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Voronezh State University

ISSN 2224 0101 (Print))


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L anguage,
Communi cati on
and Soci al Envi ronment

11

Issue No.11



Published annually

2013


41

81.2

ISSN 22240101 (Print)


ISSN 2224-1078 (Online)

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, Language,
Communication and Social Environment: / . . . . . 11. / . . : -, 2013. 270 .

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.

, 2013
, 2013
ISSN 22240101 (Print)
ISSN 2224-1078 (Online)

81.2

ISSN 22240101 (Print)


ISSN 2224-1078 (Online)
EDITORIAL BOARD:
LOCAL EDITORS:
VIACHESLAV B. KASHKIN (Editor);
KSENIA M. SHILIKHINA (Associate Editor);
LYDIA A. BORISOVA;
IRINA V. CHARYCHANSKAYA;
MARINA A. EGOROVA;
ELENA L. PIVOVAROVA;
OLEG V. SPIRIDOVSKI;
NATALIA E. KURDASHVILI (Editorial Assistant)
EDITORS AT LARGE:
professor Mira B. Bergelson (Moscow, Russian Federation);
professor Dorota Brzozowska (Opole, Poland);
professor Dmitry G. Boguszewicz (Minsk, Belarus);
professor Serguey G. Vorkachev (Krasnodar, Russian Federation);
professor Elena I. Goroshko (Kharkiv, Ukraine);
professor Hannele Dufva (Jyvskyl, Finland);
professor Vladimir I. Karasik (Volgograd, Russian Federation);
professor Viacheslav B. Kashkin (Voronezh, Russian Federation);
professor Igor E. Klyukanov (Cheney, WA, USA);
professor Lyudmila V. Kulikova (Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation);
professor Olga A. Leontovich (Volgograd, Russian Federation);
professor Irina N. Rozina (Rostov-na-Donu, Russian Federation);
professor Alexey A. Romanov (Tver, Russian Federation);
professor Patrick Sriot (Lausanne, Switzerland)
Language, Communication and Social Environment. Published annually by
Voronezh State University, Russian Federation. Edited by Viacheslav
B. Kashkin. Issue 11. Voronezh: Nauka-Unipress, 2013.
This annual volume is intended to publish original peer-reviewed papers in the fields of
linguistics, communication theory, discourse analysis, intercultural communication,
translation studies, language learning and teaching. Our aim is to present a
comprehensive perspective on todays language and communication research,
integrating diverse approaches from all over the world. Contributors are encouraged to
explore linguistic data from interdisciplinary perspective.

ISSN 22240101 (Print)


ISSN 2224-1078 (Online)

Contents

. .

. (, )
?
( . . )

. (, )

( )

37

. . (, )

61

. (, )
( )

80

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94

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103

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125

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: -
( . . )

146

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208

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( )

218

. . (, )

( . . )
( )

240

262

Style Sheet

266

ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,


/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013.
4

CONTENTS

Contents

KASHKIN V. B. Introduction (in Russian)

SRIOT P. (LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND)


What Tradition does the Russian Grammatical Tradition Belong to (in Russian) 8
SYPNIEWSKI B. (CAMDEN, USA)
Non-verbal Influences on the Creation of Expectations
in Human Communication

37

GRISHAEVA L. I. (VORONEZH, RUSSIA)


Potential of a Caricature as Research Object in Humanities (in Russian)

61

MAGDZIARZ K. (OPOLE, POLAND)


Sexism in English Jokes: A Comparative Study
of Playboys Party Jokes and thats life!s Rude Jokes

80

KLUSHINA N. I. (MOSCOW, RUSSIA)


Intentional Effect in Communication (in Russian)

94

SHILIKHINA K. M. (VORONEZH, RUSSIA)


Discourse Words as Markers of Irony (in Russian)

103

YEREMEEV Y. N. (VORONEZH, RUSSIA)


Change of Discursive Paradigm in Edwardian Britain (in Russian)

125

ROBINSON D. (HONG KONG)


Schleiermachers Icoses: Social Ecologies of the Different Methods of Translating
(in Russian)
146
KARAVAEVA N. A. (VORONEZH, RUSSIA)
Simultaneous Interpreting in Qualitative Marketing Research (in Russian)

208

GRSKA A. (OPOLE, POLAND)


Nursery Rhymes in English and Polish

218

KHOLINA D. A. (VORONEZH, RUSSIA)


Visionary Experience and Metaphysical Antithesis
(Concerning the Role of Synaesthesia and Oxymoron in W.B. Yeats Poetry)

240

262

Style Sheet

266

ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,


/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013.
5


!
,
2000 . . -
:
http://lse2010.narod.ru/, 2014 :
http://www.rgph.vsu.ru/lse/.
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: Sriot, Patrick (2007). A quelle tradition appartient la tradition
grammaticale russe? . Langages, n 167, 53-69.
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. Pp. 8-36. P. Sriot, 2013. . . (), 2013.

P. SRIOT (LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND). WHAT TRADITION DOES THE


RUSSIAN GRAMMATICAL TRADITION BELONG TO? The paper addresses
the issue of the Russian grammatical tradition and its connections
with the Greek and Latin grammatical traditions. A number of
problematic questions concerning the predecessor of Russian
grammatical tradition arise. Firslty, the concept of tradition is
arguable in itself. Secondly, it is not easy to relate the Russian
tradition to the geographical area of East Slavic settlements. Finally,
there is a disputable issue of the degree to which translations of Latin
and Greek grammars influenced Russian grammatical thought.
In order to understand what exactly a linguistic tradition is and
where the border between the Eastern Europe and Western Europe
lies, the author turns to the history of grammatical ideas developed in
Europe, on the one hand, and to the role that Cyril, Methodius, and
Constantine of Kostenets played in the creation of written Slavonic
languages, on the other hand. Special attention is paid to the history
of East Slavs and the impact of Catholicism and Orthodoxy on the
Old Church Slavonic language and vernacular languages of East Slavs.
Historical analysis leads to a number of conclusions. Firstly, when a
complex system of interconnected and at the same time opposing
ideas is discussed, one cannot talk about Russian grammatical
tradition as such. Secondly, the opposition of Greek vs. Latin
tradition is not useful for the identification of the source that
influenced Russian grammatical thought. Instead, the explanation
can be given if one uses the ideological opposition of treating
language from the rational perspective vs. treating it from the
perspective based on faith.
Keywords: history of linguistic ideas, Russian grammatical tradition,
Eastern Europe

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In institutions dominated by Christian clerics, pagan literature, that is to say
the classical literature of antiquity, was bound to be suspect, and there are
instances of deliberate hostility to these authors and the language in which they
wrote, as contrasted with the later, more nearly colloquial, Latin of the Vulgate
and of church usage. Already Jerome had experienced feelings of guilt at his too
great interest in Cicero and the classics at the expense of holy scripture, and
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Ecce, frater, vis grammaticam discere? disce Deum pluraliter declinare.
Artifex enim doctor, dum artem obdienti noviter condit, ad colendos
etiam plurimos deos inauditam mundo declinationis regulam introducit
J. P. Migne : Patrologiae cursus completus. Series latina, Paris, 1844-64,
PL. CXLV, col. 695. , , ?

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1994: 16, 23-24).

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, . . ..: - , 1955.
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. 208-254.
32

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syntaktische Traktat in Russland. Mnchen: Verlag Otto Sagner.
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Acadmie ukrainienne libre des sciences.
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Drevnej Rusi [Treatment of Grammar and Rhetoric in Anscient Rus
(XVI-XVII centuries)]. In Izbrannye trudy [Selected Works]. Vol. 2
(pp. 7-25). Moscow: Gnozis.
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Columbus: Slavica.

,

,
patrick.seriot@unil.ch

36

Patrick Sriot
Section de langues slaves
Universit de Lausanne, Anthropole
CH-1015, Lausanne, Suisse
phone: + 41 21 / 692 30 01

Patrick Sriot
(
XVII )
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013.
I

: B. SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL

INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF

EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

Picture 1

Picture2. Captain Spauldings entrance at the party


ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013.
II

Picture 3 - Percy Fawcett

Picture 4 - Clyde Beatty

Picture 5 - Inga in the hay wagon


ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013.
III

Picture 6 - Jane Russell (Rio) in the hay.

IV

81221:316.776.2

Sypniewski B. (Camden, USA)


NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS
IN HUMAN COMMUNICATION

(, ).

, (Sypniewski
2010) (Sypniewski 2012),
,
. c
c ,
.
, (Sypniewski
2010).
,
,
.
.


, . . , Animal Crackers.


1
.
: , ,
, , , , ,

Hard-Science Linguistics ,
(Victor Yngve, 1920-2012)
, (people
communicating with other people), ; .
.

ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,


/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 37-60. B. Sypniewski, 2013.

, . NO. 11, 2013

Sypniewski Bernard (CAMDEN, USA) NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE


CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN HUMAN COMMUNICATION. Continuing the
work begun in (Sypniewski 2010) and (Sypniewski 2012), this paper
examines the way that arranging the surroundings with certain nonverbal elements creates expectations in people which effects the way
they communicate with each other. The examples given come from
classical American humor sources: the Marx Brothers, Mel Brooks
and Gene Wilder. As such, the intentional failure to satisfy some of
the audiences expectations while satisfying others is designed to
provoke laughter, as explained in (Sypniewski 2010). In each example,
the creation of expectations cannot be explained without an
examination and appreciation of the surroundings and the
background, i. e., the audiences expected experience with the real
world. This real world experience is examined in detail.
The examples are treated as coordinated linkages among the actors
themselves and between some of the actors and the audience viewing
the movies. A discussion of the communication between the screen
writers and the audience is beyond the scope of this paper. However,
we discuss a double role part in Animal Crackers. We also discuss a
possible extension to Hard Science Linguistics notion of the setting.
Keywords: Hard Science Linguistics, expectations, humor,
surroundings, experience, coordinated linkages, setting, role part

Introduction
When people communicate with each other, more than words are
involved. There is an old saw that says that we cannot predict what
someone else might say next. Evidence shows that this is not exactly
so. When we communicate with our fellows we and they have
expectations of what has been, is being, and might be said. We
understand communications through our experience with the world.
We communicate in a form of shorthand, not having to explain things
which are obvious because of common experience. A quick way to
bore people is to beat a dead horse.
Most linguists do not consider the role of expectations and most
schools of linguistics do not have any way to account for them in their
studies. Hard Science Linguistics (HSL) treats expectations as a central
part of its modeling of people communicating with other people.
Expectations were introduced in (Yngve 1996: 263ff). I have begun my
own study of expectations and related matters with (Sypniewski 2010)
and (Sypniewski 2012). This paper continues that work.
38

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

Humor is fertile ground for the study of expectations. Humor is


usually carefully constructed in such a way as to make expectations
obvious and to make the satisfaction or failure to satisfy those
expectations obvious after the fact 1. (Sypniewski 2010) looked at some
simple jokes to demonstrate the mechanisms involved. This paper uses
examples from two movies (one of which relies on a third movie as
described below) to examine how a comedian, as defined in
(Sypniewski 2010), can manipulate the audiences 2 expectations either
by creating new expectations or by playing on already existing ones by
using non-verbal clues prior to the use of verbal communication. Prior
to entering into our discussion, we should distinguish between
laughter and humor. Essentially, laughter is an involuntary behavior in
response to some stimulus, in the case of the present discussion,
humor, and humor is a behavior intended 3 to provoke laughter in
some person; see (Provine 2000 in passim).
Traditionally, linguistics concerns itself only with language 4 and
primarily with spoken language at the present time 5. While many
linguists examine texts which by definition have been made at some
time in the past, these examinations are usually constrained by
linguistic theory based on current speech, i. e., speech which is
currently taking place. As a result, linguists have traditionally
confronted problems such as deixis and ambiguity which have, over
the years, proved to be significantly difficult to explain using
1

This is an important point. If the punch line was telegraphed or the


audience could see it coming the joke would not be as funny or perhaps not
be funny at all. Expectations require an element of time to acquire a value.
This element may be very brief or it may be longer but it must be there; see
Sypniewski 2012.
2
Audience, in this paper, means the viewing audience rather than any
audience that might appear in the movie.
3
While this paper discusses intentionally created humor, we acknowledge that
laughter may be provoked unintentionally. We will not consider it here.
4
I place language in quotation marks because it is an ambiguous term and
means different things for different linguistic studies. HSL does not have a
theory of grammar, universal grammar or many of the notions of other
linguistic school because HSL does not consider these to be able to be studied
scientifically; see (Yngve 1996).
5
There is no sense of time in traditional linguistics. Everything happens in an
eternal present. This is not the case with HSL, especially when expectations
are involved.
39

, . NO. 11, 2013

traditional theory. In fact, most schools of linguistics do not take time


into account which raises many unasked and unanswered questions
about various linguistic theories.
HSL remedies these problems by expanding the scope of linguistic
inquiry to include non-linguistic items which might have an effect on
how, what or why people communicate 1 as well as time as an
important component of our linguistic research. Not all aspects of
communicative behavior can be explained if we only consider what
happens in the present, as this paper will show. However, when we
expand our focus to include non-linguistic portions of reality, as HSL
has done, problems such as ambiguity become more tractable and, at
times, may even disappear.
Research has shown that humor can be a laboratory for the study of
expectations. Humor relies heavily on the audiences pre-existing
assumptions about the world (Sypniewski 2010). HSL models these
2
assumptions with expectations. Briefly speaking, when initially set
out in a linkage 3, an expectation has no value. Some communicative
behavior may give the expectation a value which is usually modeled as
either a satisfaction of the expectation, i. e., what the person being
modeled expected to occur did, in fact, occur, or a failure to satisfy the
expectation, i. e., what the person being modeled expected to occur
did not, in fact, occur. Much humor relies on the failure to satisfy an
expectation which may have been created by the comedian or which
the comedian assumes (yet another expectation) the audience has
because of some sort of common knowledge.
It is becoming more and more apparent that people communicate
in ways which depend on a large number of pre-existing assumptions
or assumptions which may be created by the communicative behavior.
Some assumptions are shared; some are not. Humor is a laboratory for
the study of expectations because the manipulation of assumptions is
very often obvious when the humor is critically examined by a
researcher.
1

Communication (technically, communicative behavior) itself has an expanded


meaning in HSL to include various forms of non-verbal communication as well
as verbal communication. In short, HSL is not language dependent.
2
We will not discuss the difference between assumptions and expectations as
it would take us too far afield.
3
A linkage is what an HSL model of some observed event is called.
40

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

The Marx Brothers


The Marx Brothers made many classic plays and movies during the
1920s, 1930s and 1940s. Their second and one of their best movies is
Animal Crackers, a close adaptation of a Broadway play produced in
the late 1920s. In Animal Crackers, Groucho Marx plays Captain Jeffery 1
Spaulding, an African explorer 2, just returned from the jungle. In an
early scene, Mrs. Rittenhouse 3, a rich society matron, gave a party for
Captain Spaulding. Captain Spaulding wore typical but ill-fitting
explorers garb for the time: jodhpurs, boots, a tweed jacket, pith
helmet and the like. At least that is what everyone thought explorers
wore. On the day after the party, he started telling stories of his jungle
adventures to the enraptured party goers 4. Stories about adventures 5
in remote parts of the world were in vogue at the time the play and
movie were produced. The famous Tarzan series began in 1912 6 in
magazines and in 1918 in the movies. Using this as an example of the
types of stories (fictional that they might have been) which the public
eagerly read 7, listened to 8, and viewed, we see that the public expected
lengthy narratives. Captain Spaulding, however, doesnt waste his
breath on lengthy stories. He told very brief episodes of his voyage to
Africa and some of the experiences he had once he got into the bush,
1

A newspaper article shown at the beginning of the movie says the characters
name is Captain Geoffrey Spaulding.
2
Jungle exploration was something of a rage during the 1920s and 1930s
resulting in many newsreels and movies with characters like Clyde Beatty,
Tarzan and King Kong. A good example of the jungle explorer phenomenon
(albeit a South American jungle explorer) can be found in Grann 2010 and
Fawcett 1953. Were still fascinated: recall Indiana Jones.
3
She had no first name in the movie.
4
The party goers seemed to have stayed at Mrs. Rittenhouses home overnight.
Apparently, Mrs. Rittenhouses home was vast.
5
Many of these stories came from missionaries. They were used as source
material
for
popular
books,
often
uncritically;
see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintin_in_the_Congo#Works_cited
for
discussion about the source material for TinTin in the Congo from 1930.
6
Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote 13 Tarzan novels by 1930 and continued for many
years thereafter.
7
Besides magazine articles and books, by 1929 there was also a Tarzan comic
strip.
8
The Tarzan stories were also made into radio plays.
41

, . NO. 11, 2013

some 300 miles from the coast 1. The few stories he tells are all very
short thereby failing to satisfy the party goers and possibly the viewing
audiences expectations with regards to story length.
One of those brief stories was:
(1a) One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.
(1b) How he got in my pajamas, I dont know.

If Captain Spaulding had just said 1a, there would be no joke, no


humor. It is, of course, somewhat unexpected to picture an explorer,
the early 20th centurys vision of rugged, self-reliant manhood standing
in the middle of an African jungle in his pajamas but some expeditions
were known to have been quite civilized and may have included
pajamas for their white adventurers. 1a sets up the picture, the
expectation, of a rugged explorer in his pajamas, gun in hand (no
doubt with smoke curling up from the muzzle) standing over the
carcass of an elephant (as an aside, cape buffaloes, depicted in Picture
1, which were popular game for hunters because they were large and
considered dangerous) that had the misfortune of wandering into
camp. 1b overthrows that expected scene by saying that it was the
elephant that was in Captain Spauldings pajamas and not the brave
Captain. The audience now has a stranger picture of a dead elephant
wearing the Captains pajamas lying dead in or about the camp with
the Captain, possibly naked, standing over the body. To make the
unresolved, unasked question: What was the elephant doing in your
pajamas? even more difficult to answer, Groucho Marx was, to put it
uncharitably, a bit of a runt an not exactly the rugged he-man that
African explorers were commonly thought to be. For example, after
Mrs. Rittenhouse told the party goers that Captain Spaulding was
fearless, Mr. Chandler, an art aficionado who came to the party to
show off a recent acquisition, brushed off the Captains jacket saying
that there was a caterpillar on it, at which point Captain Spaulding
fainted dead away, hardly the epitome of the fearless adventurer.
During his story-telling, Grouchos rapid-fire delivery did not give the
party goers or the viewing audience enough time to form the question
about the elephant in his pajamas or other questions, much less to
answer them. The rapidity of the story-telling and his speech in
1

Adventure stories always took place in the interior of the continent. The
coast was the more settled part.
42

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

general reduced his listeners to the status of bystanders rather than


actual participants in a conversation.
There are two parallel sets of expectations here, as will be explained
in more detail in the Discussion. The large group of party goers, who
are otherwise unnamed characters in the movie and who sometimes
act as a chorus, have one set of expectations and the viewing audience
has another 1. Much of the humor is based on playing these two sets of
expectations off against each other in subtle and, because the movie
stars the Marx Brothers, sometimes not so subtle ways.
Picture 2 is a still from the movie showing Captain Spauldings
entrance to the party. He is carried on a sedan chair by African bearers
who are dressed in what seems to be some sort of Egyptian garb 2. In
this photo, he is greeted by Mr. Chandler who is dressed in
contemporary evening wear. The party goers stand in the background
admiringly. They are dressed in their finery but not as formally as Mr.
Chandler. Obviously, Captain Spaulding is, to these people, a celebrity
and a hero. It is apparent from the dialog that this party is the event of
the social season.
Shortly after leaving his sedan chair and after being greeted by
Mrs. Rittenhouse and others, Captain Spaulding is introduced to the
party goers as a heroic figure. During the course of this introduction,
Captain Spaulding alternates between appearing modest, almost shy
and acting out in very unexplorer-like ways. At one point, he does a
rather silly dance to the amusement of all. None of Captain
Spauldings antics causes anyone to question whether he is, in fact, a
heroic African explorer.
The next day, Captain Spaulding tells stories, one of which is the
two line story in 1a and 1b. There are several layers of humor in this
example. The first is that involving the expectation surrounding the
1

At the time of this writing, Animal Crackers is 73 years old but still popular.
We need to be alert to the fact that the viewing audiences expectations have
changed, probably several times. The party goers, because they are acted in a
scripted movie, do not change expectations over time.
2
Animal Crackers was originally a stage play produced in New York City in the
1920s. The world was in or barely out of the throws of Tut mania as the result
of the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen by Howard Carter in 1922. Of
course, the clothing is inappropriate. It is a comment on the contemporary
publics confused image of African exploration, Egyptian archeology, and
anything in the least bit exotic.
43

, . NO. 11, 2013

word pajamas. People, not elephants, wear pajamas but 1b shifts the
picture from the Captain wearing pajamas when he shot the elephant
to his kill wearing pajamas. Both the party goers and the audience
watching the movie have an expectation created by the last phrase in
1a (in my pajamas) that it was Captain Spaulding who was wearing
pajamas. 1b shifts the mental image to the elephant wearing Captain
Spauldings pajamas, a physical impossibility 1, and, therefore, does not
satisfy the expectation. This is funny enough but the Marx Brothers,
particularly Groucho, were great comedians who included
considerable social commentary in their best work.
The Captain Spaulding character is a commentary on the explorer
craze of the 1920s and 1930s, as well as the unthinking hero and
celebrity 2 worship of the general public. Prior to his first appearance
on the screen, the party goers and the viewing audience have
expectations of what an African explorer is like. The viewing
audience has another expectation besides their own African explorer
expectation. They have come to see a Marx Brothers movie and,
therefore, expect to see something funny in the extreme. By being the
opposite of the societally-expected African explorer type while
receiving the adulation of the party goers, who sing Hooray for
Captain Spaulding, the African Explorer when he first arrives,
Groucho creates an expectation in the viewing audience that he will be
something like what they would have expected an explorer to be like
while, at the same time, having an expectation of what the Marx
1

The impossibility of an elephant wearing any humans pajamas is actually


necessary. If Groucho had made the animal more human-sized, there might be
some speculation about how an animal of that size accidentally got into
Grouchos pajamas which might have been lying around or hung out on a
clothesline. This would change 1a into a factual statement which might, under
some, perhaps improbable, circumstances create an expectation which could
be satisfied and, hence, there would be no humor because there would be no
expectation that would not be satisfied.
2
One of the highlights of the party is to be the unveiling of the painting After
the hunt which was recently purchased by Mr. Chandler. The bland painting is
supposedly famous. Mr. Chandler is famous because he bought a famous
painting. There is no other reason to have invited Mr. Chandler to the party.
In fact, Chico and Harpo reveal that Mr. Chandler is actually Abie the Fish
Peddler, a person who would otherwise not be invited to a society party. One
of the underlying themes of the movie is that everyone is trying to fool
everybody else into thinking that they are something they are not.
44

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

Brothers were like. For the viewing audience, these expectations


conflict. The party goers, who only have the expectation about an
African explorer 1, act as though that expectation were satisfied. This
clash between expectation of the party goers and the viewing audience
creates a social commentary which constitutes a second layer of
meaning that is not complete with just 1a-1b. It is an underlying theme
throughout the movie. What I have called a clash is created by the fact
that, to the party goers, who are scripted characters, there is only
Captain Spaulding; to the viewing audience, there is Captain Spaulding
played by Groucho Marx. We will discuss this in more detail later.
Groucho is anything but the publics ideal of an African explorer.
His physical type alone rules him out of the Fawcett/Beatty category
but his demeanor seals the exclusion. It is never quite clear whether
Captain Spaulding is a fraud but, in any event, he is not above taking
advantage of whatever adulation that comes his way. He jokes about
2
his activities . The great explorers of the day would often talk lovingly
about the lands they explored such as:
1. Above us towered the Ricardo Franco Hills, flat-topped and mysterious,
their flanks scarred by deep quebradas. Time and the foot of man had not
touched those summits. They stood like a lost world, forested to their
tops, and the imagination could picture the last vestiges there of an age
long vanished. Isolated from the battle with changing conditions,
monsters from the dawn of mans existence might still roam those
heights unchallenged, imprisoned and protected by unscalable cliffs.
(Fawcett 1953:122)

Captain Spaulding was less enthusiastic: Africa is Gods country and


he can have it. In short, the public expected its explorers not only to
look a certain way but to behave in a certain way. Captain Spaulding
satisfied none of these expectations for the viewing audience. The fact
that the party goers acted as though Captain Spaulding satisfied their
expectations was part of the Marx Brothers social commentary about
the uncritical nature of the public towards its heroes.
1

The party goers only act with Captain Spaulding. For them, there is no such
person as Groucho.
2
Then, we tried to remove the tusks ... but they were embedded in so firmly, we
couldn't budge them. Of course, in Alabama the Tusk-a-loosa. But thats entirely
ir-elephant to what I was talking about. This joke immediately follows 1a and
1b.
45

, . NO. 11, 2013

Percy Fawcett 1 was a genuine explorer, primarily of the Amazon


basin and other parts of South America. He made several expeditions
into the Amazon searching for what he called the Lost City of Z. In
order to fund his expeditions, he gave lectures in England. As the
result of some of them, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, best known for his
Sherlock Holmes stories, wrote the Lost World in 1912 (Fawcett 1953:
122) which later became a popular film in the 1920s, around the time
that Animal Crackers was on Broadway. Clyde Beatty was a circus
performer, animal trainer, sometime adventurer with the motto Bring
em back alive! and movie star of the early 1930s. Men such as these
were in the publics imagination during the time that Animal Crackers
was made and formed the general perception of what an African
explorer was like: ruggedly handsome, fearless, wise in the ways of
nature, able to live off the land, and, in some respects, romantics.
Compare Picture 3 and 4 with Picture 2.
Picture 2 shows Grouchos entrance into the movie. Prior to this
scene, there had been much discussion among the cast about the
arrival of Captain Spaulding. It is easy to see from these early scenes
that the cast of characters, except for Captain Spaulding and his aid,
played by Grouchos brother Zeppo, eagerly anticipated the Captains
arrival. If we wished to model this, we would give each characters
2
participant in the linkage we set up an expectation like [R]<expect
real explorer> 3. Prior to Grouchos entrance, this expectation has no
value. Note what happens when Groucho does appear. Rather than the
expectation failing as we might expect, the expectation is satisfied:
[R]<expect real explorer/true>.
This is an appropriate place to discuss the viewing audiences
reaction. The viewing audience knows that they are watching a Marx
Brothers movie and that the Marx Brothers are noted for their nearly
surrealistic humor. The viewing audience has the same expectation as
the characters in the movie but it is certainly not satisfied: [A]<expect
real explorer/false>. As a consequence, there is a dissonance between
1

Fawcett was a colonel in the British army when he first started exploring. His
first expeditions were into Bolivia at the behest of the British government.
Recall Grouchos role as Captain Spaulding. This is yet another subtle means of
creating an expectation in the party goers.
2
We might wish to model the unnamed party goers as one participant, a sort
of corporate character in the linkage. We do this in our discussion.
3
[R] could model Mrs. Rittenhouse in the movie.
46

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

the viewing audience and some of the characters in the movie that sets
up the viewing audience for upcoming jokes. However, the viewing
audience sees that Captain Spaulding is played by Groucho Marx who,
because of subsequent activities in the movie, becomes a sort of
additional character for the viewing audience. The audience also sees
the incongruity in the party goers expectations of Captain Spaulding
which only heightens the humor.
Modeling the joke in 1a-1b is easy enough. We set up a linkage with
two participants: [elephant] = [Captain] + [party goers]. The people at
the party have the expectation that only people wear pajamas: [party
1
goers]<expect pajamas/human> . [Captain] has the task of telling the
joke which we will represent in two parts 2 [Captain]<say 1a> and
[Captain]<say 1b>. [party goers] have the task of listening to the
Captain, which we will also break into two subtasks: [party
goers]<listen to 1a> and [party goers]<listen to 1b>. [party goers] also
has an expectation procedure which we will only partially describe 3:
2a. [party goers]<expect pajamas/human> :: continue
2b. [party goers]<-expect pajamas/human> :: <look puzzled>

When [Captain]<say 1a> executes, the first part of the expectation


procedure, 2a, executes 4 but when [Captain]<say 1b> executes, [party
goers]'s expectation fails and the subtask <look puzzled> executes, 2b.
In the movie, Captain Spaulding simply goes on and does not wait for
any reaction to 1b. Groucho's delivery style is rapid fire and he does
not give his audience much chance to react to any one joke in
particular, often leaving them at sea. The rapidity of his delivery
creates visual confusion in the minds of the party goers which seems
1

In the movie, the party goers are an anonymous group, each member having
similar reactions to all others. We can say that [party goers] can be treated as a
collective whole. [Captain] has a role part of [comedian] as described in
Sypniewski 2010.
2
In a more formal presentation, we could say that [Captain] has a task of
telling the joke: [Captain]<tell elephant joke> and that the task <tell elephant
joke> has two subtasks <say 1a> and <say 1b>. The numbers are here for
convenience only. If we developed the linkage more formally, they would not
be part of the notation or description.
3
The expectation procedure can be part of both [party goers]<listen 1a> and
[party goers]<listen 1b> or a separate task.
4
Essentially, 2a means that the party goers go about doing what they are doing
and are otherwise unaffected by 1a.
47

, . NO. 11, 2013

to throw them back on their experience in order to make sense of what


is happening. However, the viewing audience, which has had the same
expectation (about African explorers) as the party goers and has had
their expectation fail, laughs instead, in part because their second
expectation (about the nature of a Marx Brothers movie) was satisfied.
The difference between the party goers in the movie and the
audience of the movie is not simply a matter of scripting. Recall the
1
expectation about the African explorer:
3a: [party goers]<expect real explorer>
3b: [audience]<expect real explorer>
Both the party goers and the audience still have this expectation, now with
values 2, when the joke is told.
4a: [party goers]<expect real explorer/true>
4b: [audience]<expect real explorer/false>

The party goers are made to react to the joke as though they were
acting upon 4a, which causes their bewilderment. However, the
viewing audience also has their expectation fail (4b), allowing the
viewing audience to see the absurdity of the situation described in the
joke. In short, once they are given values by the events of the movie,
the 4a and 4b play off each other. The difference between 4a and 4b
sets up the humorous situation for the viewing audience once Groucho
says 1a and creates other expectations:
5a: [party goers]<expect pajamas/ human>
5b: [audience]<expect pajamas/ human>

Once Groucho says 1b, both expectations fail <-expect


pajamas/human>. The audience gets the joke; the party goers do not.
The humor is intensified for the audience by seeing that the party
goers do not get the joke.
One more thing should be noted. The joke relies on the phrase in
my pajamas which would normally not be ambiguous. The joke makes
it intentionally ambiguous prior to the expectations getting a value (3a
and 3b). If this phrase were disambiguated prior to the expectations
1

An expectation is a property of the person being modeled which initially has


no value. It gets a value when the expected circumstance either occurs (the
expectation is satisfied) or does not occur (the expectation is not satisfied); see
Sypniewski 2012.
2
3a and 3b get values when Captain Spaulding makes his entrance.
48

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

getting a value or after the fact, the humor would fall apart because 5a
and 5b would get different values. Groucho takes care of this problem
with the speed of his delivery. He moves on more quickly than the
party goers can resolve the ambiguity. We can see from this that
comedians are intuitively aware of expectations in their audiences and,
in this case, playing off the expectations of a fictitious audience (the
party goers) and the real one.
Mel Brooks and Gene Wilder
Mel Brooks co-wrote with Gene Wilder and directed Young
Frankenstein. The 1976 movie is a comedy which uses the famous
Frankenstein story and movie 1 and its genre as the basis for humor.
Gene Wilder stars as the Viktor Frankensteins grandson. He is invited
to the old family castle in Transylvania to take up residence. The scene
that we examine here takes place in the early part of the movie after
young Frankenstein arrives in Transylvania. He is met at the train
station by the faithful family retainer Igor who will drive him to the
castle in a hay wagon.
When Dr. Frankenstein and Igor approach the hay wagon, the
doctor throws some of his luggage into the wagon. Dr. Frankenstein
cannot see into the wagon because its sides are taller than he is. They
2
hear a loud OOOF! as though the luggage hit someone. Dr.
Frankenstein boosts himself up on the wagon step and sees a woman
(Inga, played by Teri Garr) lying on her back on the hay; see Picture 5.
She is awake and somewhat dreamy eyed. Later, Igor introduces her to
Dr. Frankenstein as his new assistant. Dr. Frankenstein did not ask for
an assistant prior to his arrival. The executor of his great-grandfather
Beaufort's estate, Herr Waldman, invited the doctor to his ancestral
home and thought that he might like an assistant. Neither the doctor
nor Igor discuss Ingas qualifications as a medical assistant. Once they

In the interview with Gene Wilder on the Young Frankenstein DVD, Wilder
admits to being inspired by the Bride of Frankenstein as well. This can be seen
in Madeline Kahns distinctive hairdo at the end of Young Frankenstein which
resembles the hairdo of Frankensteins bride.
2
Or oh!. The sound is the sound of someone with the breath knocked out of
them.
49

, . NO. 11, 2013

are introduced, the doctor does not inquire about her qualifications at
all 1.
The particular piece of humor that we consider depends in part on
the appearance of Inga. First, she is an obviously attractive, sexy young
woman. Second, she wears what is sometimes called a peasant blouse
or peasant dress, a low-cut, off-the-shoulder dress draped
precariously on her upper torso. Thirdly, she is lying on hay.
When Inga first sees Dr. Frankenstein peering over the side of the
2
wagon , she asks him whether he would like a roll in the hay. The
phrase roll in the hay is an American euphemism for sexual
intercourse. Dr. Frankenstein looks knowingly at the audience. Inga
then starts rolling back and forth in the hay, singing, in a nursery
rhyme fashion, Roll, roll, roll in the hay. Needless to say, there is
nothing sexual about this. Inga never meant anything sexual by her
appearance or words despite what Dr. Frankenstein might have
thought 3.
The scene was carefully set up. The elements of Ingas appearance
mentioned above were not accidental or haphazard. They parallel a
notorious movie, the Western called The Outlaw. This movie, made in
1943, introduced Jane Russell who became one of the eras
bombshells. When movie audiences first saw Jane (her character was
named Rio) she was in a stable, lying on hay, wearing a peasant blouse
(she was a peasant of sorts) and eventually engaged in some off screen
sexual intercourse with Billy the Kid. At least, that was the innuendo.
Although many contemporaries considered The Outlaw to be
scandalous, the movie was made at a time when explicit sex was not

Madeline Kahn, who plays the doctors fiance, raises a question about this
later in the movie. It is not answered then either.
2
One might even say that he was leering over the side of the wagon. Pearlman
writes:
Dr. Frankenstein climbed up on the wheel and looked into the back of the
wagon. A young woman was lying there in the hay. She was so gorgeous,
in a peasant way, that she was almost frightening. The doctor had been
dreaming of bazooms like Inga's since the day he reached puberty. And
she was obviously friendly. She was smiling. (Pearlman 1974:28-29)
3
In his novel based on the film, Pearlman writes:
Dr. Frankenstein guessed that she was singing a Transylvanian childrens
song. It certainly had spirit. And possibilities. (Pearlman 1974: 29)
50

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

shown. However, there was no attempt to hide Russells sexuality 1 and


it had been used in marketing 2 the picture which was released in a
censored version in 1943 and later, over objections, in an uncut
version 3 in 1946.
There is another element in the scene which must be taken into
account: the hay wagon. There is no reason why Igor should pick up
the doctor in a hay wagon rather than a carriage or an automobile.
Indeed, later in the movie, different characters arrive at the castle in
automobiles. Later in the movie, Inspector Kemp arrives in a limousine
driven by an official chauffeur and the doctors fiance, Elizabeth,
arrived by taxi. The only reason that Igor picks up the doctor in a hay
wagon is to set up in the audiences minds the reference to The
Outlaw. It is part of the setting which help create the expectations that
form the basis for the roll in the hay joke.
Both scenes are brief but they make substantial impacts on the
films. The setting in the hay wagon is an allusion to The Outlaw and
Jane Russells personality as portrayed in that movie. The allusion not
only sets up the roll-in-the-hay joke but it sets up an expectation of
sexual tension between the doctor and Inga throughout Young
Frankenstein, like that between Rio and Billy the Kid in The Outlaw:
6a: [audienceYF]<expect Inga to be like Rio>
6b: [audienceYF]<expect sexual activity>

The roll in the hay joke, itself, sets up additional expectation. Inga is
now expected to be a bit innocent in the ways of the world:
7. [audienceYF]<expect Ingas innocence> 4

Some
posters
alone
were
controversial;
see,
e.g.,
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/8354765/Jane-Russell-theposter-controversy-that-made-a-star.html
2
One
can
see
23
advertising
posters
for
movie
at:
http://www.movieposterdb.com/movie/0036241/The-Outlaw.html. Out of 23
posters, 18 show Jane Russell laying back on the hay or simply laying back in
similar poses. All show the actress wearing her peasant blouse or something
very much like one. Whatever the exact design, the blouse was draped
precariously over her torso.
3
Today, we might refer to this as a directors cut.
4
The failure of 6a could create 7 through an expectation procedure.
51

, . NO. 11, 2013

This expectation continues throughout the film and allows the


audience to see the sexual innuendos which Inga does not see, thereby
heightening the humor of her role.
Discussion
Humor makes its mark without analysis. We laugh when we think
something is funny. By analyzing humor we can understand what
makes us laugh. When we analyze humor, we appreciate that we are
not simply creatures that live in the moment. There is a complex
history which we all have. Some of it is shared; some of it is personal.
What we share makes us the social beings that we are.
Expectations
Both scenes described above are brief, taking less than a minute
each. As such, the participants could not have afforded to linger on
convoluted audience assumptions. The assumptions, here modeled by
expectations, had to be likely enough properties of the audience so
that the audiences reactions to the failure to satisfy expectations
would be reasonably predicted by the comedians and their writers. In
Animal Crackers, the assumptions about the audience came about
because of the personalities of Groucho Marx and his brothers and the
absurdity of the joke; in Young Frankenstein, the comedians
assumptions came about because they thought their audience could
draw the analogy between Inga and Rio (6a) as well as see the
ambiguity of the phrase roll in the hay once Inga started singing and
rolling in the hay.
Expectations are closely related to time. Yngve tells us that a
linkage is a system defined over a definite stretch of time (Yngve 1996:
1
215). In other words, the model has a beginning and an end . What we
see in the current examples is that, although we might model
communicative behavior that takes place at one specific time, we
cannot ignore assumptions which have been built up prior to the
events being modeled. Assumptions and the expectations which model
them result from the prior experiences of the persons being modeled
1

The researches and theories of traditional linguistics sometimes seem to exist


in a timeless, Platonic realm. Because of its connection to the real world, all
HSL models include references to specific, identifiable pieces of time.
52

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

and may persist over substantial periods of time. What comedians


show us is that this experience, though internal to the persons being
modeled, are not inaccessible by others from the outside. Some
experiences are common enough to be assumed to be part of the
general public or, if one person knows another well, to be part of a
specific person. We can see genuine evidence of expectations in
peoples gestures, speech and reactions to events. Laughter is one such
reaction. Expectations are not philosophically created entities.
Expectations are models of real properties in real people.
In both our examples, the comedians assume that their audiences
will have certain assumptions which we model through expectations
because the audience was composed of persons who lived at a certain
time through certain events: the explorer craze, the controversy
around The Outlaw, etc. The comedians assumed that their audiences
would be familiar with certain social conventions: pajamas as sleep
wear, the slang phrase roll in the hay, etc. None of these assumptions
were esoteric or specialized. The comedians expected their audiences
to act like ordinary people of their time. Although assumptions exist in
the present, some may have been created by events in the past, e. g.,
the assumptions around The Outlaw may have been created 30 years
before Young Frankenstein.
I went into some detail about the explorer craze and The Outlaw
because the reader might not be familiar with some of this
background. In other words, I do not have the same assumptions
about my audience at this time as did the comedians about their
audience of their time. From this we can see that expectations and the
assumptions upon which they are based are closely linked to the
existing contemporary social milieu and are not abstractions. Both the
elephant joke and the roll in the hay joke were told so quickly as to
make them immediately funny only to those with the expectations that
the comedians predicted ahead of time. Expectations are heavily timedependent. The assumptions that expectations model must be preexisting for the model to be accurate and for the jokes to work.
Through comedy, we can see that the life time experience of a person
creates certain assumptions of how the world behaves; these
assumptions and, thereby, a persons experience may be modeled with
expectations.
There is significant evidence for the existence of assumptions. We
would have a difficult time living our daily lives if we did not share
53

, . NO. 11, 2013

assumptions with one another. Think of how tedious and slow our
lives would be if we had to tell every person with whom we came into
contact every detail about everything that we wanted to say as if they
were hearing it for the first time. HSL models these assumptions with
expectations which are properties of a participant in a linkage. In other
words, HSL sees assumptions as part of a real person. They are not
theoretical entities.
This is not the case for other linguistic analyses of humor. Various
philosophically based theoretical objects are created in order to
support an analysis which only looks at the language of humor and not
humor as an activity subject to the whole panoply of human life. For
example, (Higashimori 2009) describes jokes in nearly metaphysical
terms as the title of his work indicates. There is little or no reference to
what happens between people but, primarily, to metalinguistic objects
and metarepresentations. These are purely theoretical and depend
entirely on the theories of his school of linguistics, Relevance Theory.
Expectations and assumptions are real and would exist whether Yngve
developed HSL or not. If one were not comfortable working with
metalinguistic objects, Higashimoris analyses may not be usable in the
furtherance of a study of humor. Expectations and assumptions can be
used by any scientifically minded researcher.
Furthermore, all of Higashimoris example jokes are very simple. It
is not clear from his paper how more complex humor, such as that
presented here, could be analyzed with metalinguistic objects.
The Setting
Once again, comedy can help us understand the relation between
expectations and their social milieu. The Romans liked comedy as
much as we do. The two major Roman comedic playwrights, Plautus
and Terence, wrote different kinds of comedy for different audiences.
Plautus wrote what we might call sitcoms; Terence wrote comedies
of manners. Plautus plays have been adapted for the modern stage
and as the movie A Funny Thing Happened to me on the Way to the
Forum. It is still very funny. Terences plays need footnotes and are
rarely performed. The original social milieus for Plautus and Terence
were very different from each other. Plautus audience was more blue
collar than Terences audience. Plautus relied on human nature as a
source of expectations. Terence relied on the experience of the
contemporary educated elite for his.
54

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

Martin Gardner, in his analysis of the Marx Brothers as social


critics, records an anecdote that will help us here. Recall that Animal
Crackers was originally a Broadway musical written by George S.
Kaufman. Gardner says:
A perfect example of how quickly a reference may become obsolete occurred
during a performance of the Broadway stage version of Animal Crackers.
George S. Kaufman reputedly said that Groucho uttered the ad lib that
produced the greatest single explosive laugh in Broadway history.
Harpo was in the middle of a leisurely, and probably boring, harp solo
when Groucho, with pained ennui, said to the audience, I wonder what
ever happened to Rhinelander? The topical reference juxtaposed with
Harpos serious turn on the harp ignited an explosion of laughter from
the attentive and subdued audience. Most contemporary audiences will
not understand the joke and its reference. (Gardner 2009: 12-13)

In a footnote, Gardner explains that Kip Rhinelander was a socialite in


New York City who was involved in a scandalous divorce over his wifes
ancestry. Hardly anyone remembers the case now but in the late 1920s,
a New York City audience had it fresh in their minds. Experience,
therefore assumptions, therefore expectations, which Gardner calls a
reference in the above quote, are dependent on the personal histories of
the individuals being observed. Those experiences may be general to a
large part of the population or may be more specific to an individual or
a small group. When creating an act, the comedian must sense the
nature of the audience in order to properly manipulate their
assumptions. This example clearly shows that expectations can cease to
exist over the course of time, something which we will not discuss
further here.
The scene from Young Frankenstein reinforces this point. The
setting refers to another movie that was produced some thirty years
before Young Frankenstein but still echoed with movie goers, however
dimly. The setting: hay, a young woman dressed in a certain way lying
on her back, is enough to resurrect a past experience which recalls or
creates an assumption. The scene is quick but the setting is strong
enough to do its job.
If the above analysis is accepted by the reader, it tells us something
1
else. HSL claims that the setting has significant effects on the behavior
1

A setting is defined as a representation in linguistic theory of other parts of the


physical surroundings of a group in an assemblage that includes just those
55

, . NO. 11, 2013

of people when they communicate with each other. While previous


studies have taken the immediate setting into account (see, e. g.,
Sypniewski 2004), the current study suggests that, at times, the setting
may extend into the past if there is some reference to it in the course of
contemporary events. Indeed, some models of people communicating
with other people may not be accurate or as fully developed as they
could be without extending the setting into the past; e. g., the
Rhinelander anecdote mentioned above.
Taking the past into account comports with our everyday
experience. Although it is commonplace to think of a conversation as
1
an exchange of information , conversations are often comments on past
events or continuations of previous discussions. As such, it is important
to know something of the past in order to interpret the conversations
correctly. We do this all the time. If we cannot understand the
references in the conversation because we do not understand the past,
we ask for clarification, i. e., for some sort of explanation of the past
events being referred to in the conversation. When the explanation is
given, assumptions are created in the listener.
Role Parts 2
A role part in HSL is

a representation in linguistic theory of the functional part or role that a


person plays in a particular assemblage (Yngve 1996: 193)

For example, if we observed someone ordering a cup of coffee in a


restaurant, we could model the observation with a role parts of
[customer] and [waitress]. HSL recognizes that individuals not only
act as individuals but often act out roles. In other words, if Bob were
the customer and Sandy were the waitress, each would bring their own
interpretation to their roles while Mary and Rhoda would differently
act theirs because they were different people. However, anyone who
acted as either a customer or waitress would do very much the same
thing relative to each other, regardless of their individual
properties that are required to account for their communicative relevance in the
assemblage (Yngve 1996: 129).
1
The term information is usually used uncritically and ambiguously.
2
I would like to acknowledge my graduate students Doug Taggert, Kevin
Desmond, Louis Szgalsky, Rob Hussey, Zabih Shinwari, Jack Myers, and Liaqat
Saraosh who helped me work this section out in my mind.
56

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

personalities. It would be highly unusual to say the least for Bob to


order a cup of coffee from Sandy only to see Sandy change the oil in
his car in response. Role parts and expectations have much to do with
each other.
In Animal Crackers, Groucho occasionally performs an aside, a
theatrical device in which an actor steps outside his role and talks to
the audience, perhaps commenting on the actions of the play. One of
those asides takes place in the scene we have described above. The
party goers sing their song of greeting to Groucho. At one point, they
sing:
party goers:
Groucho:
Party goers:

Hooray for Captain Spaulding, the African explorer.


Did someone call me schnorrer?
Hooray, hooray, hooray!

Groucho does not otherwise participate in the song. Aside from


creating a rather unusual rhyme, the word schnorrer both comments
on Groucho's thoughts on how he will be perceived and shows that
Groucho is trying to hide something. Schnorrer is Yiddish 1. African
explorers are generally not Jewish. The word has several meanings. On
its face, schnorrer means beggar. It is nuanced beyond meaning simply
someone who asks for a handout. Schnorrer can mean a freeloader or
a social parasite, i. e., a person who habitually takes advantage of the
generosity of others. According to the now online 1906 Jewish
Encyclopedia, schnorrer is a
Judo-German term of reproach for a Jewish beggar having some
pretensions to respectability. In contrast to the ordinary house-to-house
beggar, whose business is known and easily recognized, the schnorrer
assumes a gentlemanly appearance, disguises his purpose, gives evasive
reasons for asking assistance, and is not satisfied with small favors,
being indeed quite indignant when such are offered. He usually travels
from city to city and even into foreign countries; but he must not be
confounded with the tramp, whose counterpart is not to be found in
Jewish beggary.
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13293-schnorrer

Grouchos question is, then, a question whether anyone recognizes him


for what he is. The question is never answered and Groucho goes on as
planned. We learn in the very first scene of the movie, in which Hives,
1

Schnorrer is also a German word. This should not be surprising when one
considers the considerable connections between German and Yiddish.
57

, . NO. 11, 2013

the head butler admonishes the rest of the staff to be attentive and
respectful to Captain Spaulding, that the Captain is viewed as a major
celebrity. Hives refers to him as one of those men who expect royal
treatment.
When he asks his question, Groucho steps out of his role as
Captain Spaulding. He is simply Groucho Marx 1. This happens so
quickly that we might not otherwise notice it. One moment, he is
Captain Spaulding. The next, he is Groucho, asking an important
question but getting no answer and then he is Captain Spaulding again.
It is important to note that he receives no affirmative answer.
Immediately after the question, the party goers sing Hooray, hooray,
hooray!, something they would not do if they answered his question
affirmatively. No one treats a schnorrer as a hero.
If we were to model Grouchos behavior, we would have to give
Groucho two distinct role parts, one for the Captain and one for
Groucho. While this may, at first, sound a bit odd, upon further
consideration we can see that this is not all that unusual. Later in
Animal Crackers, Groucho stops talking to Mrs. Rittenhouse and a
guest, Mrs. Whitehead, and pretends to be acting in a Eugene ONeill
play, Strange Interlude 2. Aside from dramatic asides, each of often play
more than one role at a time. Consider this actual observation. Two
coworkers, Jack and Lisa, are sitting in Jacks office discussing some
work related matter when Jacks telephone rings. It is his daughter
Stephanie who wants to ask him about some family-related matter.
Jack talks to her briefly and hangs up the phone. He then goes back to
talking to Lisa about their work.
Jack has two roles. In one role, he is an office worker; in the other,
he is a father. This scenario cannot be modeled without reference to
both roles. One way of modeling this little scenario is to use three
1

There are several ways to analyze this. One could say that the Captain
actually is a schnorrer and steps out of his role as Captain to ask the question
because he is afraid that his real identity (as a schnorrer) might be revealed. In
any event, there are two roles here.
2
He makes several asides like in the ONeill play but uses his own strange
commentary on the scene he is performing in Animal Crackers. Strange
Interlude was on Broadway about the same time as The Cocoanuts, another
Marx Brothers play which led to their first movie. The ONeill play became
notorious for episodes like the asides which were meant to show the
characters deepest thoughts.
58

B.SYPNIEWSKI. NON-VERBAL INFLUENCES ON THE CREATION OF EXPECTATIONS IN COMMUNICATION

linkages: [office], [family], and [both], with [both] being a coordinating


linkage containing [office] and [family]. [both] manages the tasks and
other aspects of the other two linkages. Since role parts are functional
parts of a linkage (Yngve 1996: 195), we can see that they can be placed
in [both]. Jack has only one role in each of the other two linkages, as
appropriate to each individual linkage. [both] co-ordinates these role
parts.
Just like Jack, the participant Groucho also has two role parts:
[captain] and [Groucho]. They are coordinated through a linkage we
can call [comedy]. [comedy] co-ordinates two other linkages we call
[animal crackers] and [theatre]. [animal crackers] is the linkage that
models the goings on in the movie and [theatre] is a linkage that
models Groucho's interaction with the viewing audience.
Conclusion
Humor is created by manipulating the audiences expectations
about how the real world works and then failing to satisfy those
expectations. This failure prompts laughter which is the goal of humor.
Expectations can be created verbally or non-verbally. The setting can
create expectations. Since expectations are the result of past events, in
order for the setting to create expectations, the setting may have to
refer to those past events.
REFERENCES
Fawcett, P. (1953). Exploration Fawcett. New York: Overlook Press.
Gardner, M. (2009). The Marx Brothers as Social Critics. Jefferson,
NC: McFarland Press.
Grann, D. (2010). The Lost City of Z. New York: Vintage Books.
Higashimori, I. (2009) Jokes and Metarepresentations: Definition
Jokes and Metalinguistic Jokes. In LACUS Forum XXXVI. Toronto.
Provine, R. (2000). Laughter, a Scientific Investigation. New York:
Viking.
Sypniewski, B. (2012). Preliminary Comments on the use of
Expectations and Expectation Procedures in Hard Science Linguistics.
In World of Linguistics and Communication, 2012; also posted at
http://englvm00.utad.utoledo.edu/hsl/
Sypniewski, B. (2010). Hard Science Linguistics looks at humor.
Presented at the Ars Grammatica conference, Minsk State Linguistic
59

, . NO. 11, 2013

University,
Minsk,
Belarus,
2010.
Retrieved
from
http://englvm00.utad.utoledo.edu/hsl/ and http://elvis.rowan.edu/
~bps/modSimPapers.html
Sypniewski, B. (2004). Lottery Betting. In V. Yngve, & Z. Wsik
(Eds.), Hard Science Linguistics (pp. 174-187). New York: Continuum.
Yngve, V. (1996). From Grammar to Science. Philadelphia: John
Benjamins.
Yngve, V., & Wsik Z. (2004). Hard Science Linguistics. New York:
Continuum.
SOURCES
A Funny Thing Happened to me on the Way to the Forum, MGM,
Santa Monica, CA 1966.
Animal Crackers. Universal Studios, Universal City, CA 2004 1.
The Outlaw. Alpha Video, Narberth, PA 2003. This is the censored
1943 version.
The Outlaw. The 1943 version is in the public domain; it can be
seen online at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JRuvspnEBGA.
Young Frankenstein. Twentieth Century Fox, Beverly Hills, CA,
2002.

,
-,

sypniewski@rowan.edu

Bernard Sypniewski
Rowan University Camden Campus
825 Washington Avenue,
Woodbine, NJ 08270 (home)

The script of Animal Crackers has, apparently, not been published. There has
been a copyright controversy regarding the film which has apparently delayed
the dissemination of the script and, therefore, its analysis. A first draft of the
script of Young Frankenstein by Gene Wilder (Mel Brooks is not credited) is
available
online
at
http://www.moviescriptsource.com/moviescript.php?id=286. Note, however, that the scene of the meeting between Dr.
Frankenstein and Inga is very different than the one described here which is
taken from the movie. A novel based on the film reproduces the scene which
we describe pretty accurately. It is Young Frankenstein by Gilbert Pearlman,
Ballantine Books, NY 1974.

60

741.5:168.522

. . (, )




, . ,
. ,
.
,
. - ,



, .
c
. ,

, .
,
.
: , , , , , , -
LYUDMILA I. GRISHAEVA (VORONEZH, RUSSIAN FEDERATION). POTENTIAL
OF CARICATURE AS RESEARCH OBJECT IN HUMANITIES. The paper analyses
the linguists acute interest in caricature-as-text. There are several
properties of caricatures that arouse interest in the researchers,
namely, the variability of linguistic means and blurred stylistic
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 61-79. . . , 2013.

, . NO. 11, 2013

boundaries, the pursuit for hybridization and semiotic heterogeneity.


Caricatures are vivid examples of texts that utilize both verbal and
non-verbal means. Still, different cultural codes and their functions
can be described on the common theoretical basis. Special attention
is paid to the paradoxical nature of caricatures. The author
substantiates the interpretation of the cognitive and discursive
parameters like US vs. THEM as the semantic pivot of the caricature
and claims that stereotypes play an important role in thematic
structuring and perception of the caricature.
Political mediadiscourse is the primary sphere of existence for
caricatures. Therefore, basic characteristics of political discourse are
compared to semantic and formal properties of caricatures as
multimodal texts. There are five spheres for which multidimentional
description of caricatures allows to raise new research questions. The
five spheres are further divided into more specific areas according to
their semantic properties. This subdivision allows to set new topical
problems in the description of caricatures. the specific theistic
associations and representations which are weakened or do not exist
at all in the common national speech.
Keywords: caricature, hybridity, heterogeneity, multimodality,
mediadiscourse, agenda, autostereotype, heterostereotype


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Pastukhov, A. G. (2010). Agenda Setting ili ustanovlenije povestki
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(pp. 171-185). Orel: OOO Gorizont.
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zhurnalistike nakanune I v period Pervoj mirovoj vojny [The German
and the Turk in Russian Satirical Mass Media before and during the
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in Political Discourse]. Voronezh: IPC VGU.
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und kulturelle Phnomene. Berlin: Frank & Timme.
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(Eds.) Konzepte der Kulturwissenschaften (pp. 39-72). Stuttgart;
Weimar.


. 10-110, 394006

grischaewa@rgph.vsu.ru.ru

Lyudmila I. Grishaeva
Voronezh State University
pl. Lenina 10-48, 394006
Russian Federation
phone: +7 (473) 220 84 58

79

82-7(398.23:811.111)

Magdziarz K. (Opole, Poland)


SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

OF PLAYBOYS PARTY JOKES AND THATS LIFE!S RUDE JOKES

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K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES (OPOLE, POLAND). While
analysing jokes, most researchers focus on the Internet-based
humour. Jokes published in magazines seem to present an
understudied area. Additionally, there is no study that would focus
on representation of both women and men in magazines for both
men and women. Therefore, this article aims to compare jokes from
stereotypical female and male magazines, focusing on the presence of
linguistic sexism in the jokes. Moreover, assuming that jokes may be
conceptualised as a form of discourse, this study also aims to present
the images of both sexes that are created by the magazines.
Keywords: sexism, humour, GTVH, sexist humour, feminist humour,
linguistic sexism, magazines

1. Introduction
For a relatively long period of time now it has been claimed that
sexism, being a form of discrimination based on sex/gender
differences, may be reflected in a language. Therefore, sexist language
has been identified as defining, depreciating and ignoring one of the
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 80-93. K. Magdziarz, 2013.

K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES

sexes (or genders; most often women, though) (Henley 1987;


Weatherall 2002). However, because of the severe criticism sexist
language has received, many of the forms and terms labelled as sexist
are no longer in use (in public discourses, at least). But, the problem of
sexist language has not disappeared; its forms have become more
covert. Thus, following Sara Mills (2008), today linguistic sexism may
be classified as overt, i. e. concerning all of the forms and terms
thoroughly described by the feminist movement, and indirect, i. e.
occurring in a particular context, at the level of metaphors and
presuppositions, and very often covered by irony and humour. In this
article the main focus is put on indirect sexism, since this type of
linguistic sexism is present in the media most often. However, in order
to make the study as complete as possible, attention to direct form of
sexism is also given.
The main objective of this article is to verify the claim that the
language of jokes of both mens and womens magazines is sexist.
Because of the nature of PLAYBOY magazine, it is assumed that jokes
mainly about women are to be found in Party Jokes. Similarly, because
of the nature of THATS LIFE! magazine, jokes mainly about men are
expected to be found in Rude Jokes. In addition, claiming that jokes
may be a form of discourse, this study also aims to provide answers to
the question of what images of women and men are created in the
jokes of mens and womens magazines.
2. Sexism and language
Sexism is usually defined as a form of discrimination on the
grounds of sex (and/or gender) (Lind 2007). Although some
researchers on sexism claim that the basis of sexism is sex (and not
gender), the author of this article assumes, after Judith Butler (1990),
that sex and gender should be conceptualised as interconnected and
indivisible. While in the past the two were separated, claiming that
gender is social and cultural construct constituting masculinities and
femininities and sex is biological characteristic marking humans as
females or males (Cameron 2006), it seems that sex and gender are not
as distinct as it might occur. Therefore, sexism is both an action and
an attitude, behaviour, policy and language in which views and
believes that one sex (gender) is inferior to other are visible, thus
endorsing traditional stereotyping and gender roles (Brant, Mynatt &
81

, . NO. 11, 2013

Doherty 1999; Glick & Fiske 1997). This definition shall be considered
as the working definition, since it encompasses all the elements being
crucial for the purpose of this article. Moreover, it should be stressed
out that the author of this paper believes that both males and females
may engage in sexist discrimination as well as may be the victims of
such a discrimination 1. Also, it is important to note that sexism should
not be conceptualised with negative aspects only. By introducing the
Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Peter Glick and Suzan Fiske (1999)
propose the coexistence of both negative and positive affects,
differentiating between hostile and benevolent sexism. Therefore,
hostile forms of sexism include subjectively negative stereotyping
resulting in justification (or criticism) of mens dominance (e. g. by
describing women as too weak or men as too aggressive), whereas
benevolent forms of sexism include subjectively positive stereotyping
resulting in beliefs and attitudes related to interdependencies of the
sexes (e. g. because of mens strength, men should protect women, or
women should take care of men because men are like little children).
Moreover, sexism may be used in many different forms, not only
visible and straightforward but also in more subtle and hidden ways.
Thus, some differentiate overt (blatant) sexism and covert and subtle
sexism (Brant, Mynatt & Doherty 1999; Swim & Cohen 1997). Overt
sexism is connected with any visible and intentional treatment of sexes
that is differential, unequal, unfair and/or harmful. These include
differences in payment in the same positions or physical or verbal
abuse. Covert sexism is also intentional, but unlike overt sexism, is
clandestine and hidden. This may include any type of behaviour that
leads to undermining one's achievements and showing their place.
Subtle sexism is also hidden, but unlike overt or covert sexism, is not
intentional. It is so ingrained in society and perceived as a norm that
one may be unaware of involving in such a discriminatory behaviour.
Taking all of the above into consideration, sexist language is a
language that would represent women and men in a biased manner,
overtly or subtlety, intentionally and unintentionally, favouring one
sex/gender over another.
1 Still, it is a fact that women are most often to be discriminated against.
Moreover, some may argue that men being a majority group, i. e. those who,
historically and politically, have been in power, can not be considered to be
discriminated against (Mills 2008).
82

K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES

3. Media and humour


It is claimed that media play an important role in constructing
identities. Text producers construct imaginary audiences, addressees
to whom texts are directed. These audiences are characterised by some
implied values (implied for the needs of given paper). Additionally,
text producers create their personae in order to become a member of
the group or community they target and thus minimise social distance.
These practices make texts appear more approachable and
personalised (Talbot 2007).
One such technique of minimising distance and creating social
bonds concerns using humour. For instance, it is argued that
magazines dedicated for men are soaked with humour and irony
(sometimes referred to as pathological). It appears not only in forms of
traditional jokes or cartoons but is present in articles or letters-fromreaders sections. In the former, humour also works as an indicator of
norms, making fun of what is different or strange. In the latter,
humour is used in a form of banter, a teasing type of conversation
typical for men (Benwell 2001). As Antony Easthope observes, it works
as a way of affirming the bond of love between men while appearing to
deny it (cited in Benwell 2001: 21). Moreover, irony and humour is
used as a blanket to cover more serious matters, such as relationship
or health advice. It is claimed that men generally do not like reading
articles giving advice, that they do not want to be told what to do and
how to do it because they like to feel they know best already
(Gauntlett 2002: 167) Therefore, humour may also work as a shield
protecting men from the feeling that they need to be advised.
4. Jokes about sexes
Although gender (or sexist) humour has been studied for many
years now, little has been said when it comes to any specific
definitions. Rather, the attention directed into studying this form of
humour has focused either on the appreciation of such humour by
different social groups (Shifman & Maapil Versano 2007) or on
consequences of such humour (Woodzicka & Ford 2010). Therefore,
following Limor Shifman and colleagues (Shifman & Lemish 2010a,
2010b, 2011; Shifman & Maapil Versano 2007), gender humour may be
divided into sexist, feminist and post-feminist humour. Sexist jokes
may be either generalized, i.e. mocking women as a unified collective
83

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or specified, i. e. mocking certain subgroups of women such as


mothers-in-law or blondes. Both forms of sexist humour play on
stereotypes, however in a different way. Generalized sexist jokes are
based on stereotypes that reflect patriarchal construct of society, in
which women are linked with nature (e.g. raising children) and private
sphere. In specified sexist humour, on the other hand, the mockery is
directed only to some particular female subgroups. In such a case, the
stereotypes used in specified sexist jokes are not always associated
with women in general, making it difficult to label these kind of jokes
sexist: I'm not offended by all these dumb blonde jokes because I
know I'm not dumb. I'm also not blond (Dolly Parton, cited in
Shifman & Lemish 2010b: 21).
Feminist humour, on the other hand, questions traditional
stereotyping and patriarchal construction of society often by putting
men in stereotypical women situations and thus targeting men. Hence,
this type of humour may be perceived as a response to sexist humour
or another tool of empowerment, since it aims at exposing and
criticising the unfair treatment of sexes, showing how ridiculous it is
(Shifman & Lemish 2010a).
Finally, probably the most problematic and the most recent type of
gender humour, post-feminist humour may be characterised as a
combination of the two above-mentioned. It is the most problematic
since not much has been said about post-feminist humour and postfeminism itself. It is still unclear what post-feminism stands for. Some
sources describe post-feminism as a new wave of feminism, the socalled life-style feminism enabling feminists to be both empowered
and feminine, while other sources describe post-feminism as a
backlash of feminist, criticising the focus on natural sex differences,
consumerism and beauty image, which undermines feminist's
achievements. Therefore, basing on these definitions Shifman and
Lemish (2010a) characterise post-feminist humour as Mars vs Venus
humour, referring to John Gray's book. This type of humour reaches
to the idea of essential (and natural) differences between men and
women, very often putting along and contrasting the sexes. Women
and men, although seen as two opposites, are different in an equal
manner, i.e. both men and women are equally scorned and mocked in
such jokes. Sometimes, however, post-feminist jokes draws upon the
idea of empowerment, presenting women as manipulative bitches
using their sexuality as a means of obtaining power.
84

K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES

5. GTVH
The General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) by Raskin and
Attardo is one of the most important and most influential theory of
humour. It is based on the notion of scripts, i.e. a large and organised
chunk of information evoked by a lexical item (Attardo 1994); for
instance, words patient and illness may evoke the DOCTOR script.
Central to this theory is the idea of opposing scripts (incongruities)
and logical mechanism (resolution of incongruities). A text may be
classified as a joke only if there may be found two (or more) different
scripts and the scripts are opposing and overlapping (Attardo 1994).
Logical mechanism accounts for the way in which the two senses
(scripts, isotopies, ) in the joke are brought together (Attardo 1994:
225). Although there have been identified many logical mechanisms,
all of them may be classified into two categories, i.e. correct reasoning
and faulty reasoning. Here, correct means that in the limited domain
of the joke the reasoning is perfectly logical, whereas faulty, even in
the limit of the joke it still is illogical (Attardo, Hempelmann & Di
Maio 2002). Apart from logical mechanism and script opposition,
there are other factors, named knowledge resources, which should be
taken into consideration while analysing humour. These are: the target
(or the butt of the joke) which may contain the names of individuals
or groups with stereotypical features attached to them (not every joke
has its target); the situation, which is all the props, the setting (while
for some jokes the situation is crucial, for others it is not of much
importance); the narrative strategy, i.e. the form of presenting the joke
as a narrative, riddle, dialogue or something else; and the language, i.e.
the way of telling the joke, of wording and placing the functional
elements (e.g. the punch line) (Attardo 1994).
6. The data and analysis
For the purpose of this study, two magazines have been selected,
each one being the most extreme representative for each target
audience. Therefore, the PLAYBOY magazine has been conceptualized
as a typical men's magazine and the THATS LIFE! magazine has been
conceptualized as a typical women's magazine. These assumptions has
been made basing on the information given by the publishers and
circulation numbers, making the two magazines representative.
Moreover, the two magazines perfectly fit into the stereotype of a
85

, . NO. 11, 2013

typical reader. Men, being obsessed with sex, would choose PLAYBOY, a
pornographic magazine, while women, being chatterboxes, would
choose THATS LIFE!, a gossip magazine.
The study covered issues from 2010. A total number of 174 various
jokes have been collected. A relatively significant number (155) of
these concern jokes about women and men (terms similar to man
and woman have been found in these). The remaining number (19)
concerns jokes about rednecks, politicians, or sex and marriage.
Although claimed to appear least often, direct linguistic sexism still
appears in the jokes of both magazines, most often in PLAYBOY,
though. About ten percent of all jokes include examples of either
asymmetrical usage of male and female terms or usage of sex-specific
terms in contexts where the sex of the character is not of much
importance for the sake of the funniness, e.g.
1) One evening a man and his wife were sitting in the living room when the
husband turned to her and said, Honey, I never want to live in a
vegetative state, dependent on some machine and fluids from a bottle. If
that ever happens, promise me youll just pull the plug.
His wife stood up, unplugged the TV and threw out his beer. (PLAYBOY
August 2010)

The first joke serves as an example of a tendency of naming the two


sexes asymmetrically. A man and his wife phrase not only defines a
woman as merely a man's property but also introduces the story from
male perspective, which has been documented as a common
technique and described as overly sexist. There are no instances of
such phrases as a woman and her husband. Moreover, the phrase a
man and his wife (along with a man and a woman or a husband
and a wife) illustrates the tendency of putting men before women,
which may suggest that women are less worthy. Again, this is very
common but phrases as a wife and a husband are hardly ever met
(Henley 1987; Wareing 1999). The joke is presented in the form of a
narrative, in which two characters are introduced: husband and wife
who are sitting in the living room, watching television; the husband is
drinking beer. The punchline relies on double understanding of the
state of being dependent on some machine and fluids. While the first
and obvious script that may appear here is HOSPITAL, i.e. a need of
medical equipment in order to sustain life, other script appears when
reading the last part of the joke. This may be HOUSE, i.e. watching
television and drinking some beer, and the fact of being addicted to
86

K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES

these. Therefore, the man (husband) is the target here, depicted as


beer-driven couch-potato primitive whose life is vegetative-like, i.e.
showing no sign of brain activity (dictionary definition). The pun may
imply that men do nothing at home but lie on the couch, drink beer
and watch TV (presumably sports).
2) Around dusk a patrolman started making his evening rounds and
discovered two elderly ladies sitting in a vehicle in the lot of a used-car
dealership. He stopped and asked what they were doing.
You ladies arent trying to steal this car, are you? the officer asked.
Heavens no, one of the women answered. We bought it.
Then why dont you drive it home? the officer said.
Neither one of us can drive, the other woman replied.
Then why on earth did you buy a car? the officer asked.
Well, the first woman replied, we were told we would get screwed if we
bought a used car, so now were just waiting. (PLAYBOY November 2010)

The second joke serves as an example of jokes in which genderspecific terms (patrolman) are used (in this case, alongside with
gender-neutral term officer). In most of the jokes when the gendered
terms are used, the change into neutral terms would not affect the
funniness, neither the sense of the jokes. Therefore there seems to be
no need for the use of gender-specific terms in the jokes. This kind of
usage may make women invisible, trivialize women's achievements or
lead to the impression that some professions are reserved for men only
(Weatherall 2002). The situation in the joke may be described as two
elder women sitting at dusk in a car parked in the lot of used-car
dealership met by a police officer. It is presented in a form of narrative,
again from the male perspective (a patrolman started making his
evening rounds). The joke again relies on double meaning of words,
this time verb screw. The first script that would appear is NON-SEXUAL,
i.e. buying a used car and getting cheated by paying too much for it.
However, because the women are still waiting, another script appears,
i.e. SEXUAL, in which getting screwed would mean having an
intercourse. Here, the women are the target. The joke may imply that
older women are not attractive enough to find a partner and would do
many things to have sexual intercourse, even buy a used car (which
they do not need, since they cannot drive). Therefore, women
(especially older women) are depicted as sex-obsessed and desperate,
and at the same time naive and even stupid (because of the lack of
knowledge of meaning of getting screwed while buying a used car).
87

, . NO. 11, 2013

Here, it seems that reversal of stereotypes is present, since men are


most often described as sex-obsessed. Moreover, in this joke semantic
derogation (i. e. acquiring negative connotations) of the term lady is
visible. This is also present in the other magazine, note the next
example:
3) Three old ladies, who are hard of hearing are sitting in their retirement
home, reminiscing about old times.
The first lady recalls shopping at the greengrocers, and demonstrates with
her hands the length and thickness of a cucumber she could buy for a
penny.
The second old lady nods, adding that onions used to be much bigger and
cheaper too. She also demonstrates the size of two big onions she could
buy for a penny a piece.
I cant hear a word youre saying, the third old lady remarks, but I definitely
remember the bloke youre talking about. (THATS LIFE! 29 April 2010)

Originally, the term lady was used to a woman in power or in high


position (as a female equivalent of lord) but with time this changed. In
the example above lady is put next to the adjective old and used as an
euphemism for a woman. The term has been downgraded.
Additionally, such derogation of terms is not visible in male
equivalents, e.g. lord or gentleman; it is uncommon to use such terms
in collocation with old (Mills 2008; Weatherall 2002). What is more,
this joke, similarly to joke 2), may imply that especially older women
are obsessed with sex. In this narrative three hard-of-hearing women
are talking about old times, gesticulating. While the first script may be
described as NON-SEXUAL, i. e. talking about groceries, the other script
(evoked by the word bloke, meaning a man) may be described as
SEXUAL, i.e. talking about man's genitals. The logical mechanism that is
used here may be characterised as analogy, an example of correct
reasoning. The analogy is built upon the visual similarities while
demonstrating the shapes of cucumber and onions and the shapes of
man's penis and testicles. It is worth noting that here not only women
are targeted (because of their obsession with sex) but also men,
because of reducing mans image to his genitals. The woman
remembers the bloke basing not on the name or face, but on the
gestures she thinks the other women are using to describe his genitals.
There are more jokes in which men are reduced to their penises, e. g.:
4) One morning, after making love, a woman lights up a cigarette.
You really ought to quit smoking, you know, her partner says sternly.
88

K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES

But I really enjoy a cigarette after sex, she sighs, tired of being nagged.
You may well do, he continues, but cigarettes stunt your growth.
The woman looks at him, incredulous.
Have you never smoked at all? she says.
No, never, he insists.
Looking down at his manhood, she asks: So, whats your excuse then?
(THATS LIFE! 21 January 2010)

The situation in joke 4) may be described as a couple lying in bed


after having an intercourse, the woman is smoking. When the man
makes a comment about how the cigarettes are unhealthy, she sharply
responses by commenting on his manhood (according to dictionary
definition, the characteristic of being masculine). By asking what's
your excuse then?, the woman may imply that his penis is too small
and unsatisfactory. Naming genitals manhood may denote that this is
the most important characteristic of a man and the only feature that
determines masculinity. However, the man's manhood is not the only
flaw he has. The woman is tired of being nagged, which may imply that
this is not the first time the man is telling the woman what she should
or should not do. What is interesting, the verb nag seems to collocate
more often with females, since stereotypically it is women who annoy
their men by constantly telling them what to do (and men, because
they already know best, do not like to be told off). However, here it is
the man who nags, which once again may depict shift in stereotyping.
Finally, a few jokes in the sample have been identified as blonde
jokes, playing on the characteristics of promiscuity and stupidity. A
majority of them (8 out of 9) have been found in PLAYBOY. The jokes 5)
and 6) below represent the specified sexist joke group. As it has been
stated earlier, this type of humour mocks specific group of females, in
this case blondes. The blond jokes are very popular and can be found
not only in English-speaking countries but also in cultures where
naturally blonde-headed women are unlikely to be met (Shifman &
Lemish 2010b). It is claimed that these jokes play on stereotypes of
sexy and dumb blondes because of the threat women might pose, i. e.
using their intelligence and attractiveness to control men (Greenwood
& Isbell 2002).
5) A blonde went to pick up her car from the mechanic. Whats the story?
she asked.
Just crap in the carburetor, he replied.
89

, . NO. 11, 2013

Oh, she said. How often do I have to do that? (PLAYBOY January/February


2010)

In the first part of the joke there is a presupposition that the car
has broken down and it is at the mechanics. When the owner (the
blonde) comes to pick up the car she asks what was wrong with it. The
mechanic answers that just crap in the carburetor, meaning some filth
in a part of the engine. However, judging by the blonde's response
(how often do I have to do that?), she misunderstands the mechanic.
Therefore, another meaning of crap in the carburetor appears, meaning
emptying the bowls into some part of the engine. Thus, the blonde
may be characterised as not only lacking any basic knowledge (since it
seems illogical that emptying the bowls into any part of a car would be
a good solution for any problem with the car) but also as knowing
nothing about cars, a stereotypical feature of any woman. Moreover, it
is worth noting that the mechanic is a male, which reflects another
stereotype; only men are good mechanics. Additionally, in every joke
where any profession is presented, it is men who hold highly regarded
professions (such as managers, doctors, or judges). Women are most
often described in relational terms, being wives, mothers or lovers.
When presented in public sphere, women are depicted as either
cleaners, assistants, or receptionist. This is visible in the example
below:
6) A young man walks into the doctors surgery and asks to make an
appointment.
Can you tell me whats wrong with you, sir? the pretty blonde receptionist
asks tactfully.
Well, I need to see the doctor, but its rather embarrassing, the young man
stutters. You see, I have a very large and almost constant erection.
Im afraid the doctors busy, the receptionist purrs, but maybe I can
squeeze you in. (THATS LIFE! 19 August 2010)

Joke 6) depicts an attractive and sexual blonde who works as a


receptionist in doctor's office. Her attractiveness and sexuality is
visible in the use of evaluative adjective pretty and verbs to purr and to
squeeze somebody in, which may imply sexual connotations. Once
again, the narrative is presented from male perspective (a young man
walks into...). The two scripts that appear may be described as NONSEXUAL, i.e. making an appointment with the doctor, although the
doctor is very busy and SEXUAL, i. e. having a sexual activity in order to
help the man with his very large and almost constant erection. And
90

K. MAGDZIARZ. SEXISM IN ENGLISH JOKES

similarly to other jokes, both the man and the woman may be claimed
to be targets of the joke. The woman, the blonde, is stereotypically
presented as promiscuous and sexual. The man, on the other hand, is
described in terms of his penis, which again seems to be his most
important attribute.
7. Conclusion
The results of the study confirm the thesis that the language of
jokes published in women's and men's magazines is sexist. In PLAYBOY
both generalized and specified sexist jokes have been found. These
present women as chatterboxes, gold diggers, or stupid and
promiscuous blondes, playing on traditional women stereotypes. In
THATS LIFE! feminist jokes have been found, in which men are
presented in terms of their penises and bed performance. Here, the
situation is reversed as not women but men are described in terms of
their bodies. In addition, in both magazines instances of post-feminist
humour have been found where both women and men are scorned.
However, it seems that this type of humour is more popular among
PLAYBOY readers. What may seem interesting, in PLAYBOY a few
instances of feminist jokes have been identified. Moreover, these
appear to be more numerous and less covert (meaning mocking mens
flaws in a more direct manner) than in THATS LIFE! magazine. Also, in
THATS LIFE! instances of jokes which may be identified sexist have been
found. These were not numerous, though. Therefore, by making a
great simplification, in the jokes studied men have been depicted as
sex- and beer-driven primitives who do nothing but lay in bed and
watch sports and are described in terms of their genitals .Women, on
the other hand, have been depicted as sex-obsessed, promiscuous,
sexual and stupid, described in relational terms.
Most of the jokes of both magazines mock women, which is
consistent with other studies and with the claim that women are most
often victims of sexism. However, the jokes have not been as overly
sexist (or feminist) as those found on the Internet or in other studies.
This may be explained by the editorial policies of both magazines and
the criticism sexist humour (and sexism itself) has recently received.
Internet jokes most often are not filtered by any editors. Moreover,
studies concerning gender humour are often based on jokes of
particular type, e. g. sexist jokes only. Although jokes in both
91

, . NO. 11, 2013

magazines have been mostly about men and women, they have not
been meant to be of a specific type.
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,

,
magdziarzkon@wp.pl

Konrad Magdziarz
Opole University
Goszowice 20A/2 48-314, Pakosawice
Poland

93

316.776.3

. . (, )

.
. , , .

.
: , ,
, ,
NATALIA I. KLUSHINA (MOSCOW, RUSSIAN FEDERATION). INTENTIONAL
EFFECT IN COMMUNICATION. The paper discusses different types of
effects in modern communication. The effect doesnt hold only
perlocutive quality in the holistic description of communication.
Therefore we claim that there are positive, negative as well as
intensional effects in modern communication. The communicative
failure is the situation when an addressee refuses to carry on a
dialogue or when s/he is indifferent towards the interlocutor.
Keywords: communication, positive
intensional effect, communicative failure

effect,

negative

effect,

, ,
, , . (
2011: 32).
( ,
, ). (
, , ).
: , , , ;
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 94-102. . . , 2013.

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. , 9, , 125009

nklushina@mail.ru

102

Natalia I. Klushina
Moscow State University
Mokhovaya ul. 9, Moscow, 125009
Russian Federation
phone: +7 (495) 629 74 35

8142

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ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,


/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 103-124. . . , 2013.

, . NO. 11, 2013

KSENIA M. SHILIKHINA (VORONEZH, RUSSIAN FEDERATION). DISCOURSE


The primary aim of the paper is to
explore Russian discourse markers okazyvaetsya (it turns out),
nado zhe / nu nado zhe (gee!), pokhozhe (it looks like), vidimo
(apparently), and navernoe (perhaps) as signals of irony.
Conventionally, these words are described as parentheses that
introduce new information into discourse. However, when used in
the non-bona fide mode, they convey additional pragmatic meaning,
e. g. irony.
WORDS AS MARKERS OF IRONY.

Irony is likely to emerge in two types of context: when a discourse


word marks feigned surprise of a speaker or when the speaker
estimates plausibility of an event. Normally, discourse words that are
used in the first type of context function as lexical markers of
admirativity. They mark the speakers emotion of surprise, as the new
information cannot be easily integrated into the speakers system of
knowledge. The bona fide usage of discourse markers that explicate
the belief of the speaker in the likelihood of an event is a
conventional way of expressing epistemic evaluation in Russian.
However, in the non-bona fide mode of discourse, a feigned surprise
or presenting an unlikely situation as possible leads to the Maxim of
Quality flouting. As a consequence, the utterance, superficially
uncooperative and irrational, can be interpreted as irony.
The paper is divided into three sections. The first section describes
three pragmatic conditions necessary for the emergence of irony,
namely, semantic and pragmatic incoherence, implicit deontic
evaluation of the situation, and non-bona fide behavior of the
speaker. In the second section Russian discourse words are described
as lexical signals of admirativity and epistemic evaluation. The third
section addresses the issue of ironic use of discourse markers.
Examples illustrate how non-bona fide admirativity or insincere
epistemic evaluation can contribute to the ironic interpretation of an
utterance the specific theistic associations and representations which
are weakened or do not exist at all in the common national speech.
Keywords: verbal irony, discourse marker, epistemic evaluation,
admirativity, incoherence, non-bona fide mode of communication

1.
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[http://www.pravda.ru/
politics/parties/other/26-042013/1153996-parad-0/]

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118

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[Mulkay 1988] applied humor, , ,


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http://www.polit.ru/article/2013/08/23/ anatolyev_nes/]

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, . . //
: . . 11 (18). .: - , 2012. C. 93102.
, . . // -2000.
URL:
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, . . //
. .: . . (.)
, 1987. . 178-186.
: - / . . . . .:
, 1998. 447 .
: : / . . ,
. . .: , 2003. 205 .
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. . ,
. . // . 2013.
3. . 98-106.
, . . / . . , . . //
.
2004. .: ,
2004.
, . . /
. . , . . // 120

. . .

. II 1416 2008
. / . . . . : , 2008. C. 183-187.
, . . (
) // . 1994.
3. . 92-104.
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. . // . 2000. 5. . 68-80.
, .. :
. . .:
, 1996. 464 .
, .. ?
.

. . .
30

2013
.

URL:
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, .. : .
.: - , 2011. 670 .
: / . . [ .]; . .
. . . .: , 2007. 478 .
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Schiffrin, D. Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press, 1988.
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Ajmer, K., & Simon-Vandenbergen, A.-M. (2011). Pragmatic
markers. In J. Zienkowski, J.-O. stman, J. Verschueren (Eds.),
Discursive Pragmatics (pp. 223-247). Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John
Benjamins.
Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Chicago: Chicago
University Press.
Borisova, E. G. (2012). Rol diskursivnykh slov v upravlenii ponimaniem teksta [The Role of Discourse Words in Text Understanding
Management]. In Computer Linguistics and Intelligent Technologies.
Proceedings of the International Conference Dialogue. Vol. 11 (18).
[Kompjuternaja lingvistika i intellektualnyje tekhnologii: Po materialam ezhegodnoj Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii Dialog], 93-102.
oscow: RGGU.
Fraser, B. (2006). Towards a Theory of Discourse Markers. In
K. Fischer (Ed.), Approaches to Discourse Particles (pp. 189204).
Amsterdam, London, New York: Elsevier.
Fraser, B. (1996). Pragmatic Markers. Pragmatics, 6 (2), 167-190.
Kashkin, V. B., & Shilikhina, K. M. (2013). Sushchestvujet li retsept
ironii? (na materiale russkogo i italjanskogo jazykov) [Is There a
Cooking Guide to Irony? (Evidence from Russian and Italian)]. Voprosy kognitivnoj lingvistiki [Issues in Cognitive Linguistics], 3, 98-106.
Khrakovskij, V. S. (2007). Evidentsialnost, epistemicheskaja
modalnost, (ad)mirativnost [Evidentiality, Epistemic Modality,
(Ad)mirativity]. In Evidentsialnost v jazykakh Evropy i Azii. Sbornik
statej pamyati N. A. Kozintsevoj [Evidentiality in the Languages of
Europe and Asia. In Memoriam of N. A. Kozintseva]. Sankt-Peterburg:
Nauka.
Kiseleva, K., & Paillard, D. (Eds.). (1998). Diskursivnyje slova russkogo jazyka: opyt kontekstno-semanticheskogo opisanija [Russian
Discourse Words: Contextual Semantic Description]. oscow: Metatekst.
Kiseleva, K., & Paillard, D. (Eds.). (2003). Diskursivnyje slova russkogo jazyka: kontekstnoe varirovanije i semanticheskoje edinstvo
[Russian Discourse Words: Context Variation and Semantic Unity].
oscow: Azbukovnik.
122

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Kobozeva, I. M., & Latysheva N. S. (2008). Diskursivnyje edinitsy


sobstvenno i fakticheski kak operatory korrektsii predstavlenija
adresata [Discourse words sobstvenno and fakticheski as addressee
correction operators]. In Jazyk sredstv massovoj informatsii kak objekt
mezhdistsiplinarnogo issledovanija. Materialy II Mezhdunarodnoj
nauchnoj konferentsii 1416 fevralya 2008 [Language of Mass Media as
the Object of Cross-Discipline Research. Proceedings of the 2nd
International Conference 14-16 February 2008], 183-187. oscow:
S Press.
Kobozeva, I. M., & Zaharov, L. M. (2004). Dlya chego nuzhen
zvuchashchij slovar diskursivnykh slov russkogo jazyka? [Why do We
Need a Voice Dictionary of Russian Discourse Words?]. In Kompjuternaja lingvistika i intellektualnyje tekhnologii: Trudy mezhdunarodnoj
konferentsii Dialog 2004 [Computer Linguistics and Intelligent
Technologies. Proceedings of the International Conference Dialogue2004]. Moscow: Nauka.
Kozintseva, N. A. (1994). Kategorija evidentsialnosti (problemy tipologicheskogo analiza) [Category of Evidentiality (Problems of
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Majsak, T. A., Tatevosov, S. G. (2000). Prostranstvo govoryashchego
v kategorijakh grammatiki ili Chego nelzya skazat o sebe samom [The
Speaker's Space in Grammatical Categories or What One Cannot Say
about Himself]. Voprosy jazykoznanija, 5, 68-80.
Mulkay, M. A. (1988). Sociology of Humor: Its Nature and Its Place
in Modern Society. New York: Polity Press.
Paducheva, E. V. (1996). Semanticheskije issledovanija: Semantika
vida i vremeni v russkom jazyke. Semantika narrativa [Semantic
Investigations: Semantics of Time and Aspect in Russian. Semantics of
the Narrative]. Moscow: Jazyki russkoj kultury.
Paducheva, E. V. (2013). Nesobstvennaja pryamaja rech ili ironija?
Doklad na konferentsii Logicheskaja i lingvisticheskaja pragmatika. K
stoletiju H. P. Gricea. March 30th, 2013 [Free Indirect Discourse or
Irony? Paper presented at the Conference Logical and Linguistic
Pragmatics. H. P. Grices 100th Anniversary]. Retrieved from
http://phil.hse.ru/form_phil/news/79067903.html
Plungyan, V. A. (2011). Vvedenije v grammaticheskuju semantiku:
grammaticheskije znachenija i grammaticheskije sistemy jazykov mira
[The Introduction into Grammatical Semantics: Grammatical Meaning
and Grammatical Systems of the Worlds Languages]. oscow: RGGU.
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Schiffrin, D. (1988). Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press.
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Orthography and Punctuation: Complete Academic Reference Guide].
oscow: Eksmo.
Vlodavskaja, N. V. (2000). Ironija i evidentsialnost [Irony and
Evidentiality]. In Kompjuternaja lingvistika i intellektualnyje
tekhnologii: Po materialam ezhegodnoj Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii
Dialog [Computer Linguistics and Intelligent Technologies.
Proceedings of the International Conference Dialogue-2000].
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202000-1/41.htm
Volf, E. M. (1987). Otsenka i strannost kak vidy modalnosti
[Evaluation and Strangeness as Modality Types]. In Jazyk i logicheskaja
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Sovet filos. (metodol.) seminarov pri Prezidiume AN SSSR.


. 10-15, 394006

shilikhina@gmail.com

124

Ksenia M. Shilikhina
Voronezh State University
pl. Lenina 10-15, 394006
Russian Federation
phone: +7 (473) 222 41 49

8142:94(420)1901/1910

. . (, )


- .
.
.
.

,
.
o . .
: , , , ,
YAROSLAV N. YEREMEEV (VORONEZH, RUSSIAN FEDERATION). CHANGE
OF DISCURSIVE PARADIGM IN EDWARDIAN BRITAIN. The paper looks into
the relations between the text and its cultural and historical context.
The author analyses the change of discursive paradigm in Edwardian
Britain. The Edwardian era is characterized as the time of rapid
development of literature both as an educational tool and as a
commercial product. A new approach to the language of literary texts
and literary tradition emerged. Abandoning previous literary styles
and conventions did not mean their complete negation. Rather, they
were now used in a new, ironic context.
In their writings, Edwardian writers widely employed
multivoicedness. Intertextuality became a way of quoting with the
aim of ironic negation of the past.
Keywords: text, literary tradition, irony, intertext, consumer culture

- , ,
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 125-145. . . , 2013.

, . NO. 11, 2013

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, . NO. 11, 2013

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143

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, . .
. .: , 1965. 527 .
, . . - . .: ,
1986. 541 .
, . . - // , . 9. : -, 2011. C. 34-49.
Brown, K. Modelling for War? Toy Soldiers in Late Victorian and
Edwardian Britain // Journal of Social History, vol.24, No.2, 1990. P.
237-254.
Dryke, S. The Popularity of Nationalism in the Early British Boy
Scout Movement // Social History, vol.23, No.3, 1998. P.309-324.
Language, History and Class / Corfield, P. J. (ed.). Oxford: Basil
Blackwell Ltd, 1991. 246 .
Lloyd, T. O. Empire to Welfare State. Oxford: OUP, 1970. 466 p.
Mangan, J. A. Play Up and Play the Game: Victorian and Edwardian
Public School Vocabulary of Motive // British Journal of Educational
Studies, vol. 23, No. 3, 1975. P. 324-335.
Meacham, S. The sense of an Impending Clash // The American
Historical Review, vol.77, No. 5, 1972. P. 1343-1364.
Morrison, M. Marketing British Modernism // 20th c. Literature,
vol.43, No.4, 1997. P. 439-469.
Sillars, S. Structure and Dissolution in English Writing, 1910-1920.
London: .Macmillan Press Ltd., 1999. 216 p.
Tropp, M. Images of Fear. London: McFarland and Co., Inc.,
1990. 235 p.
Turner, F. M. Public Science in Britain :1880-1919 // Isis, vol.71,
No.4, 1980. P. 589-608.
REFERENCES
Bakhtin, M. M. (1965). Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaja
kultura srednevekovja i Renessansa [Rabelais and His World]. Moscow:
Nauka.
Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Literaturno-kriticheskije stati [Critical
Essays]. Moscow: Nauka.
144

. . .

Brown, K. (1990). Modelling for War? Toy Soldiers in Late Victorian


and Edwardian Britain. Journal of Social History, 24, 2, 237-254.
Corfield, P. J. (Ed.). (1991). Language, History and Class. Oxford:
Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Dryke, S. (1998). The Popularity of Nationalism in the Early British
Boy Scout Movement. Social History, 23, 3, 309-324.
Lloyd, T. O. (1970). Empire to Welfare State. Oxford: OUP.
Mangan, J. A. (1975). Play Up and Play the Game: Victorian and
Edwardian Public School Vocabulary of Motive. British Journal of
Educational Studies, 23, 3, 324-335.
Meacham, S. (1972). The sense of an Impending Clash. The
American Historical Review, 77, 5, 1343-1364.
Morrison, M. (1997). Marketing British Modernism. 20th c.
Literature, 43, 4, 439-469.
Sillars, S. (1999). Structure and Dissolution in English Writing, 19101920. London: Macmillan.
Tropp, M. (1990). Images of Fear. London: McFarland and Co.
Turner, F. M. (1980). Public Science in Britain: 1880-1919. Isis, 71, 4,
589-608.
Yeremeev, Y. N. (2011). O nekotorykh osobennostyakh edvardianskikh tekstov v ikh kulturno-istoricheskom kontekste [Edwardian
Texts in Their Cultural and Historical Context]. Yazyk,
kommunikatsija i sotsialnaja sreda [Language, Communication and
Social Environment], 9, 34-49.


. 10-43, , 394006

yaroslav.yeremeyev@gmail.com

Yaroslav N. Eremeeev
Voronezh State University
pl.Lenina 10-43, Voronezh, 394006
Russian Federation
phone: +7 (473) 220 84 89

145

81'25

. ()
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1813 .

, ;
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. . .
: Douglas Robinson. Schleiermachers Icoses: Social Ecologies of the
Different Methods of Translating
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 146-207. D. Robinson, 2013. . . (),
2013.

. . :

: , , , ,
, , ,
DOUGLAS ROBINSON (HONG KONG). SCHLEIERMACHERS ICOSES: SOCIAL
ECOLOGIES OF THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF TRANSLATING. The paper
discusses Friedrich Schleiermachers thoughts on the different
methods of translation from the point of view of social ecology,
which the author renames icosis. The paper is divided into two
parts: the first part addresses the key points of Schleiermachers
lecture: the relationship between the author, the translator and the
reader; the problem of mediated communication; the balance of
feelings and mathematical abstraction in the evaluation of
translation; the possibility of a metaphorical treatment of translation
as a journey.
The second part of the paper attempts to answer the most debatable
questions that arise in the course of analysis of Schleiermachers
ideas. The concept of social ecology, or icosis, i.e., the process of
group reality-construction through the collective plausibilization of
opinion, is used as the key idea. Firstly, it explains how the freedom
of the author and the translator are shaped by social processes.
Secondly, since icoses contribute to the conventionalization of
speech, the concept explains why certain types of translations are
highly conventionalized as well. Finally, the writers deviations from
existing conventions can also be explained with the concept of icoses:
they become possible only if parallel constraints imposed on the
writer by the social group exist.
Icoses also account for the reason why the process and the result of
translation cannot be reduced to simple arithmetic operations of
addition and subtraction: math does not take the emotional
component of translation into account.
Keywords: translation, social ecologies, icosis, author, reader,
journey metaphor, foregnization, domestication

147

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Jene Nothwendigkeit auch innerhalb der eignen Sprache und


Mundart zu bersezen, mehr oder minder ein
augenblikkliches Bedrfni des Gemthes, ist eben auch in
ihrer Wirkung zu sehr auf den Augenblikk beschrnkt, um
anderer Leitung als der des Gefhls zu bedrfen; und wenn
Regeln darber sollten gegeben werden, knnten es nur jene
sein, durch deren Befolgung der Mensch sich eine rein
sittliche Stimmung erhlt, damit der Sinn auch fr das minder
verwandte geffnet bleibe. (Schleiermacher Methoden 39)1

, 1813 , ,
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. // . . -. . 9, . 2000. 2.
. 127-145.
148

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, ,
. : () , Nothwendigkeit, () Bedrfni des Gemtes, ,
,
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149

, . NO. 11, 2013

, .
, ,
, (, .
icoses, . .) 1.
I:
1. ,
2.
:
? Berhrung , , , , , ,
. ,
1

,
. : <> what I
call icosis, from Greek eikos truthy: if ta eikota or the probabilities or
things that seem true are a communal construct, then the social ecology by
which opinions are collectively transmuted into (the appearance of) truth is
the sociological baseline of all knowledge-translation (83). We are not bees.
We help shape the ways in which we are collectively shaped (87). Icosis, you
will recall, is the socioecological process through which a community
transforms individual-becoming-collective opinions into what come to feel
like ontologically reliable realities and truths (88). By icotic subjectivity I
mean that the subject that I call I is in large part a collective construct, the
sedimentation out of socioecological solution of an identity collectively
designated as individual, and as individually mine. By in large part in that
previous sentence I mean that subjects are not merely passive receptacles of
social conditions; we also contribute to the itericotic processes by which the
group shapes us. By itericotic I mean that I inevitably because icosis
conditions me to do this repeat or reiterate formations I have seen before,
read before, and have seen and read specifically as contributions to icosis, so
that what I am expressing iteratively is not just myself but the group (8889); : (Robinson 2012b)
2
Wenn auf der einen Seite dadurch Menschen in Berhrung kommen
knnen (38).
: Schleiermacher 1963 (1813), . .
150

. . :

.
,
,
, , , (situated social interaction). , , , ? : , ?
2. ,
1
.
, ,
, ,
, 2.
? , ,
, - ;
, , ?
, , ,
,
, ,
,
3
. ?
1

So drfen wir auf der andern Seite nicht einmal ber das Gebiet einer
Sprache hinausgehen, um dieselbe Erscheinung anzutreffen (38).
2
Denn nicht nur da die Mundarten verschiedener Stmme eines Volkes und
die verschiedenen Entwicklungen derselben Sprache oder Mundart in
verschiedenen Jahrhunderten schon in einem engeren Sinne verschiedene
Sprachen sind, und nicht selten einer vollstndigen Dolmetschung unter
einander bedrfen; selbst Zeitgenossen, nicht durch die Mundart getrennte,
nur aus verschiedenen Volksklassen, Welche durch den Umgang wenig
verbunden in ihrer Bildung weit auseinander gehen, knnen sich fters nur
durch eine hnliche Vermittlung verstehen (38).
3
Ja sind wir nicht hufig genthiget, uns die Rede eines andern, der ganz
unseres gleichen ist aber von anderer Sinnes- und Gemthsart, erst zu
151

, . NO. 11, 2013

3. (Dolmetscher, interpreter) , , , , ,
.
[ ], 1
. , , ,
, , [a] , , , , ,
, . ? ,
, ?
, ? [] , , , : , ,
, , ( , . .), ,
PowerPoint, , , : ? ,
bersezen? Wenn wir nmlich fhlen da dieselben Worte in unserm Munde
einen ganz anderen Sinn oder wenigstens hier einen strkeren dort einen
schwcheren Gehalt haben wrden als in dem seinigen, und da, wenn wir
dasselbe was er meint ausdrkken wollten, wir nach unserer Art uns ganz
anderer Wrter und Wendungen bedienen wrden (38).
1
Dem Gebiete der Kunst und der Wissenschaft eignet die Schrift, durch
welche allein ihre Werke beharrlich werden; und wissenschaftliche oder
knstlerische Erzeugnisse von Mund zu Mund zu dolmetschen, wre eben so
unnz, als es unmglich zu sein scheint. Den Geschften dagegen ist die
Schrift nur mechanisches Mittel; das mndliche Verhandeln ist darin das
ursprngliche, und jede schriftliche Dolmetschung ist eigentlich nur als
Aufzeichnung einer mndlichen anzusehen (39-40).
152

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,
,
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4. , ,
[ 1
] .
,
, , , , .
,
,
2. []
? ,
(, ),
1

2000 .
,
. ,

, , [
],
. .
2
Nmlich jede Verhandlung, bei welcher das Dolmetschen vorkommt, ist auf
der einen Seite eine Thatsache, deren Hergang in zwei verschiedenen
Sprachen aufgefat wird. Aber auch die Uebersezung von Schriften rein
erzhlender oder beschreibender Art, welche also nur den schon
beschriebenen Hergang einer Thatsache in eine andere Sprache bertrgt,
kann noch sehr viel von dem Geschft des Dolmetschers an sich haben. Je
weniger in der Urschrift der Verfasser selbst heraustrat, je mehr er lediglich als
auffassendes Organ des Gegenstandes handelte und der Ordnung des Raumes
und der Zeit nachging, um desto mehr kommt es bei der Uebertragung auf ein
bloes Dolmetschen an (40).
153

, . NO. 11, 2013

, .
? ,
, , [],
, , ,
, ,

(. FEELING EXTENDED).
, ,
? [] ,
,
? [] , ,
[/],
, ?
( - ,
,
).
5.
,
, 1
. , / / () ().
,
? ,
, . -
, .
-
1

Je mehr hingegen des Verfassers eigenthmliche Art zu sehen und zu


verbinden in der Darstellung vorgewaltet hat, je mehr er irgend einer frei
gewhlten oder durch den Eindrukk bestimmten Ordnung gefolgt ist, desto
mehr spielt schon seine Arbeit in das hhere Gebiet der Kunst hinber (40).
154

. . :

, ,
, ,
( )
, ( ,
,

).

, 1
, ,
,
, , ,
, ,
?
6. [ ], [
], . , []
,
,

[
], , ,
2
. [] ,
1

(Thomas Ernest Hulme, 16 1883 28 1917)


,
.
2
Je weniger diese selbst wieder als ein besonderes unter einem hinreichend
bekannten allgemeinen knnen betrachtet werden, desto mehr
wissenschaftliche Kenntni und Umsicht erfordert schon die Abfassung, und
desto mehr wissenschaftliche Sach- und Sprachkenntni wird auch der
Uebersezer zu seinem Geschft bedrfen. Auf dieser zwiefachen Stufenleiter
also erhebt sich der Uebersezer immer mehr ber den Dolmetscher, bis zu
seinem eigenthmlichsten Gebiet, nmlich jenen geistigen Erzeugnissen der
Kunst und Wissenschaft, in denen das freie eigenthmliche combinatorische
Vermgen des Verfassers an der einen der Geist der Sprache mit dem in ihr
niedergelegten System der Anschauungen und Abschattung der
Gemthsstimmungen auf der anderen Seite alles sind, der Gegenstand auf
155

, . NO. 11, 2013

-, , (), , (), . - , [] , , . , []
, , , - . [] :

, ?
[] , ,
(Geist) , ,
1
Aufhebung ,
,
. ? ?
7. [ ] , ,
2. [] ,

(miger Kenntni), (das offenbar
falsche), (wenig Unterschied)
,

keine Weise mehr herrscht, sondern von dem Gedanken und Gemth
beherrscht wird, ja oft erst durch die Rede geworden und nur mit ihr zugleich
da ist (41).
1
Aufhebung , (.
)
2
Deshalb ist das Uebertragen auf diesem Gebiet fast nur ein mechanisches
Geschft, welches bei miger Kenntni beider Sprachen jeder verrichten
kann, und wobei, wenn nur das offenbar falsche vermieden wird, wenig
Unterschied des besseren und schlechteren statt findet (42).
156

. . :

(nur ein mechanisches Geschft). ,


,
,
. []
, .
, ,
. ,
,
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, , ,
IELTS,
,
.

,
- ,
,
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, (
) ,
,
,
.
8. <> , , , , ,
, [ ] 1
, . []

Wenn nmlich in zwei Sprachen jedem Worte der einen ein Wort der
andern genau entsprche so wrde dann auch auf dem Gebiete der Kunst
und Wissenschaft alles Uebersezen, sofern dadurch nur die Kenntni des
Inhalts einer Rede oder Schrift mitgetheilt werden soll, eben so rein
mechanisch sein, wie auf dem des Geschftslebens; und man wrde, mit
Ausnahme der Wirkungen welche Ton und Tonfall hervorbringen, von jeder
Uebersezung sagen knnen, da der auslndische Leser dadurch zu dem
157

, . NO. 11, 2013

? []
? []
? []

, , , ,
?
? [] ?
9. [ ,
]
, , ,
. ,
. , , ; 1
.
?
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? ,
?
, : ,
?
10. ,
, , ,
2
[ : , Sache, thing .
Verfasser und seinem Werk in dasselbe Verhltnis gesezt werde, wie der
einheimische (42).
1
Indem diese Irrationalitt, da ich mich so ausdrkke, durch alle Elemente
zweier Sprachen hindurchgeht, mu sie freilich auch jenes Gebiet des
brgerlichen Verkehrstreffen. Allein es ist offenbar, da sie hier weit weniger
drkkt, und so gut als keinen Einflu hat. Alle Wrter, welche Gegenstnde
und Thtigkeiten ausdrkken, auf die es ankommen kann, sind gleichsam
geaicht, und wenn ja leere bervorsichtige Spizfindigkeit sich noch gegen eine
mgliche ungleiche Geltung der Wort verwahren wollte, so gleicht die Sache
selbst alles unmittelbar aus. (42).
2
die Sache
.
Gegenstand/object/ . 6. ,
. 6 wissenschaftliche Sach- und
Sprachkenntni, technical and linguistic
158

. . :

], ,
1. ,
, , , -,
( ,
, ). : ,
, , ,
,
? . 6 , , , ,
, , ; , . . 9 . 10
,
,
. ,
, ?

(Rede). , ,
, ,
- (
-) . ,
,
?
11. ,
. .
-
; , ,
, ,
2
.
knowledge. , , ,
, (nonhuman things) . .
1
Ganz anders auf jenem der Kunst und Wissenschaft zugehrigen Gebiet,
und berall wo mehr der Gedanke herrscht, der mit der Rede Eins ist, nicht
die Sache, als deren willkhrliches vielleicht aber fest bestimmtes Zeichen das
Wort nur dasteht (42-43).
2
Jeder Mensch ist auf der einen Seite in der Gewalt der Sprache, die er redet;
er und sein ganzes Denken ist ein Erzeugni derselben. Er kann nichts mit
159

, . NO. 11, 2013


. 10: ? ,
, , , ?
12. , ,
1. <>
[] ,
[]
[
],
, , 2. (freidenkend)
,
, ,
. ,
(die
lebendige Kraft ). [] ?
,
.
,
, []
[
], ,
vlliger Bestimmtheit denken, was auerhalb der Grenzen derselben lge; die
Gestalt seiner Begriffe, die Art und die Grenzen ihrer Verknpfbarkeit ist ihm
vorgezeichnet durch die Sprache, in der er geboren und erzogen ist, Verstand
und Fantasie sind durch sie gebunden (43).
1
:
, , , ,
: bildet <> auch seinerseits (.
) die Sprache .
2
Auf der andern Seite aber bildet jeder freidenkende geistig selbstthtige
Mensch auch seinerseits die Sprache. In diesem Sinne also ist es die
lebendige Kraft des einzelnen, welche in dem bildsamen Stoff der Sprache
neue Formen hervorbringt, ursprnglich nur fr den augenblikklichen Zwekk
ein vorbergehendes Bewutsein mitzutheilen, von denen aber bald mehr
bald minder in der Sprache zurkkbleibt und von andern aufgenommen
weiter bildend um sich greift (43-44).
160

. . :

. [] , ,
,
,
? ,
, ?
? []

, , :
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
? ,
- ?
13. , : -, ,
,
-, 1
. []
, . 6;
. 12? [] ?
, , ? [] ? ,
(zwiefache Weise) ,
, : , ,
?
1

Daher nun will jede freie und hhere Rede auf zwiefache Weise gefat sein,
theils aus dem Geist der Sprache, aus deren Elementen sie zusammengesezt
ist, als eine durch diesen Geist gebundene und bedingte, aus ihm in dem
redenden lebendig erzeugte Darstellung; sie will auf der andern Seite gefat
sein aus dem Gemth des redenden als seine That, als nur aus seinem Wesen
gerade so hervorgegangen und erklrbar (44).
161

, . NO. 11, 2013

14.
, , ,
, [ ] 1. [] ,
?
, . [] ? []
, -
?
15.
; , , , ,
;
,
, ,
, 2
, .
. 14: , .
- :
,
1

Man versteht die Rede auch als Handlung des redenden nur, wenn man
zugleich fhlt, wo und wie die Gewalt der Sprache ihn ergriffen hat, wo an
ihrer Leitung die Blize der Gedanken sich hingeschlngelt haben, wo und wie
in ihren Formen die umherschweifende Fantasie ist festgehalten worden (44).
The verbal lightning has snaked down out of the sky of thought
1992 an ihrer Leitung die Blize
der Gedanken sich hingeschlngelt haben, . ()
(
).
2
Man versteht die Rede auch als Erzeugni der Sprache und als Aeuerung
ihres Geistes nur, wenn, indem man z. B. fhlt, so konnte nur ein Hellen
denken und reden, so konnte nur diese Sprache in einem menschlichen Geist
wirken, man zugleichfhlt, so konnte nur dieser Mann hellenisch denken und
reden (44).
162

. . :

. ,
, -
. , . 12 13, . -

,
,

, ?
16.
, ,
1
.
(unmittelbar, . )? ,
? , , ,
. .
,
(
,
).
17. , , ,
;
,
, ,
, ,
, , -

Soll er sich vorsezen, zwei Menschen, die so ganz von einander getrennt sind
wie sein der Sprache des Schriftstellers unkundiger Sprachgenosse und der
Schriftsteller selbst, diese in ein so unmittelbares Verhltni zu bringen, wie
das eines Schriftstellers und seines ursprnglichen Lesers ist? (45).
163

, . NO. 11, 2013

1. [] , . , , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, . (
, ,
, ,
, , ,

? ?) []
, , : , ,
,
. - , ,
, , , . ,
,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
. []
,
, ? . , (bodies-becoming-minds) , 1

Wenn seine Leser verstehen sollen, so mssen sie den Geist der Sprache
auffassen, die dem Schriftsteller einheimisch war, sie mssen dessen
eigenthmliche Denkweise und Sinnesart anschauen knnen; und um dies
beides zu bewirken, kann er ihnen nichts darbieten als ihre eigene Sprache,
die mit jener nirgends recht bereinstimmt, und als sich selbst, wie er seinen
Schriftsteller bald mehr bald minder hell erkannt hat, und bald mehr bald
minder ihn bewundert und billigt (45).
164

. . :

.

? ,
,

.
18. ,
.
, <> .
,
. , ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
.
, 1
. [] ,
, . [1] -
1

Die Paraphrase will die Irrationalitt der Sprachen bezwingen, aber nur auf
mechanische Weise. So arbeitet sie sich zwischen lstigem zu viel und
qulendemzu wenig schwerfllig durch eine Anhufung loser Einzelheiten
hindurch. Sie kann auf diese Weise den Inhalt vielleicht mit einer
beschrnkten Genauigkeit wiedergeben, aber auf den Eindrukk leistet sie
gnzlich Verzicht; denn die lebendige Rede ist unwiederbringlich getdtet,
indem jeder fhlt da sie so nicht knne ursprnglich aus dem Gemth eines
Menschen gekommen sein. Der Paraphrast verfhrt mit den Elementen beider
Sprachen, als ob sie mathematische Zeichen wren, die sich durch
Vermehrung und Verminderung auf gleichen Werth zurkkfhren lieen, und
weder der verwandelten Sprache noch der Ursprache Geist kann in diesem
Verfahren erscheinen (45-46).
165

, . NO. 11, 2013

, , , , , ,
;
-,
. [-2]

,
, [-3] []
, ,
. -, , ,
, . [-1] ,
,

. [-2] .
,
, ,
, ,
, . 10 + 10 = 20 30 10 = 20
,
10, 20 30
, ,
, ,
,
, . []
[,
(erscheinen) . ] ,
,
: (erscheinen) (Geist), -
166

. . :

; ,
,
, . . , , ,
,
( , , ).
19. , . ,
, . , , ,
,
,
. , , , , , ,
1
. []
, ,
, , .
,
,
1

Die Nachbildung dagegen beugt sich unter der Irrationalitt der Sprachen;
sie gesteht, man knne von einem Kunstwerk der Rede kein Abbild in einer
andern Sprache hervorbringen, das in seinen einzelnen Theilen den einzelnen
Theilen des Urbildes genau entsprche, sondern es bleibe bei der
Verschiedenheit der Sprachen, mit welcher so viele andere Verschiedenheiten
wesentlich zusammenhngen, nichts anders brig, als ein Nachbild
auszuarbeiten, ein Ganzes, aus merklich von den Theilen des Urbildes
verschiedenen Theilen zusammengesezt, welches dennoch in seiner Wirkung
jenem Ganzen so nahe komme, als die Verschiedenheit des Materials nur
immer gestatte. Ein solches Nachbild ist nun nicht mehr jenes Werk selbst, es
soll darin auch keineswegs der Geist der Ursprache dargestellt werden und
wirksam sein, vielmehr wird eben dem fremdartigen, was dieser
hervorgebracht hat, manches andere untergelegt (46).
167

, . NO. 11, 2013

- ( ,
),
,
. , ( ) , :
, , . , ,
, ;
, . [] ,

, . , ,

,
. , , [-1]
,
,
, , , . [-2] , : ,
, . :
[ : (imitation)
. ], , (Ein
solches Nachbild ist nun nicht mehr jenes Werk selbst). , ,
,
(jenes Werk selbst). , ,
. []
168

. . :

,
, , [-1]
,

,
,
, ,
.
() ,
[]
[], ,
. [2] , ,
,
. [-3]
,
, ,
. .
20. ,
,
. ? , . ,
,
1
. , ,
1

Aber nun der eigentliche Uebersezer, der diese beiden ganz getrennten
Personen, seinen Schriftsteller und seinen Leser, wirklich einander zufhren,
und dem lezten, ohne ihn jedoch aus dem Kreise seiner Muttersprache heraus
zu nthigen, zu einem mglichst richtigen und vollstndigen Verstndni und
Genu des ersten verhelfen will, was fr Wege kann er hiezu einschlagen?
Meines Erachtens giebt es deren nur zwei. Entweder der Uebersezer lt den
Schriftsteller mglichst in Ruhe, und bewegt den Leser ihm entgegen; oder er
lt den Leser mglichst in Ruhe und bewegt den Schriftsteller ihm entgegen
(47).
169

, . NO. 11, 2013

. , : ? []
(lt den Schriftsteller mglichst in
Ruhe). [-1] ,
, , , ,
, ,
. ,
, , , , [-2] , -,
, ,
, , [-3]
(,
-)
. [-4]
, . []
,
, [-1] ,
.
[-2]
, -. , [-3]


,
, , ,
sittliche Stimmung, damit der Sinn auch fr das minder
verwandte geffnet bleibe (. )
[. , ]:
[.
]. [-4] ,
:
;
: - ,
, .
,
170

. . :

. []
, , , ?
, , , : .
II:
, , , ,
.
, : 1 20
; 2 16 ; 4-5, 9-10, 12-15 , ;
8 17 ; 18 19 ; 3 10-11
; 20 1
(Tropic ) .
1 20:
. ,
.
, , THE TRANSLATORS
TURN,
, , , , . , ,
. 20: , 1

tropic . , , , .

171

, . NO. 11, 2013

, , , ,
, .
1. , (. THE MOVING TEXT
: Pym 2004),
, - ,
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, .

:
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, (, . .).
2. , , ,
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19 , ,
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.
( / )
, . 20 172

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,
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:
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, ).
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, ,
,
(. ,
, , , , . .),
, ,
173

, . NO. 11, 2013

. - ,
,
,
,
. ,
(. Singer 2004), , ,
(., : Loggia 2008).

, , , , ,
, ()
, ;
, ,
.
2 16: . , , ,
(. . 16)
unmittelbar ,
Vermittlung ,
. , , (. 2)
. . 2
, ,
, . 16 ,
. , , (mediacy)
- , .
, , , , . ,
, , , . . 174

. . :

: , .
:
, .
, (1.2.1,
1357b26), . ,
, :
, .

, ,
-
, ,
, ,
,

, ( ) ,
,
.
, 1.2, .
,
, ,
.

, , , , , . ,
, , , (,
), ,
encouragement ,
(Walker 2008: 84-85), . 1, , , , , , , (, ,
1

. (. . ) (. )
175

, . NO. 11, 2013

) ( ),
,
( ,
). - ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
.
, 1, , , ,
(likely or
probable). - (the
probabilities), ( ,
truthiness) 2,
,
. , ;
, ,
. , , ,
.
, 1

.
(. Stephen Tyrone Colbert, /kolb/; 13
1964 , ) , ,
. ,

. truthiness (. ,
), 2006
( ) . .
2

176

. . :

.
, encouragement/, , (need, eine
Notwendigkeit) (ein Bedrfni
des Gemthes ein Bedrfni des Gefhls) , , .
4-7, 9-10, 12-15: , .
, , .
,
(die Uebersezung), ,
. ,
, (die Dolmetschung),
, , , ,
. ,


, . (freidenkend) ,
,
.
:
, . : , ,
1
( 1929: 13) ,
ESTRANGEMENT AND THE SOMATICS OF
LITERATURE ( )
:
, , , ,
1

: arts device is a device for the estrangement of things,


a device of belabored form that increases the laboriousness and duration of
perception, because in art the perceptual process is self-purposive and should
be prolonged (Robinson 2008: 89); .: . . .
.: , 1925. . 7-20 (14); . . , .
. ., , 1929, . 13 . .
177

, . NO. 11, 2013

(Robinson 2008: 80-81), , ( 4; . TRANSLATION AND THE PROBLEM OF SWAY: Robinson


2011: Chapter 4). ,
, ,
, ,
:
, ,
( 1929: 12) 1.
()/
, . ,
. ,
, , - . ,
, , -
. ,
,
: ,
?
:
, , , . ( ),

, (,
), ,
, . 7, (. ),
, , . - , , 1

: In this algebraic method of thought, things are taken


as calculation and space; they are not seen by us, but recognized by their
primary outlines (119).

178

. . :

, , ( ): , ( , ),
(, , , , . .), , . .
, , , ,
, , . , ,
,
, , , .
, .

.
: , , ,
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-. .
,
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179

, . NO. 11, 2013

,
(). , .

, ,
. ,
(
) , . , . , , , .

.
, , ,
() , ,
, .
, ,

,
. , ,
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. ,
() ,
,
: ,
?
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?
, ?
, (truthifications) .
,
(middle-brow),
, ,
180

. . :

, (. Harker 2007). , , ,
, 1
.
.
,

, , ,

, ( ,
?), .
, . 6?
,
,
,
. ,
, ,
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.
,
-
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, ( ),

. ,
1

fan fiction ,
.
181

, . NO. 11, 2013

( , ) , , , , , - , , .
, ,
: der Gegenstand auf keine Weise mehr
herrscht, sondern von dem Gedanken und Gemth beherrscht wird, ja
oft erst durch die Rede geworden und nur mit ihr zugleich da ist
,
,
. , ,
.
,
, , , , ,
.
, (
) ,
,
, ( ,
, , ) (
).
, ,
( )
, ,
.
,
:
.

182

. . :

, . .
, , , , ,
. ,
.
, -
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, ,
, , (belief) .

, : [] , [, ]
[ ],
, , (. 12). :
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, ,
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?
183

, . NO. 11, 2013

,
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.
. 12 , ,
,
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, .
, ,
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):
, , .
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, , , , , . , ;
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184

. . :

, ,
, - -, , , , , .
.
.
, . 15
- , ,
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[ 1
], . ,
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.
, --,
, : -
. , , ,
,
, (,
) ,

.


-- (
)

, ,
, () . .
1

: ,
, : von denen aber bald mehr bald minder in der
Sprache zurkkbleibt und von andern aufgenommen weiter bildend um sich
greift
185

, . NO. 11, 2013

,
,
, , .
, . 12,
, ,
. 14 ,
(die Blize der Gedanken[, die an der Leitung
der Sprache] sich hingeschlngelt haben). , : ( )
( , ),
. 10 , .
: [] []
, [] [] , [
]. , :
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:
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, , .
: ( )
( ) 1
.
1

. :
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, . :]

. ,
186

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) .
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, ;
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, . NO. 11, 2013

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sich die heimische Welt und die heimische Sprache ganz fremd werden
lassen (50).
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sie wie angenossen kleiden, denn da bei ihrem Auffassen fremder
Werke auch nicht der mindeste Einflu der Muttersprache mehr statt findet,
198

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1
Der Uebersezer mu also sich zum Ziel stellen, seinem Leser rein solches
Bild und einen solchen Genu zu verschaffen, wie das Lesen des Werkes in der
Ursprache dem so gebildeten Manne gewhrt, den wir im besseren Sinne des
Worts den Liebhaber und Kenner zu nennen pflegen, dem die fremde Sprache
gelufig ist, aber doch immer fremde bleibt, der nicht mehr wie die Schler
sich erst das einzelne wieder in der Muttersprache denken mu, ehe er das
Ganze fassen kann, der aber doch auch da wo er am ungestrtesten sich der
Schnheiten eines Werkes erfreut, sich immer der Verchiedenheit der Sprache
von seiner Muttersprache bewut bleibt (51).
199

, . NO. 11, 2013

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unerfreulicher Mitte. ,
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204

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.
/ REFERENCES
Aristotle. (1959). tekhn rhetorik. Edited by W. D. Ross. Oxford:
Clarendon. [Translated by George Kennedy as On Rhetoric: A Theory of
Civic Discourse. 1991. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2007].
Bakhtin, M. (1929/1984). Problems of Dostoevskys Poetics.
Translated and edited by Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press.
Carpenter, W. B. (1874). Principles of Mental Physiology, with Their
Applications to the Training and Discipline of the Mind, and the Study
of Its Morbid Conditions. New York: Appleton.
Clark, A., & Chalmers, D. J. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis,
58, 7-19.
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason, and the
Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
Derrida, J. (1972/1988). Signature Event Context. In G. Graff (Ed.),
Derrida, Limited Inc. Translated by Samuel Weber and Jeffrey
Mehlmann (pp. 1-23). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Dryden, J. (1680/2002). The Three Types of Translation. From
Preface to Ovids Epistles. In D. Robinson (Ed.), Translation Theory
from Herodotus to Nietzsche (pp. 172-174). Manchester: St. Jerome,.
Fleckenstein, K. S. (1999). Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in
Composition Studies. College English, 61.3 (January 1999), 281-306.
Foucault, M. (1977/1988). What is an Author? Translated by Donald
F. Bouchard and Sherry Simon. In D. F. Bouchard (Ed.). Language,
Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews by Michel
Foucault, 1977 (pp. 113-138). Reprint. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis. New York: Harper&Row.
Harker, J. (2007). America the Middlebrow: Womens Novels,
Progressivism, and Middlebrow Authorship Between the Wars.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Hegel, G. W. F. (1802-3/1979). System of Ethical Life. Edited and
translated by H. S. Harris and T. M. Knox. Albany: State University of
New York Press.
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Hulme, T. E. Romanticism and Classicism. (2003). In


P. McGuinness (Ed.), Hulme, Selected Writings (pp. 68-83). London
and New York: Routledge.
Kant, I. (1892/1914). Kants Critique of Judgement. Translated by
J. H. Bernard. 1892. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan, 1914. Retrieved
from http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1217/Kant_0318_EBk_v6.0.pdf
Kant, I. (1799/1922). Kritik der Urteilskraft. Edited by Karl
Vorlnder. 1799. 5th edition. Leipzig: Felix Meiner, 1922. Retrieved from
http://ia700409.us.archive.org/24/items/kritikderurteils00kantuoft/kri
tikderurteils00kantuoft.pdf
Loggia, M. L., Mogil J. S. , & Bushnell M. C. (2008). Empathy Hurts:
Compassion for Another Increases both Sensory and Affective
Components of Pain Perception. Pain, 236, 168-176.
Nida, E. A. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating: With Special
References to Principles and Procedures of Bible Translating. Leiden:
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Pym, A. (2004). The Moving Text: Localization, Translation, and
Distribution. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Pym, A. (1995). Schleiermacher and the Problem of Blendlinge.
Translation and Literature, 4.1, 5-30.
Robinson, D. (1991). The Translators Turn. Baltimore: Johns
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Robinson, D. (1997). What Is Translation? Centrifugal Theories,
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Robinson, D. (2012a). First-Year Writing and the Somatic Exchange.
New York: Hampton Press.
Robinson, D. (2012b). Rhythm as knowledge-translation,
knowledge as rhythm-translation. Global Media Journal Canadian
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Robinson, D. (2013). Feeling Extended: Sociality as Extended BodyBecoming-Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Bradford.
Schleiermacher, F. (2002). On the Different Methods of
Translating. Translated by Douglas Robinson, 1997. In D. Robinson
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Schleiermacher, F. (1813/1963). Ueber die verschiedene Methoden


des Uebersezens, 1813. In H. J. Strig (Ed.), Das Problem des
bersetzens.
Darmstadt:
Wissenschaftliche
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2006-07/Schleiermacher.pdf
Singer, T, Seymour B., ODoherty J., Kaube H., Dolan R. J., & Frith
C. D. Empathy for Pain Involves the Affective but not Sensory
Components of Pain. Science 303, 1157-1162.
Walker, J. (2008). Pathos and Katharsis in Aristotelian Rhetoric:
Some Implications. In A. G. Gross, & A. E. Walzer (Eds.). Rereading
Aristotles Rhetoric (pp. 74-92). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois
University Press.


,
robinson@hkbu.edu.hk

Douglas Robinson
Arts Deans Office, OEW 1102
Hong Kong Baptist University
Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong

207

81253:339.138

. . (, )


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NATALIA A. KARAVAYEVA (VORONEZH, RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETING IN QUALITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH.
Traditionally, professional simultaneous interpretation is considered
to be used at international conferences and forums. In Russia such
events are usually held in major cities like Moscow and
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. C. 208-217. . . , 2013.

. . .

St. Petersburg, so simultaneous interpreters training is conducted


primarily in the cities named. Few companies offer simultaneous
interpreters' training in the education market. The article indicates
yet another area that requires simultaneous interpretation services,
that is quality marketing research, namely, conducting in-depth
interviews (focus groups). Focus groups are usually held not only in
the metropolitan area, but also in provincial towns and cities with the
need for high-quality simultaneous interpreters, but no places for
training them. The aim of in-depth interviews is for marketers to
study consumer attitudes toward the product or brand, develop
positioning strategies for goods (services), assess compliance of the
existing product with market requirements, identify strengths and
weaknesses of the existing product, develop new products (services),
search for niche markets, determine end-user types and features of
consumer behavior, including shopping habits and motivation, as
well as to test new products and study consumer response to specific
advertisements and promotion campaigns. This article discusses the
features of simultaneous interpretation in qualitative marketing
research, determines difficulties and challenges faced by interpreters
when interpreting in-depth interviews. Thus, interpreting is always
done into a foreign language. As a rule, in-depth interviews in a focus
group last for about 33.5 hours, and customers typically require one
simultaneous interpreter in order to ensure the homogeneity of the
terminology and of the text as a whole, which requires certain
stamina. Even if an interpreter carefully prepares for the event, there
always remains the so-called information blind spot, since only
questions are known, and the answers of the respondents can be
diverse, often far beyond the claimed subject matter of the research,
etc. Possible ways of solving these problems are offered. The
importance of providing interpreters' training in provincial
universities is emphasized.
Keywords: simultaneous interpreting, in-depth interview, focus
group, training simultaneous interpreters

, , , , . ., , ( , ) . , 20-
XX . 1926 .
(International Business Machines)
209

, . NO. 11, 2013

, , ,
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VI ( 2013: 8).

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1971 .).
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.
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XX ,
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(THE FOCUSED INTERVIEW) (Merton,
Kendall 1946).
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biodegradable packaging
blister container
vacuum skin
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industrial pre-pack
, stackable
containers
clip-top box
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reclosable packaging
hinged lid
turning lid
parchment
to interleave the slices
slide lid
shrink bag
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216

. . .

Merton, R., Kendall, P. The Focused Interview // The American


Journal of Sociology. Vol. 51. 1946. No. 6 (May). P. 541-557.
REFERENCES
Belanovskij, S. A. (1996). Metod fokus-grupp [Focus Group
Method]. Moscow: Magistr.
Chernov, G. V. (2013). Teorija i praktika sinkhronnogo perevoda
[Theory and Practice of Simultaneous Translation]. Moscow: Librokom.
Merton, R., & Kendall, P. (1946). The Focused Interview. The
American Journal of Sociology, 51, 6 (May), 541-557.
,

. 10-110, , 394006

Karavaeva-nata@yandex.ru

Natalia A. Karavaeva
Voronezh State University
pl. Lenina 10-110, Voronezh, 394006
Russian Federation
phone: +7 (906) 678 04 51

217

82-93(087.5):811.111+811.162.1

Grska A. (Opole, Poland)


NURSERY RHYMES IN ENGLISH AND POLISH
. (, )


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A. GRSKA (OPOLE, POLAND) NURSERY RHYMES IN ENGLISH AND POLISH.
This article intends to show the status of nursery rhymes in English
and Polish childrens literature research and position of them in
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 218-239. A. Grska, 2013.

A. GRSKA. NURSERY RHYMES IN ENGLISH AND POLISH

poetry for children field. At the beginning the most important claims
about poetry for children are listed. Generally, both English and
Polish researchers do not give any definitions of the poetry for
children and some of them believe that it does not exist as a separate
entity. On the other hand, it is believed that poetry for children has
specific features, which made it different from poetry for adults.
Additionally, both in England and Poland there are claims that poetry
for children is of lesser value; therefore it is often seen as unworthy of
scientific attention.
Status of nursery rhymes in English and Polish research literature
differs. In English literature nursery rhymes are considered to be a
type of poetry for children but in Polish research literature the
nursery rhymes have never been awarded separated status. There are
no collections of nursery rhymes in Polish literature. Then
classifications used in childrens poetry field in English and Polish
research literature are compared. There are some generic
classifications in the literature of the subject but most of the
classifications are intuitive. A consistent typology of childrens poetry
has never been devised. Finally major collections of nursery rhymes
are listed and a history of nursery rhymes in English and Polish
literature is presented. Findings suggest a need for consistent
classification of poetry for children and more research in Polish
literature on nursery rhymes.
Keywords: nursery rhymes, poetry for children, Polish poetry,
English poetry

The article is comprised of four parts: the first part is about the
problem of childrens poetry existence and its distinctiveness, the
second part describes classifications used in childrens poetry field.
Then there is an overview of nursery rhyme collections in Polish and
English literature, and finally, the origin of nursery rhymes in Polish
and English literature is described briefly. The article contains
descriptions of major collections of nursery rhymes: Polish Jerzy
Cielikowskis WIELKA ZABAWA and English Iona & Peter Opies THE
OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY RHYMES and THE OXFORD NURSERY
RHYME BOOK.
What is childrens poetry?
What is childrens poetry? There is poetry which is easy to read and
poetry which has didactic content, but does poetry for children really
219

, . NO. 11, 2013

exist? Both Polish and English researchers have been trying to avoid
giving the definition of childrens poetry.
Morag Styles in the introduction to POETRY AND CHILDHOOD (Styles
et al. 2010: XI) writes that what constitutes childrens poetry has never
been adequately formulated in English literature. She admits later that
almost any poem borrowed or stolen from the adult canon can become
part of the canon of poetry for children (Styles et al. 2010: XII). As the
other authors, Styles has not given the definition of poetry for
children, claiming that trying to do this leads to pointless debates
(Styles 1998: XXV).
In FROM THE GARDEN TO THE STREET (Styles 1998: XV) Styles claims
that it is possible to show only which poetry is not for the children,
because the language used is too complex or there are other reasons
why the piece presented is inappropriate for them. Despite that Styles
believes that generally children are capable of reading difficult,
sophisticated texts if previously prepared. Although children can read
serious texts they generally like texts written in doggerel, of little value
for adults, simple or rude and we should acknowledge that fact as well
(Ibid: XXV). In Styles opinion poetry written expressly for children is
not inferior to poetry written expressly for adults and later added to
childrens poetry canon. She believes that it is not possible to measure
the quality of the poetry therefore childrens poetry should be valued
in its own right (Ibid.: XVI). After all, most of what has come to be
known as childrens poetry have been created by generations of
anthologists and not by children themselves (Ibid.: XVI).
Coventry Patmore in the preface to his anthology THE CHILDRENS
GARLAND FROM THE BEST POETS; SELECTED AND ARRANGED (Patmore
1884: V) claims that his book contains only genuine poetry, that gives
pleasure to children. He admits using a practical test on children,
although he does not give any details of the testing procedure, to
separate poetry children like the most from the rest. He claims that
the application of the test has excluded from the set all verse written
specially for children and all verse written about children for adults
(Patmore 1884: VI). He does not give a definition of poetry for
children, but we understand that in his opinion, poetry for children is
that which gives them pleasure.
Similar view is presented by another anthologist, Neil Philip in the
introduction to his book entitled THE NEW OXFORD BOOK OF
CHILDRENS VERSE (Philip 1996: XXV). He claims that poetry for
220

A. GRSKA. NURSERY RHYMES IN ENGLISH AND POLISH

children is the only poetry to which they respond and he believes that
poetry written specially for children has low quality. In his opinion the
best anthologies rarely contain poems written intentionally for
children. And again he doesnt give any explicit definition of poetry for
children stating that there is only good or bad poetry.
Additionally, Philip describes two different views (Philip 1996:
XXVII) about poetry for children held by the English. The first view is
that poetry for children was perfected in a lost golden age. This type of
poetry reflects a traditional perception of childhood. The second view
is that poetry for children should be relevant to the modern world,
should be shorter, catchier and not drenched in nostalgia. Philip
believes that those two styles of writing could be represented in one
anthology (and they are represented in his anthology) and poetry for
children can be attractive, silly, nonsense and serious at the same time.
Among others, there is an opinion that poetry for children as a
separate type of poetry does not exist. Peter Hunt in his article (Hunt
2010: 17) writes: There is a common, basic assumption that poetry at
least, post-romantic poetry although essentially indefinable, is static,
thoughtful, sophisticated, skilled, philosophical and concerned with
sex and death and interiority. The general concept of children is that
they are not any of those things. Therefore, childrens poetry cannot
exist. Hunt claims that in English culture poetry for children is
regarded as a step to real poetry and an instrument of acculturisation,
and not as art itself (Hunt 2010: 18).
Regrettably, children are never asked for their opinion; adults
decide what type of poetry is better for them and nobody knows what
poetry for children really is. Many believe that its quality is lower than
quality of poetry for adults. (Hunt 2010: 18).
Then Hunt says (Hunt 2010: 20) that all the opinions above are
connected to our culture and do not really relate with the formal
features of the poetry: the judgment that something is poetry or good
poetry is nothing to do with what is on the page it is nothing to do
with form: it is a cultural value-judgment, exactly equivalent to the
decision as to what literature is. The idea of absolute values in
literature and art is another obstacle. Those values are hard or
impossible to define. Therefore readers have been forced to believe
(Hunt 2010: 20) that only a small proportion of people is able to
appraise literature and others have to follow their choices. Thus, at
present we are only able to say what is available for children to read
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(Hunt 2010: 21) because we have the canon of childrens poetry, but we
are not able to say what poetry for children is or how it should be read.
Peter Hunt (Hunt 2010: 22) presents two basic ideas, which should
change our understanding of childrens poetry. Firstly, he states that
childrens poetry does not appeal to adults and secondly it should not
be seen as a ladder or stepping-stone to anything. Hunt (Hunt 2010:
22) believes that children should be left to interact with words freely
and this would lead us to genuine, liberated childrens poetry.
Polish researchers have held similar opinions about childrens
poetry. Jerzy Cielikowski, in the article (Cielikowski, 1982: 367)
entitled WIERSZ DZIECICY [Childrens poem] states that it is not
possible to describe what poem for children is. In Polish culture of the
18th century, similarly to English culture, the role of the poetry for
children was to educate kids and poetry for children was never
considered art (Ibid.: 362). Similarly to Styles and Patmore,
Cielikowski (Ibid.: 368) believes that poetry for children can be found
among the texts written for adults.
In the book entitled WIELKA ZABAWA [Great fun] (Cielikowski
1985) Cielikowski claims that literature for children is not a separate
genre of literature but just a modification of literature made due to
meet childrens demands. Because children have different point of
view than adults, some poetic elements will be more frequent in
poetry for children (Ibid.: 253).
Point of view is the main subject of Edward Balcerzans article
ODBIORCA W POEZJI DLA DZIECI [Addressee in poetry for children]
(Balcerzan 1982: 392-393). The author points out that the reader
orientation has become a part of the structure of the poetry for
children; in comparison the reader orientation in the structure of
literary texts for adults is insignificant. Balcerzan has observed (Ibid.:
393-394) that the reader orientation influences names of genres used
in the field of poetry for children. Some of the terms used in the field
of poetry for children do not exist in the adults speech but only in the
childrens language.
The reader orientation in the poetry for children generates
limitations in the research of the childrens poetry. Balcerzan (Ibid.:
394-395) claims that text of childrens poetry can be judged from only
two separate points of view: firstly, from the perspective of didactics,
where literature is regarded as a supplement to school education, and
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secondly, from the perspective of artistic values, where literature is


regarded as art.
Balcerzan believes (Ibid.: 396) that both attitudes described above,
extreme didactics and radical art are in opposition to each other. He
believes also that both perspectives have one element in common: in
each case the text of poetry for children is judged from the adults
point of view only. Childs point of view differs from adults point of
view; adults are able to analyze poetry from many perspectives in
many ways unavailable to children. Balcerzan (Ibid.: 400-401) has
enlisted three codes that can be found in all poems for children:
didactic code, poetic code and auto-didactic code (associated with
autodidactistic behaviour of the children). All of the three codes
coexist in each poem for children. Balcerzan claims (Ibid.: 406-408)
that from the perspective of a child the whole content becomes artistic
and educational at the same time, because the child sees the text as
one, inseparable entirety. In his opinion, the main value of the text
predestined for a child lies in skilful connection with the childs
internal world.
Eugeniusz Czaplejewicz in the article entitled DYDAKTYZM JAKO
ODPOWIED [Didactics as an answer] (Czaplejewicz 1986: 15) states
that contemporary literature for children is a new version of didactic
literature. In his opinion childrens literature and didactic literature
have similar vision of the world it sees world as a school, human as a
student, and knowledge as wisdom. The difference between old
didactic literature and contemporary literature for children is in the
fact that didactic literature has developed in the environment which
had the same system of values; contemporary childrens literature is
created in the environment which has a different vision of life and the
world. The author of the contemporary literature for children creates
values which are not his own (Ibid.: 16-17). Didactic literature and
contemporary literature for children give answers but at present
literature that asks questions predominates. Czaplejewicz believes that
childrens literature should stay unchanged, should keep its vision of
the world and should keep answering the questions, because it is
source of its strength (Ibid.: 21-24).
Myth of distinctiveness of poetry for children
The myth of distinctiveness of poetry for children has been the
main obstacle stopping researchers from carrying out a systematic
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analysis of the subject. This myth was influenced, on the one hand, by
didactic traditions in the poetry for children, on the other hand, by the
needs of the authors and writers. Especially lesser skilled authors have
used the myth of distinctiveness for their benefit because poetry which
is different, unique, or special cannot be subjected to serious stylistic
analysis the same way as other literary texts.
Jan Brzechwa in his article entitled: O POEZJI DLA DZIECI [About
poetry for children] noted that myth of distinctiveness of poetry for
children protects incompetent authors (Brzechwa 1982: 349) they do
not have to match the expectations readers have towards writers who
write for adults. Then Brzechwa observes (Ibid.: 349) that badly
written texts for children usually are believed to excel in
understanding childrens soul and possessing special educational
values. Brzechwa has pointed out (Ibid.: 356) that the myth of
distinctiveness is a barrier between children and poets. It stops the
development of poetry because influenced by it professional poets do
not want to write for the children. Additionally, Brzechwa (Ibid.: 355)
has called our attention to the fact that in Polish culture poetry for
children was generally treated as an attribute of motherhood another
reason for professional writers to avoid childrens poetry and leave it
to their wives.
Childrens poetry research Nursery rhymes research
Inferiority
As it was stated many times before, poetry for children was
considered inferior to poetry for adults. This situation can be observed
in Polish and English research literature. There are not many
differences between what was said by Polish and English researchers.
Jan Brzechwa, the most popular author of Polish poems for
children of all time, claims (Brzechwa 1982: 355) that in the 1920s,
literature for children was regarded as of inferior quality. It was merely
part of the educational process and neither editors nor critics were
interested in its development.
Jan Brzechwa (Ibid.: 355) criticized that state of affairs. In his
opinion poor Polish tradition of poetry for children and lack of serious
attention should raise increased anxiety.
Jan Zygmunt Jakubowski expressed a similar opinion. In his article
(Jakubowski 1982: 357) entitled: WIERSZE DLA DZIECI ALE POEZJA
[Poems for children but poetry] Jakubowski pointed out that critics
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and commentators did not analyze poetry for children because of its
poor quality. According to Jakubowski, poetry for children which was
published in newspapers and volumes in the 1920s was of very bad
quality.
Concerns about quality have not been the only reason for critics to
avoid dealing with poetry for children. Edward Balcerzan (Balcerzan
1982: 396) believes that lack of commentators own point of view in the
judging of poetry for children was to blame for the fact that literature
for children was marginalized by the critics.
In Poland, poetry for children has been ignored not only by the
critics of poetry but by the researchers of folklore as well. Dorota
Simonides, folklore researcher, in her article WSPCZESNA USTNA
TWRCZO DZIECI [Contemporary oral childrens work] (Simonides
1982: 408) points out that for a long time there were no research made
on folklore for children. Despite many attempts, in Polish literature,
there is only one study devoted to childrens folklore, which is Jerzy
Cielikowskis WIELKA ZABAWA.
Jerzy Cielikowski himself agreed (Cielikowski 1985: 6) that in
Polish literature there were not many scientific articles or publications
dealing with childrens folklore. Despite of the fact that Oskar Kolberg,
the most famous Polish ethnologist, has collected texts known and
sung by children, there are no publications which list all of them
separately.
In fact, Polish researchers have never created (Cielikowski 1985:
91) any selection of nursery rhymes. Kolberg himself described
childrens games but neglected the rhymes. Additionally, nursery
rhymes were never published in a separate anthology in Poland, and
there is no custom to print them in publications for children.
Poetry for children has never been the most popular research
subject in Britain. It has not changed much recently despite the fact
that we observe growing interest in childrens poetry. Morag Styles in
POETRY AND CHILDHOOD (Styles 2010: XV) says: Regrettably, poetry is
also the Cinderella of childrens literature, receiving very little scholarly
attention. It is usually poorly represented at academic conferences and
is the subject of minority interest. In From the Garden to the Street
Styles (Styles 1998: 16) admits that the position of childrens literature
is marginal within literature as a whole and there are not many
scholars in this field (Ibid.: IX). In the same way there are not many
publishers willing to deal with childrens poetry, they are preoccupied
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with commercial success (Styles 2010: XV) and prefer to promote other
types of literature. In Britain, where the editorial market is much more
developed than in Poland, there is certain unwillingness among
publishers (Ibid.: XV) to popularize poetry for children, especially
volumes written by a single poet.
Generally, research on the childrens poetry can be challenging.
Poetry for children had not existed for a long time and it emerged
from the poetry for adults. Poets had been writing texts with adults in
mind for ages, and only some of the texts later became part of the
childrens poetry canon. Therefore, neither style nor subject
determines who should be the reader of the poem. Additionally a
coherent typology of childrens poetry was never presented. The
names of the genres of the childrens poetry are taken from childrens
speech and do not exist in the dictionaries or handbooks of stylistics.
Generic classifications of childrens poetry
As it was mentioned previously, a consistent typology of childrens
poetry was never presented. There are some generic classifications in
the literature on the subject but most of the classifications are
intuitive and inconsistent. Those classifications often present
terminology where literary terms are mixed with the colloquial
expressions. For example, only among nursery rhymes from THE
OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY RHYMES (Opie & Opie 1997: IX) we
can find: nonsense jingles, humorous songs, infant amusements,
nursery counting-out formulas, baby puzzles, riddles, rhyming
alphabets, tongue twisters, nursery prayers, folk rhymes, magic spells,
and fairy tales in verse.
There were some attempts to systematize childrens poetry field in
the Polish literature. Stanisaw Frycie in a book entitled: LITERATURA
DLA DZIECI I MODZIEY W LATACH 1945-1970 [Literature for children
and youth in 1945-1970] (Frycie 1982: 87-104) divided contemporary
lyrics for children into four subdivisions: poetry of imagination, poetry
of grotesque and satire, lyrical poetry and poetry of the avant-garde.
Frycie (Ibid.: 115) was one of the researchers who believed that
childrens poetry of the twenties was well matched to the
psychological, aesthetic and educational needs of children.
Another method of categorising poetry for children was devised by
Bogusaw urakowski. urakowski (urakowski 1982: 376) identified
two branches in poetry for children: older didactic and modern
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lyrical. urakowski (Ibid.: 376-377) also described two genres of poetry


for children. The first genre was called by him childrens tale, which he
compared to a fable. The difference between them is that a fable is
polysemous whereas a childrens tale is unambiguous. The second
genre (Ibid.: 378) was called by him the little parable. Aim of the little
parable was to educate, show good behaviour and positive values.
Jerzy Cielikowski in the article Wiersz dzieciecy (Cielikowski
1982: 365-366), unlike urakowski, who identified lyrical and didactics
subdivisions of childrens poetry, has divided Polish childrens poetry
into two subdivisions: rustic (describing: cottages, village, and
animals) and urban (describing: toys, town and childs room).
Additionally Cielikowski (Ibid.: 374) has pointed out that all types of
texts for children can be either for the hearing, because of the rhyme,
accent, etc. or for the viewing, because of the pictures or other visual
elements corresponding with the content.
Cielikowski (Ibid.: 360) postulated the childrens poem as a genre
independent from the reader. He believed that it is a structure
conditioned by the nature of childrens imagination and argued that a
childrens poem does not have to be written with children in mind and
does not have to follow the guidelines developed for the use of
educational standards.
In the same article Cielikowski (Ibid.: 360 - 361) divided childrens
poems into three types: lullabies songs with rhythm, melody and
chorus sung at the cot, little fables combination of magical folk fairy
tale and fable and rhymes (in his system the riddle is a type of the
rhyme). He has also described five types of little fables:
1. lyrical with stanzas, choruses and descriptions of emotions,
2. magical with the elements of magic,
3. narrative with the plot,
4. dramatic dialogues can be used as a script of a game,
5. manual manual elements as essential component.
Cielikowski (Ibid.: 361) claims that the little fable derives directly
from the childrens nursery rhyme and is in fact grown-up, mature
form of the nursery rhyme.
In BAJECZKA DZIECICA he (Cielikowski 1968: 88) also argues that
the little fable is a new genre of rhyme for the children which has
developed in Polish literature. This genre combines many elements
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taken from: fairy-tales and fables, and contains other elements like:
fantasy, magic, animal symbolism and didactics. It is usually written in
verse, with dialogues and can be seen as a miniature of fairy-tale and
fable.
Some attempts have been made by researchers of folklore to
classify genres of poetry for children in Poland. Dorota Simonides
(Simonides 1982: 409), the ethnologist, during her research on
childrens folklore found out that children have two repertoires of
songs and rhymes. The first repertoire of a child comes from its
parents, and the second one is the childs own repertoire.
Texts included as childrens folklore by Simonides (Ibid.: 409) are:
stories in prose (fables, legends, anecdotes) nursery rhymes (counting
rhymes, compilations, poems) and proverbs (and proverbial
expressions).
The following types of rhymes were found to be known by the
children during the Simonides (Ibid.: 410-420) research:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

rhymes related to TV programmes;


parodies and travesties of: songs, slogans, prayers, carols;
rhymes about good behaviour;
rhymes with rude expressions;
rhymes based on proverbs.

Both repertoires will be found to contain a variety of characteristic


linguistic constructions besides the use of rhyme. The recognition of
the text as belonging to the childrens folklore is based on its
popularity among the children and not on its origin, so every text
popular among children can be included into the set of the childrens
folklore.
Another way of thinking is presented by Jolanta ugowska.
ugowska (ugowska 1958: 143-155) divides childrens poetry into
models of communicative situations. In her scheme the designation or
usage of the text determines its position in a system. ugowskas
approach shows notable clarity and coherence. Many authors have
tried to systematize childrens poetry but not many of those trials were
successful most of the categorizations attempted lack a semblance of
scientific practice and are different types of lists.
In Britain, Morag Styles (Styles et al. 2010: XIII) did not create a
classification of childrens poetry, but itemized its basic types. These
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were: country rimes of Bunyan, Stevensons garden, Potters and


Milnes light verse, Hughes animal poems, humour, rude rhymes,
nonsense, fairy-tale poetry, nursery rhymes.
Classification of nursery rhymes
Since in Polish literature there is only one publication about the
nursery rhymes, there is only one classification of nursery rhymes
available. In his book WIELKA ZABAWA Jerzy Cielikowski
(Cielikowski 1985: 92) used and adjusted a classification of the
nursery rhymes created originally by the Czech ethnographer
J. Fejtalik.
The classification of nursery rhymes of J. Fejtalik had these
categories:
1. Clapping rhymes;
2. Rhymes about animals or plants;
3. Animals voices;
4. Song sung during making willow pipes;
5. Rhymes sung when the rain was raining or sun shining or
without specific reasons;
6. Rhymes related to entertaining the children;
7. Alliterations;
8. Riddles;
9. Rhymes used during public holidays;
10. Games and plays.
In Britain, Iona and Peter Opie gathered 800 rhymes and ditties in
THE OXFORD NURSERY RHYME BOOK (Opie & Opie 1955: V). Among
them were: infant jingles, riddles, catches, tongue-trippers, baby
games, toe names, maxims, alphabets, counting rhymes, prayers and
lullabies. The authors (Ibid.: VI-VIII) divided rhymes into nine
sections according to occasions, particular actions or different stages
of childs development.
Opies classification includes:

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1. Baby games and lullabies (baby-play, knee rides, sayings for


undressing, washing and going to bed all used when child cannot yet
read);
2. First favorites (known to every parent and most memorable);
3. Little songs (when it is possible to recognize a tune to sing);
4. People (songs about people);
5. A little learning (alphabet and number rhymes);
6. Awakening (for awakening senses of a child to help appreciate
the feel of words);
7. Wonders (fancies and frolics);
8. Riddles, tricks and trippers (common objects in the apparel of
other objects);
9. Ballads and songs (mature songs for a child 7 8 years old).
Collections of nursery rhymes Jerzy Cielikowskis Wielka
zabawa
WIELKA ZABAWA by Jerzy Cielikowski is the only publication in
Poland about games, songs and rhymes for the children. There are no
other publications about nursery rhymes and games for children in the
Polish language so far.
In his book, Cielikowski (1985: 5-6) observes that artistically the
best literary texts for children have come from childrens folklore.
Cielikowski puts the emphasis on the analysis of rhymes and songs
and shows how they derive from folklore and very often he gives only
abbreviated version of the song or rhyme.
Cielikowski entitled his book WIELKA ZABAWA [Great fun]
assuming that everything children do they do for fun. In his book
(Ibid.: 88-159) he characterises as follows:
1. Games:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Games where the words are important;


Texts which come from the games;
Games based on certain motifs such as: birds, rose, paints;
Games connected with the dances and processions;

2. Lullabies and wake up songs:


a) Lullabies;
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b) Beliefs and superstitions about a cot;


c) Rhyming lullabies;
d) Myths of childhood: first tooth, where I came from;
3. Nursery rhymes - Cielikowski has adjusted classification of
J. Fejtalik and his classification of the rhymes is as follows:
a) Manual rhymes: clapping, pinching, touching, fingers games.
b) Poems on various occasions: work songs, repetitive poems;
c) Fear: dwarves, witches, darkness, Gniotek, Baba Jaga, Kurze
pucko;
d) Phonetic rhymes: alphabets, tongue-twisters;
e) Children's adaptations: pagan songs, wedding songs, carols;
f) Birds and animals voices: nightingale, chickens, rooster, frogs
etc.;
g) Nonsense;
h) Puzzles;
i) Rhymes about ladybird and snail.
4. Children among themselves:
a) During pasturing;
b) Shepherds sayings;
c) Counting rhymes.
Collections of nursery rhymes Opies THE OXFORD NURSERY
RHYME BOOK and THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY RHYMES
For many people the birth of a child is a beginning of a new stage
in their life. Energy and changes coming with the child very often
inspire other activities. THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY RHYMES
by Peter and Iona Opie (Opie & Opie 1997) was the direct result of a
birth of their first child.
Peter Opie (Carpenter & Prichard 1984: 387) was the son of a
surgeon but he did not follow in the footsteps of his father, he never
graduated college and he has become a journalist. Iona Opie was the
daughter of an expert on tropical diseases. She also never graduated
college and she worked for an international shipping company. They
were married in 1943 and their first child (they had three children) was
born in 1944 and this event started their studies on British nursery
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rhymes. The Opies probably did not expect how far they will become
preoccupied with their new job of collecting the nursery rhymes and
that as a result they will save them from the oblivion and preserve
them for the posterity.
The first publication of the Opies was a collection of nursery
rhymes entitled I SAW ESAU, published in 1947. In this collection
rhymes which are known to British school children, were presented.
After this publication they continued their research and were
collecting nursery rhymes for a book which was planned as a study on
all British nursery rhymes. This collection was released in 1951 as the
THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY RHYMES (Opie & Opie 1997) and
received wide acclaim. It is worth to mention that it was not the first
publication dedicated to British nursery rhymes. Almost one hundred
years earlier, James Halliwell (Carpenter & Prichard 1984: 235) in 1842
had published an anthology of nursery rhymes entitled THE NURSERY
RHYMES OF ENGLAND. His anthology was incomplete; it did not have
information about the sources used during the research. Some
scholars (Ibid.: 235) now doubt the reliability of material in the book.
Opies were the first researchers who not only collected the
majority of the English nursery rhymes but also to a large extent
systematized available knowledge about them. All texts in the
dictionary were arranged alphabetically according to the most
important word in the title. Additionally, all the texts were presented
with all known versions and with the appropriate commentary on
sources used and the origin.
The author of THE NEW OXFORD BOOK OF CHILDRENS VERSE, Neil
Philip (Philip 1996: XXX) writes about work of Opies: My admiration
for the both books (he mentioned also Donald Halls OXFORD BOOK FOR
CHILDRENS VERSE IN AMERICA) <...> has grown in the process, and I have
also been grateful that the assiduous scholarship of their editors has
freed me from the need to include work simply for its historical
importance. If you look in this book for some half-remembered poem
from your childhood and do not find it, it is probably in Opie or Hall.
Opies dictionary was published twice, in 1951 and 1997. The book is
known to all English-speaking researchers of poetry for children and it
is considered essential reading in the field of childrens poetry. The
book contains works published from many sources; books,
newspapers, leaflets. The authors aimed at finding the earliest versions
of each text. If the piece had many versions they presented the most
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full and most widely known version as basic. The dictionary alongside
with British nursery rhymes includes pieces published in the United
States. Many of the texts in the THE OXFORD DICTIONARY NURSERY
RHYMES had previously been known in oral tradition (Opie & Opie
1997: 3). The basic criterion for the allocation of the gathered material
was the age of children, therefore THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF
NURSERY RHYMES does not include pieces that were read by school
children.
The dictionary of Iona and Peter Opie is consistent and accurate.
All the entries in the dictionary were written by the Opies, and not, as
is often the case, by different authors commissioned to write about
specific issues (Carpenter & Prichard 1984: 8). Their approach was
extremely methodical and their labour was organized from the very
beginning. Iona Opie was responsible for the field work: school and
library visits, surveys. Peter Opie was responsible for the editing and
writing. In addition to the OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY RHYMES
the Opies published the OXFORD BOOK OF NURSERY RHYMES in 1955.
Thanks to their incredible diligence they created a collection that is
currently used as a reference for other researches and editors.
Currently, the publishing market recognises the child as a customer
and anthologies of poetry for children are published frequently. But at
the time when Peter and Iona Opie were gathering rhymes for their
collection, research on childrens literature was not as popular as it is
nowadays (Carpenter & Prichard 1984: 7). The situation we observe
today with congresses, symposia and seminars devoted to childrens
poetry was hard to imagine in 1951.
The origin of nursery rhymes in Polish literature
th

Polish nursery rhymes were first collected in the 19 century. Some


of the pieces can be found in many regions of Poland in a similar or
the same form. They are all very old, definitely of folk origin and come
from the practice of amusing children or rituals and ceremonies of
pagan or Christian origin. (Cielikowski 1985: 90) In Polish literature
nursery rhymes do not have separate generic name and they are just
called rhymes or rhymes for children.
The first collection of nursery rhymes was published by
. Gobiowski in 1831 (Ibid.: 91). Gobiowski admitted that some of
the pieces included in his booklet were obtained from Klementyna
Hoffmanowa. Hoffmanowa was one of the first Polish writers of
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childrens literature, who lived between 1798 and 1845. Those pieces
were games and jingles known to her when she was a child. It is
believed that the descriptions of the pieces passed by Klementyna
Hoffmanowa are the earliest data about Polish games for children. It is
proven (Ibid.: 91) that those games and activities remained unchanged
for the next hundred years.
Polish folklore research is generally uninterested in childrens
folklore. Polish researchers have never awarded separated status to
nursery rhymes. Oskar Kolberg, the most famous Polish folklore
researcher, author of the monumental work of 33 volumes about folk
(Kolberg 1957-1980) with about 18 thousand texts described did not
create a section for them either (Ibid.: 91). Jerzy Cielikowski
(Cielikowski 1985) just published his WIELKA ZABAWA in 1985, and his
work was the first publication about Polish nursery rhymes.
The origin of nursery rhymes in English literature
The majority of nursery rhymes were not originally intended for
children.
Pieces known now as nursery rhymes were often written for adults
(Opie & Opie 1997: 3-4). They include: ballads, folk songs, remnants of
ancient customs, war songs, proverbs, prayers, and indecent songs.
Only rhymed alphabets and lullabies were created for children.
Nursery rhymes seem to have appeared in the literature rather late.
There were no publications of nursery rhymes in 16th and 17th
centuries. In 1744 a volume of nursery rhymes entitled: TOMMY
THUMBS PRETTY SONG BOOK was published. Only one copy of this
volume has survived (Ibid.: 28-29).
The next collection of nursery rhymes was published in 1760 under
the title: THE TOP BOOK OF ALL, FOR LITTLE MASTERS AND MISSES. The
same year, a well-known publication: MOTHER GOOSES MELODY OR
SONNETS FOR THE CRADLE was published. This collections was very
popular in Britain and United States, it has been published many times
over the years. Rhymes from this collection have been reissued or
reprinted in different forms after the publication (Ibid.: 32-33). Thanks
to the popularity of the collection in the United States nursery rhymes
are called Mother Goose songs. Nursery rhyme is the British term. This
term appeared in the second decade of the 19th century, introduced
probably by well known authors of RHYMES FOR THE NURSERY, Ann and
Jane Taylor. Their book had a gilded inscription nursery rhymes on
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the back cover (Ibid.: 1). Before this publication rhymed songs for
young children were known under the name of songs or ditties (Styles
1998: 83).
Nursery rhymes and other songs for children in the 16th and 17th
centuries were issued in the form of disposable, low-cost prints. These
publications were often decorated but printed on poor quality paper.
For this reason, not many of these publications have survived till
today.
In the 18th century so called ABC books were very popular among
children. They were created to facilitate learning to read. Between the
16th and 18th centuries horn-books and later battledores were popular.
These books were made of wood to which a parchment with alphabet,
prayer, or proverb was attached. Apart from these exceptions before
17th century, children were generally reading literature which was
predesigned for adults (Styles 1998: 86).
It should be mentioned that in the 18th century, nursery rhymes
were seen as a manifestation of idiocy among the peasantry (Ibid.: 85).
Works of this type were considered dangerous (especially by Puritans)
because they contained nonsense and fantastic elements (Ibid.: 85). At
that time, many Puritan authors were changing the content of songs,
trying to create religiously and ideologically correct versions (Opie &
Opie 1997: 2). Although there have been many attempts to change the
content, most of the rhymes have survived from ancient times to the
present day virtually unchanged. Iona and Peter Opie found that most
of the nursery rhymes were very old: about 50% of all rhymes were
th
created before the 18 century, and some of them were created before
th
the 16 century (Ibid.: 7). The most popular songs have their
equivalents in other European cultures, mainly in Norway, Germany
and France (Ibid.: 9-10).
Summary
There is no generally accepted definition of childrens poetry in
Polish or English literature. Childrens literature is considered part of
didactic literature, a modification of literature or new version of
didactic literature by Polish researchers. English researchers do not
give an explicit definition of childrens literature. The position of
childrens literature is marginal within literature as a whole. Both in
Poland and in England; childrens poetry is regarded as an inferior
genre especially when it is written specifically for children and it is
235

, . NO. 11, 2013

unwillingly analysed by critics and commentators. A consistent


typology of childrens poetry has not been devised yet. There are some
generic classifications in the literature of the subject but most of the
classifications are intuitive. There were some attempts to systematize
childrens poetry field in Polish literature made by Frycie, urakowski
and Cielikowski. In Britain the classification of childrens poetry was
not devised. Nursery rhymes as a subject of research were ignored by
Polish researchers of folklore. In Polish literature there is only one
publication (WIELKA ZABAWA) about nursery rhymes and there is only
one classification created by the Czech ethnographer J. Fejtalik and
later adjusted by Jerzy Cielikowski. There are no anthologies of
nursery rhymes in Polish literature. Polish folklore research is
generally uninterested in childrens folklore. Polish researchers have
never awarded separated status to nursery rhymes. In Britain, Iona and
Peter Opie published two anthologies of nursery rhymes: THE OXFORD
NURSERY RHYME BOOK and THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF NURSERY
RHYMES and they classified nursery rhymes into nine sections
according to different stages of childs development. Nursery rhymes
first appeared in British literature in the 18th century, although they
were published in the 16th and 17th centuries in the form of low-cost
prints. The term nursery rhymes has been used in Britain since the
19th century. Before that rhymed songs for young children had been
known under the name of songs or ditties. In the United States,
nursery rhymes are called MOTHER GOOSE SONGS. Polish nursery
rhymes were collected for the first time in 19th century. They are of folk
origin and come from practice of amusing children or rituals of pagan
and Christian origin. In Polish literature, nursery rhymes do not have
separate generic name and they are just called rhymes or rhymes for
the children.
REFERENCES
Balcerzan, E. (1982). Odbiorca w poezji dla dzieci [Addressee in
poetry for children]. In S. Frycie (Ed.), Literatura dla dzieci i modziey
w latach 1945-1970, Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja, ksiki dla
najmodszych, utwory sceniczne, grafika, czasopimiennictwo, krytyka
literacka [Childerns Literature in 1945-1970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy
tale, poetry, Books for Small Children, Works for the Stage, Artwork,
Periodicals, Literary Critique] (pp. 392-408). Warszawa: Wydawnictwa
Szkolne i Pedagogiczne.
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Brzechwa, J. (1982). O poezji dla dzieci [About poetry for children].


In S. Frycie (Ed.), Literatura dla dzieci i modziey w latach 1945-1970,
Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja, ksiki dla najmodszych, utwory sceniczne,
grafika, czasopimiennictwo, krytyka literacka [Childerns Literature in
1945-1970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy tale, poetry, Books for Small
Children, Works for the Stage, Artwork, Periodicals, Literary Critique]
(pp. 348-356). Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne.
Carpenter, H., & Prichard, M. (1984). The Oxford Companion to
Childrens Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cielikowski, J. (1968). Bajeczka dziecica (Prba okrelenia
gatunku) [Childrens poem (An Attempt to Define the Genre)]. In
S. Aleksandrzak (Ed.), Kim jeste Kopciuszku, czyli o problemach
wspczesnej literatury dla dzieci i modziey [Who is Kopchiushku or
about the Problems of Modern Literature for Children and Young
People] (p. 88). Warszawa: Nasza Ksigarnia.
Cielikowski, J. (1982). Wiersz dziecicy [Childerns Poetry]. In
S. Frycie (Ed.), Literatura dla dzieci i modziey w latach 1945 1970,
Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja, ksiki dla najmodszych, utwory sceniczne,
grafika, czasopimiennictwo, krytyka literacka [Childerns Literature in
1945-1970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy tale, poetry, Books for Small
Children, Works for the Stage, Artwork, Periodicals, Literary Critique]
(pp. 360-376). Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne.
Cielikowski, J. (1985). Wielka zabawa [The Great Game]. Wrocaw:
Ossolineum.
Czaplejewicz, E. (1986). Dydaktyzm jako odpowied [Didactics as
an Answer]. In B. urakowski (Ed.) Poezja dla dzieci mity i wartoci
[Poetry for Children Myths and Values] (pp. 15-24). Warszawa:
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
Frycie, S. (Ed.). (1982). Literatura dla dzieci i modziey w latach
1945-1970. Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja, ksiki dla najmodszych, utwory
sceniczne, grafika, czasopimiennictwo, krytyka literacka [Literature
for children and youth in 1945-1970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy tale,
poetry, Books for Small Children, Works for the Stage, Artwork,
Periodicals, Literary Critique]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i
Pedagogiczne.
Gowiski, M., Kostkiewiczowa, T., Okopie-Sawiska, A., &
Sawiski, J. (Eds.). (1998). Sownik terminw literackich [Dictionary of
Literary Terms]. Wrocaw: Ossolineum.
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Hunt, P. (2010). Confronting the Snark: the Non-Theory of


Childrens Poetry. In M. Styles, L. Joy & D. Whitley (Eds.), Poetry and
childhood (pp. 17-23). Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
Jakubowski, J. Z. (1982). Wiersze dla dzieci ale poezja [Poems for
children but poetry]. In S. Frycie (Ed.), Literatura dla dzieci i
modziey w latach 1945 1970, Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja, ksiki dla
najmodszych, utwory sceniczne, grafika, czasopimiennictwo, krytyka
literacka [Childerns Literature in 1945-1970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy
tale, poetry, Books for Small Children, Works for the Stage, Artwork,
Periodicals, Literary Critique] (pp. 357-359). Warszawa: Wydawnictwa
Szkolne i Pedagogiczne.
ugowska, J. (1986). Metodologiczne problemy badania i klasyfikacji gatunkw poezji dziecicej [Methodological Problems if
Research and Classification of Genres of Childrens Poetry]. In
B. urakowski (Ed.), Poezja dla dzieci mity i wartoci [Poetry for
Children Myths and Values] (pp. 143-155). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo
Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
Opie, I., & Opie, P. (1955). The Oxford Nursery Rhyme Book. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Opie, I., & Opie, P. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery
Rhymes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Patmore, C. (1884). The Childrens Garland from the Best Poets;
Selected and Arranged. London: McMillan.
Philip, N. (1996). The New Oxford Book of Childrens Verse. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
17. Simonides, D. (1982). Wspczesna ustna twrczo dzieci
[Contemporary oral childrens work]. In S. Frycie (Ed.), Literatura dla
dzieci i modziey w latach 1945-1970, Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja,
ksiki
dla
najmodszych,
utwory
sceniczne,
grafika,
czasopimiennictwo, krytyka literacka [Childerns Literature in 19451970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy tale, poetry, Books for Small Children,
Works for the Stage, Artwork, Periodicals, Literary Critique] (pp. 408422). Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne.
18. Styles, M. (1998). From the Garden to the Street. Three Hundred
Years of Poetry for Children. London: Cassell.
19. Styles, M., Joy, L., & Whitley, D. (Eds.). (2010). Poetry and Childhood. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
20. Styles, M. (2010). Introduction: Taking the Long View the
State of Childrens Poetry Today. In M. Styles, L. Joy, & D. Whitley
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(Eds.), Poetry and childhood (pp. XI-XVI). Stoke on Trent: Trentham


Books.
21. urakowski, B. (1982). Elementy tradycji we wspczesnej poezji
dla dzieci [The Elements of Tradition in Contemporary Childerns
Poetry]. In S. Frycie (Ed.), Literatura dla dzieci i modziey w latach
1945-1970, Vol. II. Ba i bajka, poezja, ksiki dla najmodszych, utwory
sceniczne, grafika, czasopimiennictwo, krytyka literacka [Childerns
Literature in 1945-1970. Vol. II. Fable and Fairy tale, poetry, Books for
Small Children, Works for the Stage, Artwork, Periodicals, Literary
Critique] (pp. 376-392). Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i
Pedagogiczne.
22. urakowski, B. (Ed.). (1986). Poezja dla dzieci mity i wartoci
[Poetry for Children Myths and Values]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo
Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.



agnieszka.gorska@hotmail.co.uk

Agnieszka Grska
Opole University
ul. Orlt Lwowskich 21/3
45-371 Opole, Polska

239

821.111(81373.612.2)

Kholina D. A. (Voronezh, Russian Federation)


VISIONARY EXPERIENCE AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS
(CONCERNING THE ROLE OF SYNAESTHESIA AND OXYMORON
IN W. B. YEATS POETRY)
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Recent work deals with the nature and function of synaesthesia and
oxymoron in the poetic idiolect of W. B. Yeats. An emphasis is placed
upon the dominant models of modality transfer throughout Yeatss
works of different periods. An attempt is made to link the use of
synaesthesia to the supernatural motives in the early works and the
visionary poems of the later period. Attention is also paid to
oxymoron and catachresis in relation to the antithetical quality of
Yeatss poetic world.
Keywords: synaesthesia,
oxymoron, catachresis

modality,

synaesthetic

metaphor,

1. Introduction
From the semiological perspective poetry can be regarded as a
secondary semiotic system created using the primary means or
components, i. e. the language. If we ask ourselves in what part of a
poem its meaning is concealed, we would probably have to go from
the smallest structural components, such as phonemes or morphemes
to the bigger textual units and even intertextual cross-references
(Lotman 1970). As syneaesthetic metaphor and oxymoron can be
ISSN 2224-0101 (print); ISSN 2224-1078 (online). ,
/ Language, Communication and Social Environment. / Issue 11.
/ Voronezh, 2013. . 240-261. . . , 2013.

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

regarded as the constituent cells the textual body of the poems textual
body, the approach I have used can be called structuralist. Working
within this approach I will attempt to link the instances of both
phenomena described with the message of the whole poem. The
synaesthetic metaphor and oxymoron are structural components of a
poem that could be called ungrammaticalities (Riffaterre 1980: 1
22), the language abnormalities carrying the concentrated charge of
meaning. I propose that these ungrammaticalities reveal the ideas of A
Vision, Yeatss main philosophical work which contains the most
important concepts of Yeatss poetic world. A Vision, generally, has to
do with the antithetical nature of the universe, the interrelation
between the ideal and the physical reality, the supernatural and the
real world. The reason why I find the structuralist approach useful is
that one can trace certain similarities between the way language
operates and the overall concept of A Vision. Language in general is a
system of symbolic signs acting as the means of conveying a message.
These signs are put into relation with each other through grammar. A
Vision is also a system which has its constituent particles and its
grammar. We can regard the gyres and the twenty-eight Moon
phases as the symbolic elements of this framework. Then the spinning
of the gyres, the direction of their movement, the circular trajectory,
and the antithetical struggle between subjectivity and objectivity, the
abstract and the material, would be its grammar. Language possesses
the principle of binary oppositions which makes it possible to
distinguish between its various elements, e. g. long and short vowel
sounds, voiceless and voiced consonants in English, etc. Yeatss
philosophical system is based upon antithesis. Indeed, antithesis is its
main grammatical category defining the relations among all its
elements. Phase One of the Great Wheel is opposed to Phase Fifteen
(Body vs Spirit), and so are all the other phases of the Moon. Phase
One (The New Moon), the starting point of the cycle, is the stage of
submissiveness and plasticity, there is no independent thought or
being, so mind and body can take any shape imposed on them. Phase
Fifteen, the Full Moon, is the apogee of the cycle where the struggle
for subjectivity reaches its highest point. It stands for the temporary
triumph of Image over Reality, so subjective images are seen as being
more real than what exists objectively. It symbolizes art, the
achievement of maturity and visionary experience. Another
grammatical relationship is that of the Self and the Daimon (the
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Spirit, or the Mask, or the Anti-Self), the spiritual opposite of the Self.
The creative person (the Self) can achieve the Unity of Being (Phase
Fifteen) through wearing a Mask (the Anti-Self) which possesses
antithetical qualities. Almost every single element of the system, with
the exception of Phases One and Fifteen, which represent pure states
and cannot be found in realty, is contaminated by the opposing
properties. The degree of this antithetical contamination depends
mainly on the place on the Great Wheel and also on the converging/
diverging personality and history phases (Yeats 1981: 67-80).
Synaesthetical metaphors and the instances of oxymoron are the
examples of such contamination, thus reflecting the dialectical nature
of Yeatss worldview.
2. Synaesthesia, Language, and Metaphor
By synaesthesia we understand the perception, or description of
the perception, of one sense modality in terms of another; e. g.
perceiving or describing a voice as velvety, warm, heavy, or sweet <...>
(Princeton Encyclopaedia of Poetry and Poetics 1975: 839 840).
Synaesthesia in poetry was popularized by two sonnets: Baudelaires
CORRESPONDANCES (1857) and Rimbauds VOYELLES (1871), though it
had been employed earlier by John Donne (loud perfume), Shelley (the
fragrance of a hyacinth referred to as music), Heine (sweet as
moonlight) and others (Ibid.: 840). Distinction should be made
between the actual perception of the voice as having such qualities
and the transfer of modalities as a cognitive operation of
metaphorisation. In the first case we would have the involuntary
neurological synaesthesia of parallel or joined sensation, the rare
capacity to hear colours, taste shapes, or experience other equally
strange sensory fusions <...> (Cytowic 2002: 283 284), in the
second a synaesthetic metaphor, or literary synaesthesia which is the
deliberate use of imagery, the symbolic form of representation. But the
boundaries between these two phenomena are not as clearly marked
as at first it seems. In George Lakoff and Mark Johnsons words, Our
ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act,
is fundamentally metaphorical in nature (Lakoff, Johnson:
http://theliterarylink.com/metaphors.html). Not only is metaphor a
phenomenon of the language, but also operates as the key mechanism
of the conceptual system of the human mind, defining the way we
242

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

perceive the world and interact with it. For instance, it is possible to
conceptualize an argument in terms of war:
Ive never won an argument with him.
He shot down all of my arguments.

This is what G. Lakoff and M. Johnson call an ontological metaphor


based in physical experience which treats events, actions, emotions as
self-contained objects, and this is what we consider a dead
metaphor, or conceptual (in G. Lakoff' and M. Johnsons terms) that
should be distinguished from the verbal device. In other words, the
transfer of meaning occurs as a cognitive process, on the level of
thinking, not on the level of the language. If we describe a sound as
sweet, it does not mean that it has a sweet taste, though a true
synesthete would be very likely to describe it in this very way. Instead,
sweet would stand for melodious and harmonious (Oxford English
Dictionary), since metaphors tend to emphasize only some aspects of
an object, making others obscure (Oxford English Dictionary).
Nevertheless, synaesthesia is related to metaphor in terms of those
fundamental processes that underlie it, as it is, as well as the
metaphor, rooted in human experience. R. Cytowic considers
synaesthesia prior to metaphor, as it is found in animals and in newlyborn children, but is generally lost in the process of growing up.
Instead, with the development of abstract thinking, the joined senses
give way to metaphorical use of the language as a symbolic system, as
perceptual knowledge makes itself available to the abstract structures
of language (Lakoff, Johnson: http://theliterarylink.com/metaphors.
html). Therefore, synaesthesia can be a model for the conceptual
(linguistic) metaphor, as well as for the stylistic device. In a
synaesthetic metaphor the imagery is linguistically related in terms
belonging to one or more differing perceptual modes (Day 1996:
http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2358.pdf).
3. Synaesthesia and W. B. Yeatss Visionary Poems. The Link to
the Supernatural
There is no evidence to suggest that W. B. Yeats was a synaesthete.
Yeatss attitude to sensing and physicality is, nevertheless, worth
mentioning, as it is one of the basic concepts in his philosophical
system aimed at achieving the Unity of Being. This idea is
continuously expressed throughout Yeatss life through various
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symbols, such as the tide, the wind, the ship or the bird symbolism,
marking the transition between the real world and the world of the
supernatural. Bird imagery plays an important role in the early poem
THE WANDERINGS OF OISIN (1889) which, according to J. Unterecker,
has the relationship between time, mortality, wisdom at the price of
decrepitude as its subject matter (Unterecker 1959: 47-66). For
instance, sorrow is often referred to as osprey, an ominous bird of
prey, or ravening because of its sinister, deathly overtones. That is
the reason why the inhabitants of the first island visited by Oisin, the
immortal Sidhe, sing:
For neither Death nor Change comes near us,
And all listless hours fear us,
And we fear no dawning morrow,
Nor the grey wandering osprey Sorrow (Yeats 1989: 363).

In THE HOSTING OF THE SIDHE (The Wind among the Reeds) the
speaker sees the apparition of beings with long unbound hair, pale
cheeks and gleaming eyes, who are luring him to follow them into the
land of the immortals and thus leave the mortal world. The Sidhe are
material, sensual, though supernatural. Their physicality suggests the
unity of the world of the living and the world of the Immortals:
Empty your heart of its mortal dream.
The winds awaken, the leaves whirl round,
Our cheeks are pale, our hair is unbound,
Our breasts are heaving, our eyes are agleam,
Our arms are waving, our lips are apart <...> (Yeats 1989: 55)

Among the symbols of transition and antithetical unity one can


also mention the ambivalent Tree of Life in VACCILATION (The
Winding Stair and Other Poems), alive and blossoming and dead and
burning at the same time:
A tree there is that from its topmost bough
Is half all glittering flame and half all green
Abounding foliage moistened with the dew <...> (Yeats 1989: 250)

The Dance is another symbol, reflecting the unity of sensuality and


spirit. In THE DOUBLE VISION OF MICHAEL ROBARTES (The Wild Swans
at Coole) the speaker is dazzled by the double vision of a Sphinx and a
Buddha, the images suggesting intellect opposed love, body opposed
to soul. A visionary girl, almost Death-in-Life and Life-in-Death,
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D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

but without Coleridges gothic shade, belongs to Phase Fifteen of the


Moon. It is an image placed between the physical and the spiritual,
connecting and balancing them, and fusing them into an organic
unity:
And right between these two a girl at play
That, it may be, had danced her life away,
For now being dead it seemed
That she of dancing dreamed.
Although I saw it all in the minds eye
There can be nothing solider till I die;
I saw by the moons light
Now at its fifteenth night (Yeats 1989: 171).

Crazy Janes paradoxical statement that <...> nothing can be sole or


whole/ That has not been rent (Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop,
Yeats 1989: 260) is yet another variation of Yeats's permanent
dialectical theme. Fair and foul are not only clashed against one
another, but are, in fact, claimed to possess some kind of kinship, as
the old woman states that fair needs foul. This suggests that Crazy
Jane has more profound knowledge of love and its dimensions, from
the hearts pride to bodily lowliness, whereas the Bishop defends a
purely conventional, moral point of view.
The complex concept of struggling elements constituting the whole
requires a specific way of representation in Yeatss idiolect. Strictly
speaking, synaesthesia can hardly be regarded among the most
common phenomena in Yeatss poems. Its occurrence varies from one
in eighty-five lines in average (Crossways) to one in three hundred and
ten lines (The Winding Stair), reaching its peak in the earlier volume
THE WIND AMONG THE REEDS (1/26) and in the book of poems of the
middle period IN THE SEVEN WOODS (1/23) (Table 1). The frequency of
synaesthesia decreases noticeably in such middle period volumes as
The Green Helmet (1/260), and RESPONSIBILITIES (1/145). It is not
frequent in the volumes of the later period, THE WILD SWANS AT COOLE
(1/295) and LAST POEMS (1/280). It is hardly present in MICHAEL
ROBARTES AND THE DANCER, WORDS FOR MUSIC PERHAPS or FULL MOON IN
MARCH (Diagram 1).
The Wind among the Reeds, as well as In the Seven Woods, dwells
upon the complexity of love and the lovers defeat. J. Unterecker
underlines that in comparison to the previous volume, The Rose with
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its rather abstract rose symbolism, the imagery of The Wind among the
Reeds is characterized by increasing physicality. This has a role to play
considering the joined senses, i. e. synaesthesia. Along with that is the
idea of the 'multiple' personality referred to by J. Unterecker, which
can be extended to the multiplicity of senses (Unterecker 1959: 87-95).
Diagram 1.
Rates of Occurrence for Synaesthetic Metaphors
in Yeats Poems (per 100 lines)

Table 1.
Rates of Occurrence for Synaesthetic Metaphors in Yeats Poems
Volume

Rate (1/ number of lines)

Crossways

1 / 85

The Rose

1 / 112

The Wind among the Reeds

1 / 26

In the Seven Woods

1 / 23

The Green Helmet and Other Poems


246

1 / 260

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

Responsibilities

1 / 145

The Wild Swans at Coole

1 / 295

Michael Robartes and the Dancer

The Tower

1 / 360

The Winding Stair and Other Poems

1 / 310

Words for Music Perhaps


Woman Young and Old
Full Moon in March
Last Poems

0
1 / 182
0
1 / 280

One of the most persistent images in The Wind among the Reeds is
dew. It is characterized as pale dew (He Bids his Beloved Be at Peace,
He Remembers Forgotten Beauty) and also flaming dew (The Secret
Rose). It also appears in other combinations, indicating joined senses:
he dew-cold lilies (He Remembers Forgotten Beauty) or In twilights
of dew and fire (The Blessed). Technically, dew is water, so the
primary sense in pale dew here will most likely be touch. The
synaesthetic sense which modifies the primary sense in flaming dew
refers to both sight and temperature, the latter classified by Sean Day
as a separate modality (Day 1982: http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/
2358.pdf), as flame is able to produce both heat and light, the lilies are
both white and cold because the dew on them is cold. Pale dew
probably refers to sight only, but contains personification, implying
that dew is as pale as a face. Another image linked to, and, indeed,
mingled with dew through synaesthesia, is twilight, the source of
metaphorical flame due to the red colour of the rising sun. Both
twilight and dew refer to the same vague borderline between night
and day, light and darkness. It is one of early Yeatsean symbols of
transition between the mortal world and the world of the supernatural
and their unity. On the other hand, water symbolism suggests sorrow,
loss and even death, fire love or imagination (Ellmann 1975: 30). As a
result, joining these elements would produce the deadly mixture of

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love and sorrow. In The Secret Rose the idea of the two worlds
meeting is expressed through several synonymous images:
<...> and him
Who met Fand walking among flaming dew
By a grey shore where the wind never blew,
And lost the world and Emer for a kiss <...> (Yeats 1989: 69-70)

Fand and Emer both are the women claiming CuChulainn's


affection, one of them immortal, the other mortal. The appearance
of Fand brings jealousy and bitterness to the familiar and seemingly
well-ordered world where the wind never blew. If we read the wind as
vague desires and hopes, the call of the superhuman beauty, then it
might mean that the hero used to be content with what he had, but
meeting Fand was sweet and bitter at the same time, indeed,
bittersweet. A grey shore is another borderline image resembling
twilight, having a reference to mortality (grey). Therefore, flaming
dew fits into the pattern of bitter love and loss, referring to the two
features of twilight dew on the grass and the colour of the sky at
sunrise at twilight.
In The Lover Asks Forgiveness for His Many Moods the sight/
touch combination of modalities gives way to smell and sight. The
odorous twilight is repeated twice, for the first time in what
M. Riffaterre would call ungrammatical line And cover your lips with
odorous twilight <...> (Yeats 1989: 66), and then in the very last two:
And trouble with a sigh for all things longing for rest
The odorous twilight there (Yeats 1989: 66).

After reading the whole poem the reader realizes that covering lips
with twilight could be read as speech mixed together with a sigh, the
mystical quality of which is created by the conjunction of smell and
sight. Many moods of the speaker, being read as the sign of transitory
mortal existence, has its equivalents in the first four lines of the poem:
words lighter than air, hopes that pass or the crumpled rose. Then the
imperative to cover the lips with odorous twilight is opposed to the
images above, as they will pass, but the twilight evokes the vision of
the faery world, its ancient cities and battles, and Niamh over the
wandering tide. The murmuring that escapes the lips and travels in
the faery world is mixed with longing and bitterness of mortality:

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D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

O piteous Hearts, changing till change be dead


In a tumultuous song<...> (Yeats 1989: 66)

But this vision evoked by the murmuring is not just a vague set of
shapeless images. The reference to the dim heavy hair indicates
physicality and the involvement of the senses together with
imagination, supported by the odorous twilight in the last line, the
state of breathing in the fragrant air and seeing the transition between
night and day. The visionary experience of the immortal lands
becomes substantial, believable and very tightly tangled with the
mortal world of the speaker. Synaesthesia marks the transition or
mingling of different states on the one hand and emphasizes
physicality and sensuality on the other.
In later poems Yeats uses synaesthesia less frequently, but in many
ways more deliberately. At the same time, the new conversational
manner (Unterecker 1959: 102) of IN THE SEVEN WOODS results in the
use of linguistic or conceptual metaphors like the sweet laughing or
the bitter wind. There is no evidence to say that they appear in later
works more frequently, though in IN THE SEVEN WOODS they make 25%
of the whole group of synaesthetic metaphors.
The deliberate use of synaesthesia linked to visionary poetry is
especially clearly marked in RESPONSIBILITIES. In The Grey Rock, for
instance, we see:
Why are they faithless when their might
Is from the holy shades that rove
The grey rock and the windy light?
Why should the faithfullest heart most love
The bitter sweetness of false faces? (Yeats 1989: 106)

Aoife, the immortal being, laments the loss of her beloved, a mortal
man who rejected three hundred years of immortality offered to him
for the sake of battle and duty. The grey rock could be equivalent to
mortal clay in The Travail of Passion (The Wind among the Reeds) or
pavements grey in The Lake Isle of Innisfree: it is earthly, solid, dark
of colour, while the windy light suggests the glimpses of the eternal,
short visionary experiences humans have. If we oppose light to the
dim /Imaginations of their eyes, then it would imply a revelation of
something that lies beyond ordinary human existence. The speaker of
The Cold Heaven is Riddled with light, his imagination and heart
driven wild. When the vision disappears, The darkness drops again
249

, . NO. 11, 2013

(The Second Coming). This mystical vision corresponds to the 15th


Phase of the Moon in A Vision when human experience and the
physical world are transformed into a series of images. This experience
is accompanied by flooding with light. This is the meeting of the
opposing qualities of the Universe, of will and thought, desire and
thought is described by Yeats as musical (Vendler 1969: 33-37). So,
the senses are clearly involved, the experience is not totally abstract or
spiritual.
In The Grey Rock the wind serves as a vehicle of intensifying the
experience, as it brings the Sidhe and their voices, and fills humans
with longing. Mortals have to rove the grey rock feeling longing and
hoping to catch a glimpse of the metaphysical truth, though they will
never be able to see it as a whole. It is not an idle coincidence, though,
that we see an oxymoron in the last line. This is why Aoife is so griefstricken: she realizes how incomplete a human being is, and her love
for the man is, indeed, bitter.
In Paudeen, another visionary poem, we see the reverse pattern of
joining modalities. Here we have sight and sensing, not sensing and
sight, but the lexemes are almost the same as in The Grey Rock:
Indignant at the fumbling wits, the obscure spite
Of our old Paudeen in his shop, I stumbled blind
Among the stones and thorn-trees, under morning light;
Until a curlew cried and in the luminous wind
A curlew answered; and suddenly thereupon I thought
That on the lonely height where all are in Gods eye,
There cannot be, confusion of our sound forgot,
A single soul that lacks a sweet crystalline cry (Yeats 1989: 109-110).

Structurally, we can divide the poem into the two parts: before the
visionary experience and after it. The lack of light and vision
(obscure spite, blind) is opposed to the luminous wind, Gods eye, and
the cry of the curlew which is finally described as a sweet crystalline
cry, combining the modalities of both sight and sound (We do not
take sweet into consideration here, as it has no indication to taste in
its literal sense, showing the positive impact of the cry instead). Vision
and sound joined together redouble the intensity of the experience
and make it more shrill, piercing and, eventually, material.
The visionary quality of Yeatss synaesthesia can be confirmed
statistically. According to Sean Day, the five most frequent forms of
synaesthetic metaphors in English are hearing / touch,
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D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

hearing/taste, sight/touch, hearing/temperature, hearing/ sight


17 (Table 2). Despite the apparent multiplicity of senses of Yeatsean
metaphors, sight (most likely, but not necessarily accompanied by
touch or temperature: wintry dawn, pure cold light, wintry
moonlight, when the light grows cool, the glimmering snow) seems
the most frequent: out of 7 synaesthetic metaphors found in
Crossways six contain vision either as a primary or the synaesthetic
sense. The Wind among the Reeds, In the Seven Woods, Responsibilities
and Last Poems have the same pattern: 18/13, 5/3, 12/7 and 6/4
respectively (Table 3). On the one hand, sight fits into the pattern of
vision and supernatural experience; on the other hand, it partly fits
into the common sight/touch synaesthetc pattern in the English
language.
Table 2.
Rates of Occurrence for Synaesthetic Metaphors
in Various English Texts (Sean Day 1996)
Type of Metaphor

Rate

Hearing touch

42.6%

Hearing taste

11.7%

Vision touch

10.6%

Hearing temperature

6.8%

Hearing vision

6.3%

Table 3.
Rates of Occurrence for Sight-Based Synaesthetic Metaphors in
Yeats Poems
Volume

Crossways

Number of
Synaesthetic
Metaphors per
Volume
7

Number of SightBased Metaphors

251

, . NO. 11, 2013

The Rose

The Wind among the


Reeds

18

13

In the Seven Woods

The Green Helmet and


Other Poems

Responsibilities

12

The Wild Swans at Coole

Michael Robartes
the Dancer

The Tower

The Winding Stair and


Other Poems

Words for Music Perhaps

Woman Young and Old

Full Moon in March

Last Poems

and

4. Oxymoron
Oxymoron is a form of condensed paradox and means foolish
wise or silly clever translated from the Ancient Greek. It is the
rhetorical figure in which two antithetical words are pitted against
each other, adjective against noun, as in John Milton's living death,
loud silence, or darkness visible (Hughes 1984: 15). Oxymoron
traditionally occurs in religious or metaphysical poetry (Milton,
Keats). It effectively evokes mysteries and meanings beyond the reach
of human sense by fusing all experience into a unity (Princeton
Encyclopaedia of Poetry and Poetics 1975: 595-596). T. S. Eliot in his
critical essay on The Metaphysical Poets (1921), namely, Donne,
Cleveland, and Cowley, discusses the typical conjunction of
heterogeneous material in their poems and uses a quote from Samuel
252

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

Johnson writing about the same poets mentioning the most


heterogeneous ideas that are yoked by violence together. T. S. Eliot
gives provides the example from S. Johnson himself (The Vanity of
Human Wishes), where, among all the heterogeneity of experience, a
petty fortress serves as a fine example of oxymoron:
His fate was destined to a barren strand,
A petty fortress, and a dubious hand;
He left a name at which the world grew pale,
To point a moral, or adorn a tale
(http://personal.centenary.edu/~dhavird/TSEMetaPoets.html).

In Yeatss A Vision the idea of forcing heterogeneous human


experience together reminds us of Phase 15 of the Great Wheel, where
the conflict between the opposing elements disappears turning them
into a unity.
Table 4.
Rates of Occurrence for Oxymoron in Yeats Poems
Volume

Rate
(1/ number of lines)

Crossways

The Rose

The Wind among the Reeds

1/ 240

In the Seven Woods

1/ 140

The Green Helmet and Other Poems

1/ 130

Responsibilities

1/ 121

The Wild Swans at Coole

1/ 118

Michael Robartes and the Dancer

1/ 103

The Tower

1/ 360

The Winding Stair and Other Poems

1/ 124

253

, . . 11. 2013

Words for Music Perhaps


Woman Young and Old
Full Moon in March
Last Poems

0
1/ 45
0
1/ 240

Diagram 2.
Rates of Occurrence for Oxymoron in Yeats Poems

If synaesthesia in Yeats is especially noticeable in the early and the


middle periods, oxymoron is more typical for the middle and late
periods. It is hardly present in CROSSWAYS and THE ROSE and is quite
rare in THE WIND AMONG THE REEDS and THE GREEN HELMET (occurs
once in 240 and 260 lines) (Table 4). It occurs more frequently in
Responsibilities (1/121), THE WILD SWANS AT COOLE (1/118), MICHAEL
ROBARTES AND THE DANCER (1/103), The Winding Stair (1/124), WOMAN
YOUNG AND OLD (1/45) (Diagram 2). One can speculate about this
radical change in terms of the poets development of both his
worldview and, as a result, his style. The twilight-vague wandering
stars of the early poems, the dim, misty, slow-moving meditative tone,
much in the style of the fin-de-sicle aesthetic fashion, is replaced by
254

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

more precise and dramatic speech, dealing with a wider range of topics
(Unterecker 1959: 96-101). As W. B. Yeats wrote in 1937,
<> I discovered some twenty years ago that I must seek, not as
Wordsworth thought, words in common use, but a powerful and
passionate syntax, and a complete coincidence between period and
stanza. Because I need a passionate syntax for passionate subject-matter
<> (Atkins 2010: 158).

Not only did he revolutionize his syntax and stanza, but also his
use of lexicon and stylistic devices.
It is true, though, that the syntactic structure of Yeats's oxymoron,
is quite unusual: alongside with conventional adjective + noun
collocations like tragic joy or intellectual hatred, the antithetical
elements are joined by a comma acting as homogeneous parts of a
sentence, joined as if there is no semantic discrepancy between them,
both referring to one thing:
Were in our laughing, weeping fit (Reconciliation) (Yeats 1989: 91).

This fit of reconciliation is opposed to the speakers poetic drive


after his beloved left him: he has the images of kings, helmets, and
swords to sing about, but when she comes back to him, the past
material for poetry seems almost toy-like and unimportant. Even the
reconciliation itself is antithetical, embracing both laughing and
weeping. The chain of adjectives can have more than two elements
joined by commas:
A laughing, crying, sacred song,
A leching song (The Three Bushes) (Yeats 1989: 297).

Other instances of syntactic oxymoron include the use of the


conjunction and to join the semantically antithetical adjectives:
And Bridget his bride among them,
With a sad and a gay face (The Host of the Air) (Yeats 1989: 57).

In the Host of the Air the lovers bride, Bridget is taken from him
by the Sidhe. At first she joins the merry dance but finally vanishes
together with the Sidhe. The encounter with them brings joy and loss
at the same time. This pattern of bringing the opposites together is
enforced by parallelism, where the opposing properties are put
together through identical sentence structure:
255

, . NO. 11, 2013

And never was piping so sad,


And never was piping so gay (The Host of the Air) (Yeats 1989: 57).

The antithetical personality of the speaker is quite capable of


expanding oxymoron into catachresis, i. e. logical contradiction
between the two parts of an utterance:
<...> the unpeopled waves with kings to pull at the oar (Under the Moon)
(Yeats 1989: 83)
I am worn out with dreams (Men Improve with Years) (Yeats 1989: 136)
Men dance on deathless feet (Mohini Chatterjee) (Yeats 1989: 247)
When sleepers wake and yet still dream (Under Ben Bulben) (Yeats 1989:
327)

In the first line this effect is created by the logical contradiction


between proud kings and doing hard physical work. The state of being
worn out with dreams seems contradictory only on the surface level,
since poetic dreaming has such intensity that it brings emotional
weariness and physical weakness: Its a burden not to be borne (Under
the Moon). In Mohini Chatterjee we have a brief description of
Yeatss metaphysical cycle of reincarnation. Although a human being
is mortal, it remains alive through generations of ancestors and
descendants. In Under Ben Bulben the paradox refers to painting and
suggests the visionary property of art snatching eternity and
transforming human life into it.
Technically, the function of oxymoron in Yeats can be described as
reinforcing the structure and producing in a concise form the
message of the poem. Let us see how the idea of antinomies is
expressed through various synonymous means, including oxymoron.
In THE COLD HEAVEN we have a series of statements supporting
the image of the visionary un-Christian purgatory, opposed to
vanishing casual thoughts and memories. There is also an inner
opposition of the expectations of Christianity and the use of Christian
terms for the godless otherworld. The first of them is the cold and
rook-delighting heaven. It is heaven, nor the sky, that is put
together with the rooks a word so lofty is joined by rough bird
imagery, thus producing the two-level oxymoron. The rooks circling in
the sky are ominous, but bring the speaker to the vision of his own
death and rebirth he is about to experience, as they, together with the

256

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

whole crow family are believed to possess hidden knowledge and be


able to foretell the future (Graves 1976: 403).
Suddenly I saw the cold and rook-delighting heaven
That seemed as though ice burned and was but the more ice,
And thereupon imagination and heart were driven
So wild that every casual thought of that and this
Vanished, and left but memories, that should be out of season
With the hot blood of youth, of love crossed long ago;
And I took all the blame out of all sense and reason,
Until I cried and trembled and rocked to and fro,
Riddled with light. Ah! when the ghost begins to quicken,
Confusion of the death-bed over, is it sent
Out naked on the roads, as the books say, and stricken
By the injustice of the skies for punishment? (Yeats 1989: 125)

The burning ice is another oxymoron which is based upon the


antithetical senses. The coldness of ice is related to the coldness of
Heaven in the title, suggesting death and its inevitable ruthlessness,
both deprived of sensual comfort, human warmth and emotion, the
sensation resembling An agony of flame that cannot singe a sleeve
(Yeats 1989: 248), the purgatorial flame of Byzantium borrowed from
the Neo-Platonic tradition. In this ecstatic purgatorial state the
speakers feelings, imagination, senses and reason are driven to their
utmost intensity. These four elements are the opposing parts of
personality joined within the poem in such a way that the reader can
hardly recognize them as antithetical ideally, feelings should be
opposed to reason, senses to imagination, but the opposition is, in
fact, blurred, as it should be beyond the ordinary mortal experience.
The opposition life-death is destroyed in the extended oxymoron the
ghost begins to quicken: the dead spirit is stirring like an unborn
child, so, it is, in fact, reborn. The burning ice one image of Purgatory,
another is the naked spirit on the roads. We can see a similar image in
the poem that was written much later, Byzantium, where nakedness
suggests being purified of mortal experience:
All mere complexities,
The fury and the mire of human veins (Byzantium) (Yeats 1989: 248).

In Byzantium we see a reference to nakedness, or, rather, to a spirit


approaching nakedness:

257

, . NO. 11, 2013

For Hades bobbin bound in mummy-cloth


May unwind the winding path <...> (Yeats 1989: 248).

Hades suggests another image from the Greek mythology Hecate,


who can see the past, present and future (just like the rooks and their
prophetic abilities), who rules the 3 elements earth, water and air
(death-bed, ice, Heaven) and walks the roads at night accompanying
the spirits. She is just but not compassionate, her punishment for the
souls that have not yet achieved the Unity of Being is ruthless and
seems to mock at the Christian Heaven which does not reveal the
whole scale of the speaker's visionary experience, hence the injustice
of the skies.
In THE COLD HEAVEN oxymoron appears to be a device for bringing
together the antithetical properties, clashing and reconciling them,
reinforcing the speakers experience and emphasizing its intensity,
providing links and references to other Yeatss poems, thus fitting
the poem into the already existing system of poetic signs.
Finally, the motives linked to oxymoron can be briefly summarized
as bitterness and loss, the experience of the other world, vision of
death, reincarnation, the antithetical nature of the universe, the
opposition of active life to poetic dreaming.
5. Conclusions
Both the synaesthetic metaphor and oxymoron have the same
function of bringing together the elements that can not be put
together in everyday speech because of their logical incompatibility.
Both of them are antithetical and contain two contradicting properties
within one unit. Both of them reflect the meeting of the mortal world
with the world of the supernatural and their penetration into each
other. We can relate such moment of union to Phase Fifteen of the
Great Wheel, the Full Moon in Yeatss symbolic system, when all
human experience is for a short moment is transformed into the ideal
state of an image. That reminds us about the Yeatss alchemical
metaphor of transmutation of life into a work of art (Yeats 1962). This
process might lie behind A Vision as well, then, oxymoron and
synaesthetic metaphors work as elements showing this transmutation
on the level of the structural components of the text.
While synaesthesia uses the images of the senses, oxymoron seems
more intellect-or feeling-oriented, since it suggests the union of the
258

D. A. KHOLINA. VISIONARY EXPERIENCES AND METAPHYSICAL ANTITHESIS (W. B. YEATS)

concepts, not of the senses and is based upon semantic (logical)


opposition. One can argue that the concepts of the senses should also
be taken into account. Then synaesthesia joins the concepts of the
senses and all the associations they carry and brings them into the
domain of imagination, while oxymoron brings together logical
concepts in order to give a more acute expression to feeling. This is
one of the examples how the image of the Unity of Being can be
created through a mere system of language signs.

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. 10-110, , 394006

email: dariakhol@yandex.ru

Daria Kholina
Voronezh State University
pl. Lenna, 10-110, Voronezh, 394006
Russian Federation
phone: +7 910 281 85 57

261


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Speakers Space in Grammatical Categories or What One Cannot Say about
Himself]. Voprosy jazykoznanija, 5, 68-80.
Fraser, B. (1996). Pragmatic Markers. Pragmatics, 6 (2), 167-190.

Borisova E.G. (2006). Rol diskursivnyh slov v upravlenii ponimaniem
teksta [Discourse Markers Used for Governing Understanding of texts]. In
Kompjuternaja lingvistika i intellektualnye tehnologii: Po materialam
ezhegodnoj Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii Dialog 2012. [Computational
Linguistics and Intellectual Technologies: Proceedings of the International
Conference Dialog 2006] (pp. 93-102). Bekasovo.

Pinker, S. (2005). What Our Language Habits Reveal. Retrieved from
http://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_on_language_and_thought.html
,
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STYLE SHEET
The editorial board accepts previously unpublished articles in Russian or in
English. By submitting an article to the printed volume ISSN 2224-0101 (Print)
the author (authors) gives consent to its online publication in ISSN 2224-1078
(Online)
on
the
websites
http://lse2010.narod.ru
(formerly
http://tpl1999.narod.ru) and http://www.rgph.vsu.ru/lse. The electronic
version of the volume is also submitted to eLIBRARY.RU the Russian scientific
electronic library (http://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=38852) and is quoted
in the Russian SCIENCE INDEX.
Please be sure to adhere to the appropriate length of an article (approx.
15 000 40 000 characters (including spaces and punctuation). If your
manuscript contains any special characters or fonts, please be sure to also
submit a PDF file of your contribution to ensure the proper typesetting of
these characters.
Please send attached files (.doc, .docx, .rtf.) to lse2010@yandex.ru.
PART 1. Preparing the manuscript
1.

Manuscript materials should be ordered as follows:

a)

title page, including authors names, affiliation, mailing and email


addresses;

b)

abstract of approximately 150 words and its Russian translation


(including the name and the title of the paper);

c)

5-7 key words;

d)

body of work;

e)

list of references and list of sources.

2.

Text

Basic formatting:

266

a)

do not format the text, use standard paper size to A4; set line
spacing to 1.0 and use the same font (point 12-14) throughout the
document; final formatting will be done by the editors;

b)

tables and figures should be numbered separately (Table 1, Figure 1


etc.);

STYLE SHEET

c)

use italics for all cited examples in the text;

d)

use boldface to draw the readers attention to particular aspects of


the text.

Headings:
First level (1., 2., 3., etc.): boldface
Second level (1.1., 2.1., etc.) and lower (1.1.1., 2.1.1., etc.).
Notes:
a)
b)

use footnotes;
number all notes to the body of the text throughout the document.

Part 2. Bibliographical references


References in the text and in the footnotes should include the authors name,
publication year and the page number (where relevant) in brackets as shown
below: e. g. (Smith 2001: 134).
At the end of the manuscript, provide a full list of cited works with the
heading: REFERENCES.
a) arrange the entries alphabetically by surnames of authors;
b)

list multiple works by the same author in ascending chronological


order;

c)

use suffixed letters a, b, c, etc. to distinguish more than one item


published by a single author in the same year.

The Reference list should adhere to APA 6 format, cf.


http://www.apastyle.org/
or
http://www.library.uq.edu.au/_//filething/
files/get/referencing/apa_6%202.pdf
Some examples of references are given below:
BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS
Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin:
University of Texas Press.
CONTRIBUTIONS IN EDITED VOLUMES
Holquist, M. (1997). Bakhtin and the beautiful science: The paradox of
cultural relativity revisited. In M. Macovski (Ed.) Dialogue and critical
267

, . NO. 11, 2013

discourse, Language, culture and critical theory (pp. 215-236). New York:
Oxford University Press.
JOURNAL ARTICLES
Rampton, B. (1997). Second language research in late modernity: A
response to Firth and Wagner. Modern Language Journal, 81, 3, 329-333.
CONFERENCE MATERIALS AND PROCEEDINGS
Borisova E.G. (2006). Rol diskursivnyh slov v upravlenii ponimaniem teksta
[Discourse Markers Used for Governing Understanding of texts]. In
Kompjuternaja lingvistika i intellektualnye tehnologii: Po materialam
ezhegodnoj Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii Dialog 2012. [Computational
Linguistics and Intellectual Technologies: Proceedings of the International
Conference Dialog 2006] (pp. 93-102). Bekasovo.
ONLINE SOURCES
Aguilera, M. (1994). Oisins Quest: The Myth of the Modernist Poets
Evolution. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 7-21. Retrieved from
http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/6011/1/RAEI_07_01.pdf

268

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LANGUAGE, COMMUNICATION AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

Published annually
11, 2013
Issue 11, 2013

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