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DETERMINING ENGINE CONDITION

COMBUSTION CHAMBER EFFICIENCY

AFFECTED BY:
AIR/FUEL MOVEMENT COMBUSTION TURBULENCE INTAKE DESIGN EGR COMBUSTION CHAMBER DESIGN

MANUAL COMPRESSION TESTING (CYL. SEALING)


EASIEST MANUAL TEST IS A VACUUM TEST EACH CYLINDER IS A INDIVIDUAL AIR PUMP THERE MUST BE A GOOD CYLINDER SEAL TO HAVE GOOD VACUUM ANY CYLINDER LEAK WILL SHOW ON VACUUM GAUGE

VACUUM

C24-25

Measured in Inches of Mercury (Hg) A Reduction of 1 inch of vacuum per 1000 feet increase in altitude Pounds Per Square Inch Absolute (PSIA) Air moves rapidly from a High pressure to a low pressure

VACUUM TESTING PROCEDURES

L138

CRANKING VACUUM IDLE VACUUM IDLE THROTTLE ANGLE CHECK 2500 RPM VACUUM PISTON RING TEST IDLE/DRIVE TEST CRUISE TEST VAC AT W.O.T. AND AFTER W.O.T.

TYPICAL VACUUM READINGS


CRANKING VACUUM 3-5 IDLE VACUUM 18 IDLE THROTTLE ANGLE 0 2500 RPM VACUUM 20 VAC TEST PROCEDURE CAN IDENTIFY POTENTIAL PROBLEMS COMPRESSION TEST CAN PINPOINT

COMPRESSION TESTING

READING COMPRESSION GAUGE


1ST PUFF - SHOULD BE 50% OF FINAL PUFF (INDICATOR OF CYLINDER WALL AND RINGS) ALL READINGS UNIFORM IF REAL HIGH - CARBON BUILD-UP IF CHANGE ON ONE CYL - POSSIBLE STICKING VALVE

COMPRESSION AND VACUUM


BOTH REQUIRE GOOD CYLINDER SEAL LACK OF CYLINDER SEAL WILL PREVENT PRESSURE TO RISE HIGH ENOUGH TO IGNITE THE MIXTURE COMPRESSION & VAC TEST INDICATES CYLINDER SEAL, RUNNING COMPRESSION TEST INDICATES VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

CYLINDER BALANCE

MANUAL CYLINDER BALANCE


SHORTING PLUG ONE BY ONE TIME CONSUMING DONT OPEN CIRCUIT SECONDARY CIRCUIT WILL PINPOINT LOW POWER OUTPUT OF A CYLINDER

OTHER CYLINDER BALANCE TESTS

ELECTRONICALLY PERFORMED BY ENGINE ANALYZER


CRANKING TEST AMPS PER CYLINDER RELATIVE COMPRESSION

CYLINDER CONTRIBUTION
FUEL DISTRIBUTION DUAL PLANE SINGLE PLANE LOW RISE HIGH RISE

COMPUTER CONTROLLED ENGINE POWER BALANCE


DISCONNECT O2 SENSOR INITIAL TIMING MODE DISCONNECT EGR STABILIZE MAP IF APPLICABLE STABILIZE FUEL PRESSURE STABILIZE IDLE CONTROL PREFERRED TEST RPM 800-1200 RPM

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

MANUAL TEST OF VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY


CAN

TEST AT:

CRANKING IDLE SNAP ACCELERATION

CRANKING COMPRESSION TEST


SLOW CRANKSHAFT SPEED/CYLINDER COMPLETELY FILLS/ HIGH COMPRESSION CHECK OVERALL MECHANICAL CONDITION CHECKS FOR LEAKS

IDLING COMPRESSION
AIR RESTRICTED BY THROTTLE PLATE CRANKSHAFT SPEED 4 TO 5 TIMES CRANKING SPEED LESS AIR ENTERING CYL PER ENGINE CYCLE TYPICALLY 50 TO 60 PSI

CONT NEXT SLIDE

IDLE TEST, CONTD


MUST BURP GAUGE IF RPM BROUGHT UP SLOWLY TO 1500 RPM, PRESSURE GOES DOWN TO ABOUT 40 PSI. NO MANUFACTURERS SPEC COMPARE WITH OTHER CYLINDERS

QUICKLY SNAP-OPEN THROTTLE, THIS REMOVES THROTTLE PLATE RESTRICTION READINGS SHOULD INCREASE TO 80% OF CRANKING COMPRESSION HIGH READING:RESTRICTION IN EXHAUST OR VALVE TRAIN LOW READINGS: RESTRICTED INTAKE OR CARBON ON VALVE

SNAP ACCELERATION

LAB EXERCISE
VACUUM TESTS CYLINDER BALANCE

SEVERAL METHODS

RUNNING COMPRESSION TEST