Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 103

..

031001

-
2007

811.111373(075.8)
81.2-3
60

.. ,

,
60

. :
031001 / .. . -: , 2007. 102 .

, 031001 .

.
- ( 1 21 2007 .).

811.111373(075.8)
81.2-3

, 2007
.., 2007


........................................................................................ 6
1.

................................................................ 7
1.1. ........................ 7
1.2.
() ..................................................... 9
1.3. ..................................... 11
2.
.
............................................... 14
2.1. .................. 14
2.2.
...................................... 17
2.3. .
.......... 19
3.
..................... 23
3.1.
....................................... 23
3.2.
.......................... 25
3.3. ..................... 27
4. .......................................... 29
4.1. .
.................................... 29
4.2.
..................................... 30

5. ............................... 32
5.1.
.. .. ... 32
5.2.
.. ......... 34
5.3. .. ...................... 34
5.4.
.. ............................................ 36
5.5. ..
........................ 36
6. ,
........................................................... 37
6.1.
.. ............................. 37
6.2. ................................................. 38
7. ,

. .............................. 42
7.1. . .................... 42
7.2.
. ..................................... 45
8. .
.... 49
8.1. . ............................ 49
8.2. . .................................................. 50
8.2.1.
. ........... 50
8.2.2.
. ................................................... 55
8.2.3. . .................................................... 57
8.2.4. .... 57

9.
.......................................... 65
9.1. .............................................................. 65
9.2. ............................. 67
9.3. .......................... 71
9.4. .................... 73
10. -
.. ................................... 74
10.1. ..
.
................................................ 74
10.1.1. ... 74
10.1.2. - ............ 77
10.1.3.

.............................. 79
10.1.4.
............................................................. 81
11.
........................................................... 83
11.1. ........................................ 83
11.2.
........................ 90
11.3.
..................... 94
11.4. ,
- .................. 96
................................................ 100
.............................................................. 102



, , .
. ,
, ,
.


.


,
: . , . , .. , .. , .. , .. .
11 ,
, .
,
.
, . .
(.: , 1996 381 .).
. , ,
. , .

1.


1.1.
(. phraseologie, . phrasis logos ) 1) ,

; 2)
, . . . ,
40- . 20 .
(1865-1947),
.
. , ,
, .
. 4 : 1) - ,

(a beautiful flower, a beautiful woman, a beautiful scenery . .);
2) , (a serious illness
, a dangerous illness ,
an infectious illness ); 3) , 2 (to give
ear to ; to take place , , ); 4) (,
(black sheep ; family skeleton ;
, ).

.
. . -

: , . . , , , .
. .. , .. , .. ,
.. .

. , , , , .. . ,

( , ..) . .. .. .
.. , .


. ..
. , ..
.
, , ,
,
, ,
. .. . :
, ,


. , ,
.
, : , , , .
, .
1.2.
()
. ..
()
. ,
, ,
.

,
,
,
,
, . . .
, .
,
, .
. , ,
.
, , -

.
. , ,
, ,

- . , the
girl next door 1) , , 2) , , ; to be under fire
( ) ( ).

,
. :

give smb. a notice
-.
go to the sea

move a house

get a push

draw a line


give smb. notice
-.

go to sea

move house

get the push



draw the line

,
, , , , . ( ).
( . uses , ) " ,
".
. :
kill two birds with one
,
stone

shoot a sitting bird
,

at a snail's pace

,

,
. :
Let sleeping dogs lie.

() ,
.
I smell a rat.

( - ),
.

,
. , , , .

,
,
- . , , , , . .

,
.

, , , .
. , . .
1.3.
: , , , ( ).

, .
.
..
,
,
. ,
: as a matter of fact
, ; , ,
, (); fair and square , , ; a sound mind in a sound body =
= .
, , .
.

-
,
" " " ",
.
, , , .
. (all is
not gold that glitters (.) , ; to
show ones true colours ),
(to send smb. to Coventry , -, go west . ;
= ). , .
: , ,

(good morning . 1) ! ! 2) ! ! ( ));


- (an affair of honour
, ; fresh (new) blood ( )
, , , ..;
, ); - ,
(shake hands (with smb.) ( -); knit ones brows -);
4) (so many people, so many
minds = ); 5) . , (pay a call
(a visit) ; bear smb. a grudge (malice, rencour,
spite or an ill-feeling) - ).
-
,
,
.
.
, (let well enough alone -
), (happiness takes no account of
time ),
(sulphuric acid - );
(at any price ,
; as black as thunder . = , -).
. -
,
, (to pull the wool over smbs eyes ). , ,
.
.
-

. + . . .. .

.
. ,
,
, . , , .

2.
.

2.1.

,
, , , .
, , ,
, ( -), .
.
:
-

: back the wrong horse - ; bite


the bullet - . - , - , ,
.

, ,
,
. , ;
- : the bottom line ; break the ice . , -

, , :
swim against the current - ,
, , .
,
, () , :
It was very tiresome as I had to swim against the current -
.
,
, . ,
(to stick like a luch ); (mirtal grip
- , ); (the gold mountain - ); (catch at a straw - ).
, , , (broad shoulders - ).

, , : the
hole of the bublik - . , : more or less - ;
: out of the frying pan into the fire -
. - ;
,
: deep
silence - ; iron nerves - . ,
, : (),
. "" ""
.

. The Indian summer - , The Indian month, The
Indian autumn, etc.
, : be in ones blood, have something in ones blood - ; be (hit, operate, run) on all ( four, six, etc. ) cylinders - , ;
- , .

: , . .
,
.
, , , -

, , : starry hour - .
, , , .
, .
,

,
,
.
2.2.

.
,
, , ,
,
, : hold ones hand - -; honest to God! - !
, ,
: lose ones head - ; lose ones heart - ; make a poor mouth - .
, , ,
, : have a green thumb - ( ); gave all
ones goods in the shop window - ; have a lot
on the ball - .
.

.
, -

, : a ladies man -
, a gentlemen women,
lady luck - man luck.
, : to read a book, to read a novel, to read a story. , with
all ones heart, with all ones soul - , , , .
. , , , ,
, . ,
a bosom, friend ( pal) a bosom friend - , .

: , ,
lares and penates - very lares and
penates, etc.
, : to learn ones lesson
; to learn good lesson from something -
-.

, : a friend in need - ; a friend in need is
a friend indeed - .

, .

: ,
,

, . ,
: to gather up the
thread (s) - - ; to get into deep water .
, : a lay figure - /
figure lay, ,
, .
, , .
2.3. .

. , , , , ,
,
.
, , ; .
- , .
,
.

() , .
, ,

: , , , .
,
,
.
.
, , into the public eyes to come, to be,
to take, to become, etc. , , ,
, .
, .

,
, , ;
to know one which side one bread is buttered, to know whats what,
to know how many beans make fire - -.
, , : grasp
all, lose all, If you run after two hares you will catch neither - , .
,

.
, : - far away
( ), where the devil lives ().

, , , , : to cry over and over - , to cry ones


eyes - , to cry all through .
.
(
, ).
,
, : to go in for sport, to take up some sport - . .
, ,
, : as fast as a hare, full tilt. , -: run, go, resume, run, etc.


, .
, : to be down and out , to
be all health - .
, , , : with light heart , with heavy heart - ,
heart of gold - , heart of stone - .
, ,
(light heavy),
.

: ,

, , :
from the first look - ; to daydream - , , : to play fool - , , , .
, , ,
.


,
, : dry as dust - 1. , 2. , , 3. ,
; the end of the line - 1. , , , 2. , ; far gone
- 1. ( ), 2. , , 3. , ,4. ,
, 5. -.
,
, : as fast as a hare
( , ).
,
.

. , tip-toe -

, -.
.
. ,

to break the ice


, , to break the ice , :
Its necessary to break the ice to walk easily. -
, .
, - .

3.

3.1.
- - .
, , .
:
, ;
.
, : from time to time ; far and away - , , . .
, ,

.
: , ..

, ,
: up ones sleeves - ;
to live in clover - .

, , , .
, , ,
, , .
, . ,
, ,
: to peek up ones nose - ; - , ,
.
. ,
.
:
, : center
of gravity - ; thyroid gland - ;
school-leaving certificate - ;
: people of good will - ;
-: take place - ; presumption of innocence ; put into operation .

, ( 5000 , , 60 ).
, - , :
bring to naught/nothing - ; lay it on thick -
. ,

-, : spirit of the law - .


-. :
,
;
-.
: open meeting - ; New Year - ; each other -
. , . , (, -),
, : Adams apple - ; punctuation marks - ; length of service - .

, ,
: , : If speaking about success in this region it is not a proper time to draw a line. - , .
- ,
, . , , , , : like a bolt from the blue -
; chicken-heart - ,
, : to leave this world - ,
; to blow up the bridge - .
3.2.

,
,
, , , -

. .

.
.
,
, , : to foam at the mouth - . Ive never seen him so angry. He foamed, whitefoamed at the mouth. , , ,
.
() ,
, : not be beauty but be born happy , . ,
.
.
, .
( ).
,
, .
, ,
, : The opened letter was received by the writer Brown. It turned out that it was his chief who made his letters

opened. ,
.
,
, . ,
, , : the heavy Thsiphs labour .
.


,
.

,
.
. ,
. , ,
, .

,
, .
. ,
, :
, , , .
, .
3.3.

.
-
. ,

,
,
, , .
. : , , , ,
, , ,
,

, . , . . , , . . .

head , heart ,
leg , tongue , drop . (clear ones head ; ones
hearts desire , ; , ; stretch ones legs , ; drop by drop , ).
, ..

, ,
. .. : , , .
.
, .
,
(get up (rise) in the world
, = ).
doctors differ , , .

(charge (fight) the windmills -

, [
- . ]).
, ( make hay while the
sun shines = ,
make hay ; the milk is spilled
[ there is no
use crying over spilt milk , , , ]).
, (have kissed the Blarney
stone ( , , , )).
,
(a girl Friday , , ( - ) a man Friday , ,
[ . ]).
,
( )
, , ,
.

4.
4.1. .

, , .
,
. , .. , , .

:
. ,
;
, ,
. . : ) , , : brown paper ;
) , ;
()
, . , ,
, , .
4.2. ()

,
: I wish to God- , Wish somebody well - , -.
. , , , .
:
, : At
second hand , -

. If I would govern this country wisely,


I must be posted in the details of its life, and not at second hand, but
by personal observation and security (M. Twain);
,
: Show a clear pair of heels , ; , the strange ship . It was evident Captain Butler feared the worst, for he
crowded on all canvas and it seemed for a time that he would show
the strange ship a clean pair of heels (Gr. Greene);
: Wait to see which way the cat jumps
, ; ,
. The others never know
what you English will do. You always wait to see which way the
cat jumps (J. Galswothy).
, , : ome a cropper , . Gerald: I may as well tell you at once that Ive had
very bad luck. I wanted to make money and Ive come an absolute
cropper (W.S. Maugham).

.
, ,
. .
:
,
, .
.
- , ..
, : ) - (catch
at a straw ; the Gordian knot

); ) - (damn your eyes


!, go to the devil !); )
(dont count your chickens dont count your chikens before
they are hatches (.) ).
, ,
: prevention is better
than cure action taken to prevent an illness, dangerous event,
from taking place to reduce is wiser and more useful than any action that is taken to reduce its harmful effect. .

5.
5.1.
.. ..
.. .
.. . :
( ) , : to be
careless, inattentive ; to twiddle ones thumbs
(fingers), to sit picking ones nose ; to act (play) the
fool ; to rush headlong ; to be (live)
in the back of beyond ; to play a mean (dirty)
trick on smb, to do the dirty on smb ; and
that was the last that was seen (heard) of smb ;

, : smb lacks depth of thought
(understanding) ; to sit on the fence , ; the last drop ; to swim with the stream .


, .
,
. ;
,
, ,
.
: bosom friend ; ,
, .
..
.
, .
.. (. + .):
. , ,
,
() . ()
. , : little finger
; hard money .
: white bread, brown bread, black bread;
blind alley ;
brown study , ; hot air .

.. . .. , ..
.

.


.
5.2.
..
..
. , , . .. ,
.
.. :
,
: leading article
; age of consent ;
,
: dead
failure , dead language ,
; dead loss .
.. . . ,
. .. , .
5.3. ..
.. .
, , ,
, : black frost .
.
,
.

, ,
. : red tape ,
; play with fire .
.. . ..

.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.. , .
. .. , .. , .. ,
.. . , .. , . .. ,
- . ,
, .. ,
- . ,
: old boy, old girl . - (old
boy, old girl, old man) .
White bear ( , , ) : white ant, fox, heron, pelican, pereh.
white ( ), . - ,
- .

, , , , - .
5.4.
..
..
, , . , , , :
give up - ; ring up , . , , : first night ; black art .
, ..
.
.
, : fall in love ; get up . , , . ,
: to take the
bull by the horns ; as dead as doornail
. ..
, , .
.., , fall in love, get up .,
, , .
.. .
, ,
.
.
5.5. ..

-

. ..
, , , , . , ,
, . .. , . , ..,
: in deep water ; to sink
or swim .
,
. . .. ,
,
, .
.. , , . ..
.

6. ,

6.1.
..
..
, , .

. ..
. ..
, (
- short story ,
; brown paper ).

, .
(a nigger
in the fence , the narrow bed ).

, ,
, : double cross
; .
.
, .
, , : fail in ones duty ;
hope for the best .
. : visual navigation ; measuring instrument
. -
.
, : blind gut (.) ; black box (.) .
6.2.
.
, , , .
,
, . , -

, .

, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, :
: ) to lay an anchor to windward . ; ) to clear the decks
(for action) . (. ); ) to
set ( shape) ones course . , ;
)to lower (to strike) ones flag . : ) to hoist (to
strike) ones flag . () ; ) to
part brass rags with smb. . sl. -;
) to sail against wind . ; ) to take
the helm . .
, . , .
,
, ;
: ) to lay down (ones) arms . , , ; ) to rise in (take up)
arms (against) . ,
(); ) to change ones battery .
, ; ) to mask ones
batteries . , () ; ) to turn ones battery against himself .
; ) to give battle . , ; ) to
bring down fire . , ; ) to draw
fire from smb. (up on oneself) (. draw smb.s fire the fire of

smb. (upon oneself) , , -. [. .


]).
,
.
, . XIX . , ,
, , ;
: ) to make a bag . ,
; ) to be in at the death .
, ; ) to ride to
hounds . ; ) to draw amiss .
; ) to own it . .
. , ,
;
: ) to be (get) off (ones) base . . .
, ; ) to catch smb. off first base .
. . - , - (
-), -; ) to be at bat . .
. , ; ) to hit (strike,
tackle) below the belt . (
).

, , , .
, , , , ;
: ) to catch the Speakers eye .
; ) to race (rattle) the bill through the House
,
; ) to spy (see) strangers .

; ) to lay on the table . ( ); ) to take from the table


. ().

. , :
.
1215 .
,
, .
()
. 50
, .
;
, : ) to be raised to the bench
, ; ) to be on
(tread or walk) the boards , , ; ) to assume (wear) the ermine () () ; ) to serve (sail) before the mast
; ) to be sworn of the peace ; ) to take the Kings (or the Gueens) shilling .
- ..

, , , ,
,
.

7. ,


7.1.

: 1) ( );
2) ( , , , ).

. 5000
. , , .
.
700 . ..
.
.
,
,
, . .

, . 400 . ; , . , , ,
.
. , .
5
.., , . , ,
.
(shires), . -

,

XVIII . ,
, . , .
,
,
.
.
,
. , , , .
(1066 .) .

, , , , , .

(.16 . 17 .). , , ,
.
, , , , ,
.
:
, , .
, ,
.

XVI . .
.
, , , ,
, .
. 200 . . , , ,
- -, .

, ,
, . XVI ,
. ,
.
, , , ; .
XIV , ,
.
,
, .

XVII , .
,
.
16 : 17 , 18 ,
19 20 .
300 , .


. .
. .
, .
7.2.

, ,
. , , ,
. , , ,
.
, .
,
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,
.

. XIV
. , .
.
,
( ).
, ,
.
to go the whole hog,

- .
XI , , . -

, .
.
, . , . .
.
,

. , . a crow to
pick, -.
, , .
. ,
, ,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
. tell it to the marines ( ; ; )
.

, . ,

.
, . , , .

.
,
.
, . ,
, ,
to be tied to apron strings
( ), , .

. - . , ,
. . , .
.
, . , ,
. , , , , . , 16 to grease
smbs palm ( - , -),
.

, .
. ,
, . . to get the sack .

,
,

. , ,
, .
, .
,
, . , ,
. , , , to have
too many irons in the fire ; .
.

.
. 18 ,
, .

. ,

. .
,
, to hew to the line
( ).
, , 15
, .
.
, , .
,
19 , .
,
.
, , -

. , to draw the line


, ; .
, ,
- . - .

.
. , to throw cold water
- .

, , .

, ,
.
,
,
.

8. .

8.1

. .. :
.
. . , :
;
: ) ,

; ) ,

(, , ); ) ,
.
8.2. .

, . :
1)
;
2) ;
3) ;
4)
.
8.2.1.


:
1) , :
Dance attendance on somebody - , , ( ) [ , ];
Show the white feather - , (

. . , );
Put on the black cap ( , ,
);

Ride the goat -


[ , , ];
Wooden spoon 1) ( ) 2) ( ; woodenspoonist ) [ ,
];
Nail to the counter ( ) [
];
Catch (seize take) time (occasion, opportunity) by the
forelock - , ,
, , [
];
2) ,
:
Touch wood - , [ , - ];
Wardour-street English - , [ , ];
Eat for the bar ( eat ones dinners terms)
, [
];
By George! -! ! ! ! ! ! ( ,
. .) [. ];
Drop ones hs - h ,
[ Cockney];
Bank holiday
[

(bank holiday):
, , ,
, 26 , Boxing Day];
At latter Lammas - [Lammas ,
1 ];
The land of the rose [ ];
Queer Street - ; [Queer
Street - , ];
Red tape (. red-tape) , , [
] ( redtapish ; red-tapist - );
3) , :
Lead apes in hell - . [

];
Care killed a ( the) cat [
; ];
Medical ( middle) finger [ , , , , ,
];
Have seen ( see) a wolf , [ ,
];
4) , :
Be born under a lucky star [ ,
];
Believe in ( trust to) ones star ,
;
Be through with ones star (
); ;

Bless ( thank) ones stars (. thank ones lucky stars)


, , ;
Curse ones stars ;
Have ones star in the ascendant , ;
( . .) ;
The stars were against it ;
5) , :
Fortunatuss ( wishing) cap
[, , Fortunatus ];
Beauty and the beast . ,
[
, ,
];
Bite a file (gnaw lick) ,
, [ ,
];
The sandman is about . ()
[sandman ,
, ];
Shoes of swiftness - [ ];
Tom Thumb ; , [
, ];
6) , :
The curates egg . , [ 1895 . ,
, ];
7) , :
The naked truth , , [ , ,
, ];
A man ( a wise man) of Gotham , , ; -

[ , ,
];
8) , :
Read the Riot Act (
) [the Riot Act , 1715 .];
. c , -, , -;
When Adam delved and Eve span who was then a ( the) gentleman? ,
? [ 1381 .,
. ;

, ];
A depressed area ,
1929-1933 .; ; ( );
Adversity (misery poverty) makes strange bedfellows
( misery poverty acquaints men with strange bedfellows)
. [ ,
VI XVII . .
XVII ];
A sealed ( closed) book
[ 1662 . The Book of Common
Prayer ,
,
a Sealed Book. a closed Book];
A whipping boy - ,
[. , ];
The Star Chamber [ V XVII .
1641 ., ,
];
The Kings ( Queens) Bench
( 1873 .) [ ,
;

. the Kings Queens Bench


Division of the High Court of Judicature];
The Black and Tans . - [ , 1920 .,
].
8.2.2.


, .
.
1) , :
be ( keep) on the alert () , , [. ];
Lay down (ones) arms , ,
;
Turn somebodys battery against himself
;
Work ones ticket .
( - ); . ( ,
- );
Up in arms , , ;
, , -, -;
- [. . ].
2) :
Be all adrift , , (. . );
Weigh anchor (.
c );
Tidal wave 1) . ; 2) . ( , , ..); ;
Plain ( plane) . ; .
, , ;

Ride out ( weather) the storm 1) .


, ,
, ( );
2) . , , ;
Between wind and water 1) . ; 2) . ; , [ , , ];
How the land lies 1) . () ?; 2) .
(. to see).
3) :
Go to the bat for somebody . , , -, ();
Take something in ones stride 1) . , ( , ); 2) . , ,
, - ; 3) . - ,
-, -;
Be (down) on ones back (. lie on ones back) - 1)
; (. be flat
thrown on ones back) [. .]; 2) , ( );
,
:
Draw the badger . - , [. .];
Strike a balance 1) [. . ]; 2) ,
;
Sweep the board 1) . ,
; 2) , ; .
8.2.3.
. .. , -

, ,
.
,
.
:
fool's paradise (" "); the green eyed monster ,
(""); to have an itching palm ,
(" "); midsummer madness , (" "); to pain
the lily , ;
That's flat - ;
Dissapear (melt vanish) into thin air , , [melt into thin air
. ];
Prospero:
Our revels now are ended: these are our actors.
As I foretold you, were all spirits, and
Are melted into air, into thing air
(W. Shakespeare, The Tempest, act IV, sc. 1).
:


, , .
, ,
,
(. . ).
Make assurance double ( doubly) sure ; [. ];
Macbeth:
Then live, Macduff: what need I fear of thee?
But yet Ill make assurance double sure,
And take a bond of fate: thou shall not live;
That I may tell pale-hearted fear it lies,
And sleep in spite of thunder.
(W. Shakespeare, Macbeth, act IV, sc. 1).
:
, : .
, ,

: .

.
(. . ).

: , .
.
61 . ,
, , ,
. , ,
:
, ,
, , , .
, The
Folger Library General Readers Shakespeare. The Tragedy of
Hamlet, Prince of Denmark by William Shakespeare
Famous Lines and Phrases , , :
The morn, in russet mantle clad ( . : . 7, t I, sc.I, Line
181). . : ;
Oh, if this too solid flesh would melt (. 12, t I, sc. II, Line
135). . :
;
Oh, what a rogue and peasant slave am I (. 58, t II, sc/
II, Line 556). . : , ,
!;
Sweets to the sweet! (. 130, t V, sc. I, Line 239).
. : .

, :
Borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry (. 20, t I, sc. III,
Line 81) ;

More honored in the breach than the observance (. 23, t I,


sc. IV, Line 19) , ;
Our withers are unwrung (. 47, t III, sc. II, Line 255) ;
I must to be cruel only to be kind (. 93, t III, sc. IV, line
199) , ;
What is a man, if his chief good and market of his time be
but to sleep and feed? beast, no more (. 102, t IV, sc. IV,
line 35-36-37) ,
? , .
,
, ,
.
hamlet , (. , . 585),
Amlodi. ,
.

(40 61). , , ,
, . , ,
.
, , :
Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
;
Brevity is the soul of wit. ;
There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it
so. , ,
;
What a piece of work is a man! !;
Suit the action to the word, the word to the action. ;
Theres a special providence in the fall of a sparrow. ;

Frailty, thy name is woman , ;


Leave it an understanding but no tongue. , ;
This above all: to thine oneself be true. -
;
Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. ;
Leave her to heaven. !;
There are more things in heaven , , !;
Some must go off! - ;
I'm Fortune's fool ? ...;
Give thy thoughts no tongue, nor any unproportioned thought
his act ,
;
When sorrows come they come not single spies, but in battalions! ,
.
8.2.4.
.

.
, , , , .
:
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread (An Essay on Criticism) , ,
( );
Break a butterfly on the wheel (Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot) , , , ( );
Who shall decide when doctors disagree? (Moral Essays)
, .
:
To catch smb. red-handed (Ivanhoe) -
, - ;
Beard the lion in his den (Marmion)
;

Laugh on the wrong side of ones mouth (Rob Roy) , ;


On ones native path (Rob Roy) ,
;
A foeman worthy of smb.s steel (The Lady of the Lake)
, .
:
Through thick and thin (The Canterbury Tales) ,
, ;
Murder will out (The Canterbury Tales)
;
He needs a long spoon that sups with the devil (. He who
sups with the devil should have a long spoon) (The Canterbury
Tales) ,
, , .
:
Fall on evil days (Paradise Lost) , ; ;
Heaven on Earth (. Paradise on Earth) (Paradise
Lost) ;
Confusion worse confounded (Paradise Lost)
, ;
The light fantastic toe (LAllegro) ;
More than meets the ear (Paradise Lost) ,
; , .
:
The land of Nod (Polite Conversation) , ;
A sight for sore eyes (Polite Conversation) , ( );
All the world and his wife (Polite Conversation) 1)
, ; 2) ,
;
To quarrel with ones bread and butter (Polite conversation)
, ;
All in the days work (Polite Conversation) ;
To rain cats and dogs (Polite Conversation)
( );

Someone is walking over my grave (Polite Conversation)


- .
:
King Charless head (David Copperfield)
, ( I);
Never say die (David Copperfield) ;
Barkis is willing (David Copperfield) ,
(
);
A bag of bones (Oliver Twist) , , ( );
An Artful Dodger (Oliver Twist) ,
( );
The Circumlocution Office (Little Dorrit) - ( );
Prunes and prism (Little Dorrit) , , ;
How goes the enemy? (Nicholas Nickleby)
- ?; ?;
In a Pickwickian sense (Pickwick Papers) ;
Not to put too fine a point on it (Bleack House) , , .
,
. (
, ).
XVIII
. : John Bull (
).
. Law is
a Bottomless Pit (1712),
The History of John Bull.

. : John Barleycorn
( , ),
(John Barleycorn).
. : (as) cool as a cucumber , ; , (Poems on
Several Occasions).
. : man Friday ;
( Robinson Crusoe);
a gentlemans gentleman ,
, (Everybodys Business).
. . : an albatross about ones neck
- ;
( The Ancient Mariner ,

).
. : a cup that cheers but not inebriates , , (The Task).
. : to clip smb.s wings -.
. : what will Mrs. Grundy say?
?, . . ? Speed the Plough.
(. ?).
. : fly off at a tangent (Humphrey Clinker); fit like a glove
, (Humphrey Clinker).
. : small talk - , ,
(Letters to his Son).
XIX
. . : (as) merry as a marriage-bell , , (Child Harolds
Pilgrimage).
. : the child is father of the man
.
. : few and far between , (Pleasures of Hope).
. : Paul Pry , ,
( -

Paul Pry).
. . : Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde , ,
( The Strange Case of
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde).
. : a little rift within the lute
; , (Idylls of the King,
Merlin and Vivien).
.. : mover and shaker ,
, .
XX
. : little Mary (. .) , ( ).
. : the tail wags the dog , (The Conundrum
of the Workshops).
. : corridors of power ( ).
,
,
: John Barleycorn
XVII . John Barleycorn. to be on the side of the angels (. )
()
. .
vanity fair ,
. , .
Pilgrims Progress (1678 1684). a
skeleton in the closet , , . , . grin like a Cheshire cat , ; (as) mad as a hatter (as) mad as a
March hare , ,
. Alice in Wonderland.

9.

9.1.

. , .
,
, (.. ,
. , . 110).
;
, (. ,
. 111). ,
, , . , , :
The apple of Sodom , ; ;
The beam (the mote) in ones eye
; ;
The blind leading the blind c ;
By the sweat of ones brow ;
The camel and the needles eye
, :
, ;
Can the leopard change his spots? (.
?) ;
A crown of glory ;
Daily bread- , ;
A drop in the bucket (. ); ;
A fly in the ointment (. );
;
Loaves and fishes ( , -

, , , );
No man can serve two masters ;
The prodigal son ;
The promised land ;
A prophet is not without honor, save in his own country
.
,
-
( ), ,
:
To bear ones cross ;
To condemn oneself out of ones mouth ;
To escape by the skin of ones teeth - ,
;
To kill the fatted cal ( ) (. . ,
, );
To laugh to scorn ;
To sit under ones vine and fig-tree
(. . );
To sow the whirlwind the wind and reap
; ;
To worship the golden calf
(. . , ).

. ,
,
. ,
to kill the fatted calf .
, . gall and wormwood
,

(the wormwood and the gall). whatever a man sows,
that shall he reap ,

to sow (. whatever a man soweth,


that shall he reap). , ,

, :
Not to let ones left hand know what ones right hand does
, (. ).
When thou doest alms let not thy left hand know what thy right
hand doeth , ,
, ( ).
.
, forbidden fruit ;
Jobs comforter -; Judas kiss ;
a prodigal son ; a dead letter ,
, .
9.2.
, , , , ,
, , .
the golden age ; the apple of
discord ; Pandoras box ; Achilles
heel ; Augean stable(s) ; a labor
of Hercules ; .
: Homeric laughter (
); an Iliad of woes
; a sardonic laugh ,
; Penelopes web , ; winged words ; on the knees
of the Gods ; on the razors edge
, ; the Troyan Horse
, .

: to blow hot and cold -

, , ( , , ,
); to add insult to injury ; to kill the goose that laid the golden eggs ,
; to cry wolf too often ; the lions share ; to nourish a viper
in ones bosom .

: a snake in the grass , , (); the golden mean (); anger is a short madness ().
,
, ,
,
.

.

.
, : ,
, , .
, ,
, :
appetite comes with eating
( (1515) , ; );
buridans ass ( ,
, . .). XIV
. , -

, . .
an ass (
a donkey) between two bundles of hay);
castles in Spain (,
, , , );
let us return to our muttons (
, to return to ones muttons); to pull smb.s ( the) chestnuts
out of the fire (for smb.) ; ,
( ).
, ,
,
, , , , : You
tried to use me as a cats paw to pull chestnuts out of the fire for
Stanley Rider (U. Sinclair) .

. .
:
speech is silvern, silence is golden , ; : As the Swiss Inscription says: Sprechen
ist silbern, schweigen ist golden (speech is silvern, silence is
golden) (Sartor Resartus);
storm and stress ( 70-80 XVIII ); , ; ( ),
(. Sturm und Drang . );
between hammer and anvil (

(1868) . );
the emperor has ( wears) no clothes -
( .. ).
, .

, . : the knight of the Rueful
Countenance (.) ,
(. el Caballero de la triste figura.
); tilt at windmills - , (. acometer
molinos de viento.
).

, ,
.

:
Aladdins lamp (.) (, ).
to rub the lamp
;
the old man of the sea , , , (
, , -
, );
an open Sesame , !,
- ( ,

- ).
, ,
, , .

, , .
:
: the golden age , (, ..) [. .
XVIII . ]; the horn of plenty
[. .]; lily of the valley [. .] . .;
: an ugly duckling (
) [ .. ];
: forlorn hope 1) . , ; 2) , ,
[. .];
: every dog is a lion at home
[. .];
: lose face
, [. .];
: the Sick Man of Europe
( I 1853 ., , ).
9.3.
, . .
:
.
,
,
. , : bark up the wrong tree . ,
, , ,
; cut no ice , ; do ones
level best , ; sell like
hot cakes , .
chiefly US -

, : off limits ; out of


sight , ; small potatoes .
, .
.
,
: a red cent ; feel (look) like a million
dollars . (. ;
).
: like a house on fire
( afire) ; , ;
look like a million dollars . . . ; the name of the game . , ;
put on an act . , ,
, ; search me! . !,
! .
, , : to cut no eyes ,
; to take a back seat ; to face the music ; to be all ears
; to beat round the bush
; the green light ; like a house on fire
; to put on an act - ;
the name of the game .
, ,
, , :
. (1748): Time is money. ;
. : to swap horses while crossing the stream ;
: the allmighty dollar ;
. : the last of the Mihicans - ,
;
. : ships that pass in the night
;
. : the call of the wild - ;
. : the big stick - , .

, , .
9.4.
, .
: ad hoc
; bon ton , ; terra incognita
, , .

, :
per (sub rosa , . . under the rose);
de (de bonne grace ; de trop );
en (en masse , , ).

, : eau de Cologne .
; embarras de richesses ; enfant
terrible ,
, cherchez la femme ;
voila ; ,
: argumentum
a contrario ( ); corpus
delicity (. ); charge daffaires
; persona (non) grata ()
(. ); status quo ;
per capita ; per interim - .
,
: coup detat . ; persona
(non) grata () (.) . ()
; terra incognita . , ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
, .
.

. , , ,
. , , .
.
.
, , , .
.

10. - ..
10.1. ..
.

..
:
1) :
- ;
- ;
- .
2) - :
.
3)
.
4) :
;
.

10.1.1.
, , . . , , , , . . - ,
, , , .
, .
:
,
( ,
,
, ). .
(
), (
), (
) .
-
:
: a weak sister ;a tower of
strength , ; girl Friday
; a golden girl ; a bitter pill to swallow
; a dead duck ; a bull
in a china shop a pill to cure an earthquake
; storm in a tea cup
; a break in the clouds .

. : Jack Frost
; Father Thames ; Father Time
; Mother Earth ;
: the high-water mark (.)
1) , 2) , -; plain
sailing (.) 1) , 2)
; a change of scene (.) 1) ,

2) ;
: a short story ; a magnifying glass
(); brown paper .

Dutch, , , .
17 : a Dutch bargain
; a Dutch concert ; Dutch courage ; Dutch feast ,
.
-
.
:
: alive and kicking - , ; dead and gone ; as good as gold
() ; more dead than alive ; as plain as a nose on your face
; as ugly as a sin ; as cool as
a cucumber , ;
: cut and dried () 1)
, , 2) ; high;
and dry (.) 1) , 2) , ;
: null and void , ; hale and hearty , .
, ,
? ?
:
: from A to Z ; out of the bluew
; time and again
; rain or shine ; by fits and
starts , ; as swift as a thought , . : by heart ; by the way ;
out of the question ;
: between wind and water (.)

1) , 2) , ,
; neck and neck (.) 1) , 2)
, ;
: at last ; at least ; at vjst
; at the worst .
.
: at the head of - ; in view of
-; for the sake of -.
:

: Jack and
Jill ; hide and hair ;
: the butcher, the baker, the candlestick maker ;

: as snug as a bug in a rug .
10.1.2. -


- , , , , , . : to burn ones fingers ; to be in
hot water .
. (be in smooth water ),
(make a clean breast of smth. ), .
(hitch
ones wagon to a star ) (go to ones account ). -

.
, , , , : get up in the world ; put ones foot in it
; sell smb a pup - .
( ) (
): to get up in the world ; to kill two
birds with one stone ; to
play smb false -; to hate smb like poison
-; to get on like a house on fire
-; to die like flies .

, :
: to drop a brick ; to clear the air ; to be in
the clouds ; to bark at the moon
;
: to be all ears ;
to show the white feather .
.

,
:
) , : to
hit smb's pocket - ; to catch smb on the rebound
- - ;
) , ( ): to die like a dog ; to drink
like a fish ; to be the true dog ;
) , : to be a good (poor)
sailor () ; to come to port
; to fall into a good (bad) berth () ;
) , : to take the lead

, ;
) , : to play fire -
; to take one's chance - , -;
to be on one's guard - ;
) , : to be in that world
; to shake the dust from one's feet
- .

, : to shorten sail (.) 1) , 2)


; to come to a head (.) 1) ( ),
2) ; to jump the gun (.) 1) , 2) .

, , : to raise one's
eyebrows ;
to rub one's hands -;
to shake one's head .
10.1.3.


.

, . . , , .

, .
.

by the Lord Harry , , .


. , , .
:
Sakes alive! ! ! !
Hear, hear! , ( ).
Like hell! = My foot! !
My eyes! Oh, my eyes! ! !
Good heavens! Good gracious! , ! , !
Bless me! = Bless my heart and soul! = Bless my life! ! ! May God.... .....
, , ,
.

:
as sure as fat- ;
as sure as a gun = as sure as death ;
as sure as I'm alive = as sure as I am standing here = as plain
as a nose on your face )
:
any day ;
by long odds , ;
I'll bet my life = I'll bet my last dollar = you bet
, .
:
Will a duck swim? ?

,
, , . .


, ,


.

,
,
. : a pretty kettle of fish ;
on the face of it .
10.1.4.
, ,
- (strike while iron is hot
), (war is the
sport of kings ).
, . .
.
, . , ,
.
, ,
, :
as you make your bed, so you must lie on it (. one has
made ones bed and one must lie in/on it) . ,
; , (
: , ,
);
it dogged that does it .
( ).

he that would eat the fruit must climb the tree .


(
, ).
.
, .

: the proof of the
pudding is in the eating ,
, ; the speech is
silver, but silence , .
, .
(Slow and steady wins the
race , ; Dont count your chickens
before their hatched ).
, .

: the law for rich, and another for the poor
, ; he who is born a
fool is never cured , ; fools
rush in where angels fear to tread , ( ); ildeness is the root
of all evil ; a penny saved is a
penny gained .
: fight fire with fire .
.
, ,
. .
. .
, .
.

(more power to your elbow


!) (does your mother know you
are out? ).
(the cost is clear
; it stands to reason that ; the
world is a small place ; one's days are numbered
; one's fingers are all thumbs ; one's hair
stands on end ), (put that
in your pipe and smoke it! ; more power
to your elbow! - ! Pull devil, pull baker! - !
!), (Queen Anne is dead! !), (whats the good word? ?).
, ,
.

. ,
., .

11.

11.1.

.

, , - , .
-

, .
, , .
, ,
,
.

.

.
,
. , ,
.
.

, ,
. .
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;

- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
, ,
,
: , , , .


.
, , - , .
-

, . , .
, ,
,
.
, , , ,

.
,

-
, :
Eye of day , ;
The dogs of war , ( );

To be true to ones salt


;
A dead dog , ;
;
A dirty dog , , .
, - -
. , , , , , pearly teeth, coral lips,
ivory neck, hair of golden wire.
,
, :
Like fury (. .) , , ;
Fine and - , , ;
Rare and - , , , ;
As hell , , , , ;
Make the best of ones way , ;
Cost a pretty penny , , ;
Good as gold , ,
; , .
: not bad = very good.

(we inched our way along the road)
(rather fine = very fine).
Not to have a dry stitch on , ;
Not a penny the worse , ,
.
, , , . ,
, .

, ;
, ;
; .
A big heart 1) , , ; 2) , ;
Dear heart , , , .
,

. ,
, , .
ear eye , :
Bow down ones ear to smb. - -.
: (-), ,
, ,
. , , :
Joe Bloggs (. Joe Doakes, Joe Blow) , ; ;
A Jimmy Woodser , ;
Good-time Charlie , , ;
Sally Lunn ( , XVIII .).
, , ,
,
. ,
, , :

The Big Daddy , , ; , ,


;
Wheres the fire ? ?;
Theres nothing like leather .
, , , . ,
, , he
she, , , , . , :
Laws catch flies, but let hornets go free (. Laws are like cobwebs which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break
through) , ;
Love lives in cottages as well as in courts
, ;
Love will creep where it may not go
, .

. - . ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
, , :
A drug in the market. 1) ,
, ; 2) ,
;
Tailors dummy , ;
The long green , .

, , ,
. , .
-,
(a silvery laugh), (to smile cuttingly) (my sweet!),
, .
evil eye 1) ; 2) ;
the bird of Jove ;
the black magic (
, , ;
white magic ( ,
, );
green room ( ).

,
. . ,
, , ,
. , .. ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
.
,
. -

(conversational or standing epithet): green wood, lady gay, fair


lady, fair England, salt sea, salt tears, true love.
,
: soft
pillow, green wood, : bony boy, bonnie young
page, bonnie ship false steward, proud porter, , ,
: silk napkin, silver cups, long tables.
,
, , , , .
, ,
( ), :
A fools paradise , , ;
Two negatives make an affirmative , .
, .

. terribly smart, awfully
beautiful . .
,
, .
, ,
.
11.2.

, , , .
, . , ,
- . ,
, ,
XVII XVIII
:
enough to make the angels weep , (Measure for
Measure, act LI, sc. 2);
laugh like little Audrey ,
( )

?;
carry authority , , (King Henry VIII, act III, sc. 2);
chronicle small beer (Othello,
act II, sc. 1);
get (have) the key of the street
, , ( (Ch. Dickens, Pickwick Papers);
a lady in the case ( . (J.
Gay, 1685-1732).
:
: affright alarm, coil disturbance, commix to mix, delve to dig;
: betwixt between, vale
valley, quoth said, adown down, aspic asp, corse corpse;
: argosi large merchant ship, casque
helmet;

- :
adore to worship as a deity, delicate delightfull, depart to go
away;
: Albion, alien, anarch, babe, brine .
, , , .
, , ,
, :
knight of the Round Table (
);
the New Learning
( 16.);
angry young man ( 50- XX ,
),
1956 .
(Look Back in Anger);
the squaw campaign ( , );
the bloody chasm ,
(
1861-1865 .);
grandfather clause ;
a blue coat -
1861-1865 .
, ,
, , , . ,
:

1) ,
:
free for all (. free-for-all) , ,
;
Go-go fund ,
;
Press-button war ;
2)
,
(, , /,
, wimp, ageism, off-the wall absurdly or amusingly
eccentric .)
, ,
. , ,
, ,
:
the blanket code ..,
;
a fair deal (
. );
new deal ( .. );
carpet-bag (carpet-begger) governments ( (1861-1865 .)
.
,
,
.

.

, : , , , .
,
.
,
,
, :
(as) hard (rought) as goats knees (.);
cloud cuckoo land , (.);
still life (still lives) (. stilleven);
live and let live (.
leben und leben lassen).
,
, - ,
:
propos (.);
bon mot (.);
bon vivants (.);
beau monde (.);
ad avo (.);
alter ego (.).

, -,
, - (, , , , , , .). ,
, ,
, :
dumb crambo ( , -
. , , ;

Basic English (
850 ) ( . Basic British, American, Scientific, International, Commercial);
Pidgin English (-
);

.
11.3.

. ,
, (
),
( ), .
, , ,
, .

: - (literary colloquial), , -, (familiar colloquial),
, (low colloquial),
.
, , .
, , , , , .
, . , :

an ambulance chaser ,
, ;
an accomodation collar ;
bend (turn) the crab ();
get (go to) the chair ,
;
the Organic Act
;
advance agent , ,
;
hatting average ( - ).
, , , ,
, : cant
, ,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
, :
Peck's Bad Boy , ;
yellow dog ; , .
,
:
take smb. for an airing , - (
);
a hot (warm) baby .
: ,
, .
11.4. ,

-
, ( ),
, , , , .
,
, . :
:
the American Dream 1) ( , , 1776 .); 2) ;
the Hermetic art . ( , );
The Black Belt , ,
(the Black Belt , , , ).
, ,
, , ,
, . ,
. , ,
., , , , :
conditioned reflex ;
finger language , (
);
double (single) rhyme () ;
liberal arts ;
barbers itch .
,
, , , ,
,

, , , ,
, . ., :
the roof of the mouth ;
a cog in a machine , ;
to the backbone , ;
black gold ;
red lane .
.
, , , , , :
the Old Thirteen ( 13 13 );
break on the wheel ;
little Englander ,
.
, , , :
listen for the wings of Azrael
( );
ones evil genius ;
the blind god , , , ;
kings ( royal) evil .
,
, , ,
, , . ,
, , .
,
,
( )
, , , :
laser shopping a system of shopping, where goods are subjected to laser scanning at the check out to determine their price;
por promo a video made to promote a pop group or a record.


,
,
, ,
, .


.
,


. , .
: I had a glass
of Prune Magic in a bistro ( ) and reflected on my lot (L. Durrell); That evening after supper they
had dolmas ( ) her father had
a taste for Middle Eastern food (D. Garnett); The prahu (
) was to start at dawn on Thursday (W. Maugham).
.
, , ( ,
),
,
: Here I am beside myself with troubles and that manumitted mooncalf sends people to spy on me (L. Durrell), manumit , , -
mooncalf , .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
, .
.
.
.
.
.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

.
, .
, .
.
, .
.
.
.
.
.
.
, .
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.


1. .. .
.: , 1963 345 .
2. ..
/ . 3- . .: , 1990 300 .
3. .. .
: , 1974 340 .
4. .. .
.: , 1958 320 .
5. .. ( ).
.: , 1970 344 .
6. .. /
. .:
, 1972 287 .
7. ..
. .: , 1990 380 .
8. .. .
: , 1991 270 .

9. .. . .:
, 1998 260 .
10. .. . .: , 1959 320 .
11. .. / , 1964, 1, 68 .
12. ..
. , , 1969 286 .
13. .. , / . . : , 1984 181.
14. ..
: . .
.: , 1971 220 .
15. W. Shakespeare. Hamlet. London: Peguin Books, 1994 192 p.
16. .. - =
English-Russian phraseologycal dictionary: . 20000 . 4- , . . .:
, 1984 942 .