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Academia

2013



( 03-04-00247, 13-04-16029),

,

( 02.740.11.0595)

811.1(29)
81.2
41

..
..
:
.. , ..
:
.. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , ..
41
: / .
. . .: .. , .. . .: Academia, 2013. 512 .
ISBN 978-5-87444-370-2
, . , , , , , . ( ) .
, . ,
. , .
, ,
, , , , , .

Languages of the World: Relict Indo-European languages of Western and Central Asia. Yuri B.
Koryakov and Andrej A. Kibrik (eds.). Moscow: Academia, 2013. 512 pp.
ISBN 978-5-87444-370-2
This book continues the encyclopedic multi-volume series Languages of the World, which is being prepared
at the Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences. This volume addresses the Indo-European languages
of Western and Central Asia, including Anatolian, Phrygian, Galatian, Relict Aryan, Armenian with its varieties
and Tocharian. Almost all languages considered are ancient with the exception of Modern Armenian. Each essay
follows the typologically oriented template implemented throughout the Languages of the World series. This template imposes sociolinguistic, diachronic and structural characterization upon individual languages and ensures the
commensurability of the descriptions of different languages. A set of maps illustrating the spread of the languages
is appended. The volume is intended as a fundamental study addressed to the linguists of various specializations,
but also as a reference source addressed to a wide audience of historians, cultural anthropologists, teachers as well
as students, and everyone interested in ancient and Indo-European languages.

, 2013 .
Academia, , 2013 .


......................................................................................... 10
................................................................................................................ 12

.. , .. . .................................................. 15
.. , .. . ............................................................ 26
. . ......................................................................................... 75
.. , .. . ............................................................. 97
.. . .............................................................................. 106
. . ............................................................................... 131
.. . ....................................................................... 154
.-. . ................................................................................. 166
.. . ................................................................................... 175
.. . .............................................................................. 177
. , . . ....................................................... 180
.. . ........................................................................... 196

.. . M .............................................. 198
.. . .......................................................... 217

.. . .................................................................. 221
.. . ....................................... 242
. , .. , .. .
............................................................................................... 291
.. , .. . ( )...................... 320
. . ( ).... 334

.. , .. . ............................................................ 386
.. , .. . A .......................................................... 398
.. , .. . B .......................................................... 444

...................................................................................... 486
............................................................................. 488

........................................................................... 493
: ...................................................................... 505
.. .
........................................................................... 507

CONTENTS
About the publication Languages of the World ........................................................ 10
Preface .......................................................................................................................... 12
Anatolian languages
A.S. Kassian, I.S. Yakubovich. Anatolian languages..................................................... 15
A.S. Kassian, A.V. Sideltsev. Hittite.............................................................................. 26
A. Rizza. Lydian............................................................................................................ 75
A.S. Kassian, A.V. Shatskov. Palaic .............................................................................. 97
I.S. Yakubovich. Luwian ............................................................................................. 106
A. Kloekhorst. Lycian ................................................................................................. 131
V.V. Shevoroshkin. Milyan ......................................................................................... 154
I.-X. Adiego. Carian .................................................................................................... 166
A.S. Kassian. Sidetic................................................................................................... 175
A.S. Kassian. Pisidian ................................................................................................. 177
O. Ligorio, A. Lubotsky. Phrygian ............................................................................. 180
T.A. Mikhailova. Galatian.......................................................................................... 196
Aryan languages
B.L. Oguibenine. Mitanni Indo-Aryan........................................................................ 198
M.A. Zhivlov. Andronovo Aryan ................................................................................ 217
Armenian language
N.A. Dilbaryan. Classical Armenian........................................................................... 221
L.S. Ovsepyan. Standard Eastern Armenian ............................................................... 242
A. Donabdian, L.S. Ovsepyan, R.K. Sakapetoyan. Standard Western Armenian...... 291
L.S. Ovsepyan, G.G. Gevorkyan. Armenian dialects (general overview) ................. 320
H. Martirosyan. Armenian dialects (description of individual dialects)..................... 334
Tocharian languages
S.A. Burlak, I.B. Itkin. Tocharian languages ............................................................... 386
S.A. Burlak, I.B. Itkin. Tocharian A ............................................................................ 398
S.A. Burlak, I.B. Itkin. Tocharian B ............................................................................ 444
Contributors ................................................................................................................ 486
Notation and abbreviations ......................................................................................... 488

Contents

Index of the relict Indo-European languages and dialects


of Western and Central Asia................................................................................... 493
Appendix: Templates .................................................................................................. 505
Yu.B. Koryakov. Maps of the relict Indo-European languages
of Western and Central Asia....................................................................................507


.
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1997), . I. - (.: , 1997), (.: , 1999), (.: Academia,
1999), . II. - (.: , 2000),
. III. (.: , 2000), .
(.: Academia, 2000), (.: Academia, 2001), (.: Academia, 2004),
(.: Academia, 2005), (.: Academia, 2006), . . (.: Academia, 2009), (.: Academia, 2010),
(.: Academia, 2011), . (.: Academia, 2013),
(.: Academia, 2013).
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, .. .
(22.06.1941
04.10.2013),
( 1975 1986 .) .
.
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:
(1967).

320

]. Vinna, 1866. URL:


http://thesaurus.cerl.org/record/cnp01099240.
Gazanean Y. Nor kerakanutiwn ardi hayeren lezui [
]. Istanpul, 1947.
Kosyan V.A. Arewmtahayereni baakapakcutyunner [ ]. Erewan, 1986.
Sakapetoyan .K. Arewmtahayeren-arewelahayeren uaxosakan-bacatrakan baaran [-
]. Erewan, 2000.
Sakapetoyan .K. Arewelahayereni ew arewmtahayereni baapaarayin aanjnahatkutyunner

[
]. Erewan, 2004.
Sakapetoyan .K. Arewmtahayereni dasagirk
[ ]. Erewan,
2006.
ant L. Kerakanutiwn arewmtean hayerni
[ ].
Pyrut [], 1932.
Sargsyan A. Arewelahay ew arewmtahay grakan lezuner (zugadrakan-tipabanakan knnutyun)
[ (- )]. Erewan, 1985.
Tasnapetean E. Kerakanutiwn []. Antilias, 1990.

.. , ..
( )
1. (..), ; .
, hayereni barbanr.
.
: (. barbaaxumb),
(barba), ( , . interdialect), / (. yentabarba), (hosvack).
.
( ) .
.. (, , , ),
() (, , .).
1915 .,
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2. ( VIIIXI) , , (
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. , -

.. , .. . ( )

321

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XVII . XIX . (, , , , .), (, , ). ,
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322

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: /, /
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) ; r , y, j, , r;
, , ; : ie, ou, e; : ai > a/e; oy > u/i/e; iw >u/i/e;
( );
: ( -vi,
-ni, -an, -stan ); (: -e, -en, -an; -ic, -uc;
-ina, -ana .); -um/-m; z ; i ; ; ( : ku (k, g, k, g), ka, ko, ha; -um, -lis, -man); ( -lu, -akan, -acu, -o .); ( -l, -r), kor .
66,5 .
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-

324

.
.. 1915 .
.
6. ,
. , , ,
, .
. .
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) , [] : Aoraom (), kaortol ;


) [], [0], [y] , , : rin , klx , r ;
) [] [] , , , : sert , ket ;
) i [] : tinil
, kiril ;
) : ua, ue, a, uoy .

) b [b], g [g], d [d], j [dz], [d]


: , , -, , , , , , , ; ;
) g [], k [c], k [c] ,
, , -, : kani , karunk ;
) h [] , ;
) hy [] , , ;
) [] .
- , .
, (, ,
) , : erexa > rxa
, karkatan > krktan , aaur > ur . , , ( ,
): karkatan > karktn , aaur >

.. , .. . ( )

325

ar ,
( ).
, ,
, u, a, e o,
: aman . . amnni, axper . . axprtik,
klox . . klxni.
.
.. ,
-
.
, , .
(,
) ( ).

. ( ), ,
.
.
, ..
-i (sar . sari). , -utyun (utin): uraxutin . uraxutini.
-u: sar
. saru.
(, , ) : axka. girk ;
( , , , )
: varabedi.-n dan
.
(, , ) , .
, , z-: tu zaxik
idas njik , desa zdnir gisabac .
(, ,
, ) -e(n), : saren / . ic/uc: saric / , ginuc / . , -an: saran
/ .

326

.. ana, ane, nesta, nistic: kinin nesta / . ana, ane


: Arakane . , , , , , , .
..
-ov ( av). , , , ,
, , mov: hormov ,
axpormov . -b .. .
-am+b -um: caum , pitum .
anav, nistav, , ,
: axpors anav () , kvoru nistav .

. ,
- . me ini : hoi me , tunn ini , artern ini
/ .
(
) -i: caeri , -u: sareru .
..
: + , .
-er -ner -ani, -ni, -nin, -stan .,
- . -er -ner.

i, u. -er (: -ir, -ar, -i) : art . . arter, maz
. . mazir, til . . tilar, ac . . aci. ,
, , an (
: an+k, an+ti, an+ti+k): ci . .
ciyan/ciyank/ciyanti.
-ner : aman . . amanner/amannir/amanniy. ,
, , , -ni: beran . . beranni, toron . . toronni, , -na: xpur . . xpurna, grak
. . gragna, , -kyer: aman
. . amankyer, -kir: eraz . . erazkir.
, , , , , -k: ampa
. . ampek, xname . . xnamek, gari ()
. . garik; , , , , -stan: gari . . garestan, gini . .
ginestan, tari . . tarestan.

.. , .. . ( )

327

vi ( ) , : jung . . jngvi, je . . jevi, vd


. . vdva/votvner, ak . . avni, , , : kint . . ktvni, mad . . madvi, angy
. . ayver . .
.. : ank, enk, onk,
unk, , ,
: Sahakank , Gurgenenk, Meunk, paponk
. .

(, yot oxt),
. :
-ort, -rort, -erort ( , ): yerort
, yerkrort , hingyerort ;
-um: ergusum , oxtnum ,
, , , , ;
-(u)m -ini ( ): yorkumini , irikmni , orkmni ( , , , , ).
, , , .
: irekyan , ursekyan , hingekyan .
(, , , , , )
yetmi ,
saksan , doxsan .
. , .
, , ,
.
: (), (), (), () (). / .
, : --, . (ku, ka, piti), : ku , piti .
ku piti ,
: ku ,

328

piti . -
, ,
.
, ( ,
). , .. ,
.

ku ( ).
, (, , , , ,
.) : kxmim / () (), kxmei /
( ).
(, , , ,
.)
go gu: go kyim gu kyim .
, , , , ,
k, ,
: xmes
em , xmil im .
piti, mn (
) : piti mnam (), mn krim
() (), pitil ( ): kril dem (< (pi)d-em) , kril des ().
.. .
.., ,
. ,
: , , , : , ,
.
-
()
: xmal m .
.. 3- e-, .
-um (m), -lis, -l : sirum em , xoselis em sirel em , ku/gu, ka, aha : ginam gu , ginayi gu .

.. , .. . ( )

329

- -er (-ir) -ayr,


g: 1 . . . g mner em, 2 . g mner es . .
- - , (m, s . .) , : 1) er (, , , , ); 2) nl/nel (, , , , .); 3) lal/la/le (, , , ,
); 4) idi (, ).

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

1
em er
es er
0 er
enk er
ek er
en er

2
m nl
s nl
0 nl
k nl
k nl
n nl

3
m ll
s ll
0 ll
k ll
k ll
n ll

4
m idi
s idi
a idi
ik idi
k idi
n idi


: mnam , mnayi , k (< ku): k-aam , k-aayi .
. kor/gor, er, dar, uni/guni,
haye, haykak .: g sirem gor , k grem dar . .
, ,
-ac/-aj
(knac e ) (spanvac er ). : kacaj e
, geraj e , ( , , ),
.

: mnalu (v)m .
, , , ,
piti (: pi, ti, d-), : pi xmim / (),
asil d-em / .
k/g . () ,
: g jaxim / / .
: udo em / .

330

mn:
mn krem / ().
, ,
.
. , ,
: mi , () .
, ( ) . . ku
()/i : berem / ,
xmey / (, , ), i sirim /
(, , , ), : im kril / ( ).
, , , , ()
: go sirim / .
()/i vo/ve, (t tpim ) : ibde krem . , , , ,
, : petk a
krem ve .
,
:
kro im / , : bidi krim .
() (, , .) (, -, -) mi : mi karta .
, , mi (me, ma, man,
mel, mer) (
l): kartil me , xusi man .
-k , : gnal mek mi gnak
.
. .
( a, e, i, u) .. : a, e, i, i , e. (u) .

e i .. , e a.

.. , .. . ( )

331

em
es

emk
k
en
i
ir
r
ak
ik
in

em, im
es, is
, a
enk/k, ink/k, ik/k
k/k
en, in
ei, eyi, e, eim, iim
eir, eyir, ir, er, eis, es, iir, eyd
er
eyak, eyank, eink, enk, ak, ek
eik, eyik, ek/k , ak, ik
ein, eyin, en, eyn

am
am, m, om
as
as, s, os
ay
ay, , o
amk
ank, nk, onk
ayk
ayk, k, ok
an
an, n, on
ayi
ayi, ai, i
ayir
ayir, air, ir
ar
ar, er
ayak
ayak, ayink aink, ink
ayik
ayik, aik, ik
ayin
ayin, ain, in

,
, ku piti.
, , , ( ). , .

xosel/xosil , ginal

. .
. .

1
xose
xoser
xoser
xosenk
xosek
xosen

2
xoser
xoser
xoser
xosenk
xosek
xosen

3
4
xosenk
xosek
xoser
xoser
xoser
xoser
xosek
xosenkxosek
xosek
xosen
xosen

5
xosem
xoser
xoser
xosek
xosek
xosen

6
ginayi
ginayd
ginar
ginayk
ginayk
ginayn

, . ..:
1) , , , ;
2) , , , , ;
3) , , , , , , ;
4) , , ;
5) ;
6) .

332

, ..
(
. , 2.4.0.).

i
ir
0
ak
ik/k
in

I
.-.
i
i, im, e
ir
ir, ir, er
0/ec
ir, ir, er
ink
ak, ank, ink, enk
ik
ik, ek, ek
in
en, in

a
ar
aw
ak
ayk/aruk
an

II
.-.
a
a, am
ar
ar
av
av
ank
ak, ik, ank
ak
ak
an
an


. .: a//e/i/u/0, . .: ek/ik.
. , , ..
.
.. ( ):
: ) : sirel em ; ) : xmil im (); ) : im beril ; ) : asil petem ;
) : mi kail , mi tal ;

-um,
( ): sirum/
sirm/siram/sirim em ;
() -lis (: -yis, -ys, -l, -s)
: uzis m ;
() . . , ;
-el + u, -, -ac, -ec, -acu, -acuk, -akan
. : girel em, grelac em, kirilakan m
. . / ;
-o ( ): aso m / ; ;
, ku. , .
.. : i > , i > e.

.. , .. . ( )

333

. , , ..
,
. ,
: -ek avurek
, karoek ; -i ( ) bostani
, xanaki ; -tun jmetun , zatktun ;
-unc/-uc/-anc atunc , pzdkuc , hetevanc ; -uk
xmuk , .
: alr+ma , pas+peran , anga+mtuk
, cak+ak , . . .
. .

. , , . .
. , , , , ,
(, . .), , , , , .

.
( ) . .

Greppin J.A.C., Khachaturian A.A. A handbook


of Armenian dialectology. Delmar, New York,
1986.

..
// , 1960, 6.
.. //
, 1972, 4.
.. // IX : .
., 2012.
.. i i : i .
., 1869.
Adjarian H.H. Classification des dialectes
armniens. Paris, 1909.

:
Aaean H.H. Hay barbaagitutiwn [ ]. .; ,
1911 (minean Azgagrakan oovacu 8).
aribyan A.S. Hay barbaagitutyun: hnyunabanutyun ew jewabanutyun [ : ]. Erewan,
1953.
Grigoryan A.V. Hay barbaagitutyan dasntac
[ ]. , 1957.
Hayereni barbaagitakan atlas: usumnasirutyunner ew nyuter [
: .
. 12]. Erewan, 19821985.
Hayereni barbaagitakan atlas: usumnasirutyunner ew nyuter [

334

: .
. 13]. Erewan, 20082010.
Jahukyan G.B. Hay barbaagitutyan neracutyun: viakagrakan barbaagitutyun [
]. Erewan, 1972.
Mkrtyan N.A. Anatoliayi norahayt hay barbaner ew banahyusutyun [ ].
Erewan, 2006.
Sargsyan A. et al. (.). Hayoc lezvi
barbaayin baaran [ ]. Erewan, 20012010, tt. 16.

Yovnanean . Hetaztutiwnk naxneac amkrni vray: usumnasirutiwnk ew kauackner,


hh. 12 [ : , . 12]. Wien,
1897.
,
462
.

.

( ) 1
1.3. . ( ) . .
4. . . ,
(1911;
), (1913)
, .
.. , . , . , . , . , . . . , . , . . . . (1902) . (1912).
. 2001 .
. , .
(1909, 1911, 1913, 1951); . (1953); . (1957); .
. (1986); . (1987).
.
,
. .
, . . , .
: g() / k /
k , .-. *g /*g /*k.
1

. .. , .. .. .

. . ( )

335

(.. /
), , (< .-.
*k) ( ).
4 (, , .),
> , > . 6 (,
, .) .
,
, .-. *b, *g, *d.
, 2 (, ,
.).
.., . . , .
: sirem , mnam .
,
: k/g + (k sirem, k sires . ., k-, G), + (sirum em,
um-, M), + (sirel em, l-, L), +
(sirelis / sire(li)s em, mnayis m, s-, S), + (lalman em, man, N; . -umn, . -man), (h)a(y) + (hay
sirym, sirim a, ha-, H). XI . ( O).
k, ha .
, , ha .
. ( ) ha(y) , ,
k . (. g g-anum
); , , .
: . g-rtam gr , . brm gr
, g-udyi gr . k : . g sirim hy , . g-anim r , . g-sim dar .
kar, kiknan r/rr, yr.
, . . . g-rtam ()n . .. . (1985, 1994, 2010) . (2002).
.
,
.
.
(., , ) .
, , 1 sir- , m()nam , aa- , amn- ,
ncn- , arck- , an- , as/s/-s-/xs-/xs- , ban, rt / t , ga-/k- , gr-/kir- , karda-/kat-, lal, ls- , moan- , n(i)st- , t- , tal- , tsn-/
tesan-/disn- , uz- , xaa- , xm- ; .

336

..

*gh

*g

g()

.-.

11

k/g

1136

1139

1140

sirem, mnam

g sirim, gy-nim

ha sirim, hay urtum

gu sirim, gu urtum

(hay) sirym, (hay) urtum

12

g sirim, g gartm

23

k/g

g siyim, g g-anum

2433

k/g

g siyim, g-ytm

35

sirm k/g, k-udem k/g

3544

1/2

k/g

O/K

36

g sirm, g-rtam

37

sirm g, g-rtam g

38

g sirim, g-rtam

3914

g sirim, g banam

3915

K+

(nstim ga, g-rtam ga) (3 .


karda-v)

310

.-.

k(i)-sirim, g lsim

3116

g sirm, g-rtam

311 +

.-.

g xsim

31117

sirim gu, g-uzim

3117 /
318

./.

k/g

g sirim, g-im (. + hay)

31231

(.) k-tam r / kar, xsim


knam

312 ?

-.

sirim ka

312 +

g-rtam kar

315

H/K

sirim, mnam; k-asin

sirim a, g-rtam a

. . ( )

337

316

ga sirm, ga g-anum

31745

g/k

g sirim, g-uzim

31746

2/7

g/k

k/g sirim, k-udam

319

g sirim, g-dim

320

sirim gu, g-rtam ga, g grtam

421

1/4

g/k

sirim gu, g-udim

422

H/K

523

gi sirim

62455

k sirim, k-aam

62458

k sirim, k-aam

626

g sirm, g-rtam

627

g sirim, g-uzim

72868

k sirem, k-uzem, ku km

72870

., .

k sirim, k xaam, k-ncnim

72871

7/2

k/g

k katm, k-arckim

729

830117

830119

S/L

kirs m/s, 3 . kirl i;


mnas m/s, 3 . mnal i

830120

zeli im, amnal yim

931

sir/um m

931 +

sirm m, mnm m

931 +

.-.

grem um

93292

.-.

talman am

93293

.-.

M/N

93473

asm m, lsm m

93575

M/K

sirum im, ku sirim

93576

sirlis im, mnalis im

1037

srm m, xsm m

siris m, mnas m

kriys m, mnayis m

1037
103
1037
104

sirm a / g sirm, g-rtam a

zl m, tl m

sirum am, moanum am;


lalman am, talman am

338
1037
111
1037
112
1037
112

./ .

sirum m, xmum m

sirilis m, mnalis m

siriyis m, mnayis m

1038 +

sirm m, mnm m

1039

aas m / m aali

1040
114

./.

S/M

1041

M/S

1042

1143

M/S

114486

syrm m, n-tam m,
xslis m, tsns m
siris im, mnas im

114487

siry im / im sirs

1144 +

g/k

M/S

1 . sirlis m, sirli ym,


2 . sirlm s, 3 . sirlim i
A. sirm m, mnam am;
B. kiris m, mnays m
sirum m, mnum m

xmm m, sm m,
A. mnyis im, B. mnlis im

. . (1972; )
, 100 (), , 120 . , 44 , 11
. ..
. ( ) .
, 6. .
.
. (1992, 1993, 1996, 2001)
, , ,
h - , , VII .
( ):
) ;
) o (, , e) ;
o , , ( .) ( );
) aw; aw ( ) , : eawtn > . xt (
+);
) :
(. );

. . ( )

339

) (VII . ).
-nul . -anem, tesanem
.
: -n , ,
,
-ay, V .
..
- (- ), ,
, . (1996),
- - .

.

11
2332
35
3116
317
320
421
422
523
624
627
72868

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

72870

. .
4
4
2
3
2/7
1
1/4
5
1
2
5
7

k/g
k/g
g
g
g/k
g
g/k
k
g
g
k
k

g
g
k
g
k
g
g
g
g
k
g
k

., .

830119
830120
931
931 +
93293
1037
1037112

.
.
.
.
.-.
.
.

7
7
2
6
2
7
6

k
k
g
g
g
k
g

k
k
k
k
k
k
k

1040

1143
1144 +
114486

.
.
.

6
6
6

g k
g/k k
g k

. . xt
tesanel
.
. o7

+?
+
-nul
K

+
-nul
K

-nil
K

(.) +

-nal
K

+
-nal
K

-nal
K

+
-nul
H/K

+
-nal
K

-nul
K

-nul
K

+
-nal
K

+
+
-nal
-nel /
K

+
+
-nil
S/L

+
+
+
+
-nel
L

+
+
+
+
-nel
M
(+)
(+)
+

(-nul)
M
+
+
+

-nal
M/N

-nel
M
+
+
+
+
+
-nal
S
+
+
+
+

-(n)ul
-nel /
S/M

+
+

-nal
M/S
+
(+)
+
+

-nil
M/S
+
+
+
+
/+ -(n)il
S
+
(+)
+
+

-nil

340

. .. , . . . - --.
:

bak
bah
barak
barj
ben
beran
berd
bok
boc
burd
pakas
pa
paaw
port
gal
gan
garun
get
gort
kap
kart
ker
kot
kut
dajn
das
de
do
tasn
te(i)
tun
ambar
andundk
aprank
ardar
aregakn
arcat
ara
arasp
bambak

.
pk
px
prk
pc
pe
pran
pet
pxk
pc
prt
pakas
pa
paav
pot
kl
k
krn
ket
kt
kap
kart
ker
kot
kut
txc
ts
te
t
tas
te
tun
mbr
andundk
aprank
rtr
arkk
acat

pmbk

..
pk
px
prak
prc
p/e
pran
pirt/pert
pk
pc
prt
pakas
pa
paav
put
kl
k
krun
kit/ket
kt
kap
kart
kir/ker
kut/kot
kut
txc
ts
t/te
t
tas
t/te
tun
ambr
hndtk
aprank
artr
rkk
ar/cat
a
arps
pmbk

.
pk
px
prk
pc
p
pran
pt
poxk
poc
prt
pakas
pa
paav
pot
ikl
k
krn
ket
kot
kap
kart

kot
kut
txc
ts
t
t
tass
t
tun
ambr
hndtk
aprank
artr
arkk
acat
a
arps
pmbk

.
pk, pk
ph
p/rak
p/rc
pn
pran

p/xk

prt
pkas

paav
pr/t
kl
kn
krunk
kt
k/tnuk
kap
krt
krkt
kt
t()sn
ts, ts
t
t
ts
t()
tn
mbar
ndxt
prank
rtr
rknak
rcat
a/n

pmba/k

bh
brak
brj/c
b
bran

bxk

brd/t
pakas

paav
prt
gl
g
grunk
gt
grt
kap
kart
kr
kt
kut
dj
ds
d
d
tas
t
tu
ambar

aprank

rgk
arcat
a

bn/mbk

. . ( )
borbos
gagatn
gangat
dadarel
ddum
erkank
kana
kardal
karkut
margarit
mardak
agam
urbat
paganel

prps
kkt
knkt
ttrel
ttm
rkank
kana
krtl
karkut
markrit
mrtk
xkm
urpt
pakel

prprs
kkt
knkt
ttril
ttm
rkank
kana
kartl
karkut
mrkrit
martk
axkm
urpt
paknil

prps
kkt
knkt
ttrel
ttm
rkank
kana
kartl
karkut
mrkrit

xkm
urpt
paknel

prpn
kngt
ttr/il

rkank
kna(n)
krt/il
krku/t

axkam
rpt

341

bmbn. kkt
k/gngt
ttrl

arkank
kanan
kardal
karkut
mrkrit

urbt

. ( ) a ,
( -) u.
. . - ,
:

a
ar
art
bak
ban
bac
lar
ca
hac
maz
tanj
tasn
kar
agaw
aman
ardar
arcat
danak
manga
paaw
gawazan
hnazand
patuhas

a
a

..
a
a/r

a
ay

at/d

at

ayd

bag
ban
bac
lar
ca
hac
maz
tanj
tass
kar
akav
ama
artar
acat
danak
manga
paav
gavazan
hnazand

pk
pn
pc
lar
ca
xac
maz
tanj
tas
kyar
(akav)
ama
artr
acat
tnak
mangy
paav
kvzan
xnaznd
patuxas

bk
bn
bc

c
hc
mz
tunj
tss
kr
kav
ma(n)
tar
cat
dank
mangy
pav

hnzand

pn
pac
lar
ja
hac
maz
dnj
das
kar

ma
art/tar
ayjat
tnag
mnga
baav
kavazn

u
(.
yd
urt)
bg
bg
bn
bun
bc
buc
ly
lur
j
ju
hc
huc
mz
muz
dnj
dunj
ds
duss
ky
kur
agv
guv
am
amu
aydy
ardu
ayjt
ajut
dang
dng
mang mng
bab
bauv
gavzn gyvzun
hnaznd hnazund
baduhs bdihus

342

. v > b, :
paaw > ., ., . . baab, . bab, . barb (. . bauv, . baav, . baav, . baav, . paav);
varpet - > . brbid, . baybid (. . varbd, .
varbd).
5. .
, taramim
taamim ; paxnum paxim ; ays () ; -n .
, . . *lizu . lezu .

()
. (
).
. , , (. . V . . .),
, .
, .
. , . anum (. . anmani ) (
. anun *anuwn < .-. *h3neh3-mn)
*anumn, -m- . *anVman-, . . patawn . pat-aman
, mriwn . . . mrmun-k .

(2010).
6. , .. ,
45 .

.
mard , (o-)

. .-.

.
.
.. . .

hac
(z)hac

hac
hac

hac
hac

hac
hac

hac-i

hac-i

hac-i

hac-i, -c hac-

i hac-

hac-ic

hac-

hac-v

hac-v

. hac-i-w

hac-,
-n1
hac-v

hc
hc

.
(. .)
huc
huc

huc
huc

hcc-

hccn

hac-e

hcc-

hccin

hac-v

hcc-um

hccum

. . ( )

.
.
.. .
.
.

. .-.

343

.
(. .)

hac-k

hac-r

hac-r

hac-r

hac-iy

hcc-ir

hccir

(z)hac-s

hac-r

hac-r

hac-r

hac-iy

hcc-ir

hccir

hac-i-c

hac-r-i

hac-r-u

hac-r-u

hac-iy-u hcc-ir

hccirn

i hac-i-c

hac-r-ic hac-r-

hac-r-

hac-iy-e hcc-ir

hccirin

. hac-i-w-k hac-r-v hac-r-v hac-r-v hac-iy-v hccirum

hccirum

: 1. . : . hac-, . hac-n. :
hac-c-n, hac-n.

hac (i-)
. .
.
.
..
.

mard

.
mart

.-.
mat

.
mat

.
myd

.
murt

.
mud

(z)mard

mart(-u) mat

mat

myd

z-ma rt

mud

mard-oy

mart-u

mat-u

mayd-o

mart-n

mad-

mat-u

i mard-oy mart-uc mat(um)

. mard-o-v mart-v

mat-(m) mayd-e

mat(um)v mat-v

mart-n-irmyn mad-

mayd-v mart-n-hyd

mad-um

. o(v)

o(v)

vov

wov

vav

vv

ov

von

zo(v)

vir

zvir, zov

zvav

vir

zov

zvon

oyr

vir

vi(r)

vir

vir

yum

vir

um

vir

vir

yum

vi(n)
virn,
-n, -ic

(orov)

vir
virmn,
virn
virmv,
virv

yum
yumn,
-n, -ic

vi(r)
virmn, virnic,
vir mtn / mnn
virmv, virnv,
vir mnv

yumnov

virnov

virmic,
virnic
virmv,
virnv

virmn,
virnic
virmv,
virnv

.
. 70, 80, 90 ( ), .

344

10

20

tasn

ksan

eresun

30

kaasun yisun

40

50

vatsun

60

70

duss
ksun
/dus

yasn

kasn

vtcn yitmi

80

90

utsun

innsun

sksn

dsan

. dsa ksun yasun kasun hissun vccn (.)

tminayn

(.)

. ds ksn sun

kasun

(h)issn vatjn ytmi

sksn

dxsn

.
..
.

tas

kasun

yicun vaccun xtanasun

utanasun

insun

sksn

dxsan

ksan ysun

yissn

ewtanasun

das ksan

sun

kasun

(h)isun vatcun ytmi

das ksan

sun

kasun

iccun

vaccun

ytmi

sksn

dxsan

das ksan

rsun

kasun

isun

vatsun

xtanasun

utsun

n/usun

das (k)sn sun

kasun

hissun

vaccun

xtnasun

uccun

nsun

tas

ksan yrsun kasun

hisun

vatsun

ytanasun

utanasun

insun

das

ksan

sun

kasun

itsun

vatsun

ytnsun

utnsun

insun

dass ksan rsun

kasun

issun

vaccun ytmi

sksn

dxsn

tas

ksan

kyasun isun

vatsun

yetmi

shysn

dxsan

tas

kysan hsun

kyasun hisun

vtsun

ytnsun

ut(ana)sun insun

. tas

kysan ysun

kyasun hisun

vtsun

ytnsun

utsun

yesun

tssa kssan ysun

kasun

insun

issun /
vaccun xtanaccun utanaccun innanaccun
iccun

. s i r e m
.
1 . sirem
. . 2 . sires
3 . sir

.-. .

g sirm

g sirim

ki-sirim

gi sirim

g sirs

g sirs

ki-siris

gi siris

g sir

g sir

ki-sir

gi sir

1 . siremk g sirnk g sirink ki-sirink

gi sirink

. . 2 . sirk

g sirk

g sirk

ki-sirik

gi sirik

3 . siren

g sirn

g sirn

ki-sirin

gi sirin

. , , , . tam
, e-, -a-
-n- 1- . .

. . ( )

345

tam
1 .

. .
2 .
etur
et

XIXIII .

etu

.-.

tu-i

tu-ir

.
.
.
.2
.
.
.
.-.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.-.
.
.
.
.
.

*etu-i
dva
*tu-i
dva
*tu-i
dv3
duvi
dv(ec)i
dvi
tv(c)i
dvc
tv(ic)i
tv
tuv/um
tu-i
tvm
tur/vi
t/uvi
tuv
tvi

*etu-e(r)
dvy
*tu-er
dvir
*tu-ir
dvy
duvir
dv(ec)ir
dvir
tv(c)ir
dvcr
tv(ic)ir
tvir
tuv/ir
tu-ir
tvs
tur/vir
t/uvir
tuvr
tvir

3 .

tvi, tui
etu-r, eret,
tu-aw
*etu
ida
*e-tu-r
i-dr
*tu-aw
dvv
duvav
dvec
dvav, rd
tvc
dvc
tvec, i-tu(r)
i-tu
tuv/ic
tu-aw
5
u-tur, tur/vav
-rt, tvuc
tu/vav
tvuc

. .
2 .
etuk

3 .
etun

tuak

tuik

tuin

*etua(n)k
dvunk
*tu-ank
dvunk
*tu-ank
dvnk
duvink
dv(ec)ink
dvak
tv(c)ink
dvck
tv(ic)inky
tvinky
tuv/unk
tu-ink
tvk 5
turink
t/uvink
tuvky
tvink

*etu-ik
dvk
*tu-ik
dvk
*tu-ik
dvk
duvik
dv(ec)ik
dvik
tv(c)ik
dvck
tv(ic)iky
tviky
tuv/uk
tu-ik
tvk
turik
t/uvik
tuvky
tvik

*etu-in
dvyn1
*tu-in
dvn
*tu-in
dvn
duvin
dv(ec)in
dvin
tv(c)in
dvcn
tv(ic)in
tvin
tuv/un
tu-in
tvn
turin
t/uvin
tuvn
tvin

1 .
tuak
e/tuak, tvank

:
1. nvyn (aribyan 1958); , .
2. . i 1 . . . -i > -a, 2 . . . -ik > -k 3 . . . -in >
-n . 2 . . . dvir *tu-er, *tu-ir, . . gier >
giir, sisen > sisi, . karmir > grmr, moxir > mxxr.
3. . dv < *tui, . nvg < . nuik ( ).
4. , .
5. 3- . . (1935), 1 . . . -Vk -Vnk ,
.

. . -a 1- ,
.
utem ( ) ,
.

346

utem
1 .
. . 2 .
3 .
1 .
. . 2 .
3 .

uti
utir
utr
utak
utik
utin

.
g-di
g-dir
g-dr
g-dank
g-dik
g-din

.
g-udy
g-udyd()
g-udr
g-udayk
g-udy
g-udy

kaem
.-.
k-utei
k-uteir
k-uter
k-uteink
k-uteik
k-utein

.
g kai
g kair
g kar
g kaank
g kaik
g kain

grem

.-.
g gri
g grir
g grr
g grinky
g griky
g grin

. ,
, , ( ), ,
, , .


.. -
. . .
: I , II (IIII) (-) ; III (); IV (IIIIII) (-) ; V (IIIVI) (-) ; VI - (-); VII (VIVIII)
() ;
: VIII - (-); IX (-); X (IXXI) - (--) ; XI - ().
( ) () . .
. ,
, ..
. / .
,
.., , , ,
.
.


I.
, I . . . VI . . .
, X .

. . ( )

347

.. .
(--; . Antioki) , . , ( , ) .
. (1953, 1955, 1958) , , . .
(1995). . (2003), . , - .
, , 20 . .
. kistin / kisdin (. kristoneay ), kisting / kisdinig / kisting .

1. -
( ) . (),
- . :
1) -: (-), / ( Aayan 2003);
2) -: , , ( Andreasyan 1967);
3) : , , - - ( Hananyan 1995);
4) : ().
6311 . . (1958) , 1946 . . (195253)
. XXI .
. .


(Hai-Habibli)
/ (Bitias)
(Youn-luk)
(Xtrbek, Xdr-Bey)
(Vagf)
- (Veri(n) Azzir)
- (Nerkin Azzir)
(Manlak)
(trlek)
(Maarak)
/ (e/avlik)
(Zeytuniye)
(Ke/abusie)
(Maarnen)
/ (evlik)

Xplk
Hblk
Pitgus
Btyus
Yunulk
Yunulu
Idder
Idder
Vgf
Maf
Vir zzr
Nrk zzr

Kpisik

(Haykadat)
Kbisk

: 1. 1920 . (Hananyan 1995).

I
1284 .
1050 .
1233 .
1149 .
470 .

300
255
195
82
15
15

10
30 1
1125 .

1946,

400
300
500
400
200
30
20

100
50
50
300

348

. (2003),
b, g, d , r. ,
p, k, t.

b/g/d
p/k/t
p/k/t

b/g/d b/g/d, (N)b/g/d b/g/d, (N)b/g/d


b/g/d

b/g/d

b/g/d

p/k/t

p/k/t

p/k/t

a > u , ( . 4., ).

-um, .
-un; -u +
hid .
. (1958) -: . murt . maurt, . s maurt
; ,
, z-.
i-/y- : is i dn g-rtum ; y-ambur g-rtum
.
,
..: . nu > . n, . nu; . inj (.-.
unj) > . ynj / aynj, . nj; . lur , > .
l , . laur ; . . lur ,
; . karb-j (karb , + awj ) > .
kyrb()uc krpuc .
70, 80, 90 , . 6., .
.
. . (195253)
, . (1986) 186165 1911 ., . (1958) 1946 .
XXI . 3 . , .

. . ( )

349


. .

Kesab

Baaaz / Paaaz

Dyuzaa / Tzaa
Baurt / Pau/rt

Ksub

186165, 1911, 1946,

.
500 2797
1500

G/aladuran / Garaturan

Krtrun

Graturun

60

1290

400

inar / narg
Kyorkina / Kyorkyune
Igiz-lug / kiz-luk
Asgyura / skrn
Sewabyur
Fakhasan

nur
Krkn
Kuzulk
Nrk gi
Siv Abuyr

inur
Kurkun

40

176
338
312
178
435

100
100
75
50
50
50

381

40

113
85

25
15

Vr Pa
Nrk Pa
Tz
Part

()
10
Sivaxpayr
Bazaaz
Dyuzaa

()

ha/hay.
, . k
. -er . 3- .

kardam , grem

. .

. .

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

kardam
kardas
karday
kardamk
kardayk
kardan

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

kardayi
kardayir
kardayr
kardayak
kardayik
kardayin

ha gartum
grem
ha gartus
gres
ha gartu
gr
ha gartunk
gremk
ha gartk
grk
ha gartun
gren

ha garter m
gri
ha garter s
grir
ha garter
grr
ha garter nk
grak
ha garter ky
grik
ha garter n
grin

.
ha krim
ha kris
ha kri
ha krink
ha krik
ha krin
ha krer m
ha krer s
ha krer
ha krer nk
ha krer ky
ha krer n

/
- , - : (ney, Kney; 200 ), (Yagubie; 200 ), (nimie; 150 ), /
(Aramo; 150 ) (Arfalu; 15 ). ( 70 )

350

(Ayceamn 1907). 1947 . 120 , . -.


-.
. (1958; . Geworgyan 2010),
: hmbrym ,
, hay : hay hmbrym
().
70, 80, 90 , . 6., .

2.
(Beylan, 400 ) , (Atk, 300 ), (Sovolux, 200 ),
(Nargezlig), (Gyozalli), (Soani),
. . (1953; 1955; 1958). , k-:
g. 3-
di.
kardam , , grem tesanem

1 .

. . 2 .

kardas

g garts

gres

g kris

tesanes

g disnus

3 .

karday

g gart

gr

g kr

tesan

g disnu

1 .

kardamk

g gartnk

gremk

g krinky

tesanemk

g disnunk

tesank

g disnuk

tesanen

g disnun

3 .

kardayk

g gartk

kardan

g gartn

grk

g krik

gren

g krin

tesanem

g gartm

g krim

kardam

. . 2 .

grem

g disnum

kardayi

g garti di

gri

g kri di

tesani

g disni di

. . 2 .

1 .

kardayir

g gartr di

grir

g krir di

tesanir

g disnir di

3 .

kardayr

g gartr

grr

g krr

tesanr

g disnr

1 .

kardayak

g gartink di grak

g krink di tesanak

g disnink di

. . 2 .

kardayik

g gartik di

grik

g krik di

tesanik

g disnik di

3 .

kardayin

g gartin di

grin

g krin di

tesanin

g disnin di

gartm . . kardam . .
a : aman > am, ardar > artr, beran
> prn, ca > j. g
: . gartm , . kardam . g b / bd : g
gartm b / bd gartm () .

. . ( )

351

II (I-III)
(- ; . Kilikiayi) - .
(. I). XI . 195 .
, ( , (. ),
, , , , (. ) . .) . , .
1915 .,
, .
110 , .
: Aayan 2003 ( ), Galustean 1934
( ), Gasparyan 1966 (). : Mlik
Dawitpk 1896 (), Maksudeanc 1911 (). .
(2003) , .
a >
(. 4., ). r > y, > r.

anarat

anayd

anayd

au

au

aru

aa

ar

aracem

ayjil

ayjel

arew

ayiv

ayev

gooz

guz

grz

erk

iyg

iyg

erek-oy/-un

iygn

iyigun
1

paaw

bab

barb

erek

iyik

ek2

: 1. bab v > b, . 4., .


2. . ek .-. k,
. . . k/k .

k-. k , : g g-anum
, g g-ani () . ,
: g anum , g-dim < . utem , g-sim
< . asem . : g-anum
, g-udim , g-isim -

352

. : g ganum (); , , .

kardam , grem

. .

. .

. .

. .

.
1 .
g gaytm grem
2 .
g gayts
gres
3 .
g gayt
gr
1 .
g gaytnk gremk
2 .
g gaytk grk
3 .
g gaytn gren

1 . kardayi
g gayti
gri
2 . kardayir g gaytiy
grir
3 . kardayr
g gayty
grr
1 . kardayak g gaytnk grak
2 . kardayik g gaytik grik
3 . kardayin g gaytin
grin

kardam
kardas
karday
kardamk
kardayk
kardan

.
g kyim
g kyis
g ky/
g kyink
g kyk
g kyin
g kyi
g kyiy
g kyy
g kynk
g kyik
g kyin

: 1 . . . . -nk . -a- (. 6., ).

:
ator () > . dy, . dr, . adr;
anrdi , > . anyda , .
anrdi, anirdi;
aasta > . aysdx, . asdax, . astu;
kokoim (.) .
gal , , ;
hiw > . hu;
sawsi > . . susa;
karayr > . kyy , . kyy .
( ): alik , ap , dastion .
, , , , ,
(-) ( -):
kor ( , VII . ); - (, , ,
), - (, );
parxar ( pa(r)xrci, XIII .), ; .,
. barxar, . baxr/yca id;
pii ( , , . .),
, , .

. . ( )

353

,
.

3.
(, , Han, . ) 3 .
1791 ., 7 . 1890- ., 12 . 1915 . . (1966),
15 . (70 . .), 150
. : (ar) (500 ), (Gara-kyoy, 160 ) ., 100 . .

4. -
. (1884) (Zeytun, . ): 1000 -, 70 , 50 -, 2530 . 1890-
1500 , 80 .
(Gasparyan 1966).

III
(, ; . Pokr Asiayi)
( ), , , , -, -, ( ), , ,
, , , -, , , .

5.
(. karno brb) .
(. ; Karin, rzrum) .
(Erznka), (, Sper), (Basen), (Kars), (Baberd)
. - ,
1828 ., (Axalcxa), (Axalkalak) . . ,
(J avaxk)
.
: H. Mkrtyan 1952; Tomson 1887 (); Hakobyan 1974
(); : Srvanjtyanc 1982 (, , (Kiskim), ); Zatikyan 1992, 2000 ().
k-. :
b ( ), b, p, p. h-, .

354

, -i, . . . -n -c-n: gini ,


. . . ginu, . . . gin-c-n. -c . . . .
-eac (. ). . 6., .

5. ()
() XIX . - ( ),
(Xot(o)rur) ( (iapa), (Krman), (Kisak), -
(Miin-ta), (X(a)ndajor), (Suninc, ), (Kam(u)xut),
(Vahna), (Keut-Cucula), (Aregi), (Masrut), (Gorganc, Agrak)) (), , ,
. 8080 -. , , . .
: Baramyan 1976; Kostandyan 1985, Geworgyan T.G. 1979; : Hulunean 1964.
. . (1951), . (1976)
. (1987) . . (1911)
. . (1985). .
. . (2007) - (. ).
: jn
soa , takn xaayin .
ku, . e- 3 . . . : y-ber , y-dir , . 6., .
, : , y-, r > y.
, ., unim
(kerac unim ) t , , (. ta/t)
.

6.
(apin-Garahisar) (Acpter). . : Xaatryan 1985;
: Tvltean 1954; : Srvanjtyanc 1982.
g: g sirm () , g-rtam ()
. dar / d < *tar / t (
) : g-sim dar () , g-ham d
() . . . g g-anum () , . g-rtam gr
() .
e i : het > hid, te > di.

. . ( )

355

7.
(. ) 45 ( ). . (Brgnik) . . . / 1021 .
: Aaean 1911; : Gabikean 1952.
1650 . ,
() . : Dankoff 1983; Weitenberg 1984.
,
.
:
h-: agi > hagi;
ay > a: gayl > gal, mayr > mar;
tr > yy: ktrel > gyyl, manr > *mantr > mayy.
k > yh: gognoc > gyhnc, erek > iryh, vank >
vayh, papag/k > papayh.
: sirm g , g-rtam g ;
: brm gr (), g-udyi gr ( );
: 1 . . . grcank () .

8.
(; Tokat, Ewdokia) . . (1911) , (. ) ( ) .
: Gazanean 1899; Aaean 1911; Alpyaean 1952.
sirem . 6., .
kor, : g-udim gr (), g bryi gr
() ( ).
: . harsnik, . harsnc < . harsan-i-k, .
harsan-e-a-c ; . .

9. -
(; Marzvan) (Amasia).
. (1911) , (1951) . .
- .
. (1911), ga: grm
ga (), g-rtam ga (). , , (1951)
. nstim ga / g-rtam ga () , ,
.
3- -v: karda-v (Tumayean 1930). . , -

356

. (arampa). . . -nvr (aik-nvr ) . . -v-nr , . ot-v-nr .

10. -

1236 . 1475 . . ().
XVII . , . , 1779 ., ,
- (Nor-Naxiewan; --, --) (altr), (Topti), - (Pokr-Sala), (Mec-Sala), , ( 1785 ., ). 12 . ., 5500 . , 2800 . (Qarasubazar; ), , . .
- -, , , . . (1925)
: 11.683 . ( 3000,
2889, 2235, 1115 . .), 30.342 . - ( 8839, 6330, 5984, 3350, --
2191), 1495 . ( 354, 341,
(Kirman) 315 . .). 43 520 ., 40 . .
.
: Aaean 1925; : Jalayan 2012; Patkanean 1870; :
1875, Tigranean 1892, Porkeyan 1971; : Schtz
1980, Weitenberg 1997.
. (1925; 1953), ( . ), , .
-r- > --: . erek > .-. k; . . ek
. k/k .
: k(i)-sirim , g lsim , . . . 6., .
. . -k < . . . . -awk: bern-k .
70, 80, 90 , . 6., .
, , -um: rgus-um , k-um , rs-um . . . (1911,
1925) -um (. ahr-om ), , , . (1953), -um , . . y-etnerord-um amseann .
-um , , . -(u)m
-i/ni: . rkum-ni
, irik-m-ini . .; . rku-m-ini , irk-m-ini .

. . ( )

357

11.
. (. Polis
interdialect), ,
, , , , , , .
. (. , . Polis, Kostandnuplis)
1475 . 150 .
. 1930- 50 . . , , 60 . , 5 . . (Svazlyan 2000).
: Aayan 1941; 1902.
: g sirm , g-rtam ; : g-rtam gr ().
70, 80, 90 , . 6., .
. .
(odosto, . ) . (Kamax) 1606
1607 .. . (1951).
. , , , : b/g/d > p/k/t; bd(), bdr.
. . (1951), (, Zmyunia) ,
. (Manisa), (Gasapa), (Paynr), - (Grgaa).
,
.
. . (1951),
, . (Ordu), .
k g y : loganal () > lynal, namak mi > namay m . .
: badmim gr () ; 1 .
. . -(c)ank: sank () , mnacank () ; . . un
tun : unan, dunan; ( ): -m dsr m () .
.
(Trapizon, . ), (Kmxan) (Kirason);
.
. (1911; 1951),
.
: sirim gu , g-uzim ; : sirim
r () , g-anim r () . g,
.

358

. . (1951) , - ,
(. , Nikomedia) (Adapazar),
, . (Yalova), (
. ), , (Keyve) (enkiler).
.
yr.
.
(Partizak, . ), : 639 (1832),
10.500 . ( ); (vak; 500 ). , (Laz hayer), . . : (Tnkl; 75 ); (amavayr, . Kilise-Tz; 40 ); (Zakar-giw; 65 ); (Manuak, Mnm; 30 ). ,
XVII .
, , , , -
.
: Tr-Yakobean 1960.

12.
(SivriHisar; ) XVII .
1876 . 28003000 .
, .,
1915 .
, , : Tr-Yovhannsean 1965;
N. Mkrtyan 1995, 2006.
. , .
, : . erek > . k/k
.-. k (. . ek), . harsanik > .-. . hanik (. . hanik, . hanik . ., . Martirosyan 2010).
. (Stanoz; ) XIV .
, (Ankyuria, Angora) . , : tean-Gasbarean 1968. :
N. Mkrtyan 2006.
(g-rtam kar ), , .
: g-rtayi kar () .

12. - ()
- . (Yozgat) (, Gamirk) .

. . ( )

359

. . . , (k-k-k)
(sirim ka) ,
. : N. Mkrtyan 2006; :
Temuryan 1970.

13.
(. ; Kyurin, Grn)
. , . .
. .

14.
. (Slz, Syolyoz) ,
. k-,
. . . . .

15.
(Malatia; 10 .
1890- ., 15 . ) .
(Adyaman, --, Hyusnimansur; 3 . 1915 .).
. , , .
: Danielyan 1967, (Nor Malatia), . , , : Alpoyaean 1961.
: g/k/k > k/g/k, . : -oy- > -o-: loys > ls, koyr > kr; -iw- > --:
jiwn > cn ( . , cn), siwn > sn.
: sirim a , prim a , g-rtam a , g-rtaya .
. , k-, ha . g
/ (g prim . .), .
k- (h)a-.
.-. boyl-k (< . boyl )
prk, b > p oy > . l > r .
, , . boyl ,
. brs , . bris , ,
.-. *br, . . biri .
: akk ast ,
agi -k < . . . -awk, . agewor ast ; po : .
poov ast < , . puaver < .

360

16.
(Kesaria; . )
XIV ., . 1471 .
. - XVII .
(, , .), .
: Antosyan 1961; : Grigorean et al. 1963.
: ga sirm , ga sirs ; ga g-anum . .
, : i kam
girm , i kas girs .

17. -
(Xarberd, . ), (Erznka, . ), (Balu), (apaur, .
), (mkacag), (Ki), (Kamax),
(arsanak). . .
: Baramyan 1960 (); Tr-Vardanean 1968 (, ); Kostandyan 1979 (), 1982 (), Sargisean 1932 (, );
: Halayan 1973 Gasparyan 1979 (/);
Srapean 1960 (), Srvanjtyanc 1982; Zatikyan 1992 (, .).
:
-ay- > --: mayr > mr, payt > pd;
-iw- > -i-: ariwn > arin, eiwr > axir;
-oy- > -o-: loys > ls, koyr > kr.
-a- 1 . . .
-ank < . -ak, -inky,
(. 6., ).
/ :
ator > . adr, . dy, . dr;
nu > . nu, . n;
uem , > . vil, . vl , .

18.
(Aslanbeg, Arslanpk,
. Aslanbey), . 4
. . , . , , .
: Aaean 1898; Vaux 2001b.
6 , . //, // (< o) // (< u). : ampa-n (.) > mpn. o > a:
gom > gam. : anjrew > rzv,
anael > gnal, an m > a m, tanj m > ds m.

. . ( )

361

hy: g sirim hy ,
g siri hy () ( - ).

19.
. (Akn, , . )
. 11 . . (2000 ),
. 1886 . ( ) 12 700 ., 5507 . ( )
/ 1021 ., .
: Maxudianz 1911; Gabrilean 1912; Maksudeanc 1910 (
). . Vaux 1993.
, a : anali >
nli, an > n . . (. 4., ). tanjr , > trz(), . . tarz, . . tarz, . . tnjr. -y- -h: ah > ayh, mah > mayh.
-a- 1 . . . -ank < . -ak (. 6.,
).

20.
1890- . (Arabkir) 20 . .,
9 . . 4200 .
3035 . ., 20 . . . , (. ), ( ) . .
, .
Dawit-Bk 1919; .
Polatean 1969; : Baxtikean 1934.
: sirim gu , g-rtam ga / g g-rtam ; :
g-rtam ()n (). . (1958) , (h)a.
-k (jk-k ) -awk, a-.

IV (I-III-VI)
(, - ) .

21.
: , homecma, . Hameni, . Hemince. (, ;
. Heminli ). / (Hamn)

362

VII ., . / . XV . .
XVIIXVIII .
, XX . .
.
(-; Heminli) ( 1520 . 1975 . Andrews 1989), -, ,
Armeni, kaln kaburgal Ermeni
.
(Blsing 1992, 1995).
/ (-; Hmci) ( 24 . . 1975 .),
,
( , ) -;
(Homencik, . Hmnci, . Hameci) ,
(-) .
, , , XVII . .
(), , , .
: Aayan 1947, . Vaux 2001a; 2007; Blsing 2003,
Hamn 2007, Hovannisian 2009, Chirikba 2008 (); : Haykuni 1892;
Dumzil 1964, 1965, 1967, 198687; Gurunyan 1991; S. Vardanyan 2009.
..
, , .
a > o : amis > mis , ban > pn . .,
: tavan > tavn . . 4., .
, e i .
, , ,
,
.
, ( Gazanean 1899
) (.
).

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

a-k
a-ac / -ic
harsan-i-k
harsan-e-a-c
m/u/iru-k
m/u/iru-a-c

.
ak
ai (< -ic)
haysnik
haysnc
miruk
mirvac

.
ak
aic
harsnik
harsnc
mruk
mrvac

.
v
c (< -ac)
haysnk
haysnic
muyuk
muyvic

. . ( )

363

. . . astxk/k
. . . . astek (. . ast), . . . . astc aste-a-c
. . . . . -c < . . . -eac: . ganc < .
kaneac, . . . kani . , ,
-i, . . . -n -c-n: dsxi , . . . dsx-u, .
. . dsx-c, . . . dsx-cn. . ic, , .
. 6., .
.
-, -(V)l, ,
-u (, ): berel pru, ertal tu . .
-,
: brim uni g-uni , bry g-uni .
3- (ys gu , tun gu . .), (im/ims gu , kug(d) gu . .).
-a- 1 . . . -ayk < . -ak (. 6.,
). -a- 1-
(. ). , , e- 3 . . . , , (. , 6., ).

. .

xaaci

sirci

1 .

baci

2 .

bacer

bacar

pacir

xaacir

sircir

3 .

e-bac

bacaw

pacaw, -pac

xaac

sirc

1 .

bacak

bacak

pacak

xaacak

sircak

back, -ik

bacayk

pacik

xaacik

sircik

bacin

bacan

pacin

xaacin

sircin

. . 2 .
3 .

bacay

paci

ast- asu
, . -t-.
, , ., xaaci
xaci , / -t-. . .
3 . . . asac .
.

364

asu

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

asaci
asacer
asac
asacak
asack, -ik
asacin

*asci
*ascer
*as(a)c-aw (.)
*ascak
*asck, -ik
*ascin

.
as-t-i
as-t-ir
as-t-av
as-t-ak
as-t-ik
as-t-in

.
asci, assi
ascir, assir
asc, asc
ascink, assink
ascik, assik
ascin, assin

, :
analut > nlut , makamirg > mamurk, mawru > mru ,
tawsax-i > dsxi.
. (2007), , .
-- .

22.
(, . ; Edesia,
Uha, Urfa) .
. (aribyan 1958; Haneyan 1982) .
ha k. . ,
(h)a , g: krm a g krm a ().
(h)a ( ) : g
krm. ,
g() a: g-assm a (). . , ,
: g-krm g-krm a.
, k-, ha-.

kardam , grem ( aribyan 1958)

. .

. .

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

kardam
kardas
karday
kardamk
kardayk
kardan

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

kardayi
kardayir
kardayr
kardayak
kardayik
kardayin

gartam a
grem
gartas a
gres
garta ya
gr
gartank a
gremk
gartak a
grk
gartan a
gren

gartayi ya
gri
gartayir a
grir
gartar a
grr
gartayink a
grak
gartayik a
grik
gartayin a
grin

.
krm a
krs a
kr ya
krnk a
krk a
krn a
.
kri ya
krir a
krr a
krink a
krik a
krin a

. . ( )

365

u : cu > ju, nun > nu . . , dun


> . t, . t, , , o- .-. *dhuor-.

V (III-VI)
(, (< . Ardeal < . Erdly ), --, . : -; . Ateali) ( .
23). : , , (
) ( (, Hayakaak),
(Lisabetupolis) .). 1885 . . (. )
1400 , 500 . -, . .
, XIII .
,
1064 . (1980) ,
. Kabzan .
: Hanusz 18871889; Aayan 1953; Pisowicz 2003.
. :
, , z-; .
harsaneac (. . . harsani-k ) > . harsnic, . harsnecn (.
); . dustr, . dster > dusdr, . dsder.
. 6., . , , -um: rgus-um , irk-um
, rs-um . .
2 . . . . -r > -s , .

sirem

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

sirem
sires
sir
siremk
sirk
siren

.-.
ki-sirim
ki-siris
ki-sir
ki-sirink
ki-sirik
ki-sirin

.
gi sirim
gi siris
gi sir
gi sirink
gi sirik
gi sirin

siri
sirir
sirr
sirak
sirik
sirin

.-.
ki-siryi
ki-siryir
ki-sirr
ki-siryink
ki-siryik
ki-siryin

.
gi siri
gi siris
gi sirr
gi sirink
gi sirik
gi sirin

: 1. sirem g .-.
ki. 2. (sireci )
+ : siril im.

VI -
- (-, -) , -, .
, .

366

24.
(. Mo barba) -
. , .
(Mu/Taron), (), ,
, , , , (Bulanx/Hark)
. . -
- . , . .
.
: 1875.2, 1897; 1901; BadasaryanTapalcyan 1958; Tarnean 1961 (, ); Madatyan 1985 (:
/); : Srvanjtyanc 1982 (); Yovspeanc 1892
(); Melikean 1964 (); Baramyan 1972 ( ); Zatikyan 1992
(, . .); Petoyan 1954.
: b ( ), b, p, p. . h- (, ) x, .
h- [], , < y-.
: k sirim , k-aam .
: . z- / i /y-; : m mr tan . .
.
: : yrp is ker is? ?;
1- : yes kuznk
; -uk: kotr-uk .

26. 25. -
, . XIX . 20 . , 35 . 15 . . (Gelieguzan) 200 (350 ).
( 15 . .), , . . , , . . (
) - (Talvorik-Motkan, ) .
: Petoyan 1954; : Petoyan 1954; 1965; Kalantar
1895; Karapetyan 1962.
: g/k/k > k/g/k. : g sirm , g-rtam . 1 . . .: mk g-uzk . z-. -in: m-in ,
ku-in , tan-in .

. . ( )

367

27.
() . (; Diarbekir, Amid), 45 . .
.
: (-), , , ,
. 1970- . 150 .
: Aaean 1911 ( () ); Haneyan 1978; : Srvanjtyanc 1982.
: g/k/k > k/g/k.
.
v > b, . 4., .
-: . harsani-k (. .), .-. harsane-a-c >
. . . hrsnik, . hrsnic ( . ). . . pnik (< . baan-i-k):
.
.-.
.
.

. .
pnik
pnic / pnk-i
pnc- / pnk-n
pnk-v

. .
pnk-nir
pnik-nr-u(n)
pnik-nr-(n)
pnk-nr-v

: ln/lnn (. lean,
. i len-); mn/mn , (. am, ., ., . amu, . i am); cc-/c-k-n (. jen, . i jean-, . . je-k, . i je-a-c);
mn/mnn: kur
mn , : kuris mnn (. koyr, . i ke-, . kr-o).
: mn/n (. , . ioy/iu,
. y-ioy), an mn/an/nn (. un, . an, . . . i anc).
mn (mn prim ),
, bd < piti (br / mr).
: -im dsir im ( ).
. targal -r- , . trkyl.
70, 80, 90 , . 6., .

VII (VI-VIII)
() .

28.
(Moks). , - (Ozim) .

368

XIX . 400 . 1890 . 80 . ., 19101912 . 190 .


( ). 19111912 .
179 380 79 760 . . :
313 322 , 130 500 . . (. Karayan 2000). 1914 . 41 . ., 23 . (Sahakyan 1995).
118 554 ( 19111912 .,
. Orbeli 2002). 20 . .
: Adjarian 1903 . (); Aaean 1911; 1952; M. Muradyan
1962 (); M. Muradyan 1982 (); Baramyan 1972 ( ),
Orbeli 2002 ( ). aribyan 1953; N. Hovsepyan
1966; Arewikyan 1967; : Kaycoik 1899.
. (1982) 72 , , , ,
. . .
, . .
. rtr ( . rtr) < *artr < . ardar,
artr.
z- , : z-ca ktric (/) ; z-la hrxkic (/) . -a: Vn
, . . . i Vanay. : . ce, . ceac . jen, . . jen-k, . jen-a-c
. 70, 80, 90 ,
(. 6., ).
. (1952), -ic -

.
. , y- , .
a- . h-, . - . ha-.
V . .

29.
(Diyadin), . XIX . 15
, 156 (Zatikyan 1992; 2002). 18291830 .
() - . .
: Aaean 1911; 1951; Baramyan 1972. . , . .
:

. . ( )

369

u : . lu > . lu (. . l, .
l); ju > . ju (. . c, . c);
. oy > . u: . loys > . lus (. . ls, . ls); toyl
> . tul (. . tl, . tl);
. b/g/d > . b/g/d, . . p/k/t;
. > . a, . . . i.


VIII -
- (-, )
( 30), (. . ) (. , , . ) .
- , , XIII ., . 1828 . : ,
. 368 , 1920 . 200. : , , , .
: Aaean 1911; aribyan 1939; 1953; Asatryan 1962; Aaean 1926.
l-: zl m , tl m
(); zeli im , amnal yim ().
-s, 3 . . . -l: mnas m , mnal
i / . . .
r , 3- -s.

grem

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

.
grem
gres
gr
gremk
grk
gren

.
kirs m
kirs s
kirl i
kirs nk
kirs ky
kirs n

.
kirs m r
kirs s r
kirs r
kirs nk r
kirs ky r
kirs n r

.
gyirlis m / gyirli ym
gyirlm s
gyirlim i
gyirlm ank
gyirlm ak
gyirlm an

ti (< piti): ti kirm , tiki / tik.



: m1 ci2 pnnkt3 1 3 3 2. , . . ddam-at .

IX -
(-) , , , - .

370

31. ()
.. . , , , (). , .
: Asatryan 1968 (), Badasaryan-Tapalcyan 1973 ( ), Kapancjan 1975 ( ), Markosyan 1989; Nawasardean 1903 ().
um (sir/um m ) . g/k/k ; b/g/d .
oy iw u (., ) i: loys > lus / lis, koyr
> kur / kir; ariwn > arun / arin, jiwn > jun / jin.
-ic . .
pti (< piti) , ,
: pti aam / aal (p)tm .
, ( ), , , .

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

.
berem
beres
ber
beremk
berk
beren

brm m
brm s
brm a
brm nk
brm k
brm n

.
beri
berir
berr
berak
berik
berin

1
bri
brir
brr
brink
brik
brin

2
brm i
brm ir
brm r
brm ink
brm ik
brm in

3- :
ber-uc -ber / (). . e-ber.

32.
( Jucevar) . . (1940), 2 .
. . - ( ) (Spahan) ( 2500 ).
160506 , , - ( ),
,
( ). - ,
(Peria) . 1910 . - 25
12 083 . .

. . ( )

371

- . . , 41 . ,
4 . -. . , - 2,5 . ,
3485 .
: Aaean 1940; : Eremean 1923 (),
1930 ( ).
: sirum am (.), lalman am (.).
, .
i arman (ar-umn ), *i
lalman em .
. h > x, .
, . (1997).
:
. . -k : tnami-k ;
. anem , 1 . . . . ar-ar-i > .-. () ael, . arari,
arar, ararink;
. katarel-oc em (.) > .-. () katarelc m.
. yorsays, yorsayseal , , *(y)orsay: hsa ngnel
< *yorsay ankan- (. yorsayseal ankeal
), hsang tal id. < *yors-ank-.

33.
. (. ; . Bayazet) . - 18281829 .
. - ( , 1996 . ) . . ,
. .
: Baramyan 1972; : Srvanjtyanc 1982; Zatikyan
1992.
:
b g d;
h > x: hac > xac;
: katu-n- ;
: yes em uzum em , es berum es? ?;
-er, .

34.
() ( - ; - ; Parskahay), (, (zlar), ) (Atrxan) (Aaean 1911; 1940; 1951).
XVIII ., 1785 . 360 ,
1852 . 8460 ., 1965 . 4000 . (Geworgyan 1980).
XII . 1820- . 434 ,

372

1905 . 86 500 ., 1975 . 200 . . (aziyan, Vardanyan 2004).


1980- . .
.
(ay > , iw/oy > u, . .) , (ju > cu, ur
> ur ), . i u
, . tu-i (. tu < . dun ). ,
, . . -k : katu-k-v .
asm m . kalis a
/ talis a / kam a tam a, . : -iim, -iir, -r, -iink, -iik, -iin.
1- (asm im / iim ) -m
(asm m ).

35. -
. ,
. .
: g/k/k. ,
, , . -()mn.
-(n)ir, -(n)r-: . div-ir , . div-r-u, . .
. (. ; . Tpxis, Tiflis) . XX . VIVII .
: Petermann 1867b; Tomson 1890; Aaean 1913.
e o : es > yis, orb >
vurp; i u, : te
> ti, nor > nur; berel > bril, govel > gvl.
oy iw u: loys > lus, koyr > kur; ariwn
> arun, jiwn > jun.
: sirum im ku sirim .
. - (1200 : 230 970 ), (Artanu; 230
), (Tanjut) (Noran; 130
), (Olti, Votik) - ( 280 , 100 ). ,
, , . . (Chirikba 2008).
: Aaean 1911; aribyan 1939; 1953; Alaverdyan 1968a; 1968b.
, .
: ra < vra < veray : kari-ra ; - grs a !.
-lis: sirlis im , mnalis im
. -s : yis im xsli . ,
-k.

. . ( )

373

X (IX-XI) -
- (--)
, , -, , ,
.

36.
. . . ,
. (, . Mehtien, Lusajor) ,
. Aabekyan 2010; .
Davtyan 1966.

37.
(; arabai, Arcaxi) ..
() .
140 . , 140 . . (
-, -).
20 . ., 16 . , , , . .
: Aaean 1899, Davtyan 1966 ( ); Vartapetjan 1962, Margaryan 1975 (); aribyan 1939, Davtyan 1966 ();
aribyan 1939, Poosyan 1965, Davtyan 1966 (); :
Aabekyan 2010; : Barxutareanc 1895/1995; Lisicyan 1969; .
Davtyan 1966.
, .
prpl . borb- ,
*berb-. . kl . gil , . gael
, . *ge-.
um-: srm m, . sirum m
. , , s-: mnayis m
mnas m .
. 1 . . . yk, 2 . . . ykr, 3 . . . yk, . ., . yk
. ek- ( gam): 1 . . . eki,
2 . . . ekir, 3 . . . ekn, 3 . . . ekin, . ., . ek.
. te-an (. tr < *ti-ayr , ), .
. tn.
. . . . -awk: . ck < . je-a-w-k
.
. . . erkokin/erkokean erekin/erekean
. rkkan /irkan .

374

37. - ()
,
. 1946 . 23
( (, Xanagah), (D(i)zmar), (Noraen), (a), (la), (Urgutun) .), 4128 688 .
1970 . . (1965) ,
(. arada) ( ).
: aribyan 1953; H. Petrosyan 1987. , : H. Hovsepyan 2009.
- . . ,
. , -
, .
-: . sirilis m . siriyis m .

38. -
( ()
) - ,
: (. azax), (. , . Ganjak), ,
.
: Meunc 1989 ().
um-: . srm m.

39.
. (Kzen) , .
. (1961) 50 30 .
, .
, b/d/g , , .
: aas m . m aali . , .

aprel

. .

. .

1 .
2 .
3 .
1 .
2 .
3 .

1
aprs m
aprs s
aprs /i
aprs nk
aprs k
aprs n

2
ys m aprli
d ys aprli
na yi aprli
mnk nk aprli
dk k aprli
nhnk n aprli

apryi
apryir
aprr
apryink
apryik
apryin

: ,
, .

. . ( )

375

-akan, . piti > (bi)di, : gyiri d-m ys d-m gyiri(l) . ,


, 3 .
. . e- (. 6., ).
-n: sar-n .

40.
(-) (. ), : (Havarik), (Kandak), (Xanavad), (Mazuru), (Are,
Ara, . ), (Mmtava). 1897 .
13.822 (21% ).
: Tr-Posean 192122; Aaean 1951; Lusenc 1982.
; .-. b/d/g .
-lm ( < -l+um), 1-
, -li(s): 1 . . . sirlis
m/sirli ym, 2 . . . sirlm s, 3 . . . sirlim i, . - . -lm
: gyirlm y , gyirlm yr , gyirlm r
/ () . . ,
k-: gnal ym, gnalcuk um,
gnalakn m .

41.
() . (amaxi, ) , , (Madrasa), (), , (Ermeni-kend,
).
: Aaean 1911; Baramyan 1964.
awo/ > /: aawt > at, knkawor
> knkr, harkawor > harkr. : i : mis , > ms, mitk
> mtk/k, sirt > srt.
: sirm m , mnam am .
s-: kyiris m , mna(y)s m . ,
, 3 . . . e- (. 6., ). as- . .
: . bal , > . pl , .
*ayg-ho-k ayg
ho . , : inknah
knaho. ink(n)
+ -a- + ho kun + -a- + ho , .

376

42.
. (Burdur)
- . , , XVII . .
: N. Mkrtyan 1971; : N. Mkrtyan 2006.
: sirum m , mnum m .
:
. : oski > .
vski, . vski;
f, ;
. i : hing > . hing, . hngy;
. u : ut > . ut, . t;
. ho- ( ) > . f/u-, . v: . ho > .
fu, . v, . hot > . fd, . vt;
. -n : mukn > . muk, . mkn;
nsta, ;
: . -av, . -v;
r(i) iv, ;
-acuk -akan;
: . kartum i, . kartum m idi () .

XI -
- ()
.

43.
.
(Gotn), - (). 1904 .
7356 , 6146 . .
- (Verin-Agulis, . -; 2205 .), (Cna, . ; 963 .), - (Nerkin-Agulis, . -; 739 .) .
.
z()krn (zok-eren) zok, , z-(h)k, . hk .
: Petermann1867a; Sargseanc 1883 (12); Aaean 1935; : Zakaryan 2008.

, , , . b/d/g
. : syrm m , n-tam m
(n- , ), xslis m , .
tsns m .

. . ( )

377

:
. a > : akn > kn, hast > hst, hac
> hc, mah > mh (. 4., ).
. i > ay: cica > cyc, sirel > syril, spitak >
spytak, cin > cayn.
, :
. akn > kn;
. aac > aac;
. zgenul > sknil (. . knal
);
. cin > cayn.
. myruk ( . mruk)
*miruk, . mawruk. miruk, mrk.
, :
. cyn . cungn , . kaxc . katn , .
yns . us .

44.
( ) .
. (Meri; 1400 . 18801900- .)
XX . ( , , , ) . .
, : , , , (Oohi), (Mesropavan).
: aribyan 1939, Aayan 1954 (); aribyan 1939,
H. Muradyan 1960 (), H. Muradyan 1967 ().
: siris im , mnas im (.);
siry im / im sirs (.); xmm m , sm m ; mnyis im
mnlis im (.).
. . . erkokin/erkokean erekin/erekean
. rkkn . irikyn ( ). . . erkocun
. . yrkunc. k
c: rkcun rkkn-u.
. vtli (< .-. aftl )
, ,
-t-, -- -k : . tauk . rtuk.
,
, .-. iftlg <ptlwg>.


, . (Ayntap, Anteb) . -

378

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: aasta > asda, baar > baa,
gerezman > gezman, potorik > potra;
: poxnord > porxont.

.. : . . . . . , 1962.
.. // , 1962, 2.
.. -
. , 1975, . 2.
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i . ii. . 2, . 1: i
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.. .
,
. , 1976.
.. . ,
2002, . 2.
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