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CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDIES


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Project Report on :-

DESIGN OF
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

-: PREPARED BY :-
JAIN. NIKHIL. R.

(MEMBER. PROJECT GROUP)

-: GUIDE :-

PROF B. K. SAMTANI

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

S V REGIONALCOLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING5 TECHNOLOGY
SURAT - 395 007. (GUJARAT)

.. 1998 - 99
DEPARTMENT OF CIVILENGINEERING

SARDAR VALLABHBHAI REGIONAL COL~EGE


OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
SURAT - 395007

CERTIFICATE

s s ~o certify that the project, entitled "Design of Water Distribution

5.; s:e"" has been prepared by~. v/(2iJd. /.!C. Roll. No. 26 ,a final

J ear student of Civil Engineering, during the year 1998-99, as a partial fulfillment of the

'"'90_'"'e,...entfor the award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Civil Engineering of

SOUTH GUJARAT UNIVERSITY, SURAT. His work has been found to be satisfactory.

3JIDED BY:
~ HEADrfEPARTMENT
~
,,::
_'
'<--- ' '"-
"'I
~1/~ v'y'-
. Prof B. K. Samtani) ( Dr. B. K. Kaiti)
Acknowledgment

Right from the procurement of material to the clearing of conceptual difficulties,

we cannot withhold our sincerest thanks to Prof. B.K Samtanil Civil Engineering

department, SVRCE~ Surat, without whose invaluable guidance and

cooperation the project would not have been accomplished

we would also like to thank Dr.B.K.Katti, Prof. and Head, Civil Engg.

Department, whose support and encouragement are transparent in the work it In~

self.

PROJECT GROUP ROLL NO.

-:';:'~.!I!i.~:.'«Io~":'~--"---"-iiJ!('
INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION 2

2.1 Gravity System 2


2.2 Pumping System 3
2.3 Dual System 3

3.. LAYOUT OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 4

3.1 Dead end or Tree System 4


3.2 Grid iron System 5
3.3 Circular System 5
3.4 Radial System 6

4. PRESSURE IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 8

5. VALVES AND FITTINGS 11

6. DESIGN OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 15

6.1 Manual Design 15

6.1.1 Design of Pipe Lines 15


6.1.2 Analysis & Design of Pipe Network 16

6.2 Software Design 19

6.2.1 Software Details 19


6.2.2 Input and Output Files 19

7. CONCLUSION 29

REFERENCES 30
--

1. INTRODUCTION

After complete treatment of water, it becomes necessary to distribute it to

a number of houses, estates, industries and public places by means of a

network of distribution system. The distribution system consists of pipes of

various sizes, values, meters, pumps etc. The following are the

"equirements of a good distribution system.

1 ) It should convey the treated water upto the consumers with the

same degree of purity.

(2) The water should reach to every consumer with the repaired

pressure head.

(3) Sufficient quantity of treated water should reach for the domestic

and industrial use.

(4) It should be economical and easy to maintain and use.

\5) It should be able to transport sufficient quantity of water during

emergency such as fole fighting etc.

(6) During repair work, it should bot cause obstruction to the traffic.

(7) It should be safe against any future pollution.

(8) The quantity of pipes laid should be good and it should not trust.

(9) It should be water tight and the water losses due to leakage should

be minimum as for as possible.

1
2. TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

For efficient distribution it is required that water should reach to every

consumer with repaired rate of how. Depending upon the methods of

distribution, the distribution system is classified as follows:

(i) Gravity System

(ii) Pumping System

(iii) Dual System on Combined Gravity and Pumping System.

2.1 Gravity System


When some ground sufficiently high above the city area is available, this

can be best utilized for the distribution system in maintaining pressure in

water pipes. The water flows in the mains due to quaitational force. As no

pumping is repaired, there fore it is the most reliable system for the

distribution of water.

The water head available at the consumers door is just minimum required

and the remaining head is consumed in frictional and other losses.

Fig. 2.1 of Gravity System of Distribution

. 2.
2.2 Pumping System
In this system water is directly pumped in the mains. The maintenance

cost is high. High lift pumps are required and their operations are

continuously watched. If the power fails, the whole supply of the town will

be stopped. Therefore stand bye diesel pumps should be kept.

Fig. 2.2 of Pumping System of Distribution

CLE~R \YATER
RI: S fR VOIR

23 DualSystem
This is also known as combined gravity and pumping system. In the

beginning when demand is small the water is stored in the elevated

reservoir, but when demand increases the rate of pumping, the flow in the

distribution system comes both from the pumping station as well as .

elevated reservoir. As in this system water comes from two sources one

from reservoir and second from pumping station, it is closed dual system.

Fig. 2.3 Dual System of Distribution.


I"'I..U.. DRAfT

"",~T~T~C ~~T:R:~Aj 7
-- ~ -:. -:.:.:.
MAXIMUM
ORAFT~
- -Jt: : : = ~HF
- - - _ _;j

TOW N it
I.
I
I

3
3. LAYOUT OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

There are four different systems of distribution which are used. Depending

upon their layout and direction of supply, they are classified as follows:

(i) Dead End or Tree System

(ii) Grid iron System

(iii) Circular or Ring System

(iv) Radial System

3.1 Dead End or Tree System

Fig. 3.1 Layout of Dead end system

The above figure shows the layout of this system. It is suitable for irregular

developed towns or cities. In this system one main starts from require

reservoir along the main road. Sub mains are connected to the main in

both the directions along other roads which meet the main road. Sub

mains, branches and minor distributors are connected to sub mains.

They are cheap in initial cost. When the pipe breaks down or is closed for

repair the whole locality beyond the point goes without water. It cannot

meet the five demand.

4
3.2 Grid Iron System
BUILDINGS DISTRIBUTOR

MAIN
~

Fig. 3.2 of Layout of Grid Iron System

This system is also known as reticulated system and is most convenient

for towns having rectangular layout of roads. This system is an

improvement or dead end system. All the dead ends are interconnected

and water circulates freely throughout the system. Main line is laid along

the main road. Sub mains are taken in both the directions along other

minor roads and streets. From these sub mains branches are taken out

and are inter connected as shown in figure. This system removes all the

disadvantages of dead end system.

3.3
. WATER MAIN

-+ WATER MAINS-+

Fig. 3.3 of Layout of Circular or Ring System.

5
~,S system can be adopted only in well planned locality of cities. In this

system each locality is divided into square or circular blocks and the water

mains are laid around all the four sides of the square or round the circle.

This system requires many values and more pipe length. This system is

suitable for towns and cities having well planned roads.

3.4 Radial System


BUILDINGS

BUILDINGS

~I
Fig. 3.4 of Layout of Radial System

This system is not adopted in India, because for this system the roads

should be laid out radial from the center. This system is the reverse of ring

system. The entire district is divided into various zones and one reservoir

is provided for each zone. Which is placed in the center of zone.

By considering the advantages and disadvantages of all these systems,

we have found out that grid iron system is most suitable for our site.

Therefore we have adopted grid iron system.

6
-

The advantages of Grid iron system:

;', As water is supplied from both the sides at every point, very small

area will be affected during repair.

(ii) Since water reaches every point from more than one route, the

friction losses and the sizes of the pipes are reduced.

(iii) All the dead ends are completely eliminated, therefore the water

remain in continuous flow and there is no stagnation and chance of

pollution is reduced to minimum.

(iv) In case of fire, more quantity of water can be diverted to wards the

affected area, by closing the valves of nearby localities.

7
..
t

4. PRESSURE IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

When the water enters in the distribution main, the water head

continuously is lost due to friction m pipes,-at-entrance-of-reducers;-due-to

valves, bends, meters etc. till it reaches the consumer's tap. The net

available head at the consumer's tap is the head at the entrance of the

water main minus all the losses in the way. The effective head available at

the service connection to a building is very important, because the height

up to which the water can rise in the building will depend on this available

head only. The greater the head the more will be the height up to which it

will rise. If adequate head is not available at the connection to the building,

the water will not reach the upper storeys (Le. 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc.). to

overcome this difficulty the required effective head is maintained in the

street pipe lines.

The water should reach each and consumer therefore it should reach on

the uppermost storey. The pressure which is required to be maintained in

the distribution system depends upon the following factors:

(1) The height of highest building up to which water should reach

without boosting.

(2) The distance of the locality from the distribution reservoir.

(3) The supply is to be metered or not. Higher pressure will be required

to compensate for the high loss of head in meters.

(4) How much pressure will be required for fire-hydrants.

8
...

J
5 The funds available for the project work.

Sometimes the design pressure is determined from the fire fighting j

requirements. In some cities and towns the fire fighting squads are

equipped with pumping sets fitted on their vehicles for lifting the water at

the site itself. At such places the design pressure may be determined by

the minimum required by the consumers. But in most of towns in India the

people living at 2nd,3rd or 4th storey face lots of difficulties due to non-

supply of water in their storeys. At such places small lifting pumps may be

individually used which directly pump the water in their water lines.

In multistoreyed structures the following pressures are considered

satisfactory :

Up to 3 storeys 2.1 kg/ cnf

From 3 to 6 storeys 2.1 to 4.2 kg/ cnf

From 6 to 10 storeys 4.2 to 5.27 kg/ cnf

Above 10 storeys 5.27 to 7 kg/ cm2

While designing pipes of distribution systems the following points should

be kept in mind :

(i) The main line should be designed to carry 3 times the average

demand of the city.

(ii) The service pipes should be able to carry twice the average

demand.

9
The water demand at various points in the city should be noted.

;v) The lengths and sizes of each pipe should be clearly marked on the

site plan along with hydrants, valves, meters, etc.

(v) The pressure drops at the end of each line should be calculated

and marked.

The minimum velocity in pipe lines should not be less than 0.6 ml sec and

maximum velocity should not be more than 3 ml sec. For best results the

velocities in different pipes should be as follows :

Diameter of pipes velocity


10 cm 0.9 m/sec

15 cm 1.21 ml sec

25cm 1.52 ml sec

40cm 1.82 ml sec

10
5. VALVES AND FITTINGS

Introdu(~n: Valves are required to control the flow of water, to regulate

the pressure to release or to admit air and to prevent flow of water in

opposite direction. In every noses various types of fittings such as taps

bends tees sockets etc. are required for the distribution and forming

network the pipes insides the noses standard specifications for most

commonly used valves are published by Indian standard institution.

(a) Sluice Valve:

These are also known as gate valves and most commonly used in

practice. These valves are cheaper offer less resistance to flow of water

than other valves used for same purposes. Gate valves control the flow of

water through pipes and fixed in main lines bringing water from source

town at 3 to 5 kms intervals thus dividing the pipeline into different

sections. This valve is made of cast iron with bran bronze and stainless

steel. It mainly consist of a wedge shaped circular disc fitted closely in a

recess against the opening in the valve.

Fig. 5.1 Sluice Valve

11
Figure shows the sectional view of a Gate value small sized gate valves

are burled underground, and can be opened from the surface through a

stop box larger valves are operated in under ground chamber and are

opened or closed through searing.

(b) Pressure Relief Valve:

These valves relieve high pressure in pipe lines. Figure illustration such

type of valve which is intended to release excessive pressure that may

build up in a closed pipe. It is essentially consists of a disc controlled by a

springs which can be adjusted for any pressure when the pressure in the

pipe line exceeds the desired pressure, the disc is forced off from its seat

and excessive pressure is relived through cross pipe, after this disc comes

down automatically due to force of spring.

Fig. 5.2 Pressure Relief Valve

12
-

: Check Valve:

--;"ese are also called reflux valves are non return valves and are

a..rtomaticdevices which allow water to flow only in one direction and


prevent it from flowing in reverse direction. The arrow indicates the
direction of flow of water when the water flows the disc rotates round the

hinge and remain in a horizontalplane. The water therefore passes off


without any obstruction now ifthe flow reverses the disc automatically falls

down by rotating round the hinge and remains tightly pressed against the

valve seat buy the pressure of water it self, in this way it does not allow
the water to flow in reverse direction. [Fig. illustrates such type of check

valve]

PIVO T

Fig. 5.3 Check Valve

(d) Air Relief Valve:

When the water enters in the pipe lines, it also carries some air with it in

which tends to accumulate at high points of pipe. These valves consist of

a cast iron chamber bolted on the pipe over the opening in the crown.
These valve are automatic in action. Fig. shows tow type of air relief

valves.

13
-

Fig. 5.4 Air Relief Valve

(e) Drain Valve:

In the summits of mains, it is possible that some suspended impurities

may settle down and cause obstruction to flow the water. In the

distribution system at dead ends if water is not taken out it will stagnate

and bacteria will be born in it. To avoid the above difficulties drain valves

are provided at all such points. When drain valve is opened the water

rushes out thus removing all the silt, clay etc. from the main line.

,._ r, ~
;. :" , ,r:"': ~.\.
. i ..
- ..

I
~. TEl

Fig. 5.5 Drain Valve

14
.
-

6. DESIGN OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

6.1 Manual Design

The layout of the city of town, topography etc. wiJlgreatly effect the layout

and design of the distribution system. The existing population expected

future population commercial and industrial present and future water

requirements all have to be considered in the layout and design of the

distribution system.

The main work in the distribution system design is to determine the sizes

of the distribution pipes which will be capable to carry the repaired quantity

of water at the desired pressure.

6.1.1 Design of pipe lines

Till date no direct method are available for the design of distribution pipes.

While doing the design first of all Dia. of the pipes are assumed the

terminal pressure heads which could be made avaHable.at the end of each

pipe section after allowing for the loss of pressure head in the pipe section

when full peak flow discharge is flowing are then determined. The

determination of the friction losses in each pipe section is done. The total

discharge flowing through main pipes is to be determined in advance.

Hazen William formula is widely used for determine the velocity through

pipes. It states :

15
..
r-1eadoss due to friction is determined by

1 Q L
HL = (_)1.85
1094 CH d4.97

6.1.2 Analysis & design of pipe network

In the distribution system for any closed network of the pipes the following

conditions must be fulfilled:

(a) The quantity of water entering a junction, must be equal to the

quantity of water leaving the same junction. In other words entering

flow must be equal to the leaving flow Le. low of continuity is

satisfied.

(b) The algebraic sum of the pressure drops around closed loop must

be zero. Le. there shall be continuity in the pressure.

Following are the various methods for the analysis of flow in pipe network

(1) Circle Method

(2) Equivalent Pipe Method

(3) Electrical Analogy Method

(4) Hardy Cross Method

Hardy cross method is most widely used.

Hardy Cross Method:

In this method the corrections are applied to the assumed flow in each

successive trail. The head loss in each pipe is determined by pipe flow

formula. The successive corrections are made in the flow in each pipe will

16
~"'eheads are balanced and the principle of continuity is satisfied at each

junction.

Now it Qa be the assumed flow in a pipe and Q be the actual flow in that

pipe, then correction will be given by the relation.

~ = Q ~ Qa

Q = Qa + ~

If the head loss in the pipe under reference is HL it can be determined by

formula

When k is a constant depending upon the size of the pipe and its interval

condition. The head loss can also be determined by Hazen William

formula in this term. As a common practice +ve sign is given to the head

losses in clockwise direction and - ve signs to those in the anti-clockwise

direction. The minor losses are usually neglected. In case of network of

pipes having many loops, the system must be divided in to two or more

loops such that each pipe in the network is included in the circuit of one

loop. We have adopted Hardy cross method for analysis of pipe network.

The results obtained by the manual design is tabulated below:

Since the result obtained by manual method is found to be more

economical than the latter due to have adopted the manual method in our

design of pipes.

17
. --..--- ..
..

Results obtain by the Manual Design:

Pipe no. Pipe Dia. HL Ht.l1000m Length

1. 400 1.228 9.45 390

2. 200 2.652 6.80 500

3. 250 2.425 4.85 400


f-

4. 200 1.560 3.90 450

5. 350 3.610 8.02 500

6. 200 4.350 8.70 365

7. 200 0.823 2.26 535

8. 200 3.317 6.20 490

9. 200 0.953 1.95 500

10. 300 2.750 5.50 565

11. 200 1.977 3.50 355

12. 150 4.210 11.92 365

13. 150 4.307 11.80 365

14. 150 1.000 1.87 540

15. 200 1.750 3.50 500

16. 150 1.953 3.10 630

17. 100 1.307 5.82 225

18. 100 1.457 6.20 235


I

.t.

18
5...2 Software Design

5.2.1 software details

Required input data are given to the software package of distribution

networkdesign.Then computersoftwareof design gives the output file of

pipe details, pipe pressure details and node details.

Computer software package,which consider so many factors regarding

the distributionsystem.Hence it gives economicaldesign as compareto

the manual design.

6.2.2 Input &Output Files

The input & output files of software design are given as below:

19
1

NPUT FILE

Echoing Input Variables

Title of the Project : Mandvi

Name of the User :SMC

Number of Pipes : 18

Number of nodes : 13

Type of Pipe Materials Used :CI

Number of Commercial Dia per Material

Peak Design Factor :1

Newtor Raphson Stopping Criterion MLD : 0.001

MinimumPressure (m) : 15

MaximumPressure (m) : 30

Design HydraulicGradient m in km :2

Simlate or Design? :D

No. of Res. Nodes with Fixed HGL :1

No. of Res. Nodes with Variable HGL

No. of Boo&er Pumps

No. of Pressure Reducing Valves


No. of Check Valves

Type of Formula : Hazen's

..
2.0
.

:o.rrrmerciaJ Diameter Data

P :;e D a. Harzen's Unit Cost Allow Press Pipe

.'"'t. (mm) Constant RS/m Length M Material

100.0 100.00000 500.00 30.00 CI

150.0 100.00000 597.93 30.00 cr

i 200.0 100.00000 871.88 30.00 CI

250.0 100.00000 1283.32 30.00 CI

300.0 100.00000 1663.23 30.00 CI

1400.0 100.00000 2539.92 30.00 CI


i
I
100.00000 3002.83 30.00 CI
1450.0
500.0 100.00000 3674.22 30.00 CI

100.00000 4896.47 30.00 CI


1600.0
750.0 100.00000 7076.84 30.00 CI

900.0 110.00000 8600.00 30.00 MS

1000.0 110.00000 9500.00 30.00 MS


I
1100.0 110.00000 10000.00 30.00 MS
I

1200.0 110.00000 12000.00 30.00 MS

1500.0 110.00000 14500.00 30.00 MS

1555.0 110.00000 15000.00 30.00 MS

2.1
. r
II

"-'ode Data

" .:ce Peak Flow Elevati Min. Press Max. Press

No. MLD on m M

1 0.000 106.00 15.00 30.00


11.00
I
2 -6.512 15.00 15.00 30.00
J 1.00
3 1.00 -0.540 103.00 15.00 30.00

4 1.00 -0.648 104.00 15.00 30.00

5 1.00 -5.068 15.00 30.00


1105.00
I
6 1.00 -1.040 102.00 15.00 30.00

1.00 -0.900 197.00 15.00 30.00


17 I I

/8 1.00 -0.730 101.00 15.00 30.00

9 1.00 -3.929 101.00 15.00 30.00

10 1.00 -0.557 103.00 15.00 30.00

111 1.00 0.000 103.00 15.00 30.00

12 1.00 -0.715 104.00 15.00 30.00

13 1.00 0.000 104.00 15.00 30.00


I

Fixed Head Reservoir Data

Source Node Head m Ref Res. ?


I
I
(R)

1 121.00 R

22.
.
.

Pipe Data

':) "tY11 To Length Diameter Hazen's Pipe Status

. Node Node M mm Const Material (C/P)

1 1 2 130.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

2 2 3 390.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

13 2 6 500.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

4 3 4 400.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

5 2 5 450.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

6 6 7 500.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

5 4 365.00 0.0 100.00000 CI


17
5 7 535.00 0.0 100.00000 CI
18
9 4 10 490.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

I 10 5 9 500.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

11 7 8 565.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

12 9 10 355.00 0.0 100.00000 CI


I
13 9 8 365.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

44 10 11 540.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

15 9 12 500.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

-i6 8 13 630.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

17 12 11 225.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

18 12 13 235.00 0.0 100.00000 CI

23
..
-
Q
100.0 CI 535.00 267.50 1904.10
I
S 100.0 CI 420.00 245.00 2149.18

10 100.0 CI 500.00 250.00 2399.18

11 100.0 CI 565.00 282.50 2681.68

! 12 100.0 CI 355.00 177.50 2859.18


I
I
13 100.0 CI 365.00 182.50 3041.68

14 100.0 CI 540.00 270.00 3311.68

15 100.0 CI 500.00 250.00 3561.68

16 100.0 CI 630.00 315.00 3876.68


i 225.00 112.50 3989.18
I 17 100.0 CI

100.0 CI 235.00 117.50 4106.68


118

24
4' .__

9 3.929 101.00 119.06 18.06

10 -0.557 103.00 119.17 16.17

11 0.000 103.00 119.10 16.10

12 -0.715 104.00 119.07 15.07

13 0.000 104.00 119.08 15.08

Pipe cost summary


D. (mm) Pipe material Length (m) Cost (1000 Rs) Cum. Cost

(1000 Rs)

100.0 CI 7075.00 3547.50 3547.50

200.0 CI 450.00 397.35 3939.85

250.0 CI 130.00 166.83 4106.68

Pipe wise cost summary


II Pipe no Dia. (mm) Pipe Length Cost Cum. cost

material (m) (1000 Rs) (1000 Rs)


:
,1 250.0 CI 130.00 166.83 166.83
i

12 100.0 CI 390.00 195.00 361.83


I
\3 100.0 CI 300.00 250.00 611.83

4 100.0 CI 400.00 200.00 811.83

15
I
200.0 CI 450.00 392.35 1204.18
!
1.6 100.0 CI 500.00 250.00 1454.18

:7 100.0 CI 365.00 182.00 1636.68

. 2.S
J
.

OUTPUT FILE

Looped water distribution network design output

Band width =3

~umber of loops =6

...e 10n Raphson iterations =2

Pfpe Details

=":e From To Flow Dia HL HU1000 Length Velocity

-... Node Node MLD m (m) (m/s)


... (mm) (m) (m)

1 2 15.325 250.0 0.32 2.45 130.00 0.58


-
.... 2 3 1.803 100.0 0.51 1.30 390.00 0.23
- 2.013
- 2 6 100.0 0.80 1.59 500.00 0.26

- 3 4 1.263 100.0 0.27 0.67 400.00 0.16

-
=:
2 5 10.319 200.0 0.51 1.12 450.00 0.33
0.973
- 6 7 100.0 0.21 0.41 500.00 0.12
- 5 4
1.330
100.0 0.27 0.74 365.00 0.17
1.306 0.50 0.93 535.00 0.19
B 5 7 100.0
1.945
9 4 10 100.0 0.73 1.50 490.00 0.25

i"v 20415 0.31


5 9 100.0 1.12 2.23 500.00
1.571 0.20
11 7 8 100.0 0.57 1.01 565.00
-0.845 -0.32 355.00 -0.11
12 9 10 100.0 -0.11
-0.530 -0.13 365.00 -0.07
13 9 8 100.0 -0.05
0.543 0.07
14 10 11 100.0 0.08 0.14 540.00
-0.139
15 9 12 100.0 -0.01 -0.01 500.00 -0.02

2.6
II'"

, 16 8 13 0.311 100.0 0.03 0.05 630.00 0.04

17 12 11 -0.543 100.0 -0.03 -0.14 225.00 -0.07

18 12 13 -0.311 100.0 -0.01 0.05 235.00 -0.04

Note: Negative value indicates the flow in reverse direction in that pipe

Pipe pressure details

Pipe From To Dia. Harzen's Pipe Max Allow Status

no. Node Node (mm) constant material press (m) press (m) (C/P)

1 1 2 250.0 100.00000 CI 16.68 30.0

2 3 100.0 100.00000 CI 17.18 30.0


12
3 \2 6 100.0 100.00000 CI 17.89 30.0
I
4 4 100.0 100.00000 CI 17.18 30.0
13
5 2 5 200.0 100.00000 CI 16.68 30.0

6 6 7 100.0 100.00000 CI 22.68 30.0

7 5 4 100.0 100.00000 CI 15.91 30.0


I

8 :5
I 7 100.0 100.00000 CI 22.68 30.0
I
10 100.0 100.00000 CI 16.17 30.0
19 14

27
I

Pipe pressure details cont'd

Pipe From To Dia Harzen's Pipe Max Allow Status

no. Node Node (mm) const material press (m) press (m) (C/P)
10 5 9 100.0 100.00000 CI 18.06 30.00

11 7 8 100.0 100.00000 cr 22.68 30.00


12 9 10 100.0 100.00000 CI 18.06 30.00
13 9 8 100.0 100.00000 CI 18.11 30.00
14 10 11 100.0 100.00000 cr 16.17 30.00

15 9 12 100.0 100.00000 CI 18.06 30.00


I

I 16 8 13 100.0 100.00000 CI 18.11 30.00


I I
17 12 11 100.0 100.00000 CI 16.10 30.00

I 18 12 13 100.0 100.00000 CI 15.08 30.00

Node details

Node no. Flow (MLD) Elev. (m) H.G.L. (m) Pressure (m)

1 15.325 106.00 121.00 15.00

2 -6.512 104.00 120.68 16.68

3 -0.540 103.00 120.10 17.18

4 -0.648 104.00 119.91 15.91

5 -5.068 105.00 120.18 15.18

6 -1.040 102.00 119.89 17.89


....
J -0.908 97.00 119.68 22.68

8 -0.730 101.00 119.11 18.11

28
I

7. CONCLUSION

Result of distribution system from manual & software show that there is a

difference between them. Computer software sophistical package which

consider so many factor regarding the distribution system. Hence it gives

economical design as compare to manual design. In manual design hardy

cross method is most widely used method. But it is too much time

consuming & so many iteration are required.

2.9
I

REFERENCES

I 1. A.G.Bhole. "Low cost package water treatment plant


for rural areas" I.E (I) Journal - EN 1995.
2. Birdie J.S. "Water supply and sanitary engineering",
Pub.: Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi, 1994.
3. Fair G.M. "Water and waste water engineering"
(vol.1&2) john Wiley & sons, inc. New York,
1967.
4. Garg S.K. 'Water supply engineering" Khanna pub.,
New Delhi, 1994.
5. Govt. of India. "Manual on Water Supply & Treatment",
Ministry of works & housing, New Delhi, 1984.
6. Hudson H.E Jr. "Water Clarification process: Practical
Design & Evaluation" Van Norstrand
Reinhold Co., New York, 1981.
7. Steel EW. & 'Water Supply & Sewerage" McGraw Hill
Mcggee T.J. Ltd., New York, 1981.
8. Twart A.C. 'Water Supply" Arnold International Student
Edition (AISE), Great Britain, 1985.

30
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