . (1.42),

v
B = v , b = V .
T
,
 = w1n + w2n1 + w3n2 ,
2B,out w
z = v in V ,


n z
w1 1 

1


z = n1 z ,
B,out
w2 =

2
w3
n2 z

n z


1

,out B,out
z = 2,out n1 z =

n2 z

z
.
=
[(n z)((c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I) + 2c2 ((n1 z)N01 + (n2 z)N02 )]
-

1.

48

, (1.18) z,
v n+1 = V ,
Tn+1 = Tin [(n z)((c1 2c2 c3 )N00 + c3 I) + c2 (z n + n z)],
(1.48)
z = v in V , , ,
.
1.8.3.

, . .

.
f , ,
Vp .
Tp = f,

v p = Vp ,

f = f (f p)p + (f p)p,

(f p) .
(1.47) n:
(v n+1 n) = (v in n)

1
(z n),
c1

(z = Tinn f)

(1.49)

Vp ,
(f n) = Tin : N00 c1 [(v in n) Vp ],
,

f = f + n[c1 Vp + (Tin n c1v in f ) n],

(1.50)

1.

49

,
.
, ,
(1.47), f,
.
, . ,
,
, .

, 1.8.4.
V ( ), fp .
p Tp = fp ,

v = V (V p)p + (v p)p,

(v p) (1.49):




1
(n Tinn fp ) ,
v = V + n (v in V ) n
c1

(1.51)

,
.
, ,
(1.48), v ,
.
1.8.4.


(.) ,

1.

50

. 1.2. , ()
.

,
(. 1.2). . ,
.
,
.

,
, .

, . ,
.

: .
. - ,
, ,
, .
( 1.8.3)
f = 0,

Vp = 0.

1.

51

, ,
fp = 0,

V = 0.

,
(1.25), (
)
( p ).
. , , , , ,
, . ,
T

,
 i u
u, . , (1.42),
outu = 0,
out , (1.23), .
p. ,
.
(1.43):
un+1 = (I ,out out )uin .
,out out p = n X (1.41).

1.

52

(1.43):




1
1
1
1
1
v n+1 =
v in
Tin n

(N00 : Tin )n


2
c2
c2 c1
1
Tn+1 = Tin + {(n v in )[(c1 2c2 c3 )N00 + c3 I] c2 (n v in + v in n)
2
in
T : N00
[I 2( + )N00 ] [(Tin n) n + n (Tin n)]}.

+ 2
(1.52)
(1.47) (1.48), , (1.52) .
, (f = 0) (V = 0) .
, , .
1.8.5.

(1.26),
r, :
r = Ru.
.
un un+1 u :
un u un+1 .
(1.26), (1.43).
:
u = r.

1.

53

F,
R:
u(t + ) = Fu(t).
, F = (I R)1 .
(un u ) ,
(u un+1 ) ,

1
un+1 = Fuin + F,out B,out
(b Buin ).

(1.53)

: , ,

1
(b BFuin ).
un+1 = Fuin + ,out B,out

(1.54)

.
, un+1 (1.42).
, (1.43),

,
u = uin + ,out
un+1 = Fu ,
Bun+1 = b.
u
:

1
un+1 = Fuin + F,out BF,out
(b BFuin ).

(1.55)

(1.53), (1.54), (1.55) F I.


.
[48], (
), , (1.55)
.

1.

1.9.

54

va, Ta

vb, Tb
p

. 1.3. .
.

, a b, , -
p, a. ,
, a b, (. 1.3).
1.8,
,
, . .
1.9.1.

, , ,
, :
va = vb = V ,

fa = fb .

(1.56)

, ,
,
fa = Tn+1
a p

fb = Tn+1
p).
b (

1.

55

(1.48) p:
fa = Tn+1
 = Tin
 a {(p za )(ca1 ca2 )p + ca2za },
a p
a p

(za = vain V )

 = Tin
 + b {(p zb )(cb1 cb2 )p + cb2zb }. (zb = vbin V )
fb = Tn+1
b p
b p
(1.57)

Tn+1
p = 0,
(Tn+1
a
b )
:
V =

1
{a [(p vain )(ca1 ca2 )p + ca2vain ]+
a ca2 + b cb2
in
p
+ b [(p vbin )(cb1 cb2 )p + cb2vbin ] (Tin
a Tb )

a (ca1 ca2 ) + b (cb1 cb2 )


in
(p [a ca1vain + b cb1vbin (Tin
p])p}.
a Tb )
a ca1 + b cb1
(1.58)

, a b c
p. ,
(1.48).
1.9.2.

, ,
:
va p = vb p = Vp ,

fpa = fpb ,

fa = fb = 0.

(1.59)

, , (1.50):
fpa = a ca1 Vp + (Tin
 a ca1vain ) p
a p
fpb = b cb1 Vp + (Tin
 b cb1vbin ) p.
b p

(1.60)

1.

56

, ,
Vp =



1
in
a ca1vain + b cb1vbin (Tin

T
)
p
p.
a
b
a ca1 + b cb1

(1.61)

, (1.58). ,
, ,
.
,


1 in
1
in
in
in
v + vb
(T Tb )p p.
Vp =
2 a
c1 a

(1.50). , ,
.

1.10.

(1.2) . , ,
:
T = pI
, , = 0. (1.2)
v = p,

(1.62)

p = ( v ).

, .
(1.4) , u
T

u = {v , p} = {v1 , v2 , v3 , p} ,

1.

57

Aj

p
nj
v
.
Aj = lj
(nj v )
p
:


c1 = c3 =

c2 = 0.

A :
= l diag{c1 , c1 , 0, 0},

p
n v + c1
w1

w 2
n v cp
v
1
= =
,

w 3
n1 v
p

w4
n2 v

v
1 (w1 + w2 )n + w3n1 + w4n2
= 1 w
.
=
2
c1 (w1 w2 )
p

(n v )n
v

1 || = c1
p
p

1.11.

, , .

.

1.

58

(1.2), (1.6)
, , :
T

u = {v , T} = {v1 , v2 , t11 , t12 , t22 } .


A :
= l diag{c1 , c1 , c2 , c2 , 0},

n v c1 N00 : T
w1 , w2

v

w3 , w4 = = n1 v c21 N01 : T ,

w5
(N11 +2 N00 ) : T


(w1 + w2 )n + (w3 + w4 )n1

v
1

= 1 w
 = (w2 w1 )[(c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I]+ ,
2

T
+2c2 (w4 w3 )N01 + 2w5 (I N00 )

0
n
n1
1
.
1 =
2 [(c1 c3 )N00 + c3 I] 2c2 N01 2(I N00 )
( ) , , ,
, .
1 || (1.35) .

1.12.


. ,

.
, (), .

1.

59

, -
:
u x u u
+
=
+ v u.
u =
t
t x
t
, -, (1.4), :
j = lj (nj v )I + Aj ,
A
lj (nj v ) {j } {lj nj }, Aj
(1.6).
j A

cj1 = c1 + |lj (nj v )|.


.
x1
b+

n1
x1
b
x2

x2

O
b-

n2

. 1.4. () (). ,
, .


. , .

1.

60

. - :
1) , 2)
(. 1.4). ,
.
. ,
, b (. 1.4).
, , b, b+.
,
i.
(1 , 2 ),
( )

rb+ rb
, 2 = ri rb ,
1 =
2
r . O :
b, b+, b, i. ,
, b, O [b, b+] ,
b . ,
(. 1.6):
ub+ ub
ub+ 2ub + ub
, 21 ub =
,
1 ub =
2
2

+
ub = ui ub .
2 


,
.
, ,
. ( )
. .
() (). ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
61

2.

62

, . .
,
. , . ,
,
,
. , [49].

, . ,

[35]. , ,
.
. [17] , ,
.
. ,
. ,
,

2.

63

,
. .
. , . ,
.

2.1.

,
. , , ,
.
2.1.1.

, ,
: , ,
, , .
:
struct node_data {
float x, y; //position
... //other nodes data
};
struct tri_data {

2.

64

unsigned int nodes[3]; //vertices


... //other triangles data
};
:
. ,
.
.
.
. , ,
marching cubes.
.
, .
, ( ) :
: ,
. .
.
, ( , ).
.
, , ,
.

2.

65

, ,
.
,
,
, .
2.1.2.

,
,
,
(doubly-connected edge list) [42], , .
, , , .
. ,
-, , .
:
struct node_data {
float x, y; //position
int he; //index of an incident half-edge
//or -1 if the node has no incident edges
... //other nodes data
};

2.

66

struct half_edge_data {
int tri; // index of triangle to the left
//or -1 if no left triangle exists
unsigned int node; // index of base node
unsigned int next; // index of next half-edge (of the same
// node) in counter-clockwise order
... //other half-edges data
};
struct edge_data {
... //other edges data
};
struct tri_data {
unsigned int nodes[3]; // indices of vertices
... //other tris data
};
:
.
-, , .
- , ,
, - -
.
(twin) - , , ,
. , -, e h0 , h1
: h1 1 = h0 = 2e. ,
,
.

2.

67


-.
, -,
.
,
-, ,
- .

-, . , .
.

. ,
. .
. ,
, , ,
.
, .

.

2.

2.2.

68


, , -

.
, - .

. ,
,
. ,
.
, [50].

. , ,
, . , , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, .

2.

69

n ( ) , O(n) ,
O(n2 ) .
O(n). ,
O(n4 ).
. ,
: . ,
-
,
[51].
[50] ,
,
.
.
, ,
,
. [42] ,
,

. . , ,

2.

70

, ,
.

,
.
, .
-, . -
-
.
- ,
, : x,
x y. - ,
- ,
. , . 2.4.
-
,
, , . ,
, ( plane sweep algorithm).

-, -

2.

71

(. 2.1). ,
, y-.
. , ,
.
- . ( -),
. , (.
).
( ) :
, , , (
).
a

A
e0,v0

B
e1,v1

end vertex

b
a

v2
e2

e2,v2

b
start vertex

v3 e3
v0

split vertex

merge vertex

e0
e3,v3

b a

v1
a b

e1

b
a

regular vertices

. 2.1. .

, ,
- a b, : a

2.

72

, b (. 2.1). ,
a, b , ( ). a, b
-, , ,
.
[42] .
(start) (split)
, , .
, (end) (merge) . (regular) ,
.
(ax > 0, bx > 0, [a, b] < 0)
. , .
b
<p

<p
>p

. 2.2. .
. ,
.

(ax bx < 0) (. 2.2): ,


, ,
. -

2.

73

,
.

a
b
a

. 2.3. () ()
, .

(ax < 0, bx < 0, [a, b] < 0)


, - , . (ax < 0, bx < 0, [a, b] > 0)
(. 2.3).

,
.

a
bottom

. 2.4. : , , . ,
. Bottom -, , v .

, (ax > 0, bx > 0,


[a, b] > 0), . 2.4.

2.

74

(bottom) -,
v.
,
. v. v ( )
.
.
O(n log n).

-, , , , , , . O(log n)
[52], O(n log n) . , .
O(n),
, .
, O(n log n).

2.3.


(Delaunay) [42] -

,
,
(. . ).
- (
,

2.

75

, ).
,
.

. 2.5. .

( ). , :
,
(. 2.5).

a
a

b
b

a+b>p

a+b<p

. 2.6. (ip) .


(ip)
,
(. 2.6).
. , -

2.

76

. ,
. .
, , (
) .
()
. , .

, , .
, ( ) . ,
. ,
(. 2.6)
+ .
.
,
sin cos + sin cos = sin( + ) 0.
,
. ,
. , ,

2.

77

. cos 0
cos 0, , , cos < 0 cos < 0,
.

. , sin cos sin cos , .
, .
, ,
. [51]
,
, .

sin cos + sin cos > . ( > 0)
,
, ,
.

2.4.

, , .
, .
(. 2.9),

2.

78

(
).
i
> 0 > 1 : lmin

. , (

[53])
( 1).
(
) ( = 1.1). , lmin
2 . .
lmin .

,
. (, ),
,
.
[53]
, . -

(. 5).
:

2.

79

1. .
2. ,
b
i
< lmin
.
lmin

3.
b
b
= 2lmin
.
lmax
i
.
4. , lmin

5. i
i
, Rmax
= lmin
,

.
6. , , hbmin .

(, , ) ,
. ,

.
b
b
i
, lmax
, hbmin lmin
, lmin

. .
2.4.1.

2
.
,

2.

80

. ( 3). ,
, .
?

. 2.7.
.
, ,
.


.
, (. 2.7, ), .
(. 2.7, ), , , ,
. ,
,
, . (. 2.7, ),
.
(. 2.7, ),
,
.
, , . ,

2.

81

, .

2.5.

.
1. , , ,
.

. 2.8. . , .

.

. , ,
, (. 2.8).
, .
2. 4 , , i
.
lmin

2.

82

. 4 i
. , , lmin
i
.
lmin

1.
, ,
. , .
,
i
, (
lmin

2.7.1).
b
.
lmin

, .
b
i
2lmin
, 5
3. lmax

limin

lbmin
j2 j3
j4
j1

l min

lbmin

j1

j2 j3
j4

R
R

. 2.9. ,
( ).
.


i : 12 i i > 2 () 12 i i 2 ().

. : ,
, ,

2.

83

(. 2.9).

, i
b
lmin
lmin

.
, .
,
, . 2.9 ,
. , ,
, i .

1

i
i i 2 . , lmin
2
b
lmin
,
i
lmin
1,2,3

,
sin
2
2R

b
4
lmin
sin

.
2
2R



l 2R
b

1,

1

sin(
2

i i ),

1
2
1
2

i i

> 2 ,

i i

2 .

lb = 2R ,
,
i
lmin
1,2,3
=
,
sin
2
2R

b
4
lmin
sin
=
,
2
2R

1
i = .
2 i
2

,
i
b
lmin
lmin

3 arcsin
+ arcsin
=
2R
2R
2

i
lmin

< sin
2R
6

b
i
lb = 2R > 2lmin
.
lmax

2.

84

, ,
, .
4. 5 ,
b
i
2lmin
,
lmax
i
.
2Rmax

. ,
i
i
. lmin

lmin

,
.
b
i
2lmin
, 3
lmax

,
. 5 ,
i
, , ,
Rmax
i
.
2Rmax

2.

2.6.

85

b
i
1. lmax
2lmin

:
1 i
i
lmin
Ri lmin
,
3
i
i
lmin
li 2lmin
,
1
2
1

arcsin
i 2 arcsin

,
6
2
2
3



2
2
i
n
12,
3=

imax
imin

3
42 1 i 2
3 2 i 2
i
(l
)
S

(lmin ) ,
min
42
4
i
i
3lmin
pi 3 3lmin
,



1
1 i
i
42 1 lmin
,
lmin hi +
2
2
42 1
i
i

ri lmin
.
lmin
2
42 ( 42 1 + 23 )

(2.1)

R , l , , n
, S , p , h
, , r
.
.
. 2, 4.
, , ,
i
.
lmin

, i
i
)2 = 2(Rmin
)2 (1 cos 2
: (lmin
3 ),
i
=
Rmin

1 l i .
3 min

, , -

2.

86

, ( ),
. , , .
i

l min
i
j min

j max
i

l mi

in

j min
i

R ma

. 2.10. : , . ,
.


, . , , i
,
Rmax
i
: sin imin =
lmin

i
lmin
i
2Rmax

1
2 .

. 2.10 ,

.
1
.
imax = 2 arcsin 2

= 1.1 imin 27 , imax 126 .



, nimax =  2
. . 2.11 , : nimin =  2
i
i
max

min


.
. a h, . -

2.

87

l mi

m i
ax

in

j min
i

jimax
i

R ma

. 2.11. .
, .

R
h
a
. 2.12.
.

, R,
(. 2.12):


a = 2 R2 (h R)2 = 2 2hR h2 ,

1
S = ah = 2h3 R h4 ,
2
S 2
= 6h2 R 4h3 .
h
, ,

h = 32 R, a = 3R, . . ,

i
Smax

3 3
i
2
4 (Rmax )

3 3 2 i
2
4 (lmin ) .

i
: S1 =
, Rmin

3 i
2
4 (lmin ) ,

3 3
i
2
4 (Rmin )

(. 2.10): S2 =

1
2

i
sin imax (lmin
)2 . -

2.

88

:
1
1
) = sin(2 arcsin ) =
2
2

1
1
1
1
1 2.
= 2 sin(arcsin ) cos(arcsin ) =
2
2

sin imax = sin( 2 arcsin

= 1 : S1 = S2 , > 1 S2 .
, , i
. : pimin = 3lmin

, , .

(, ) = arg max p = arg max(
,

1
1
1
+
+
).
sin sin sin( )


:
cos( )
cos

= 0,
sin2 sin2 ( )
cos( )
cos

= 0.
2
sin sin2 ( )
cos
(0; ),
sin2
cos
= =
sin2

cos
sin2

= 3 .

, ,
i
i
= 3 3lmin
.
: pimax = 3 3Rmax

, , ,
:
l1 l2
.
2R
, h=

(. 2.10):
himin =

1 i
2 lmin .

, ,

2.

89

. , :

i
i
= 2 2himax Rmax
(himax )2 ,
lmin



1
1
i
i
i )2 = +
i
= Rmax
+
4(Rmax
)2 (lmin
42 1 lmin
.
2
2

himax

. , , :
2S i
i
i
= max = lmin
.
rmax
i
2
3 3Rmax

. 2.10:
i
rmin

i
2Smin
i
2Rmax
i
2lmin
+ sin
imax

(2

42 1 i
2
22 (lmin )
43
i
+ 4
)lmin
2 1

42 1
i

=
.
lmin
2
2
3
4 ( 4 1 + 2 )

2.7.


, -

. ( . .)
b.
i
,
, . . lb > 2lmin

,
(. 2.13, ). (. 5)

2.

90

, ,
, . ,
,
.

(2), , 2.4.
b

l min

i
min

h
lbmax

>R max

l min
i
b
j max l min
b
i
j min
j min
h
i
R max

. 2.13. himin : i
()
, , Rmax

().
b
, lmin
-

,
(. 2.13, ), ,
.
b
b
, lmax
lmin

, ,
. 2.13 . , :
1 b 2
i
)2 (lmax
).
(hbmin )2 = (lmin
4
, :
hbmin

i
b
b
b
lmax
lmin
lmin
lmin
=
=
=
.
i
2Rmax
2
42

,
hbmin

1
i
=
lmin
,
1 + 44

b
lmin

2
i
=
lmin
,
1 + 44

b
lmax

42
i
=
lmin
.
1 + 44

b
1.
, lmax

2.

91

, hbmin ( ),
,
.
.
2.7.1.

lmin

j
l

b
min

. 2.14. ,
.

, [53]. . a, b, c
a, ( ):
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos .
, . 2.14,

1 + 44 b
i
b
lmin = lmin
li = 2lmin
(1 cos )
2

cos 1

1 + 44
.
4

> 1, > 63.8 . = 1.1


> 66 .

2.

2.7.2.

92

, , , , hbmin .
,
.
,
, ,
.
6- .
i

l min

?
Rimax

Rimax

h<hbmin

. 2.15. : ; , , , .
: ,
.

. 2.15 , . ,
i
,
Rmax

(. 2.15 ). i

, lmin

, 5 ,
.
, -

2.

93

. ,
, ,
(. 2.7.1) i
.
lmin

5.
: h < hbmin , i
, (
lmin

)
b
hbmin
1
lmin
1
= 2 arccos b 2 arcsin i = 2 arcsin
2 arccos
.
2
2Rmax
lmin
1 + 44

. , ,
, , i
. , ,
Rmax

i
, h hbmin . lmin
i
.
, h < hbmin , lmin

, i
,
Rmax
b
:
lmin

max

b
lmin
= 2 arcsin i .
2Rmax

, h hbmin ,
b
:
lmin

min
hbmin
cos
= b .
2
lmin

b
b
; lmax
],
[lmin

2.

94


= 1.1 3%. ,
[126 ; 135 ].
,
, , . 6-
, .
6. <

2+

11
2

< 1.91,

h < hbmin .
. , , , i
,
Rmax

. , , . ,
. ,
:
2R =

b
lmin

sin 2 min

b
b
)2
lmin
(lmin
b
=
= lmax
.
min
b
cos 2
hmin

x ,

(. 2.16)
min
b
= lmax
x = 2R sin = 2R sin
2

1
2 42 1 i
1 2 =
lmin .
4
1 + 44

, -

2.

95

x
y
j
. 2.16. x , .
i
Rmax
< x,

4(42 1) > 1 + 44

4(2 )2 162 + 5 < 0.

11
11
2
< 2 < 2 +
.
2
2
> 1, ,
<

2.8.

2+

11
2 .


, -

- , , d
, . , .
2. ,
2.1,
 i ).
O(|d|/l
min

2.

96

. 2.17. , t, s, .
,
.

. , (. 2.17). ,
, . . , . ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
(. 2.17). 1 , , imin , i
. ,
lmin


i
i
sin imin = (lmin
).
( .) lmin
 i ) .
O(|d|/l
min

,
.

2.

2.9.

97

,
. , .
, , .
, , .
, , , ,
,
.
,
. ,
. , , ,
, .
(. 2.18)
ri vi . , ri + vi .
n, , .
, z- -

2.

98

v2
r2
v0

r0

r1

v1

. 2.18. , .
.

,
S( ) =[r1 ( ) r0 ( ), r2 ( ) r0 ( )] = [v1 v0 , v2 v0 ] 2 +
+ ([r1 r0 , v2 v0 ] + [v1 v0 , r2 r0 ]) + [r1 r0 , r2 r0 ].

S( ) =

S(0)
,
n

,
a 2 + b + c = 0,
a = [v1 v0 , v2 v0 ],

b = [r1 r0 , v2 v0 ] + [v1 v0 , r2 r0 ],


n1
[r1 r0 , r2 r0 ].
c=
n

,
, c .
a = 0, b < 0 = cb , b 0 ( ,
).
a = 0,
. (D = b2 4ac > 0), =

b D
2a

a.

2.

99

,
, a a2
2 (v1 v0 2 +v2 v0 2 )2 ,
(
). b
b < c.

2.10.

.
. 2.19
.
. 2.20
. , .
, . ,
, x . . ,
(. 2.21),
.

2.

100

. 2.19. : ,
, ,
, , .

2.

. 2.20. .

101

2.

. 2.21. .

102

3


.

. 3.1.
(), ().

, () , , ,
(. 3.1)?
( ) ,
- , , ,
(. 3.2)?
103

3.

104

. 3.2. , .

, , c (. 3.1,
3.2)?
? ,

, .
,
.

3.1.


, ,

, , .

, , , .
- , ,
.

3.

3.1.1.

105

,
n
, (orthogonal range searching). , kd- (kd-trees) O(n) , O(n log n)

O( n + k), k , . (range-trees) :
O(n log n), ,
: O(log2 n + k) [42].

. 3.3. .
.


.

(. 3.3).
, , .
,
.
,

3.

106

,
. .
, ,
. , ,
, (. 3.3).
.

O(n n)
kd- O(n log2 n) .
(
), ,
.
3.1.2.

. 3.4. , .

3.

107

, . (. 3.4) n . , , O(n). ,
, , O(n).
,
2. (, )
, . , , . ,
, . 2.9 ,
, , , .

. 3.5. , .

, , , ,
, .
: , .
, , .
,

3.

108

(. 3.5).
. ,
O(n).
. 3.4 , , .
, ,
.
3l min
b

lbmin lbmin

. 3.6. ,
.

,
, . . , , , (. 3.6).
b
, , . lmin

,
b
,
, 3lmin

. ,
2,
2 < 3, .

3.

3.2.

109


(. 1.3), -

, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
, , , .
1.9.2,
: . (1.61),
(1.60).
,
(
), , .
(tear resistance) ftr 0, . :
fa p = fb p > ftr ,
,
( 1.8.1): fa = fb = 0,
van+1 , vbn+1 . ,
, , , :
van+1 p < vbn+1 p.
(1.49), , -

3.

110

fb p = fa p
(vbn+1 van+1 ) p = (vbin vain ) p

1
2 
in
p (Tin
p
fa p.
b Ta )
c1
c1

, , . fa p > 0
, .
, , , ,
.

, ( ) .
. ,
,
, , 1.8.1.

3.3.

, .
. , , , .
,
, .

3.

111

.
(. 3.7),
.

a.

b.

. 3.7. .
; , ; .
.

[54]. ( )
(
). ,
. , . - .
.

, . ,
.
-

3.

112

, .
,
. , , , , . ,
, ,
.
. , .
, .
.
.
, .
. ,
,
.
, -
, . ,
,
.
, .

.

3.

113

3.4.

(, . .) [16].
[14].
, ,
.
. 3.9 3.13 ,
, .
.
. 3.14 .
.
.

3.

114

. 3.8. 44. . t = 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, 50.

3.

115

. 3.9. 8 4. . t = 5, 9, 13, 17.

3.

. 3.10. 4 4. . t = 14.

116

3.

. 3.11. 4 4. . t = 50.

117

3.

. 3.12. 8 4. . t = 17.

118

3.

119

. 3.13. 2 2.
, .

3.

ee

ep

120

pp

pe

. 3.14. . 0
.
(p) (e): ,
.

4

. , ,
[33] .
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
-
[47]. ,
,
. ,
() .

, .

121

4.

122

, , ,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
.

, [55] ,
.

4.1.

,
.
, N .
: x y. :
x2 , xy, y 2 .
. . N

(N +2)(N +1)
.
2

,
, , .
,

4.

123

,
.
ABC ,
, N (. 4.1).
N 2 , . ,
,

(N +2)(N +1)
.
2

, ,
.
C
c=N
c=N-1
c=N-2

a=

a=

a=

a=
2
N-

1
N-

a=

2
Nb= N-1
b= N
b=

a=

c=2
1
c=
c=0

0
b= 1
b= 2
b=

. 4.1. .

rA , rB , rC ,


rabc .
, , ,
(. 4.1).
a 0,

b 0,

c 0,

a + b + c = N.

4.

124

:
b
c
(rB rA ) + (rC rA ) =
N
N
c
a
=rB + (rC rB ) + (rA rB ) =
N
N
a
b
=rC + (rA rC ) + (rB rC ).
N
N
v rabc =rA +

r, ,
. ,
, r:
1
SA = [rC rB , r rB ],
2

1
SB = [rA rC , r rC ],
2

1
SC = [rB rA , r rA ],
2

Si , ABC,
i.
,
. r ABC, ,
.
, r,
ABC:
1
SA + SB + SC = S = [rB rA , rC rA ].
2
,
r, ABC,
:
sA =

SA
,
S

sB =

SB
,
S

sC =

SC
,
S

sA + sB + sC = 1.

:
a = i (. 4.1) sA =
b = j sB =

j
N,

i
N,

c = k sC =

k
N.

4.

125

v(r) r vabc , :
v(r) =

wabc (r)vabc ,

a,b,c

wabc (r) rabc ,


N .
,
wabc (rijk ) = ai bj ck ,
,
. :
!N
r) nNi )
i=1 (sTi (
,
wabc (r) = !N
ni
(s
(
r
)

)
T
abc
i
i=1
N

(Ti {A, B, C}, 0 ni N )

(4.1)

{Ti } {ni }.
,
. ,
N + 1 , N . . rabc
, , , Ti = A, ni = a; Ti = B, ni = b; Ti = C,
ni = c. , ,
, sA
a , sB b , sC c .
, (4.1) . .
, wabc wcab ,
{Ti }.

4.

126

001

010

A 100

w100 = sA ,

w010 = sB ,

w001 = sC .

002

011
101

020
110

A 200

w200
w110

sA (sA 12 )
=
= sA (2sA 1),
1 12
s A sB
= 1 1 = 4sA sB .
2 2

003

012

102

021
201

111

A 300

210

120

030

4.

w300
w210
w111

127

sA (sA 13 )(sA 23 ) 1
=
= sA (3sA 1)(3sA 2),
2
1 23 13
sA (sA 13 )sB
9
sA (3sA 1)sB ,
=
=
2 1 1
2

3 3 3
s A sB sC
= 1 1 1 = 27sA sB sC .
3 3 3

004
013

103

022
202

112
031

301

A 400

w400 =
w310 =
w220 =
w211 =

4.2.

211
310

220

121
130

040

sA (sA 14 )(sA 12 )(sA 34 ) 1


= sA (4sA 1)(2sA 1)(4sA 3),
3
1 34 12 14
sA (sA 14 )(sA 12 )sB
16
= sA (4sA 1)(2sA 1)sB ,
3 1 1 1
3
4 2 4 4
sA (sA 14 )sB (sB 14 )
= 4sA (4sA 1)sB (4sB 1),
1 1 1 1

2 4 2 4
sA (sA 14 )sB sC
= 32sA (4sA 1)sB sC .
1 1 1 1

2 4 4 4

-
(. 4.1),

N > 1, ,
,
. - ,

4.

128

. , -
,
.
r sA , sB , sC
, , r. (. 4.1)
r, ,
v(r). s A , s B , s C , r .
(. 4.1),
r a a + 1,
BC; b b + 1, CA; c c + 1,
AB,
a+1
a
sA
,
N
N

b+1
b
sB
,
N
N

c+1
c
sC
.
N
N

C
b
1
b+

c=N-a-b
N
c= -a-b-1
c=N-a-b-2

?
?

B
a

a+
1

. 4.2. .


. ,

4.

129

.
180 .
, a, a + 1 b, b + 1,
(. 4.2). , r, c.
c = N a b 1,
.
A = {a + 1, b, N a b 1},

B = {a, b + 1, N a b 1},

C = {a, b, N a b}.
, r a,
2S(sA
ha =
|CB|
s A

a
N)

ha |C B |
=
2S

C B CB N , S
S N 2 . ,
s A = N sA a,

s B = N sB b,

s C = N sC c.

c = N a b 2, r .
:
A = {a, b + 1, N a b 1},

B = {a + 1, b, N a b 1},

C = {a + 1, b + 1, N a b 2}.
r
s A = a + 1 N sA ,

s B = b + 1 N sB ,

s C = c + 1 N sC .

4.

130

N = 2
- :

2sA > 1,
(2sA 1)u200 + 2sB u110 + 2sC u101 ,

2sB > 1,
(2sB 1)u020 + 2sA u110 + 2sC u011 ,
v(r) =

2sC > 1,
(2sC 1)u002 + 2sA u101 + 2sB u011 ,

(1 2sC )u110 + (1 2sA )u011 + (1 2sB )u101 , .

4.3.


li :
lA = rC rB ,

lB = rA rC ,

lC = rB rA .

ki , li 90
2S :
li 2


,
[li , ki ] =
2S

li ki = 0.

:


li = 0,
ki = 0.
i


1 
[lA , r rB ] = kA (r rB ),
2S
1 
[lB , r rC ] = kB (r rC ),
sB =
2S
1 
[lC , r rA ] = kC (r rA ).
sC =
2S
sA =


dsi =

1 
[li , dr] = ki dr,
2S

dsi 
= ki .
dr

dv  dwabc
=
vabc .
dr
dr
a,b,c

4.


dwabc (r)
=
dr

N  !
r)
j=1 kTj
i=j (sTi (
!N
rabc ) nNi )
i=1 (sTi (

131

ni
N)

dw100 
dw010 
dw001 
= kA ,
= kB ,
= kC .
dr
dr
dr
1-
dv
= v100kA + v010kB + v001kC .
dr

dw200
= (4sA 1)kA ,
dr
dw110
= 4(sBkA + sAkB ).
dr
,
:
V100 = 3v200kA + (4v110 v020 )kB + (4v101 v002 )kC ,
V010 = 3v020kB + (4v110 v200 )kA + (4v011 v002 )kC ,
V001 = 3v002kC + (4v101 v200 )kA + (4v011 v020 )kB .

1
dw300
= (27s2A 18sA + 2)kA ,
dr
2
9
dw210
= [(6sA 1)sBkA + sA (3sA 1)kB ],
dr
2
dw111
= 27(sB sC kA + sA sC kB + sA sBkC ).
dr

4.

4.4.

132

, .
7.




l
snA sm
r = 2S
B sC d

n! m! l!
.
(n + m + l + 2)!

sA

Hd

Ld

sB

B
A
. 4.3. .

. I. sC = 1 sA sB
(. 4.3).
 1  1sA
l
snA sm
I=
B (1 sA sB ) HdsA LdsB =
sA =0 sB =0
 1sA

 1
n
m
l
= 2S
sA
sB (1 sA sB ) dsB dsA .
sA =0

sB =0

J(sA ) sB = (1sA )t:


 1
m+l+1
tm (1 t)l dt.
J(sA ) = (1 sA )
0

- , - (

4.

133

) [56]:
 1
x! y!
(x + 1)(y + 1)
=
.
tx (1 t)y dt = B(x + 1, y + 1) =
(x
+
y
+
2)
(x
+
y
+
1)!
0
,
m! l!
I = 2S
(m + l + 1)!

sA =0

snA (1 sA )m+l+1 dsA .

- ,
I = 2S

n! m! l!
.
(n + m + l + 2)!

I=

v100 + v010 + v001


S.
3

(4.2)

-
N 2 .
({abc} V ) . , ({abc} E),
. ({abc} T )
6 .

I=


{abc}V

vabc + 3


{abc}E

vabc + 6


{abc}T

vabc

S
.
3N 2

(4.3)

4.

134

I=

v110 + v101 + v011


S.
3

(4.4)

, , . - N = 2:
I = (v200 + v020 + v002 + 3v110 + 3v101 + 3v011 )

S
.
12

(4.5)

1
(v300 + v030 + v003 )+
30

3
9
+ (v210 + v120 + v021 + v012 + v102 + v201 ) + v111 S.
40
20

I=

(4.6)

I =[4(v310 + v130 + v031 + v013 + v103 + v301 )


S
(v220 + v202 + v022 ) + 8(v211 + v121 + v112 )] .
45

(4.7)

, , .

4.5.


4.1 -

,
, , ,
, . , -

4.

135

, [33],
.
, - , , .
. .

, 4.1 . , . .
, , ,
.
, , .
. :
. ,
f (x, y) = x2 y 2
, , x = 0
y = const, y = 0
x = const. x = y = 0
, .

4.

136

8.
f (x, y) = Ax2 + 2Bxy + Cy 2 + 2Dx + 2Ey + F
,

( ).
. , .
,
. A = B = C = D =
E = 0 ,
A = B = C = 0, D2 + E 2 = 0
. , A2 + B 2 +
C 2 = 0.
, (
)
(x , y ), :
f (x , y ) = ax 2 + by 2 + c f (x , y ) = ax 2 + by + c. (a = 0)

b = 0,
. ,
, . ,

f (x , y ) = a(x )2 + b(y )2 + c. (ab > 0)
. .
, .

4.

137

:
, , , ,
.
C

002

011
101

020
110

A 200
. 4.4. . , . .
.

8
. ( ) ,
.

.
1. .
2. (.
4.4) .
, ,
.

4.

138

3. 6- .
8 ,
. ,
-
. ,
, .
,
. , , ,
,
.

4.6.


.
. ,
.
(total variation) fm
f (x) [55]
T V0 [f ] =


m

|fm+1 fm |,

T V [f ] =

sup
x0 <...<xK

K


|f (xk ) f (xk1 )|.

k=1

- [22] , -

4.

139

. , .
, TVD [55].
.
.
xk1 xk

, f }, f (x) < min{fk1 , fk },

min{fk1 k
f(x) =
max{fk1 , fk }, f (x) > max{fk1 , fk },

f (x),
.
,
fm , 2- , f (x)

{fk1 , fk }.

min max .

. 4.5. ()
().

4.

140

. 4.5
: -1, +1,
.
.

4.7.

,
.

, ,
.
,
.

. 4.6. .

,
(. 4.6). ,
. ,
minmod -

4.

141

(. 4.6). [47]
, .

( = = 1, = 1) [0.5; 0.5][0.5; 0.5].
, . 300 300 , 90601 (. 4.8).
:
(Lax) (1.31), (upwind, Courant Isaacson Rees)
(1.33), : (Lax Wendro) (1.32), ( : 4th order) (1.37). , ,
4.6.
,

x y (1.30).
(. 4.6), . r + (0.1; 0.1) 0.03
(. 4.7)
v = n,

1
T = (I + 2n n),
c1

n = (1; 1)/ 2 ( T
).
, ,
(. 4.7).

t = 0.4, .
--

4.

142

. 4.7. () () . ,
.

, (N =
1, 2) , (-) , , ( 4.6), ( 4.5).
(N = 1, ), 91375 . (N = 2) 22907
68206
(. 4.8).
, 496.
- ,
. 0.35 ( )
, 600.

4.

143

. 4.8. (),
( ) () .
, .

. 4.9, 4.1. +
.

(. 4.7). . ,

: p1 , p2 , p3 .

, 4.1 4- , ,
,
, ,
. 4- , ,

4.

0.6

triangle mesh (linear)


Lax
upwind (CIR)
exact

1.2

144

triangle mesh (quadratic)


Lax-Wendroff
4th order
exact

1
0.5

0.8

0.4
0.6

0.3
0.4

0.2
0.2

0.1

-0.2

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.35

triangle mesh (quadratic limited)


Lax-Wendroff limited
exact

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
0.5

0.55

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

triangle mesh (monotone quadratic)


4th order limited
exact

0.45

0.4

0.6

0.65

0.45

0.5

0.55

. 4.9. .

0.6

0.65

4.

145

.
. 4.9. , , , [22]
.
2- (. 4.9.),
. ,
(
4- ) . , -, .
2- , 4.6,
(. 4.9.) . , , ,
.
(. 4.9.).
, 4.1
. , . :
;
,
;
, -

4.

146

;
,
,
.
4 6 , , . ,
,
. ,
, .
4.1.

p3

W/W0

|
p|/|
p0 |

0.19

0.25

0.33

0.18

1.001

33

0.050

0.15

0.23

0.39

1.000

50

0.023

0.093

0.17

0.90

1.000

46

0.064

0.16

0.75

0.983

179

p1

8.8

104

p2

t,

4-

0.0044

0.040

0.092

0.94

1.000

126

4- .

2.7 105

0.029

0.10

0.83

0.998

269

(N = 1)

0.056

0.16

0.24

0.36

1.002

201

- (N = 2)

0.070

0.16

0.24

0.36

0.999

243

0.0042

0.064

0.14

0.85

0.999

243

0.0018

0.061

0.14

0.79

0.994

269

0.0011

0.065

0.15

0.67

0.976

280

[36],
,
.

4.

4.7.1.

147

:

p = v dr,

1
(e : T + v 2 )dr.
W =
2

( [4]),
; e .
T e (1.1), ,
:



1
1
2
(T : T)
e:T=
(T : I) ,
2
4
d + 2
d = 2 .
(4.2) ( ),
(4.5), .
uij

h2
udr (u00 + u01 + u11 + u10 ).
4



4.1. ,
, .
, :

4.

148

( 1%), , ,
:
80%.
, (1.2) (v = T),
( ):
= 1 T : ( v + v ) + v ( T).
W
2
, .
(1.2)
, .
4.2
(
i
= 0.005). , ,
lmin

, .
4.2. , ,
i
lmin

p1

p2

p3

W/W0

|p|/|p0 |

0.04

0.24

0.31

0.42

0.18

0.924

<1

0.02

0.082

0.20

0.30

0.28

0.885

0.01

0.0058

0.11

0.20

0.44

0.911

31

0.005

0.0011

0.065

0.15

0.67

0.976

280

0.0025

2.4 104

0.035

0.11

0.81

0.997

2250

0.00125

1.4 104

0.021

0.082

0.88

0.999

18200

t,

5


, . ,
, , , , ,
. ,
,
. .

5.1.


u
u
+
= 0.
t
i
149

(5.1)

5.

150

,
2. ,
u,
4
, , . ,

,
, , ,
, , . .

tn+1 = tn + n
tn ,
n .
xi
t

tn+1

. 5.1. . (
) ,
.

k-
(r, t) + (i , 1) = (rk , tn+1 ),
, : u = const, i . (. 5.1,

5.

151

5.2) (rk n i , tn ). ,
, . rk i k-
. ,
i
= O(l) ( 1), l . , Rmax

p
un+1 = un (rk i )

(5.2)

O((min{||, l})p+1 ) = O( p+1 ). ,


- p,
.
xi
t

n+1

. 5.2. . ,
, , .


, , , . 4 , 7 , 11
.
1 +

(p+2)(p+1)
.
2

, 1 + (p + 1).
,

5.

152

2 . 2 , , ,
O(|| /l) .
,
,
, , .
, , tn t tn+1 ,
.
t, .

hbmin
||p ,

, ,
, tn+1 .
,
, dk
sign()i :
min
k

dk
.
||p

himin > hbmin ,


, . 1 ,
. ,
( ),
.
4.1, ,
( ) . , -

5.

153

unk
u0j ( ). ,
, n.
, , , .
, . .

: [ 18 ; 1], . ,

.
, .
4.5 4.6 , ,
.
,
[34]: , (Harten), (Van Leer).
(Friedrichs), , - .
,

5.

154

.
4.5 4.6
- .
, .
u=0
u(r-ltxi)<1

r u=1

u=2
u

xi

. 5.3. , i , i ( ).


. , ()
f i :
u(r, 0) = f (i r),

u(r, t) = f (i r t).
r .
f
: u1 < u0
(. 5.3).

5.

155

(5.2), ,
. ,
,
. i
, (. 5.4),
,
.
?
0
0
?

<1
?

?
0

xi

0
?

. 5.4. (5.2).
. ,
.

(1.2)
,
4.7.
, . .
(5.1)

u. , u
. u

5.

156

ui .



n+1

u(r, t

)dr =

u(r, t )dr
n

3 

j=1

tn+1

tn


u(r(l), )i nj dl d, (5.3)
j

, j j- ,
l , r(l) , nj
j- .
(5.3) .
. un+1
k
[42], ,
2.
,
(5.2) ,
(5.3).
, u
.

,
. (4.4). (4.4) , ,
, , (5.2).
1.5 , (5.3)
, . , (5.3)
.

, 10 .
, ,

5.

157

.
: 9 ,
, (5.2),
, (5.3),
(4.6),

un+1
111 . O( 4 ),
tn + 13 n tn + 23 n
(. 5.5).
xi

t
tn+1
tn

?
?

?
?

?
?

?
?

. 5.5. O( 4 )

.

5.2.

c
.
(1 , 2 ).

5.

158


u
u
+ A2
= 0,
u + A1
1
2

(5.4)

A1 A2
.
(. 5.6): (1.26), 1 2 .
,
[47].
1.7 , (1.26)
 i u,
 i Aj . vi =
(5.2). v n = un
,
 i u . un ,
v n .
(1.40), . .
un un+1 , .
Aj .
( , ) . , , -

5.
x1

159

?
?

t
t

?
?

?
?

?
?

x2

tn+1
?

?
?

. 5.6.
, .


Aj .

1.8. ,
uin , un+1 (1.43).
, , , 1 , 2
.
.

, . ,
,
, .
, , , . ,
.
: O(l2 ), l .
O(l2 ).

5.

160


tn O(l2 ) = O( 3 ), .

,
.

, un+1
, 2.4. . .
, , . .
. , tn ,
. ,
, ,
- .

5.3.

(5.1) , 5.1, -

5.

161

. , , .
, . :
.
,
,
(. 5.7). p p + 1. - , p
.
p=1

p=2

p=3

. 5.7. : , , .

(p = 1)
,
(
[46]).
n+1

t
n
t

. 5.8. p = 2.

(p = 2)
. .
, , (. 5.8).
-

5.

162

[45], [57].
, , ,

. p = 2,
, . ,
, ( ) ( =

> 0):

1
n
un+1
=
u

(3unj 4unj1 + unj2 ) +


j
j
2
1
1
n+
uj 2 = unj (3unj 4unj1 + unj2 ) +
4

1 2 n
(uj 2unj1 + unj2 ),
2
1 2 n
(uj 2unj1 + unj2 ).
8

Fj [tn , tn+1 ]
[58] O( 3 ):
Fj =

n
n+ 1
(uj + 4uj 2 + un+1
).
j
6

u , :
h n
h n+1
n+1
n
n
(uj + 4un+1
j+1 + uj+2 ) = (uj + 4uj+1 + uj+2 ) + Fj Fj+2 .
3
3

un+1
j+1 :

un+1
j+1


n
1
5
1 uj2

n
4
16
2 uj1

n
n
2 1
31
= uj+1 + 10 +
10 + 0 uj .

16
8

n
4
8
2 uj+1


n
3
7
1
uj+2

(5.5)

(5.5) ,
6 j + 1.

5.

163


[0,1] .
1000 , n = 10600 =
0.5. . 5.9.
:
exact ;
upwind (CIR) 1- [46];
Lax-Wendro 2- [45];
Beam-Warming 2- [57];
Rusanov 3- [59];
3rd-order, nearest to monotonic

3- 6- ,
[22];
4th-order 4- , (1.37);
interleaved LW & BW , , ;
interleaved X & BW , , (5.5);
X , (5.5).

5.

164

( 5.1): p0
, p2 , p3
.
5.1.

p0

p2

p3

upwind (CIR)

0.496

0.082

0.155

Lax-Wendro

0.649

0.038

0.096

Beam-Warming

0.649

0.038

0.096

0.639

0.026

0.082

interleaved LW & BW

0.617

0.022

0.077

interleaved X & BW

0.484

0.010

0.052

3rd-order, nearest to monotonic

0.468

0.010

0.051

Rusanov

0.463

0.010

0.050

4th-order

0.537

0.011

0.046


, , .
, .
. ,

,
,
.
. 5.9 ,

5.

165

1.2
interleaved X & BW
upwind (CIR)
exact

interleaved X & BW
X
exact
1

0.8
0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2
0.2
0
0
0.25

1.2

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

interleaved X & BW
Lax-Wendroff
exact

-0.2
0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

interleaved X & BW
4th-order
exact

1
0.8
0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2
0.2
0
0
-0.2
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

interleaved X & BW
Beam-Warming
exact

1.2

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.42

0.425

0.43

0.435

0.44

interleaved X & BW
Rusanov
exact

1
0.8
0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2
0.2
0

-0.2
0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.3

0.35

1.2
interleaved X & BW
interleaved LW & BW
exact

interleaved X & BW
3rd-order, nearest to monotonic
exact

1
0.8
0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2
0.2
0
0
-0.2
0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.4

0.405

0.41

0.415

. 5.9.
.

5.

166

, ( 5.1).
(5.5) ,
, .
3-
3- 6- (- . 5.9
). , 2-
3-!

6


,
. ,
, ..
.

6.1.


,
,
.
,
, .
( ).

167

6. 168

- .
- , . ,
: . , .
.
. () / .
,
, .

-
.

- ,
.
. , , .

6. 169

[60, 61] .
,
, , , [60].
,
( )
.
[62].
: , ,
.
(dry) . . ,
. [62]

.

. [60, 63], () [62].
[63] . () . , [62, 63],

6. 170

-
.

1 , , .
,
, . , ,
,
. .
- .
[6063]
() . : (
) . ,

. ()
,
. ,
, .

,
.
1

() () (S).

6. 171

6.2.


: -

, (. 1.2).

.
,
. (Berlage signal):
f (t) = tN et sin t.
tN et , t
, . , .
, N , , ,
.
( ) (. 6.1):
(tm)2
1
(t) = e 22 ,
2


(t m)3
1

(t).
(t) = 4 3(t m)

T (x) ,
3(t m)
(tm)3
2 ,

t1,2 = m , , T = 4.

6. 172

. 6.1. (), (-),


() ( ) .

[63]. ,
,
, ,
.
, , . ,
.
n.
, n: 1 = n. 2

u
2

0. ,

(1.26). 1 , ,
1
1 (1.25),
A1 . :
v = f (1 )c1n,

T = f (1 )(I + 2n n),

(6.1)

6. 173

:
v = f (1 )c2n2 ,

T = f (1 )(n n2 + n2 n),

(6.2)

f (1 ) , ; n2
, n.

6.3.

1.8.4.
(. 6.2), ,
(. 1.9.2) -
,
.

. 6.2. . :
, : . , ,
.

6. 174

6.3.1.

: . , .
( ) . , ,
.

. 6.3. .
, .

, (. ).
, . ,
,
, (1.59) , a
b , (. 6.3).
, ,
.
.
. 6.4 .
, -

6. 175

. 6.4. .

6. 176

, . . ,

.
.

6.4.

. 6.5. . .

,
. , ,
, . .
,
i
. lmin

, lb
. 4 ,
. . 6.5 -

6. 177

.
,
,
, .

. 6.6. .


() , (. 6.6). , :
b
. lmin

,
, , , i
.
lmin
i
.
, lmin

6.5.


, -

(. 4.7.1). .
.
.

6. 178
1

energy

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

time

. 6.7.
(), , (
).

. 6.7 . .

.
.

. ,
.
, ,
.

6.6.

6. 179


.
1. .
2. , , . ,
.
,
. .
. ,
, .

. 6.8.
.

,
.
(. 6.8), , ,
. ,

6. 180

. , . x
: 04, 59, 1014 . .,
y , . , ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
:
(. 6.9).
50

25

16

45

14

40

20
12

35
30

10

15

25

20

10

15
4
10

5
2

5
0

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

. 6.9. ( ): , , .

:

pi ln pi
,
H= i
ln N
pi , i- , N
.
0, , 1,
.

6. 181

6.7.


.
S, 0 , 1 < 0 (. 6.10). ,
f . ,

= 0 f (0 1 ).
, , A , . , fA ,
, A . -
, fA , A , ,
[0, 1] [1 , 0 ] .
, [64].

. 6.10. S ,
. A s.

6. 182

, , A
p=

s
.
S

,
, A, . 6.10
. ,
f , , A
. p
, A.
6.7.1.

,
d

d2
4 .


N=

4f S
.
d2

(6.3)

NA A [64]
N p. ,
NA :
MNA = pN =

4f s
,
d2

DNA = p(1 p)N = MNA (1

s
).
S

[64] NA :
P{|NA MNA | }

DNA
.
2

NA A:
d2
A = 0 NA
(0 1 ),
4s
d2
MA = 0 MNA
(0 1 ) = .
4s

6. 183

d2
DNA
f
s 4s
P{|A |
(0 1 )} 2 = 2 (1 ) 2 ,
4s

S d
f
s d2
(0 1 )2 .
P{|A | } 2 (1 )

S 4s
A , (1 Ss )
,
f d2
(0 1 )2 .
P{|A | } 2
4s

(6.4)

,
A
A s.
d, f
.

10% (f = 0.1). : 0 = 2.7 /3 , 1 = 1.0 /3 . ,


= 2.53 /3 . d = 5 , s = 1 2 (MNA 51), -
, , A = 2.4 /3 . (6.4),
P{|A | 0.13/3 } 3.4%.
6.7.2.

, , [d0 , d1 ].
f (d) d,
:
 d1
f (d)dd = f.
d0

6. 184

n(d) d :
n(d) = const = n.

d2
f (d) = n(d)
4S

f =n
4S

d1

d0

d31 d30
.
d dd = n
4S 3
2

n N = (d1 d0 )n:
N=

3
4 3(d1 d0 )
4
f
S
=
f S.
d31 d30
d21 + d1 d0 + d20

(6.5)

d0 = d1 = d, , ,
(6.3).
A (. 6.10) : A1
A, ,
A; A A. A A1
A =

(A1 )i .

1iN

A1 :
 d1 2
1
s d31 d30
s d21 + d1 d0 + d20
d
dd =
=
.
MA1 = (1p)0+p
d1 d0 d0 4
S 4 3(d1 d0 ) S 4
3
A1 :

 d1  2 2
1
d
dd =
M(A1 )2 = (1 p)0 + p
d1 d0 d0
4
s ) *2 d41 + d31 d0 + d21 d20 + d1 d30 + d40
s ) *2 d51 d50
=
.
=
S 4 5(d1 d0 ) S 4
5

A1 [64]:
DA1 = M(A1 )2 (MA1 )2 .

6. 185

s
S

(MA1 )2 :
DA1 M(A1 )2 .

A:
MA = N MA1 = f s.
, MA = f s ,
N .
[64]:
DA =

N DA1

3 d41 + d31 d0 + d21 d20 + d1 d30 + d40


= fs
.
45
d21 + d1 d0 + d20

A:
A = 0

A
(0 1 ),
s

MA = 0 f (0 1 ) = ,
(0 1 )2
3 d41 + d31 d0 + d21 d20 + d1 d30 + d40
DA =
DA = f
(0 1 )2 .
2
2
2
s
4s 5
d1 + d1 d0 + d0
[64] A :
DA
f 3 d41 + d31 d0 + d21 d20 + d1 d30 + d40
P{|A | } 2 = 2
(0 1 )2 .
2
2

4s 5
d1 + d1 d0 + d0
(6.6)
d0 , .. d1 = d,
3 f d2
P{|A | } 2
(0 1 )2 .
5 4s
(6.4) 35 , .

6.8.

400 200 2 . :

6. 186

= 2,700 /3 , c1 = 6,000 /c, c2 = 3,500 /c.


60 30 2 ,
150 .
: = 1,000 /3 , c1 = 1,500 /c, c2 = 100 /c.
.
0.3 . i
= 0.15 , lmin

= 1.1.
(. 6.5). 230,000 , 350,000 120,000 , , 470,000.
300 115
. 0.022 c, 3,400 3,800 , 6 106 .
AMD Athlon
XP 2600+ 512 , (4 ) 3
.
65 .
i
= 0.5 .
lmin

1 .
: 370,000 , 570,000 200,000 .
(
) 1.8 105 -

6. 187

1200 ,
, , .

6.9.


1.0 . . 6.11 6 :
) , , , ,
;
) ;
) () ;
) - ;
) , ;
) , .
() (PS) .

PS .
, .

6. 188


() - () .
, . (,)
.
, () PS .
(, )
.
PS ( ) c
. - (, , )
, .


( d = 30 , N = 1000, 5%),
(). . 6.12
.
(. 6.6).
. 6.12 , -

6. 189

-
-
-
- - -

- -
-
-
, , - - , ,

. 6.11.
.

6. 190

. :
:
PP PS ;
(
). 6.5.
[63]. , .
. ,

, .

, , , ,
. 6.13.
, N =
177 ( N = 354), (d) ,
. 6.11, 100 ;
. . 6.13
.

6. 191

84

72

93

104

128

218

-
- ()

-
-
-
128 -

. 6.12.
.

6. 192

1.
( , ) ,
().
2. (
d N )
(PS) ().
3. ( ) ,
.
4. .


. 6.14
(30 );
d = 30 N =1500(750/750). , .
,
: ;
(), (PS) .

6. 193

. 6.13. (, ) () - (e) .

6. 194
52

67

70

109

-
-
-
-
109 -

. 6.14.
.

-
. 6.16
(, ), () ()
.
(, ):

();
, ;
( 20%-30%)
();

6. 195

( ) ( ).
77

95

122

106

-
-
-

-
106 -

. 6.15.
- .


. 6.17 ,
(W ), / ,
, (H).
:

6. 196
128

106

70

87

- ; - ; - ; -
; 106 -

. 6.16. -
.

( )
.

, (
).
W (H) -
W (H) .

6. 197

350

300

250
200

150

100

50

0
1

0,99

0,98

0,97

120

80

60

40
1

0,99

0,98

0,97

d = 30 N=2000 10%
d = 30 N=1000 5%

. 6.17. W H.

7


,
, , . , ,
.
, , . , ,
, .
, , ,
. , () .
, . .
, .
. 198

7.

199

,
.
- ,
.
,
. . , .
, .

7.1.

. 7.1.

.
, . , , .
,
. , , ,
(x, y), |x| + |y|.
|x| + |y| = ct (c )
t. . ,
,

7.

200

. 7.1. .
, .
.

7.

201

.
. 7.1 ,
, .

7.2.

, [0, 1] [0, 1] [0, 1]


:
= = 1,

= 1.


r0 0.07.
, , . 7.2 7.6 .
( ) . ,
. (. 7.1), ,
- 26 26 26,
.
. 7.2 , . ,
.
t/tmax = 0.30 (
): , :
. t/tmax = 0.45 -

7.

202

, .
t/tmax = 0.60
, .
. 7.3 . , ,
, .
- , , .
,
. : . , . 7.3
, , ,
.
. 7.4 7.5

888. . ,
.
,
, .
. 7.6 , . 7.3,
. , , ,
.
,
. ,
,

7.

203

|x| + |y| + |z| = ct,


,
. ,
, .

.
7.1 , S;
; r0 ,
; iw ic , ; I,
N , t AMD Athlon XP 2600+ 512 .
,
, : (ih, jh, kh).
: f = 0 (. 1.8.1). , , , , .
, .
7.1.

r0

iw

ic

t,

(0.5, 0.5, 0.5)

201

8,120,601

200

71

(0.5, 0.5, 1.0)


888

(0.9, 0.8, 0.7)

15

6,392,601

200

62

888

(0.5, 0.5, 1.0)

4- .

854,685

100

22

7.

t/tmax = 0.15

t/tmax = 0.45

t/tmax = 0.30

t/tmax = 0.60

204

. 7.2. , . , .

7.

t/tmax = 0.2

t/tmax = 0.6

t/tmax = 0.4

t/tmax = 0.8

205

. 7.3. ,
. , .

7.

t/tmax = 0.25

t/tmax = 0.75

t/tmax = 0.5

t/tmax = 1.0

206

. 7.4. 888 ,
. .

7.

t/tmax = 0.25

t/tmax = 0.75

t/tmax = 0.5

t/tmax = 1.0

207

. 7.5. 888 ,
. , .

7.

t/tmax = 0.2

t/tmax = 0.6

t/tmax = 0.4

t/tmax = 0.8

208

. 7.6. 888 ,
. , .

8


- :
, , , .
,
(, ) , , ( , . .) .
,
.
- (
[2]) ( [3, 28, 65, 66].
[67],
(., , [28, 68]).
209

8.

210


- [18],
[19], [20, 58] [24]
- , .
, ,
.
[2123,2527,30,6972]. , [2527]
, , [30,71] , [21,23]

. , -
- .

.

(, , ): , ,
. ,
.
, . -

8.

211

, .
, . [8,9]
( ) . [41], , , ,
,
. [73] - .

8.1.

1. , , . .
,
. ,
R M .
, ,
.
. V0 . ( ),
n , n 1 .

8.

212

2. .
,
. - .
- , -
. ,
( )
.
3. .
. , ,
.
, .
, , .
8.1.
8.1. : k0 , a
(8.4),
, bp , 0

, /

2500

1200

11342

E 10 ,

cp , /

k0 107 ,

bp 107 ,

0 ,

68,7

0,22

5600

100

0,05

10

0,39

1900

0,01

0,446

2250

0,5

2,19
16,2

8.

213

4. . , 0 = 107 . , . ,
, . k = 0.1 , k .
.
5. . , . . .

, .
, .
6. . , , V0 . , , ( :

u
r

= 0), .

8.

214

, , ,
.

8.2.


, -

,
. :
dV /dt = F /M,

dR/dt
= V ,
 V , M , F
R
, .
, ,

 sin

,
p = (sin )2 11 2 (sin cos ) 12 + (cos )2 22
cos

, ,
, . F p .
, . , p, ,
, ,
Rd R sin , 2R2 sin d,
 0




 
 3
F = 2R2
sin cos 11 2 sin2 cos2 12 + sin cos3 22 d,
0

8.

215

0 .

:
2
F = 2
R


0

r0

r r 11 2r (R H z) 12 + (R H z) 22 dr,

H
.

 + 
 sin
d,
(sin )2 11 2 (sin cos ) 12 + (cos )2 22
F = R

cos
+ ,
.
, ,
.
,
.

8.3.

.
(1 , 2 ),
(. 1.2).
, c(1 , 2 ) . , , : c = v .

8.

:
r (t, 1 , 2 ) = r (0, 1 , 2 ) +


0

216

c(, 1 , 2 )d .

, , [35]. , t,
t + . , . ,
t t +
.
,
.
.
, , , ,
.
.
-, - . , , (, 10 ),
,
. .
-, , ,

8.

217

.
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
,
,
, . . . ,
, ,

. ,
, .
, . 8.1
1500 / .
, , ,

8.

218

. 1000
, .
. 8.2 , . 8.1,
. .

. 8.1. .

. 8.2. .

8.

8.3.1.

219

: N ,
N N ,
. ,
.
X = {(xn1 , xn2 )|n N } X = {(xn1 , xn2 )|n N }
,
.
,
I h
I h : X R,

X = argmin I h .

(8.1)

,

, , ,
.
,
:

, , -, .

(8.1),


I = f dx = f ||d min,


f =f


x
,



x
= det
.


8.

220

(1 , 2 ) , , .
. 1.5 ,

,
l1 = ||1

x
,
2

l2 = ||1

x
.
1

l1 + l2 max{l1 , l2 } .
f = l12 + l22 , ,

I=

||1

+

x1
1

2


+

x1
2

2


+

x2
1

2


+

x2
2

2 ,
d1 d2 .

[35]
,
.

I h

, ;

xi
j

.
,

8.

221

, , . ,

, ,
, i = 2m
i = 2m + 1. ,

12 ,
.
[35] .
() ( (1 , 2 )
 ). x()
,

xi
j

, , -

(
4). .
, ,

, . ,

x()
.
, , , . ,
.

8.

222

, . , .

8.4.

, . . ,

:
s : s 2k 2 .
s = T+pI T, p = 13 T : I , k(p) ( ).
. .
,

[43].
, .
s : s = 2k 2 . (
, . [66, 67]) , -

8.

223

, :

2k 2
(T0 + p0 I) p0 I,
T=
0
0
s :s
.
k ( )
k = k0 + ap,

a 0.

. , , 0 0 , 0.1 : = 0 .
, .
, .
:
().
. , . , t33 = min{t033 , 0}.
(r, z) T. , , . , , , ,
. , t11 = t12 = t22 = 0.

8.

224

, . . , ,
,
[67]. ,
.

.
,
. , .

, , , , , .

, , .
, tn
, .
[tn , tn + ] , , . . , tn + .
,
, .
( ),

8.

225

()
tn . , , , . . ck vk ,
, .
. , , , ,
,
.
,
,
, ,
.

, ,
(..

, ).

.
, , .
, , ,
.

8.

226

.
8.4.1.

, 50 .
,
, 6 10 .

, 4
, ,

, .
80000.
: T 5 105 ,
n hc11 + (n
1) hc22 105 . .
.
, ,
,
.
.

8.

227

() , .
: , ,
. . .
.
. 8.3 5- : 3 15
2 2.5 . . 8.4. . 8.5
.
50 V0 = 2500 / . 8.6. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
[74].
, , , . 8.7.
,
,
.

8.

228

,
. ,
.
. . 8.8 21 , 1 , 20
0.5 . , .
0 50 /, t = 1.1 105 , V = 261 /. ,
.
8.4.2.

, , 2000 /,
. .
,
, ,
.
, . , ,
- .

8.

229

. 8.3. , . M = 10 , V0 = 2000 /. t 105 =


0,45; 0,9; 1,3 .

8.

230

. 8.4. , . M = 10 , V0 = 1500 /. t105 = 1; 2; 3 .

8.

231

. 8.5. , = 30 , . M = 10 , V0 = 1500 /. t 105 =


2,5; 5; 5,33 .

8.

232

. 8.6.
. . M = 10 , V0 = 2500 /. t 105 = 7,5 .

8.

233

. 8.7. ( ) .
. M = 10 , V0 = 500 /. t 105 = 0,9; 1,5; 2,25 .

8.

234

. 8.8. 050 /
.
. t = 1.1 105 , V = 261 /.

. 8.9. , , , .

, -
, .
, , .
(. 8.9), ,
, . . ,
.

8.

235

, , , ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
. ,
, ,
, , , .
, .. , , ..
. . , ,
, : . ,
, (. 8.10).

.
1. () ,
, .
.

8.

236

. 8.10. .

2. , .
, . (-
)

.
3.
, .
,
, .
,
.
( ), ,
(. 8.11).

8.

237

. 8.11. .

.
3 , 2.5 , 10
2000 /. . . 8.12, 8.13 0.97
( - ) 1.00 ( ).
: {0; 0.25;
0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.5; 1.75; 2} 105 c.
, , , . (. 8.12,
8.13) ,
. , ,
.

. 8.12. .

. t = 0.9 105 c, 1584 /.

t = 2.5 105 c 765 /.

, .

, . 3:1.

t = 2.5 105 c 877 /.

, .

, . 3:1.

8.
238

. 8.13. .

1648 /.

1:3. . t = 2.5 105 c

, , ( 10 ).

. t = 2.5 105 c 1655 /.

, . 1:3. -

t = 1.2 105 , 1843 /.

, . 1:3.

8.
239



,
. (1.22),
(1.23)
1 (1.24).
[55,75], [19, 22, 72].
- , ,
, , 1 .
,
. , ( 2D 3D), , , 1 [75].

, ,
.
,

240

241

, . ,
,

. m- , m-
, [19, 22] n-, n- .
: , . .
: .
, (constrained Delaunay), . ,
, .
, .
.
, (), (),
, (
)
.
.

242

-
, . 1,2,3,4 . ,
. - .

,
- . .
, , ,
.


1. . . . . : , 1970.
2. . . . . : , 1975.
3. . . . . : ,
1978.
4. . ., . . . . : , 1981.
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. //
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8. OBrien J. F., Hodgins J. K. Graphical modeling and animation of brittle
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the ACM. 2000. Vol. 43, no. 7. Pp. 69 75.

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. : , 2000.
11. Wang Z. J. Spectral (nite) volume method for conservation laws on
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// . . 1999. . 11, 1. . 88
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2002.

http://cs.mipt.ru/docs/whitepapers/petrov10052002.pdf.

17. . ., . . . : , 1979.
18. . ., . .
// . . . . . 1969. . 9, 2.
. 373 386.

245

19. . ., . . // . . . . .
1984. . 24, 5. . 722 739.
20. . ., . .
// . . .
. . 1984. . 24, 8. . 1172 1188.
21. . .
// . . . . 1986.
4. . 118 124.
22. . ., . . - . . : , 1988.
23. . ., . ., . .
// . . . . 1989. 4.
. 89 95.
24. . ., . ., . . - // .
. . . . 1990. . 30, 8. . 1237 1244.
25. . ., . ., . . // .
. . . 1989. 5. . 63 69.
26. . ., . ., . .
// . . 1989. . 308, 5. . 1065
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