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220 4

:
*



Cncunaniuix paor, nocnnmcuuix npairn-
iax orunrinaunn ccuonarix, uc cymccrny-
cr. Hpn rox qcuoxcu o(cpnxocrn yc
uco(uoiparuo npnnncian nunxaunc ncropn-
ion, aurpononoion, xc(nion. io noianiuic
napnauri n pyccion:iuuon nnrcparypc,
noanyn, caxixn n:nccruixn nnnnmrcn
inniymccrno n niora paccxarpnna-
mrcn iai qopxi a(anraunn uapo(uon iyni-
rypon n:xcucuuix cocronunn co:uaunn
(HCC), :uaucunc n nipacunc ioropix oyc-
nonncui noianiuix counaniuo-iynirypuix
iourcicrox
1
.
Cpc(n counaniuix (crcpxnuaur, onpc(cnn-
mmnx qyuiunounponaunc rnx nnncunn,
ua:inannci uapo(uic npc(cranncunn o nop-
uc, counaniuoc nonocunc cumnui n
(pyinc. Oucnn(uo, uro cymccrncuuoc nnnn-
unc ua cnocoi a(anraunn HCC nxcna n
Hcpioni. B onimnucrnc pcinouon, i(c
ncrpcuamrcn rc nnn nuic qopxi HCC, pc-
* INTAS (Ref. Nr. 0355805).
1
. : [Holm 1982; Crapanzano 1977; Bourguignon 1973].
221

nnino:uan nucrnryunn ucnauo, npc(crannnmman ny(an:x,


iaronnun:x nnn npanocnannc, niracrcn ycrauonnri iour-
poni ua( nx nponnncunnxn n xouononnm ua nx nurcpnpcraunm.
B paxiax (auuon paori paccxarpnnamrcn counaniuan ncropnn
npairni n:iuaunn ccon, nx ncnoni:onaunc n pcucnunn cnn-
mcuuniaxn n npnxoauaxn.
Hucvnvyunouaatume uopwm
Ho:nunn Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn n oruomcunn o(cpnxocrn
xapaircpn:ycrcn n nccnc(onarcnicion nnrcparypc (ocrarouuo
o(uo:uauuo. Kpncrnua Bopocu ninmuacr n xouoipaqnm, no-
cnnmcuuym qcuoxcuy o(cpnxocrn n Poccnn, inany no(
ua:nauncx Hoc(a Hpanocnannn ua( innonox |Woiobcc
2OO1]. Ho xucunm A.A. Hauucuio, npc(crannrcnnxn oqnunani-
uon Hcpinn 186O-x ii. inniymccrno oucunnanoci iai no:-
xouocri yrncp(cunn n no(rncp(cunn cocrncuuoio craryca
n ponn n omccrnc |Hauucuio 2OO2: 326]. K raioxy c nino(y
npnxo(nr n A.C. uanpon, paccxarpnnan xarcpnani ncpnon no-
nonnui XVIII n. |uanpon 2OOO: 392].
B (auuox cnyuac nccnc(onarcnn ancnnnpymr i rai ua:inacxix
nucrnryunouaniuix uopxax Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn
1
. cncrnn-
rcniuo, nncncian rpa(nunn npocnannncr cnocouocri n:io-
unri ccon iai uy(ccuin (ap, a cnc(onarcniuo, Hcpioni (onua
ina i oucunnari ncucncunn o(cpnxix, concpmacxic cc
npc(crannrcnnxn, iai ropccrno npanocnannn |Tax c]. O(-
uaio raion omnn n:inn( ua nponcxy ocrannncr :a cioiaxn
pn( cymccrncuuix nonpocon. Bo-ncpnix, npn nccn no:xouo-
crn no(ouon rouin :pcunn iai n XVIII, rai n n XIX nn. ocracrcn
ucncuix, iro in cc nipa:nrcncx; ua iaiox yponuc ucpionuon
(nnn iaion-nno (pyion) n(conoinn (auuin n:inn( uaxo(nn
nonnomcunc. Bo-nropix, iainx opa:ox ra no:nunn ina
cnn:aua c npairniaxn pn(onoio cnnmcuunia.
1
..
. :
,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
, <>

. , ,
<>

,
[ 1999: 199].
222 4
B cnocn paorc Kpncrnua Bopocu paccxarpnnacr n iauccrnc
nucrnryunouaniuoio iourcicra npc(cranncunn o o(cpnxo-
crn ncci ioxnncic rcicron, niouoipaqnuccinx cmcron n
pnryanon, i(c uaxo(nr nipacunc n(cn opii Cnnron Hcpinn
c (innonox |Woiobcc 2OO1: 41]. Anrop ninmuacr n o:op n
npc(nacxaniuic cnyi, i(c npa:(uycrcn noc(a Xpncra ua(
(innonox, n opn( ipcmcunn, no npcxn ioropoio ucnonci orpc-
iacrcn or (innona, n niouoipaqnm Crpamuoio Cy(a |Tax c:
42]. Cnopnri c rcx, uro n paxiax xpncrnaucion rconoinn noun-
rnc (innon nipacr cymccrncuuym poni, (cncrnnrcniuo cno-
uo. Ho ccnn xi niracxcn oncunri nonc(cunc iouipcruix
cnnmcuunion, ro ancnnnunn io nccnpoun:inammcn ucpion-
uym iunuocri n(cc (innona oia:inacrcn uc(ocrarouuo. anc-
io uc ncc rcicri, pnryani n opa:i, iacammnccn io:ucn
(innona, nxcmr oruomcunc i nnncunm ccoo(cpnxocrn, n
onimnucrno n: unx uc co(cpnr uniaion nuqopxaunn o rox,
iai niinn(nr ccuonarin n iai c unx (oncu nocrynari
cnnmcuuni.
Bnsauvncxn aapnauv
Hounrnn (innon, nyianic (yxn, cci nnnnmrcn o(unxn
n: ucurpaniuix n omcxpncrnaucion rconoinn. 3uaunrcniuoc
pa:nnrnc oun nonyunnn n ipcuccion iunuocrn, ioropan n
crana ocuonuix ncrouuniox (pcnucpyccion xpncrnaucion (c-
xouonoinn
1
. Coinacuo o(uon n: uanoncc pacnpocrpaucuuix n
ipcuccion iunuocrn rpaironoi, cci ro nopoin, o(onc-
nammnc nm(cn. Boccxi pa:(cnon rpairara npcn. Hnna Cnuan-
cioio O nocixn nyianix (yxax o:ainanncui: O upcnoyio-
(nn, O ny(c, O cpcponmnn, O iucnc, O ncuann, O
yuiunn, O rmccnannn, O iop(ocrn. B rox c inmuc
nnmcr o (cnrcniuocrn ccon Hoauu uccrnnuuni: Bo ocex 0e:o-
nuux, omopi+u cmopoe+cu yeo0umi 1oey, eci oioniooum no+
mpu u+i. Bo-nepoix, opumcu (sic), umoi oocnpenumcmoooomi
noue+y 0opo+y 0e:y; oo-omopix, oe0o onu o ce+ nepoo+ noyue-
nuu iooum noe0eni, mo cmopoumcu, umoi c0e:onnoe ne i:o
no 1oey; o ec:u momu onie u o ce+ y+iu:enuu ne no:yuoum ycnexo,
moe0o ye, e:+o:ono npucmynuouu 0yue noue, y:ooum
noc, o uoymux oo oce+ 1oeoyeo0no. 1epoo+y ucyuenuu conpo-
muo:uumcu mmonue u noneuenue o c+epmu; omopo+y noounooe-
nue u ynuuuenue; o mpemie+y ocee0ounee yopenue co+oeo
ceu~ |uccrnnua 1862: 26, 8].
B rox iourcicrc opia c ccaxn ocxicnncrcn iai no(nni
1
IIIII . . :
[ 1907].
223

naiouccrnnix npanc(union, ncniraunc ua nyrn cnnrix yio(-


union. Ho uapn(y c raion nurcpnpcrauncn yc n pauucxpncrn-
aucion iunuocrn nonnnnmrcn n oncc onpc(cncuuic onnca-
unn cocrncuuo ccuonarix. Coinacuo noinic ncpnon nurcp-
npcraunn, ccuonaunc xocr nounxaricn iai noc(a nopo-
ion, a ccuycxin iai ipcmuni, uc ycronnmnn ncpc( ccon-
cinxn nciymcunnxn. O(uaio cnn:i xc(y pcaniuixn npn-
xcpaxn ccuonaunn n annciopnuccinxn rpaironiaxn io:-
ucn (innona oia:inacrcn n rnopcunnx Oruon Hcpinn oncc
cnouon.
B onimnucrnc cnyuacn ccuycxic ua:inamrcn uccuacrui-
xn nm(ixn, npcinammnxn n ucnc(cunn. Hoauu 3naroycr,
uanpnxcp, nnmcr: Ho :umee eco epex, mo o mom eme 0e:oem
:u0e c+upenni+u. He ou0ume :u, o ecnooomie, oe0o onu
no:yuoum o:eeuenue om +mo o:e:nu, iooum neuo:ini u pom-
u, oou cmi0:uoocmi oipooemcu o :uue ux, o onu oumcu
0oe c+ompemi oopye ceu 1oc+ompu e, oou oixo0um
necoopo:nocmi: me cmi0umcu cooux cmpo0onu, o +i ne cmi0u+-
cu cooux 0e:; me cmi0umcu, npemepneoou ::o, o +i ne cmi0u+cu,
cooepuou ::o; ux no:oenue 0ocmono ne cmi0o, no cocmpo0onuu,
ue:ooeo:uuu, cnucxo0enuu, oe:uoeo y0uo:enuu u micuuu no-
xoo:, ec:u mo:io onu, npomuoy0ecmoyu ecy, nepenocum oce c
:oeo0opnocmiu; o noue no:oenue 0ocmono noc+eunuu, cmi0o,
ocy0enuu, noo:onuu, +yuenuu, ponux e0cmou u co+o eeen-
ni, u ne :oc:yuooem nuooeo cnucxo0enuu .` 1o om
e:y+nix, o om cy+ocue0uux, o om 0eme ne mpeyum om-
uemo o ux 0ecmouux, mo u om nux; u nem ue:ooeo cmo:i
ecmooeo, umo noo:ioomi :o mo, umo c0e:ono no neoe0enuu.
Tou+ opo:o+ +i coepeuoumue oo:iooe+cu eopo:0o xye
ecnyumuxcu~ |Hoauu 3naroycr 19O3: 364, 365].
Taic nurcpnpcrnpycr nonc(cunc ccuycxix n npcn. Hoauu
Kaccnau Pnxnnunu. B o(uox n: cio Coccc(onaunn anna
Ccpcu orncuacr ua nonpoc o rox, ou+ opo:o+ neuucmie 0yxu
oo:o0eooum ecnooomi+u~: Biueco:onno+y ooucnenuu noue-
+y ne npomuoopeuum mo, umo, eooopume, iooem c ecnooomi+u,
oe0o cxoouennie neuucmi+u 0yxo+u eooopum u:u 0e:oum mo, ueeo
ne :noum. H:oecmno, onu ne o0unoooo mepnum o:uunue 0yxoo. Ho
neomopie mo iooum oo:o0eooe+i, umo nuco:io ne co:noum
moeo, umo 0e:oum u:u eooopum, o neomopie co:noum u noc:e
ocno+unoum~ |Hoauu Kaccnau Pnxnnunu 1892: 288].
Cpc(n npnxoau xpncrnaucinx ucpincn pauucio ncpno(a cc-
uycxic :aunxann, no nccn nn(nxocrn, nnonuc onpc(cncuuoc
xccro. O rox cnn(crcnicrnycr pn( :axcuaunn n Hpannnax
Cnnrix Oruon n Bccncucinx Coopon. B iauounuccinx Orncrax
cn. Tnxoqcn cnnciona Ancicau(pnncioio (38O385 ii.) unracx:
224 4
Bonpoc 2: Ame oe:ouenni y0em ecnye+i, u oocxomem co+, u:u
npucnie eeo, 0o npuu+em coumoe pemenue: mo 0o:en :u npuumu,
u:u nem, u nounoue ome y0em :u: c+epmu;
Omoem: 1oe0o ecnye+i ne ouucmu:cu eme om 0yxo neuucmoeo, mo
ne +oem npuumu coumoe pemenue: no, npu ucxo0e om ceu u:nu,
pemoemcu.
Bonpoc J: Ame mo oepni o0epu+ eco+: 0o:en :u npuomo-
mucu Coumix Toun u:u nem;
Omoem: Ame ne nopyuoem moni, nue xy:um uni+ ou+ :uo
opo:o+: mo 0o npuuomoemcu, no ne o0i 0eni: 0ooo:ino 0:u
neeo mo+o no ope+eno+~.
Bonpoc 1:: Ame y oeo eno o0epu+o ::i+ 0yxo+ 0o moeo, uo
u oooi nocum, +y e eu e:oeo:em, uo ne +oem oo:0epomu-
cu, u xomem noumu unyu: 0o:en :u moooi noumu unyu, u:u
nem
Omoem: B ce+ 0e:e :o:uuoemcu npe:uo0eunue: u ne u+eu u ne
opemou, umo no cue omoemomu~
1
.
Taic n Hpannnax VI Bccncucioio (III Koucraurnuononicioio)
Coopa (68O691 ii.) co(cpnrcn yia:aunc oruocnrcniuo opa-
mcunn c ncrnuuo n nouo ccuymmnxcn: 1oe:uy onocmo:
oonuem, uo npu:en:uucu 1ocno0eou
2
, e0un 0yx ecmi c 1ocno0o+:
mo uono ecmi, uo u npomuonuy cee ycoouumu iooem e0uno c
nu+, no omenuu. 1oce+y poccy0eno: :uue+epno ecnyumuxcu, u
moooi opo: 0ecmou, no ::ocmu npoooo, npumoopno no ceu
npue+:umux, noo:ioomu ocuu+ opo:o+, u no0oepeomi ux mo-
u+ e cypooocmu+ u mpy0o+, oooi+ no0:unno ecnye+ie, po0u
ocooo0enuu om 0e+oncoeo 0ecmouu, npooe0no no0oepeoumcu~
|Hp. 6O]
3
.
XVII npannno Aiinpcioio noxccruoio coopa (314 i.) inacnr:
Como:onuo+ u npooenni+, u:u onpoo:uouu+, coumi
coop nooe:e: +o:umucu c oypeooe+i+u. Hou+enooonue oypeoo-
e+ix o:nouoem u:u ne0onycoe+ix o uepooi, u +o:umucu one,
ecmi:u c:yuumcu, u no oempe u no0 0o0e+, u:u ecnye+ix~
4
.
O airyaniuocrn anocronicinx npannn n oruomcunn ccuyc-
xix ionopnr opamcunc i unx caxnx oiocnonon. Ha nonpoc
orua Icpxaua o rox, 0:u ueeo o0epu+ie ::i+u 0yxo+u om:y-
uoumcu om npuuomenuu 1ocno0nu~, anna Ccpcu n Coccc(onaunn
1
. .: [ : 377].
2
.. .
3
[ : 100].
4
[ : 142].
225

Kaccnaua Pnxnnunua orncuacr: A coumoe npuuomenue nouu+u


cmopuo+u, no+nu+, ne :onpemo:oci u+, nonpomuo onu 0y+o:u, umo
ec:u i oo:+ono i:o, 0oe ee0neono no0ono npeno0ooomi u+
eeo. Ho ne 0o:no 0y+omi, umo no u:peuenuu eoonee:ico+y,
omopoe oi neoepno npu:ou:u +mo +ic:u: ne 0ooome coumi-
nu nco+, y0mo coumoe npuuomenue nocmynoem o numy 0e+ony,
o ne o ouumenue u oxponenue me:o u 0yuu. 1y0yuu npunumo
ue:ooeo+, ono, o n:o+u noueoumee, npoeonuem moe0o 0yxo,
omopi o eeo u:enox :oce0oem u:u cpiooemcu. Mi ne0oono
ou0e:u, umo mou+ cnocoo+ i: ucue:en oooo An0ponu u +noeue
0pyeue. Ho opoe o:iue u o:iue y0em nono0omi no o0epu+oeo
u+, oe0o you0um, umo on om:yuoemcu om neecnoeo opoueocmoo,
u me+ ::ee u uome y0em +yuumi, ue+ 0o:iue on y0em y:onumicu
om 0yxoonoeo opoueocmoo~ |Hoauu Kaccnau Pnxnnunu 1892:
3O1].
O pacnpocrpaucuuocrn ccuonaunn n cio nucrnryunouani-
uix ocuonaunnx cnn(crcnicrnycr cymccrnonaunc n pauucxpnc-
rnaucion ucpinn unua i:opuncron. A. Cnaccinn nonaiacr,
uro cmc n uauanc IV n. onpe0e:ennix npoou: 0:u u:enonuu 0e+onoo
ne cymecmoooo:o; o0i +:opuucm u+e: coo I?DIE npu-
e+i. Xpucmuono+ cooemyemcu c:e0ooomi mo+y +emo0y, omopi
npe0cmoo:uemcu nouo:ee ycneuni+, no0poomi npue+o+ 0pyeux
+:opuucmoo u, ec:u nyno, y:yuuomi ux. Oueou0no, o nouo:e 11
o. 0e:o u:enonuu 0e+onoo npuno0:eo:o eme :uuno unuuuomuoe~
|Cnaccinn 19O7: 387]. Hpouccc no(unucunn i:opuncron cnnc-
ioncion nnacrn n nocrouuon uacrn Hcpinn nponcxo(nr, no
xucunm A. Cnaccioio, n ccpc(nuc IV n., n n npannnax uao(o-
inncioio coopa (364 i.)
1
i:opuncri nicrynamr yc iai uncui
innpa |Tax c: 388]
2
. B on:auuocrn i:opuncron nxo(nnn
urcunc xonnrn ua( o(cpnxixn n ua(:op ua( oinamcuuixn.
Ipcuccinc nxonoinn co(cpann cncunaniuic :ainnuarcniuic
xonnrni (nn n:iuaunn ccon, ioropixn, nn(nxo, n noni:o-
nannci rn cnnmcuunin.
Tainx opa:ox, ipcuccinx cnnmcuuniax in n:nccrcu onpc(c-
ncuuin rnn nonc(cunn npnxoau, ua:inacxix oypcnacxic
nnn ccuycxic. Hx nonocunc onpc(cnnnoci pn(ox npannn,
panuo iai n opamcunc cnnmcuunia c unxn pciynnponanoci
cncunaniuixn nocrauonncunnxn. B ro c npcxn cina(inacr-
1
26 :
, , [ : 167].
2
, , .. ,
II . [ 1994 II: 459; III: 154]. ,
, , , .
, [ 1907:
388].
226 4
cn n nrnnuoc innmc, coinacuo ioropoxy n:opaacrcn cnn-
ron, n:iounmmnn ccon n: o(cpnxoio
1
.
peauepyccxn aapnauv
C uauanox pacnpocrpaucunn xpncrnaucrna ua Pycn cm(a npo-
uniamr n ncpcno(uic paori xpncrnaucinx anonoicron, n
nrnnuic nonccrn, uacrim onocpc(onauuic :ana(uixn ncrou-
uniaxn. O(uaio ccnn :ana(uon ncrnim xpncrnaucrna in noc-
npnunr n unu i:opuncra
2
, ro Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn ou
n:nccrcu uc in.
Orncrnri ua nonpoc o rox, n iaion qopxc ua Pycn n pauucx
cpc(ucncionic npono(nncn pnryan i:opun:xa n npono(nncn
nn noomc, npc(crannncrcn npairnuccin ucno:xouix. Hc-
rouunin pauucio cpc(ucncionin, n ioropix co(cpnrcn nu-
qopxaunn o ccuonarix n ccuonaunn, iopxunc, rpc-
unin n nrnn oruocnrcn i aupax, ccrio pcinaxcurnpyc-
xix iauouox, c o(uon cropoui, n n :uaunrcniuon crcncun
cnn:auuix c nuocrpauuixn ncrouuniaxn c (pyion.
Hanoncc pauunn opninuaniuin nrnnuin cmcr o n:iua-
unn cca uaxo(nx n Kncno-Hcucpciox narcpnic (XIV n.).
3(cci cnocouocri xouaxa ncucnnri ccuonarix npc(naiacrcn
unrarcnnx iai qair caxo coon pa:yxcmmnncn n uc uy(am-
mnncn n (ononunrcniuix oncucunnx: H :o eeo cmpoeoe umue
1ocno0i 0opooo: .oopenmuu cu:y ucue:enuu. H i: npuoe0en
ne+y o0un ecnooomi u: 1ueoo; no :omoopnu ne +oe u:enomi u:
neeo eco, uo i: oueni :um~ |pcnucpyccinc narcpnin 1999:
142]. B nrnn nporonona Annaiyxa ccri nn:o( o n:iuaunn
Annaiyxox cca n: cnocio para nqnxnn c noxomim Hocnc-
(onaunn n: Tpcunia: H, n:ouuuu, noc:o: oo uepooi no 1o-
mpenu u no coumyu oo0y cino +oeeo 0yxoonoeo Cu+eono .` To
e Cu+eon, no 0pyee cooe+ n:ooo, cxo0u: oo uepooi u npunec
nuey u coumyu oo0y. H nouox o: 0ecmoooomi no0 oypeooe+i+
+o:umoi Be:uoeo Bocu:uu~ |Xnrnc Annaiyxa 1991: 66]. Tainx
opa:ox, xouo npc(nonaiari, uro yc cnnmcuunin XIII n.
paccxarpnnann ccuycxix iai nnonuc onpc(cncuuym ipynny
npnxoau, a npairnia ncucncunn o(cpnxix :nixn (yxaxn
cymccrnonana yc n XVII n.
1
. , , : [ 1999:
8, 9, 78].
2
, .. ,
Rituale Romanum (
), 1614 . V,
[Oesterreich 1999: 101]. , Rituale Romanum
, 1952 .
.
227

Xorn ucpionuo-npanonic, oiocnycuic n nrnnuic naxnr-


unin uc xoiyr cunraricn ncrouuniaxn no ncropnn npairnin
i:opun:xa ua Pycn, oun (amr nouny (nn pa:ximncunn o rox,
iaiym nxcuuo nuqopxaunm, oparnnmnci i unx, xoinn nony-
unri cnnmcuunin. Pcui :(cci (onua n(rn uc roniio o rox,
iaian cocrncuuo nuqopxaunn o ccuonaunn n opic c unx
ina (ocrynua npc(crannrcnnx innpa, uo n iaion craryc oua
(nn unx nxcna. Oucnn(uo, uro crcncui anropnrcruocrn ron nnn
nuon nuqopxaunn nipacr cymccrncuuym poni no nccx cnyuanx
cc ncnoni:onaunn n n :uaunrcniuon xcpc onpc(cnncr cnocoi
nurcpnpcraunn caxon nuqopxaunn. Dror nonpoc npnopcracr
cmc onimcc :uaucunc, ioi(a xi ionopnx o opn(onix npai-
rniax cnnmcuunia, n ioropix poni iauoua, oqnunaniuoio
npannna n ucpionuon cauiunn no onpc(cncunm oucui nicoia.
3(cci cnc(ycr c(cnari uccioniio oionopoi. Cqcpa iauounucc-
ioio ucpionuoio npana (o cnx nop ocracrcn :aipiron (nn aur-
pononoinn. Caxn rcicri, oruocnmnccn i ron onacrn, ioucu-
uo, uco(uoiparuo nona(ann n nonc :pcunn nccnc(onarcncn n
airnnuo ncnoni:ymrcn iai n (naxpounuccinx nocrpocunnx, no-
cnnmcuuix nponcxo(cunm rcx nnn nuix qcuoxcuon, rai n (nn
cpanucunn uapo(uon n ucpionuon iyniryp. B onimnucrnc
cnyuac nicoian ucpionuan iunuocri (n npornnonocronncunn
un:onon ucpionuon nnrcparypc) paccxarpnnacrcn iai nipa-
cunc no:nunn oqnunaniuon Hcpinn, r.c. iai nxcmman nico-
inn craryc (nn nccx npc(crannrcncn innpa n nnnnunc ua ucoqn-
unaniuym, un:onym, uapo(uym iynirypy cnnmcuunion.
Ionopn o :aipirocrn cqcpi ucpionuoio npana (nn aurponono-
ion, n nxcm n nn(y uc(ocrarouuoc nounxaunc roio qaira, uro
qopxaniuoc orucccunc iunuoio rcicra i uncny iauounuccinx
uc o:uauacr c:ycnonuoio nounxaunn n ncnoni:onaunn cio cnn-
mcuuniaxn n iauccrnc iauoua uc roniio pn(onixn npnxo(-
cinxn cnnmcuuniaxn, ioropic nocronuuo omamrcn c xnpn-
uaxn n no xuoiox pa:(cnnmr nx n:inn(i, uo (ac innpniaxn,
:aunxammnxn caxoc nicoioc nonocunc n ucpionuon ncpap-
xnn. Kpyi anropnrcruix rcicron, no nccn nn(nxocrn, onpc(cnn-
crcn xuoinxn qairopaxn, cpc(n ioropix n xccruan rpa(nunn,
n omnn counaniuo-ncropnuccinn iourcicr, cnn:auuin c xc-
unmmnxncn n(conoinnxn, n cycirnnuoc xucunc iouipcruo-
io cnnmcuunia, ipyi cio omcunn n r.(. Mouo raic npc(no-
nonri, uro n pa:nnuuix cqcpax n:un cnnmcuuni pyiono(-
crnycrcn pa:nnuuixn iauouaxn. B ro c npcxn, ncponruo,
(ancio uc no nccx onacrnx (cnrcniuocrn cnnmcuuni cunran
ucoxo(nxix onnparicn ua iauou. Huixn cnonaxn, cymccrny-
mr xcxaun:xi ioucrpynponaunn iauoua, ioropin uc nnnncr-
cn aconmruon (auuocrim, a co:(acrcn, ncnoni:ycrcn n xorn-
nnpycr nonc(cunc n onpc(cncuuix cnryaunnx.
228 4
Hounrnc iauou xocr iri npnxcunxo roniio i cqcpc ucp-
ionuon pnryanncrnin n i:cic:i n npn( nn cio cronr oro(c-
crnnnri c nmix anropnrcruix n ron nnn nuon cpc(c rcicrox.
Hxcuuo ucpionuin opn(onin ir no:nonm ccc ror oi-
cmxopou npc(nonaiacr cymccrnonaunc iauoua n cio nc-
noni:onaunc. Bnpoucx, n n ron onacrn ccnuac cymccrnycr
onimc nonpocon, ucx orncron. B iainx cnryaunnx cnnmcuunin
ancnnnpymr i iauouy" Kainx opa:ox npnopcracrcn :uaunc
o cnocoax ncnoni:onaunn iauoua"
B uacronmnn npcxn orncrnri ua rn nonpoci ucno:xouo. Mon
:a(aua oncc npocra ouapynri ncrouunin nuqopxaunn o
ccuonaunn, ioropixn xoinn noni:onaricn cnnmcuunin, n
noniraricn onpc(cnnri, iainc n: unx cunrannci iauounucc-
inxn n n iainx onacrnx.
Kopw4ne
Hcpnin rnn ncrouunion ro pyccinc Kopxunc, co(cpanmnc
ucnin pn( crarcn, iacanmnxcn ccuycxix. Kopxuan iunia,
Hoxoiauou, 3aiouonpannniuni ro cnuounxnuuic ua:na-
unn ocuonuix ycranuix copunion iauounuccioio npana n
Pyccion Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn. B rn copunin ninmuannci
iauoui Hcpinn: npannna Cnnrix Anocronon, iauoui 6-rn
Bccncucinx n 1O-rn Hoxccruix Coopon, npannna 13-rn Cnn-
rix Oruon. Ocuonuon iopnyc iauounuccinx npannn (rai ua:i-
nacxan Cnuraixa, nnn Yia:arcni XIV rnrynon) (nn nccn Hcpi-
nn in yrncp(cu Tpynnicinx coopox (691 i.).
Kopxunc iunin nona(amr ua Pyci n: Bn:aurnn n muo-cnannu-
cinx n opninuaniuix ncpcno(ax. H:nccruo uccioniio ocuon-
uix pc(aiunn iopxunx. Hcpnan n: unx nocxo(nr i oniapcioxy
copuniy, ocuony ioropoio cocrannn ipcuccinn yia:arcni n 5O
rnrynon (inan). Bropan ro opninuaniuin ncpcno( copun-
ia 14 rnrynon c: iauouon IX n. n c: ronionaunn nn:aurnncinx
iauouncron. Tpcrin Pn:aucian pc(aiunn ina npnunra n
1274 i. :a ocuonuym n Pyccion Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn. Oua
nocxo(nr i ccpcioxy ncpcno(y, c(cnauuoxy Cannon Ccpcinx.
B cc cocran nxo(nr cnuoncnc copunia XIV rnrynon c roniona-
unnxn Apncrnua, 3ouapi n, pcc, Banicaxoua. Pn:aucian
pc(aiunn iopxucn uc nirccuncr nonuocrim (pyinx napnauron,
n pc:ynirarc ucio cina(inacrcn cmc o(nu npanonon copuni
Coqnncian pc(aiunn iopxucn, nocxo(nman i oncc pauunx
rcicrax, uo (ononucuuan ronionaunnxn iauouncron n npann-
naxn coopon IX n. onioc npcxn ocuonuixn pyiono(crnaxn n
Pyccion Hcpinn cnynnn oc iopxunx Coqnncian n Pn:au-
cian. B XVI n. uaunuacrcn npouccc cocranncunn cno(uon
iopxucn, a n 165O i. n:(acrcn cc oiouuarcniuin napnaur. Dror
229

copuni raic no(ncpiacrcn nnocnc(crnnn pn(y pcnn:nn, n


uacruocrn, ou :uaunrcniuo (ononuncrcn npn narpnapxc Hniouc
n iarcpnuc II. B (aniucnmcx Hniouoncian iopxuan uc-
cioniio pa: ncpcn:(acrcn n 18O4, 1816 n 1827 ii. Hocioniiy
n cocran ron iopxucn nxo(nna coipamcuuan pc(aiunn iauo-
uon, Cnnrcnmnn Cnuo( npc(npnunxacr n 1839 i. uonoc n:(aunc
nonuoio rcicra iauouon no( ua:nauncx Kunia Hpannn cn.
anocronon, cn. coopon nccncucinx n noxccruix n cn. oruon.
Konnn:nn, ni:nauuan cocymccrnonauncx (nyx ycranuix cop-
union Kopxucn c iauouaxn n coipamcuuox nn(c n Kunin
Hpannn, ninmuammcn nx nonuic rcicri, rai n uc ina
oiouuarcniuo pcmcua n Pyccion Hcpinn.
Kauoui Hcpinn, ninmucuuic n pyccinc iopxunc, uacrim no-
nropnmr coorncrcrnymmnc anocronicinc npannna, uacrim pac-
npocrpaunmr nx n n ucioropix cnyuanx nnnnmrcn nnonuc opn-
inuaniuixn. Oruocnrcniuo ccuonaunn xi uaxo(nx :(cci
uccioniio yia:aunn.
B Pn:aucion Kopxucn 1284 i. nonropncrcn 79 npannno Cnnrix
Anocronon
1
: ne 0ocmoumo ecnyumoeo o npuum npuoo0umu~ n
ccri inana o mo+, o no(0)oem ecnyumeeocu pe(c)mumu~
|KCOB]. Ma:ypnucian pc(aiunn iopxucn
2
raic co(cpnr 79
npannno, npnucx n :uaunrcniuo pacnpocrpaucuuox nn(c: O ec-
nyume+cu. 1ecni, ne y0em npuuemnu, nu no+o:um cu c oepni-
+u. no ouumenuu e ome y0em 0ocmoun, 0o y0em: 1ec u+i, ne
+oem imu npuuemnu. ,on0ee u:oo:en y0em om eco, no u c
oepni+u necm 0ocmoun no+o:umucu. ome e cooo0um cu om cmpo-
cmu, u no +o:umoy 0o y0em npuum, u o npuum ome ce 0ocmoun 0o
npuu0em~ |Ma:ypnucian iopxuan 2OO2: 136. u. 15()16(a). Crpi.
251O]
3
. 3(cci c nonropncrcn npannno uao(oinncioio coopa
o :ainnuarcnc: He :o:unoem mo, ome ne y0em om enucono no-
cmoo:en: 3o:unome:e, om enucono npue+:em nocmoo:enue. uo
e u npouuu+ coumennuuecoeo uuno. ome ne nocmoo:en y0em om
enucono o cmeneni, :o:unome:i ne +oem imu. nu o 0o+ox nu o
uepou~ |Tax c: 168, u. 31(). Crpi. 2126]. Kpoxc roio, n inanc
O oinamcuuix. Cnpcui o noyuammnxcn ncpc. n o cnnrox ipc-
mcunn Ma:ypnucion pc(aiunn ccri cncunaniuic :axcuaunn
o oruomcunn i ccuycxix: oe:ouenni ome po:o:umcu. u
om ne+omu noeyum y+, 0o y0em pemen. mo+o ome ne ecen ecmi~
|Tax c: 173. u. 34(a). Crpi. 13]; 1ecni ome ne ouucmumcu, ne
1
: , .
, , , [ :
26].
2
XIV .,
1510 .
3
, .
230 4
+oem pemen imu. ome oocxomem y+pemu, 0o y0em pemen~
|Tax c: 179. u. 37(a). Crpi. 24].
Hccxorpn ua n:xcucunn, nuocnxic n Kopxuym ua nporncunn
cc ncropnn, crarin, iacammnccn ccuonaunn, nonropnmrcn n
n caxix no:(unx napnaurax poccnncinx naxnrunion ucpionuo-
io npana. Kunia npannn, cranman c 1839 i. inanuix uopxarnn-
uix copuniox Pyccion Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn n coxpaunm-
man ro :uaucunc (o cnx nop, co(cpnr 79-c npannno Cnnrix
Anocronon, 6O-c npannno VI Bccncucioio (III Koucraurnuo-
nonicioio) Coopa, 17-c npannno Auinpcioio noxccruoio co-
opa, 26 npannno noxccruoio uao(oinncioio Coopa n orncri
cn. Tnxoqcn cnnciona Ancicau(pnncioio o nonc(cunn cnn-
mcuunia c ccuycxix.
nvna n nxouorpaqna
Ocuonuixn ncrouuniaxn nuqopxaunn o npnpo(c n npn:uaiax
ccuonaunn, no nccn nn(nxocrn, cnynnn (nn cnnmcuunion
nxcuuo nrnn. Cnnroorcuccioc uacnc(nc, ioucuuo, raic xoi-
no iri n:nccruo npc(crannrcnnx (yxoncucrna. O(uaio, no-
ncpnix, nnnori (o ccpc(nui XVIII n. n onimnucrnc cnocx
npnxo(cion innp in xanoipaxorcu, cnnmcuunin uc nonyuann
qopxaniuoio (yxonuoio opa:onaunn, a pacnpocrpaucunc pcnn-
ino:uon nnrcparypi uaxo(nnoci ua ipanuc un:iox yponuc
1
|Iicczc 1977: 78, 174]. Mouo npc(nononri, uro rnopcunn
Oruon Hcpinn inn (ocrynui npc(c nccio n ipynuix xoua-
cripcinx n crapoopn(uccinx ucurpax, uo n xaccc npnxo(on uc
inn n:nccrui. Bo-nropix, nrnnuan nnrcparypa (acr iopa:(o
onimc npairnuccion nuqopxaunn o o(cpnxocrn cca-
xn, ucx oiocnoncian, uro nnonuc oncunxo cc auponixn
ococuuocrnxn: (n(airnuccian qyuiunn nrnn (ocrnianaci
onopon ua iouipcruic npnxcpi n: n:un cnnrix.
B nrnnuym nnrcparypy cmcri o n:iuaunn cnnmcuuniaxn
ccon n: o(cpnxix nona(amr cpanunrcniuo pauo: c o(uon
cropoui, n: Bn:aurnn, a c (pyion n: :ana(uo-cnponcncinx
naxnrunion
2
. B onimox uncnc oun nocnpon:no(nrcn n n opn-
inuaniuon nnrcparypc, i(c crauonnrcn nrnnuix innmc, nn-
1
: 1772 .
,
, 27 85 138 [Freeze
1998: 217]. (8535 ),
: , , [ : 240, . 38].
2
: ,
[ 1884: 52, 2064]. .
: [Oesterreich
1999: 610; 177, 185].
231

nmcrpnpymmnx npnn:ucuuic nnn nocxcpruic uy(cca cnn-


rix
1
|Hninu 1993: 5; Hninu 1998: 92].
y(o ncucncunn ccuonaroio, ccuymmaio, xyunxa or
cca, nxymcio (yx ucuncr, no nccn nn(nxocrn, ino o(unx
n: caxix n:nmncuuix nrnnuix cmcron. B nrnn cnr.
Hnionan Mnpnninncioio n: 23 uy(cc 14 ro uy(cca n:iuaunn
cca, n: ioropix 12 uy(cca ncucncunn ccuymmnxcn. c-
ripc uy(a n:iuaunn cca n: ucnoncia ninmucui n nrnc cn.
Hoauua Ioiocnona, (na n nrnc npn. Ccpinn Pa(ouccioio,
ccxi n nrnc npn. Canni Cropocncioio (3ncuniopo(cioio).
Auanoinuuic cmcri ncrpcuamrcn n nrnnx npn. Ccpinn Hy-
poxcioio, cn. iun:n 4co(opa Bpocnancioio n Cxoncucioio,
npn. uanpcurnn, :arnopunia Hcucpcioio, cn. Aiannra Hcnonc(-
unia (cnnciona Cnua(cioio), cnmxu. Xapanaxnnn Maiuc:nn-
cioio, cn. Aiaqoua, cn. Bapnaaxa Xyriucioio, cn. ucournn
Pocroncioio n xuoinx (pyinx. Hoia:arcniuo, uro, ccnn n nrnc
cnnroio ino ninmucuo uy(o ncucncunn ccuonaroio, ouo
on:arcniuo n:opaanoci n ua cio nrnnuon niouc. Ha o(uon
niouc xouo ncrpcrnri (o 4 incnx, n:opaammnx ro uy(o.
H:iuaunc cca n: ucnoncia ncrpcuacrcn n pn(y iai nocxcpr-
uix, rai n npnn:ucuuix uy(cc cnnrix. H n rox, n n (pyiox
cnyuac onncaunc aira n:iuaunn cca nnmcuo iaion-nno
cncunqnin no oruomcunm i paccia:ax o npounx ncucncunnx
2
.
Kai n (pyinc ncucncunn, concpmcuuic xonnrnaxn cnnroio,
r.c. nocxcpruo, n:iuaunc cca, iai npannno, cnn:inacrcn c
npcinauncx oniuoio ucnocpc(crncuuo y ipoa nnn npocro
n onrcnn cnnroio, no xuoinx cnyuanx ncucncunc nponcxo(nr
nocnc ncnonucunn xoncua no :aia:y crpa(ymcio, oiponnc-
unn cio cnnron no(on. Hcucncunc ccuonarix cnnrix npn
n:un onncinacrcn coinacuo omcxy iauouy ncucncunn.
B rox cxicnc ccuonarocri, oucnn(uo, ninmuanaci n pn(
nccx npounx :aoncnaunn, ncunnmnxcn o(nuaiono. B nrnn
Canni Cropocncioio, uanpnxcp, ncpcuncnnmrcn ncucncunn
1

.
.. [1915].
, , ,
.
2

. ..
,
, [Oesterreich
1999: 177 .].
. . ,
,
[ 1998: 100],
.
232 4
cncnoio, onnmcio o0peu+ (sic) e muu+ ne0yeo+ .` :e:o
onyxuu :uuy eeo, u nu ouu+o oo:pemu +ooue~, Ancicau(pa
Icnoio o:no cymo, uo u uoomo eeo omuoumucu~, icnapn Cani
omuuuo pyo eeo, uo nu o ycmo+ +ooue npunocumu u~, ciua
onpcioio o:no cymo u u:io+ ne +omymo e:oeo:omu~, niyxcua
Mncanna o ne0ye me:ecni ono0uu~, cirunia Cnxcoua +yuu-
+o om eco~, cmc o(uoio ucnoncia +yuu+o om eco~, ecnyume-
eocu~ |MM. Bin. 1O. ciapi: crn. 7584]. Ha niouc ucournn
Pocroncioio c nrncx nropon nononnui XVII n. uy(o ucue:e-
nuu ecnooomoeo~ uanncauo cpc(n ncucncunn om e:o:no o:e:-
nu~, oenenno o:e:nu~, n:anncunn cumnui, ioropan y+o
u:cmynuuo~ |Hiouoipaqnn pocroncinx 1998: ^ 11].
3auacrym cnxnroxi onc:ucn, ccnn oun noomc onncinamr-
cn, oia:inamrcn o(nuaionixn. B nrnn Canni Cropocncioio
nonnnncrcn cnc(ymman nocnc(onarcniuocri ncucncunn: aun-
nna Ionoruniona o0epu+y e+y cymu cmy0enou ne+omuu~,
onxara 4c(opona o0epu+y e+y iouu moeo e o:e:niu
cmy0enou~, ucnoncia u+ene+ Cooy, mou+ e ne0yeo+ o0epu-
+o~ |MM. Bin. 1O. ciapi: crn. 82]. Hpn rox nocnc(ucc
uy(o nxccr ua:naunc O ucue:enuu ecnyumoeo~. Cnyia rncpcio-
io onpnua Iopnca 3axapinua 4c(op, coinacuo nrnm iun:n
4co(opa Pocrncnannua, comcn c yxa, ipi: nnori, n:piian
xyni ua cnnroio 4co(opa n onrcni |MP. Ku. (on. 1.
Ccurnpiciapi: 117]. Cxnrcunc yxa, ioropoc n no:(unx
n:(aunnx yc ua:inacrcn cyxacmccrnncx, n ucioropix cny-
uanx oia:inacrcn cnuounxox o(cpnxocrn: 1i: o0un ue:o-
oe .` u npume: y ueeo o cmumeuue ym, mo umo yoc oo:o0eoo:
npu ou0e eeo .` 1eo npuoe::u o +onocmipi Bce+u:ocmuooeo
Cnoco u npeno0onoeo Cepeuu u nouo:u c:yumi o ne+ +o:een. B
+mo co+oe ope+u :omonu:u neui o mpone:e. H oom, oo ope+u
+o:enoeo nenuu ce ecuooumo oipoo:cu u: py npucmoo:ennix
ne+y :u0e, npueo: o mpone:y u pocu:cu o eopumyu neui~
1
|MP 1993. Ku. 2.: 179; ni(cncuo xuon. 1.M.]; Xeno neou,
u+ene+ Mompono .` muuxe npuu:o o c+umenue y+o. 1:u:ue
ee npuoe::u ee o +onocmipi Bce+u:ocmuooeo Cnoco, o epoy
npeno0onoeo Cepeuu. 1o +o:eno+ npoou:e ee npuou:o:u y :oon-
nuui~
2
|Tax c; ni(cncuo xuon. 1.M.].
cnn n cnyuac nccx npounx uc(yion onncaunc crpa(ymcio
iai npannno oipaununnanoci napon cnon, ro auaxuc: o(cpn-
xoio uamc (pyinx :acnynnan no(pouon xapaircpncrnin. B
nrnn Canni Cropocncioio +yuu+i om eco~ ciruni Cnxc-
ou ue:ooeu euuu u ne:enie e:oeo:i e:oeo:uue, ooex e :yi
xonoue~ |MM. Bin. 1O. ciapi: crn. 83]. pyian ecnyu-
1
. . , (7 ).
2
.
233

mou~ :e:o npyouecu u no ue:ooeu :oepcu ycmpe+:uuecu, ooo


no :e+:u nooep:ouecu u neni mououe~ |Tax c: crn. 84]. mc
o(uo onncaunc n: nrnn npcn. Ccpinn Pa(ouccioio:
O ecuymmumcu muomu. 1nouo nei ::e +yuu+ om 0yxo neuu-
cmoeo u npeiooue c c:yomu+u oo oume:u coumoeo; u no +noeu
ope+u cmpoumu ::e, oue+ e iooue peno, u pocmep:ou
eeoue cimoucu o nycminux u no cmpe+nuno+ yuoouecu, u nou
opemoe+ iooue, u +noei+u npuo:ouu+, u e:e:i o:oue u o
epoy coumoeo npuo:eeoxy eeo, peno 0epu+ e, ::e +yuu+, uo
om puuonuu e:oco eeo u coucmonuu ecuunnoeo oce+ yocomucu u
ne +oeymu+ mepnemu; u no0oumeeo e+y o uepou u yuooumycu o
o+enue, u me:y eeo oce+y uepny om pon uo:umucu om :e+noeo
+yuenuu noxo0umoeo eco~ |MM. Bin. 3. Ccurnpi: crn. 146O;
ni(cncuo xuon. 1.M.].
Hanoncc uacroruix npn:uaiox ccuonarocrn, coinacuo n-
rnnuix onncaunnx, oia:inacrcn ynuocri, ncnc(crnnc ucio
o(cpnxoio oiuuo npnno(nr i cnnroxy, cnn:inamr nnn npn-
ioninamr: ,pyeo +y u+ene+ 1o:+o, ue onoenocm npuxo0o
Cuneo0coeo npuu0e o +onocmipi co. Cuono, u+i 0yx neuucm, u
oe0en 0oe+u cu ue:ooeo+o yecmu eeo po0u~
1
|MM. Bin. 11
ciapi: crn. 617, raic cx. crn. 6O1]; 1o cux ope+enex
npuoe0ouo neoeeo unouu cou:ono o +onocmipi, u+ymo ec :um
:e:o~
2
|MM. Bin. 7. Honpi: crn.211]. Dror xornn uamcn
orpacunc n n niouoipaqnn. y(o ncucncunn ccuonaroio
xouo ncrpcrnri ua incnxax nrnnuix niou rcx cnnrix, io-
ropic npocnannnnci rnx (apox. Bo xuoinx cnyuanx ua coor-
ncrcrnymmcx incnxc n:opaancn ucnonci, y(cpnnacxin (py-
inxn nm(ixn, uacro ncamnn ua :cxnc
3
. O(cpnxin poca-
crcn ua nm(cn (cx. npnxcpi nimc), icr ccn n (pyinx.
1
. ,
(6 ), 10 .
2
. (6 ).
3
36 ( , )
, 36 . 1560 . [
2002: 122]; 39 ( )
48 ( : ) 1902 . [
1999: 23]; 11 ( )
. XIX . [ : 30]; 5 (
) . .
XVIII XIX . [ : 31].
,
[Worobec 2001: 44], ,

, ,
[ : 45]. ,
,
. .
.
234 4
Iccuycxoxy ucpc(io npnnncinacrcn ncinmunrcniua cnna:
eco+ +yuu+ :ume nenpecmonno o 0nu u nomu, uo u e:e:niu e+y
y:i copyuomu, u nuuu+e +oeymeu eeo y0peomu uo 0ecumi u:u
+nooe +y penux~
1
|MM. Bin. 3. Ccurnpi: crn. 1534];
1o: npen. .oopenmuu, cpe0u +noeux 0pyeux i: npuoe0en u:
1ueoo 0:u ucue:enuu o0un ue:ooe, o0epu+i eco+, no cmo:io
coupeni+ u cu:ini+, umo mo 0epeoo, omopoe c mpy0o+ +oe:u
nonecmu 1 ue:ooe, on o0un po: :eeo u ompocioo: o0o:i~
2
|MP. 19O4. Ku. 5: 9O8]
3
.
Hco(uoiparuo ncrpcuacrcn xornn uaucccunn ccc rcnccuix
yncunn: Tu+oqe .` ue u+uue :um ec, u om eco uume cu
no e:ooe, u icmi uepoue oo e:ooe eeo~
4
|MM. Bin. 11. ciapi:
crn. 62O]; o uune +o:umoo+u coumix npo:pe:u mpu c:enie
enmuni u ucue:u:oci o0no ecnooomou, omopou o npuno0e
o:e:nu epi::o n:omi coou~
5
|MP. 19O3. Ku. 4: 115]). B nrnn
Bapnaaxa Xyriucioio ror xornn npc(cranncu n nuox napnau-
rc. 3(cci ccuymmnncn oriycinacr ccc nancu n orncr ua
rpconaunc ccon (ari nx :uaxcunc roio, uro ou nonuocrim
nx nonnuycrcn |MM. Bin. 7. Honpi: crn. 212]. Iyncrno
o(cpnxoio uacro nponnnncrcn n rox, uro ou pa:pinacr co-
crncuuym o(c(y: ue +yuu+ e om coepnoeo u neuucmoeo eco,
u pu:i coou ooue~
6
|MM. Bin. 11. ciapi: crn. 62O], .eo
.` u+i 0yx neuucm, 0epu+ mpe+u +yu, uue o po:0po+
pu:i coou
7
|Tax c: crn. 621].
Kai o(uo n: nponnncunn ccuonarocrn n nrnnx onncinacrcn
crpauuan pcui o(cpnxix. B onimnucrnc cnyuacn no(ucpin-
nacrcn cax qair n:xcucunn pcucnoio nonc(cunn: u :e:o puuo-
ue, u ne:eni e:oeo:i e:oeo:ume~ |MM. Bin. 1O. ciapi: crn.
77]; po:y+ eeo nou oo:opomucu, nouom e e:oeo:omu c+ic:eno~
8
|MM. Bin. 3. Ccurnpi: crn. 1535]. B o(uox cnyuac pcui
o(cpnxoio yno(onncrcn ionocax nnoruix: 1o cux e
ope+enex npuoe0ouo neoeeo unouu, cou:ono o +onocmipi, cou:o-
no y:o+u, u+ymo ec :um :e:o; :ouue o uo nec u pioue uo
com, u +noei u unio e:oci neno0oni ucnymoo ecnooonue+
coou+~
9
|MM. Bin. 7. Honpi: crn. 211].
1
. . () (25 ).
2
. . , (29 ).
3
(3 ) [.
. 10. : . 75].
4
, 20 .
5
. (19
).
6
, 17 .
7
. 21 .
8
. . ().
9
.
235

pyion xapaircpuin nrnnuin xornn ro oiucuuic xyuc-


unn ccuonaroio: 1nouo e nemo, u+ene+ Huo:o, 0e+onic-
u+ +yuenue+ o0epu+, :eome uecmi +ecuueo, oene+ oe:uu+
eo+~
1
|MM. Bin. 11. ciapi: crn. 629]. cnn n (auuox iou-
rcicrc cunc oiucx xapaircpn:ycr caxo cocronunc onc:un,
ro n (pyinx ciopcc xoxcur n:ncucunn: B oume:i npeno0ono-
eo Coooi i: npuoe0en ecnooomi no u+enu Hy0o. Bo ope+u cooep-
uenuu +o:eno coumo+y Coooe, ecnooomi :opuuo:: Tuo +ne:
u ceopou~, u momuoc e c0e:o:cu :0opoo. 1oe0o eeo cnpocu:u, no-
ue+y on mo cu:ino :opuuo:, on co:o:: H ou0e: :oeo:ennoeo cmop-
uo. On cmou: no epoe npeno0onoeo Coooi, 0epo: pecm u ocenu:
u+ +enu. Om +moeo pecmo uou:oci oe:uoe n:o+u u ono:u:o +enu
oceeo. Bom om ueeo u :opuuo:, u +mu+ n:o+ene+ omoenon i: om
+enu neuucmi 0yx~
2
|MP. 19O3. Ku. 4: 7O]; O ecnyume+cu
oe:+ou .` 1puoe0eny e e+y iouy o +onocmipi, npeno0oni
u:i0e u: uepoe, nocu pecm o pyue; ee0o e :no+enoue eeo, +yuu-
+i pinyo oe:ue+ e:oco+, oue omcouu om +ecmo moeo. 1e e :u:
+ecmo moeo oo0o om nooo0nenuu copoouucu, eu e ou0eo o:ini,
ooepecu o nu, e:oeo:u: o:e ny0o n:o+enu ceeo cmpounoeo! H om-
mo:e ucue:e :oeo0omuu Xpucmooou u +o:umoo+u coumoeo u po:y+
eeo nou oo:opomucu, nouom e e:oeo:omu c+ic:eno. Bocnpocuuo
e eeo o nux e oonuuue: on e nooecmoyu, e:oeo:oue: uo ee0o
npuoe0ocmo +u npeno0ono+y, u ee0o xomuue +u :no+enomu pec-
mo+, moe0o ou0ex n:o+eni oe:u ommy0y ucxo0um, ue u oceeo +u
opyu; moe0o ooepieoxcu o oo0y: +nex o, uo ceopemu u+o+ om
n:o+enu onoeo~
3
|MM. Bin. 3. Ccurnpi: crn. 1535].
Tpeunxn
Tpcrnn rnn ncrouunion cnannucinc n cocrncuuo pyccinc
Tpcunin, n ioropic inn ncpcucccui ucioropic :ainnua-
rcniuic xonnrni n: ipcuccinx nxonoincn. Oun ncrpcuamrcn
yc n inaionnucciox muo-cnannuciox nxonoinn XI n. |An-
xa:on 19OO: 85], n pyccinx Tpcuniax :aqnicnponaui uaunuan
c XV n. |Po:on 1976: 321].
Kai orxcuacr A.H. Anxa:on, npn ncpcuocc :ainnuarcniuix
xonnrn n: ipcuccinx nxonoincn n pyccinc crpyirypa unuonoc-
nc(onaunn n:xcunnaci. B ipcucciox ncuaruox nxonoinn, ua
ocuonc ioropoio cocrannnncn pyccinn Ionimon Tpcuni, :ai-
nnuarcniuic xonnrni ua n:iuaunc ccon inn noxcmcui
or(cniuo or rai ua:inacxoio Moncuoio nocnc(onaunn
4
, npc(-
1
. . . (6 ), 4 .
2
. () (3 ).
3
. . ().
4
50 , ,
, , ,
.
236 4
ua:uaucuuoio (nn omnx npaucnarcniuix ucncn |Anxa:on
19O1: 11]. Hpn cocranncunn pyccioio Tpcunia :ainnuarcniuic
xonnrni (ua(nncauuic nxcuaxn cn. Bacnnnn Bcnnioio n
Hoauua 3naroycra) |Anxa:on 19OO: 85] inn i ucxy npncoc(n-
ucui. Tou+ opo:o+, nnmcr A.H. Anxa:on, nyme+ +exo-
nuuecoeo npucoe0unenuu ,Mo:eno+y noc:e0ooonuu" :o:uno-
nu, o pycco+ Tpenue opo:ooo:oci o0no ue:oe, o0no uunonoc-
:e0ooonue .` 1poo0o, npu ynompe:enno+ :0eci +exonuueco+
npue+e, o opo:ooooue+cu uunonoc:e0ooonuu omopou uocmi cmpo-
0oem no:ni+ omcymcmoue+ oux i mo nu i:o ycmoonix :o+e-
uonu, u nomo+y 0emo:u ee npu+enenuu no npomue cooepuenno
ne ucni~ |Anxa:on 19O1: 13].
Huixn cnonaxn, ro unuonocnc(onaunc, ioropoc npncyrcrnona-
no n Ionimox Tpcunic, co(cpano roniio rcicri :ainnua-
rcniuix xonnrn n uc (anano uniainx cnc(cunn ua npc(xcr
concpmcunn caxoio opn(a. 3(cci, npan(a, uyuo :axcrnri, uro
pa:nnunc n coorncrcrncuuo ipaunua xc(y Moncuix Hocnc-
(onauncx n unuox n:iuaunn :noio (yxa, nxcmman onpc(cncu-
uin cxicn (nn Anxa:ona, nccnc(onanmcio ncropnm n roio, n
(pyioio, nnonuc ncponruo, uc cymccrnonann (nn cnnmcuunion,
opamanmnxcn i Tpcuniy. Oa or(cna xoinn (cncrnnrcniuo
nounxaricn iai o(uo ucnoc, i(c nocnc omcn npaucnarcniuon
xonnrni cnc(onann cmc n uccioniio :ainnuaunn, urcunc io-
ropix uc npc(nonaiano uniainx cncunaniuix (cncrnnn. Oco-
cuuocri (auuon cnryaunn :ainmuacrcn n rox, uro cnnmcuuni
xoi noni:onaricn iai uonoopa:onanmnxcn unuonocnc(ona-
uncx (omcc Moncuoc nocnc(onaunc = :ainnuaunn :noio
(yxa), rai n roniio :ainnuaunnxn. Ho n nocnc(ucx cnyuac
niop (cncrnnn npn concpmcunn pnryana nonuocrim :annccn
or caxoio cnnmcuunia.
Ho(pouo pa:paorauuoc unuonocnc(onaunc ccri n Tpcunic
xnrpononnra Kncncioio Hcrpa Moinni, n:(auuox n 1646 i.
Dro nocnc(onaunc nocxo(nr i o(uoxy n: ipcuccinx pyionncuix
nxonoincn |Anxa:on 19O1] n ninmuacr ucnin pn( (cncrnnn,
conpono(ammnxcn n ncpcxcammnxcn urcunnxn Innnn n
:ainnuarcniuix xonnrn. Ho, iai nipa:nncn o(nu n: ncropnion
oiocnycuon iunuocrn, mpenu ne npuu:cu~ |Hcropn-
uccioc oo:pcunc 1857: 98]. B 1662 i. npn narpnapxc Hoacaqc II
in n:(au pyccinn Tpcuni. Hxcuuo ou n ncnoni:onancn n
onxo(c Pyccion Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn.
Cnouic oruomcunn xc(y Mocinon n npc(crannrcnnxn in-
cncioio (yxoncucrna (na(i npnno(nnn i n:iuaunm xanopoc-
cnncinx cnnmcuunion n: Mocini: ncpnin pa: npn narpnapxc
Hoainxc, nropon pa: yc n cnuo(aniuin ncpno( npn ia-
rcpnuc II. B pc:ynirarc yc n nocnc(ucn rpcrn XVII n. Tpcuni
237

Hcrpa Moinni in orucccu i uncny coxunrcniuix, cio ncnoni-


:onaunc uc noompnnoci oqnunaniuon Hcpionim, uo unioi(a n
uc :anpcmanoci. Mnrpononnr Maiapnn, uanpnxcp, nnmcr o rox,
uro 0ocmouncmoo +moeo Tpenuo npu:nooo:uci oce+u .` ,o u
nine eme +i opomoe+cu unoe0o Tpenuy 1empo Moeu:i, o mex
c:yuoux, no omopie o nouux oe:uopyccux mpenuox nem uuno-
noc:e0ooonu~ |Hcropnn Pyccion Hcpinn 19O9: 611]. B 3O-x ii.
XIX n. n ncpno( ocp-npoiypopcrna n Cn. Cnuo(c ipaqa Hpo-
racona n:yucunc incncioio Tpcunia (ac ino ninmucuo n
on:arcniuym ccxnuapciym npoipaxxy |3uaxcucinn 1996: 338].
O(uaio, uccxorpn ua ncpno(i nonniuocrn Cnuo(a i roxy
Tpcuniy, xucunc o cio yinoucunn n narnucrno oia:anoci
oucui nnyunx n coxpaunnoci nnnori (o ccio(unmucio (un.
yxacrcn, uro (ac rc ncpcn, ioropic noni:onannci Tpcuniox
n Bcnniopoccnn, xorn n uc cipinann roio qaira, uo n uc
aqnmnponann cio.
Oman iaprnua, iaiym pncymr ncpc( uaxn rpn ocuonuix rnna
ncrouunion o o(cpnxocrn, oia:inacrcn cnc(ymmcn.
Bo-ncpnix, ouapynnacrcn :axcruoc cxo(crno xc(y onnca-
unnxn npnna(ion ccuonaroio n nrnnx n uanm(cunnxn
ua( nonc(cuncx inniym, c(cnauuixn n XIXXX nn.
K uncny uanoncc npinx npn:uaion inniymccrna oiuuo
oruocnr on:ui cnnrocrcn, yncrno, ncinmunrcniuym cnny n
cncunqnuccioc pcucnoc nonc(cunc. Bcc rn xornni uaxo(nr
napanncnn n nrnnuix paccia:ax. cripc yia:auuix npn:ua-
ia o(cpnxocrn, ioucuuo, ynpomamr pcaniuym iaprnuy
nponnncunn n:xcucuuix cocronunn co:uaunn n pyccion (c-
pcnuc. 4opxi nx a(anraunn nxcmr :uaunrcniuoc uncno napn-
auron n xcunmrcn no npcxcun n npocrpaucrnc. Ho (ac raioc
oruocnrcniuo cxcxarnuuoc no(onc iacrcn y(nnnrcniuix. B
cnocx nccnc(onaunn T.K. Ocrcppcnx ionopnr o napa(oicaniuox
cxo(crnc xc(y onncaunnxn pcaniuix npncrynon o(cpn-
xocrn n nncncinxn cmcraxn, cnn:auuixn c ron rcxon
|Ocstciicicl 1999: 4]. Ho nonc(cunm ccuonaroio n nncnc-
inx rcicrax y(cnncrcn :uaunrcniuo xcuimc nunxaunn
1
, ucx n
nrnnx, i(c ror cmcr nonyuacr cncunaniuym pa:paoriy.
1
,
[. 8: 2834, . 5: 116, . 8: 2940].
[. 9: 17, . 9: 32].
[. 9: 18].
,
: : ,
. : [.8: 3132]; , ?
! , , . , :
[. 1: 2425].
238 4
Bonpoc o npnpo(c cxo(crna xc(y ruoipaqncn o(cpnxocrn
n cc nrnnuixn onncaunnxn, rcx uc xcucc, iacrcn pnropn-
uccinx. Mi xocx n panuon crcncun (onycrnri oa nciropa
nnnnunn n xo(cnn rcicr nonc(cunc. Huixn cnonaxn,
uccxorpn ua ro, uro nrnnuic innmc inn n onimnucrnc
cnocx :anxcrnonaui n: nn:aurnncinx ncrouunion, onpc(cncu-
uic pnropnuccinc npncxi onncaunn o(cpnxocrn, no:xo-
uo, no(ncpiannci ioppciunn ua xccruon nounc. B ro c npcxn
n caxn nrnn xoinn iri ncrouuniox (nn ioucrpynponaunn
nonc(cunn inniym. Ho, iai i rax un ino, ccnn paccxarpn-
nari nrnn iai o(nu n: ocuonuix ncrouunion, qopxnpymmnx
on(aunn cnnmcuunia, ro uyuo npn:uari, uro rn on(a-
unn inn no xuoiox nn:in on(aunnx cio npnxoau.
Hpc(cranncunn o qcuoxcuonoinn nponcxi, rpcymmcn nxc-
marcnicrna cncunanncra, c ucx n onimnucrnc cnyuacn ino
cnn:auo ono:uanaunc inniymccrna, oia:inannci omnxn (nn
ncpccn n ipccrinu.
Bropon xoxcur cnn:au c ococuuocrim nucrnryunouaniuon
cropoui opn(a i:opun:xa. cnn paccxarpnnari npanocnan-
uic Tpcunin iai iunin, qnicnpymmnc iauounuccinn no-
pn(oi concpmcunn rpc, ro uyuo npn:uari, uro pnryan n:iua-
unn cca oruocnrcn i uncny npanocnanuix opn(on, nnmcuuix
iauoua. Biop anropnrcruoio ncrouunia no npannnax concp-
mcunn pnryana uc onpc(cnnncn Hcpionim n ron crcncun, n
iaion roio xouo ino i on(ari. Opncurnpynci ua xccr-
uym xouacripciym nnn npnxo(ciym rpa(nunm n nnuuic npc(-
nourcunn, cnnmcuuni n ia(ox cnyuac (oncu in cax onpc-
(cnnri, uro nxcuuo cunrari iauouox. B rox cxicnc Tpc-
unin oia:inannci roniio o(unx n: norcuunaniuix ncrouun-
ion nuqopxaunn, uapn(y n uapanuc c (pyinxn. Cnnmcuuni,
cnammnn orunrinari, xoi ncnoni:onari xoncuoc nocnc-
(onaunc n: Ionimoio Bcnniopoccioio Tpcunia, concpman
pnryan ua cocrncuuoc ycxorpcunc, nocnoni:onaricn Hocnc(o-
nauncx n: Tpcunia Hcrpa Moinni n, uaioucu, uc noni:onari-
cn un o(unx n: unx, nonaianci n ncnonucunn unua ucnniox n
nonuocrim ua cocrncuuin onir n noopacunc.
Hoanvnxa a ovuomeunn pnvyaaa nsruauna ecoa
Ococuuocri poccnncion cnryaunn :ainmuacrcn n rox, uro
nucrnryunouaniuan cropoua opn(a i:opun:xa n n ucnox
n:anxooruomcunn cnnmcuunia n ccuonarix uc ina ucrio
onpc(cncua, n cnnmcuuniy npc(ocrannnnaci oniman cnoo(a
n niopc (cncrnnn n nx oncucunn. Hocioniiy unu i:opun-
cra n Hpanocnanuon Hcpinn orcyrcrnonan, caxo nonocunc
n:iounmmcio ccon cnnmcuunia oia:inanoci uconpc(cncu-
uix. Touucc, n:iuaunc ccon ncpccranano iri on:auuoc-
239

rim roio nnn nuoio ncpcn n, oncc roio, noomc ncpccranano


iri ou:onnocmiu. Hpanocnanuan Hcpioni unioi(a uc :anpc-
mana cnnmcuuniax n:iounri ccon, uo no(ouan (cnrcni-
uocri oia:inanaci n cqcpc nnuuon ioxncrcuunn ncpcn.
Kai n (ocnuo(aniuin, rai n n cnuo(aniuin ncpno(i Hcpio-
nim uc npono(nnoci uniaion nonnrnin no ycrauonncunm c(n-
uoopa:nn n ncnonucunn unua. Ha nporncunn XVIIIXX nn.
no:nunn Hcpinn n oruomcunn caxoio inniymccrna n uy(cc-
uoio ncucncunn o(cpnxix uco(uoiparuo xcunnaci. B
XVIII n., n ncpno( airnnuon opii c cycncpnnxn, o(unx n:
uanoncc npinx nonnomcunn ioropix cunranoci inniymc-
crno, Cnuo( (ononiuo cicnrnuccin oruocnncn i coomcunnx
o ncucncunnx y pa:nnuuix cnnriui, n rox uncnc n paccia:ax
o n:iuaunn ccon cnnmcuuniaxn. Bnpoucx, uniainx oqn-
unaniuix :anpcron ua nponc(cunc caxoio pnryana i:opun:-
xa n ror ncpno( rai n uc nocnc(onano
1
.
Taic ucn:nccrui cnyuan uaia:aunn cnnmcuunion :a nponc-
(cunc roio opn(a. (nucrncuuoc ncinmucunc niionop,
c(cnauuin npnxo(cioxy cnnmcuuniy, cnynnmcxy xoncui
n ipccrinuciox (oxc (nn n:iuaunn n: ucio ucuncroio (yxa
|Po:auon 187O: 3O6]. B uauanc XIX n., no nipacunm I. 4pn:a,
Pyccian Hpanocnanuan Hcpioni ncpcxo(nr or nonui c ua-
po(uix naiouccrncx i npnxnpcunm c unx |Iicczc 1998:
231235]. B cnocx crpcxncunn noccrauonnri craryc oqnunani-
uo npn:uauuix cnnriui Cnuo( npn:uacr n nponcxo(nnmnc y
unx ncucncunn ccuonarix (ncucncunc ipccrinuin, o(cpn-
xon ccaxn, or nioui Ka:aucion Ioncn Marcpn n Cnxo-
uonox xouacripc; ncucncunc cumnui or nioui Ioncn
Marcpn n Houacnciox xouacripc (1833 i.) |Iicczc 1998: 233,
234]. Kai nnmcr K. Bopocu, i iouuy XIX n. Hpanocnanuan
Hcpioni oia:anaci n cocronunn oopoui. 1 npuxo0u:oci
omcmouoomi ,oo:+onocmi uy0ecnoeo" oo oce o:ee cey:upu:y-
ume+cu omecmoe~ |Woiobcc 2OO1: 26]. B ro npcxn uncno
npn:uauuix uy(ccuix ncucncunn cmc oncc no:pacracr
|Woiobcc 2OO1: 2123].
1
, XVIII .
[ V: 2906 (1715), 2985 (1716); VI: 3963 (1722); X: 7450 (1737); XVII:
12568 (1766); XIX: 13427 (1770)], ,
.
.
,
:
<> <>
, //

(. : [ 2002: 58]).
240 4
Bo nropon nononnuc XIX n. pnryan n:iuaunn ccon oia:ina-
crcn n ucurpc ypuon (nciyccnn xc(y ncnxonoiaxn n cnnmcu-
uniaxn. B uanoncc ocrpox nn(c xc(nunucian rouia :pcunn ua
orunrinaunc ina n:nocua npnnar-(oucurox Toiapcinx:
1. Cymecmoooonue omuumioonuu o mo qop+e, o ono npomu-
yemcu o nocmoumee ope+u, nee:ome:ino. 2. Ono no00epuooem
cymecmoyumue npuno0u u ycu:uooem ux. J. Ono oi:iooem nyme+
no0poonuu npuno0u y :uu npe0pocno:oennix, no ne u+eouux
ux poniue~ |Toiapcinn 19O4: 29]. Pcaiunn cnnmcuunion ua
noppomuo opouo~, iai ua:nann xc(nunucinn (nciypc o inniy-
mccrnc A.A. Hauucuio n C.A. Hripion |Hauucuio, Hripion
2OO1], ina c(nuo(ymua. 3o noc:e0nee ope+u, nnmcr cnn-
mcuuni Mnxann, o eo:emox u 0oe 0yxoonix ypno:ox oico-
:ioo:oci 0ooo:ino epyoe neoepue o peo:inocmi imuu ::ix 0e+o-
nuuecux cu:, o poono oico:ioo:uci o:e:u0i nenpoou:inie no
npupo0y, coocmoo u cnoco 0ecmouu +mux ::ix, opo0enix
ue:ooey cu:~ |C-o Mnxann 19O3: 1]. Ocnapnnan (ono(i npoqcc-
copa H.A. Cniopcioio, onncanmcio ncnxonarnucciym nn(c-
xnm inniymccrna, o(nu n: ncpccn nnmcr: umoi u::euumi
ocuux noponouoo, +o:eoonueo u 0yxoopueo |inniymccrno pac-
cxarpnnacrcn nx n rox pn(y. 1.M.], neoxo0u+o yucnumi
nponooe0iu ouuy, o omopyu onu ono:u, cuumou uo:enuu eco.
:o uo:enuu 1oeo, opomumi ux 1ocno0y Hucycy Xpucmy~ |I. C.
1893: 594]. Ho (ac n ro npcxn uc nonnnnoci uniainx ycran-
uix uopx ncnonucunn pnryana.
Ho(ouan cnryaunn npnncna i roxy, uro n XIX n., ioi(a n:iua-
unc ccon crauonnrcn nonynnpuix n cpc(c (yxoncucrna n
nonyuacr no((cpiy n o(opcunc co cropoui oqnunaniuoio
ucpionuoio pyiono(crna, caxa npouc(ypa ncucncunn nxcna
oipoxuoc uncno napnauron. Cy(n no nxcmmnxcn xarcpnanax,
pnryan i:opun:xa ncci(a npc(nonaian urcunc. Ho npn rox
ia(in cnnmcuuni, no nccn nn(nxocrn, caxocronrcniuo pc-
man nonpoc o rox, uro nxcuuo unrari n iainxn (cncrnnnxn
conpono(ari urcunc. Orunrinannci o(cpnxic xonnrnaxn
Oruc uam, Hapm Hcccuin, ocronuo ccri, a nocipcc-
ucr Ioi, unrannci or(cniuic crnxn n: nauicnnn, Hcanripi
|Honon 19O3: 268, Ynorpcncunc 1857: 836]. nrannci n coor-
ncrcrnymmnc Hocnc(onaunn n: Ionimoio Tpcunia n Tpcun-
ia Hcrpa Moinni. K cocrncuuo orunrinaunm npncoc(nun-
nnci, nn(nxo, n cncunaniuic orucruic xoncui |Honon
19O3: 392]. cncrnnn, ioropixn conpono(anoci orunrina-
unc, npc(crannnmr cmc onimcc pa:uoopa:nc. 3(cci n noxa-
:inaunc cnccx, n oiponncunc cnnron no(on, n ncunc ucriaxn,
n npnnocunc io ipccry.
241

Hosnuna caameuunxa vs. uosnuna upnxoau


Cncunqnia nucrnryunouaniuon cropoui opii c ccaxn n
Pyccion Hcpinn crannr ncpc( uaxn nonpoc o pa:nnunnx/cxo(-
crnc ucpionuon n uapo(uon rouci :pcunn ua nnncunc.
Hcioropoc pacnpocrpaucunc n pyccion:iuuon nccnc(onarcni-
cion nnrcparypc, nocnnmcuuon inniymccrny, nonyunna n(cn
npornnonocranncunn (nyx iouucnron o(cpnxocrn inniy-
mccrna/nopun n ccuonarocrn. Honropnn nino(i H.B. Kpa-
nucioio, A.C. uanpon nnmcr o cocymccrnonaunn n uapo(uon
rpa(nunouuon iynirypc oonx iouucnron. B iauccrnc inanuix
npn:uaion, cnn:auuix c iouucnrox inniymccrno/ccuona-
rocri, A.C. uanpon paccxarpnnacr (ocrarouuo ucrio nipacu-
uym n(cm o nccncunn cca iai npnunuy inniymccrna n
coorncrcrnymmym rcpannm opamcunc :a ncucncuncx i cnn-
mcuuniy; inniymccrno/nopua accounnpymrcn c orcyrcrnncx
ron n(cn n npc(cranncunnxn o rox, uro onc:ui ni:naua
nopucn, a n:anncunc xocr (ari roniio ion(yu |uanpon
2OOO: 379381].
Hccxorpn ua ro, uro A.C. uanpon n (auuox cnyuac ionopnr o
(nyx cocymccrnymmnx n uapo(uon cpc(c n o(uo n ro c npcxn
iouucnrax o(cpnxocrn, n (naxpounuccion ncpcncirnnc ou
npc(nounracr paccxarpnnari nx iai 0oo c+enuumux 0pye 0pyeo
ooucnenuu o0noeo u moeo e uo:enuu~ |Tax c: 38O, npnxcu. 9O].
1oemcu, nnmcr anrop, umo no:i:yumucu onpe0e:enno
onopo o uepoono+ yuenuu onuenm ,ecoo0epu+ocmu" 0o:en
i: co ope+ene+ oimecnumi mpo0uuuonnoe npe0cmoo:enue o ,nop-
ue". Heomopyu xpono:oeuuecyu eponi +ono npooecmu no ypoo-
ne 1-x1&-x ee. ec:u oo ope+u :yxcoeo (1:1 ee.) u:u
uycoeo (1-e ee.) npoueccoo peui u:o o nopue, mo ye o
co:0onnix o 1-x ee. ,Xumuu" npomonono Aoooy+o u ,1ooecmu
o ecnooomo ene Co:o+onuu" 0o+unupyem onuenm ecoo0ep-
u+ocmu~ |uanpon 2OOO: 381]. Bn(nxo, onnpanci ua nino(i
A.C. uanpona, o ron c npcxcuuon ipaunuc nnmcr n A.A. Hau-
ucuio: Bno:ne oepoumno, umo u+enno o X111 o. :uyuecmoo i:o
unopnopupooono o oeoc:yeni ouxo0. 30eci ono, no-ou0u+o-
+y, cmo:ny:oci c ou+u-mo ye cymecmooooouu+u npomuo-
+u +:opuu:+o, +oem imi, +onocmipcoeo npoucxo0enuu. Ho
+mo nouoe u po:ouoo:uci moue cneuuquuecue peouuu :uyu,
o ,ou:ni coumocme" u npuno0u oo ope+u Xepyou+co~ |Hau-
ucuio 2OO2: 34O]. Taion nino( npc(crannncrcn uc nnonuc iop-
pciruix.
ro iacacrcn cpanucunn xarcpnanon nyxcioio n myncioio npo-
ucccon c Xnrncx Annaiyxa n Honccrim o ccuonaron cuc
Conoxounn, ro pa:nnunc ncnoni:ycxix n unx rcpxnuon cnn-
:auo orum(i uc c n:xcucuncx rpa(nunn, a roniio c pa:nnuncx
242 4
aupon. B nrnnx XVXVI nn. rcpxnui ccoo(cpnxocri n
ccuonarocri npc(cranncui rai c, iai n n naxnruniax roio
aupa oncc no:(ucio npcxcun. B xarcpnanax cy(cuix (cn
XVIII n XIX nn., rai c, iai n n oncc pauunx xarcpnanax,
rcpxnu ccoo(cpnxocri uc ncnoni:ycrcn.
Bonpoc o rox, xoino nn inniymccrno iri nuiopnopnponauo
n oiocnycuin onxo( n XVII n., ciopcc, pnropnuccinn. cnn
xi (onyciacx cymccrnonaunc n ro npcxn iainx-ro npairni
i:opun:xa, ro, oucnn(uo, rn npairnin (onui inn n:anxo-
(cncrnonari c rcxn nnn nuixn qopxaxn nonc(cunn, nurcpnpc-
rnpycxixn cnnmcuuniaxn iai o(cpnxocri ccaxn. H ccnn
npc(nonaiari, uro npc(cranncunn o inniymccrnc/nopuc n
ipccrinucion iynirypc cymccrnonann (o XVII n., ro nx croni-
uoncunc c npairniaxn (yxoncucrna xouo oruccrn n i oncc
pauucxy npcxcun
1
.
Hponcxarnuuo uc roniio onpc(cncunc iouipcruon (ari cxc-
ui o(uoio iouucnra (pyinx, uo n caxa nocrauonia nonpoca o
croniuoncunn n ror nnn nuon xoxcur poccnncion ncropnn (nyx
xo(cncn inniymccrna ccuonaunn n nopun.
Cnc(yn roxy no(xo(y, xi (onui (onycrnri, no-ncpnix, cy-
mccrnonaunc n ror nnn nuon ncpno( poccnncion ncropnn iap-
(nuaniuix cncrcxuix pa:nnunn xc(y ucpionuon n uapo(uon
rouiaxn :pcunn ua o(cpnxocri, no-nropix, no:xouocri
cymccrnonaunn o(uoio iouucnra c: (pyioio. Oa (onymcunn
iayrcn xuc nccixa coxunrcniuixn.
nn pcioucrpyiunn cnryaunn, npc(mccrnonanmcn XVIII n., y
uac uc(ocrarouuo cnc(cunn. B ornnunc or 3ana(uon nponi,
i(c i:opun:x yc n XVXVI nn. in n ucurpc onnncuuon
(nciyccnn, a ucnin pn( cnyuacn n:iuaunn ccon oia:ancn
xopomo (oiyxcurnponauuix naio(apn cy(cuix npoucccax
2
,
n Poccnn auanoinuuan cnryaunn cnonnaci roniio i XVIII
XIX nn. crccrncuuo, uro npnxan npociunn iaprnui roio
npcxcun ua oncc pauunc ncpno(i ina i ucioppcirua. Ho,
no-ncpnix, auann: cnryaunn XVIIIXIX nn. (cnacr no:xouix
1
, XI .
XVIXVII . [Worobec 2001: 191].
.
.. [ 1996: 82],
,
XI . [ 1855: 6, 8]. XVIXVII ., . , , ,
.
,
.
2
.
XVII . : [Levi 1988].
243

nccnc(onaunc cocymccrnonanmnx n o(uo npcxn rouci :pcunn ua


o(cpnxocri, no-nropix, caxa ra cnryaunn xocr paccxar-
pnnaricn iai pc:ynirar nponcxo(nnmnx paucc npoucccon.
B npornnonocranncunn (nyx iouucnron o(cpnxocrn nccnc-
(oarcnn npn(amr onimoc :uaucunc rcpxnuonoinn onncaunn
onc:un, ncnoni:onaunm nounrnn ccuonaunc nnn nop-
ua. Cqcpa ironaunn rcpxnua ccuonaunc nccnc(onarcnnxn
oiuuo cooruocnrcn co cpc(on (yxoncucrna, uo ra cnn:i (anc-
io uc cccnopua.
Marcpnani XVIIIXIX nn. cnn(crcnicrnymr o rox, uro cnnmcu-
unin, uapn(y c ua:naunnxn ccuonaunc n o(cpnxocri
ccaxn (a nuoi(a n nxccro unx) ncnoni:ymr uapo(uic ua:na-
unn: inniora, niora, nopua. B 1751 i. apxauicnoiopo(c-
inn cnncion nncan n Cnuo( o rox, uro n cio cnapxnn o0un
uomnu u ce+i uomnuu o 1eopo:ico+ u Me:enco+ ye:0ox,
omopie cicuooumcu~ (Hnr. no: |Mnxannona 2OO2: 58]). Toi(a
c ncpcncnancian (yxonuan ioucncropnn (ouocnna, uro o +o-
oco u+co c:oo0e onopyeno :uyuo, eno u+muo~
|Tax c]. Coinacuo (oucccunm n: npocnancion cnapxnn, ina
yc+ompeno, no u+eume+cu mo+ uepoono+ ocxo0e, ne:noo+ou
0eoo, puuomou neoiuno, uo :uyuo~ |Tax c]. B (ouocc
177O i. cnnmcuuni Haion Tnxoqccn uanncan o rox, uro (ncua(-
uarnncrunn xaniuni Hauqnn o no0oue :uyu oieooop uunum
nmuuiu+ u coouiu+ eo:oco+u u mo no0 nu+ mo uopo0ecmoo
yuunu: me u+eno u no:iooem~ |Tax c].
B XIX n. ncnoni:onaunc uapo(uix rcpxnuon cnnmcuuniaxn
raic uc ino pc(iocrim. B iauccrnc npnxcpa npnnc(cx orpi-
noi n: pyionncn, uacrnuuo onynnionauuon u.B. Ocrponcion.
Pyionnci npc(crannncr coon orncr ccnicioio cnnmcuunia Tox-
cion iy. ua npoipaxxy Icoipaqnuccioio omccrna. Ho paccia-
:y cnnmcuunia, o(ua n: xccruix ipccrinuoi, y0yuu ne o cu:ox
oimepnemi 0ecmoue nopuu~, opamacrcn i ucxy :a noxomim.
C +oe cmoponi, nnmcr ncpcn, o ce+ oue+ nonymenuu
nu o0no+y o:ino+y ne i:o omo:o~. Cnnmcuuni unracr ua(
ipccrinuion n rcucunc (nyx (ucn :ainnuarcniuic xonnrni.
Hooneu .` u npuo:o: Bopoope npomuo ee e:onuu oinumi u:
cmoono ocoemenni e:e, ynompe:ue+i 0:u no+o:onuu o:i-
nix; oe0o ono ynompeu:o e:e ce .` u::eoo:o u: ceu opocu
oe:uuuno o uemoepmi, +o:eniux +iue u :ueyue 0o uecmu,
opoci u cuu onu eo0i i:u ye noope0uouuecu u npuxo0u:u o
i ye o enu:ocmi .` H c moeo ope+enu ono :0opooo u :oeo-
no:yuno~ (Hnr. no: |Ocrponcian 1975: 137]).
auuin npnxcp, xorn n nxccr uccioniio auci(ornuccinn xa-
paircp, npc(crannncr coon o(nu n: nnonuc ncponruix cnyuacn
nurcpnpcraunn o(cpnxocrn nnn inniymccrna cnnmcuun-
244 4
iox. Hpnxo(cion cnnmcuuni :(cci npnunxacr npc(naiacxin
cxy npnxoauaxn rcpxnu nopua, n, uccxorpn ua raioc noun-
xaunc npnunui onc:un, oxoruo cpcrcn :a ncucunc. Onn-
caunc ncxo(a onc:un cnnmcuuniox raic nonropncr pnro-
pniy ipccrinucinx onncaunn
1
.
Bo nropon nononnuc XIX n. no(ouan cnryaunn, ncponruo, ina
ncc-rain pc(iocrim. Ho cmc n npc(cnax XVIII croncrnn oua
nnonuc xoina iri npannnox, a uc ncinmucuncx n: ucio.
Hopa:nrcniuan ioxoicuuocri ucpionuon (npnxo(cion) n ipc-
crinucion (raic npnxo(cion) rpa(nunn yc uco(uoiparuo
no(ucpinnanaci n nccnc(onarcnicion nnrcparypc.
ac n rcx cnyuanx, ioi(a cnnmcuunin noni:onannci rcpxnua-
xn ccoo(cpnxocri nnn ccuonarocri, nx n:inn( ua npn-
po(y onc:un uc ncci(a ornnuancn or npc(cranncunn ipccri-
nu. O(nu n: uanoncc npinx npnxcpon n:nccruoc (oucccunc
cnnciona Hopqnpnn 1754 i. Bioi no ipa(c Cy(anc ion(on-
crno n nonmccrno yxuonnoci. Ho cnonax ncpcn, n cio nna-
(cunnx nonycmum uopo0e eco no ue:ooeo, om omopoeo cmpo-
0ymu ue:ooe +yuu+ u mep:oe+ :ume upe: +noeue uoci, :u0e
e:ue:ooeuno nopeooem, uem, epi:em u ycoem :yo+u, co+ o cee
e:uyocmoen eeoem no y:uuo+, u mo ycu:umcu, umo u 0ecumi
ue:ooe mooooeo y0epomi ne o cocmounuu~ |Cxnnnucian 1989:
259]. B rox (oucccunn cnncion npocnn ncpcnccrn cio ua
(pyiym iaqc(py, npn:uanan cnoc cccnnnc n crpax ncpc( uapo-
(cnxn. B Honon Cipnann apxncnnciona Bcunaxnua o(-
uon n: uanoncc nonynnpuix n XIX n. iuni, noncunmmnx
:uaucunc ucpionuix pnryanon, rai ionopnrcn o Hocnc(ona-
unn xoncuox o ucxomuix, oypcnacxix or (yxon ucuncrix n
cryacxix: Cue noc:e0ooonue +o:enoe npuno0:eum 0o mex
ne+omnix, omopie om 0yxoo neuucmix neomopi+ nono0enue+,
upes oo:meuym xumpocmo uu uux npousooumox me:ecno u 0yueo-
no oypeooumcu, u u: moeo po::uuni+u c:oocmi+u nenpecmonno
cmyoe+i iooum~ |Bcunaxnu, 1853: 156; ni(cncuo xuon.
1.M.]
2
.
cncrnnrcniuo cymccrncuuic pa:nnunn n no:nunnx cnnmcuun-
ion n npnxoau npocncnnamrcn n oruomcunn rcpannn o-
nc:un. B iauccrnc o(uoio n: inanuix npn:uaion, cnn:auuix c
iouucnrox inniymccrna/nopun, A.C. uanpon ua:inacr ror
1
30 . XVIII ., , 12 ,
. ,
[ 1897: 283287].
XIXXX . [ 1993: 15].
..
[ 2000: 301].
2
XX .
245

qair, uro n:anncunc or onc:un xocr (ari roniio ion(yu


|uanpon 2OOO: 379381]. cnn oria:aricn or pa:(cncunn inn-
iymccrna/nopun n inniymccrna/ccuonaunn, ioropoc npc(-
naiacr nccnc(onarcni, a paccxarpnnari pa:nnunc rouci :pcunn
cnnmcuunia n ipccrinu, ro xouo ncpcqopxynnponari cio
nino(: ccnn n cpc(c xnpnu xoinn iri pacnpocrpaucui oc
xo(cnn nonc(cunn n cnyuac inniymccrna opamcunc n i
ion(yuy, n i cnnmcuuniy, ro, c rouin :pcunn npc(crannrcncn
(yxoncucrna, no (auuix XVIIIXIX nn.
1
, cnnmcuunin inn
ona(arcnnxn ncinmunrcniuon xouononnn ua ncucncunc.
nn ncucncunn ncpcn noni:onannci caxixn pa:uoopa:uixn
cpc(crnaxn. Hoxnxo pcioxcu(aunn concpmari nanoxunuccrna
i cnnrix xccrax, yccp(uo xonnricn n conm(ari nocr, ucioro-
pic cnnmcuunin raic concpmann pnryan i:opun:xa.
naaor caameuunxa n upnxoau
A.A. Toiapcinn npnno(nr no(pouoc onncaunc pnryana orun-
rinaunn. Anrop uc oionapnnacr, n iaion nxcuuo ucpinn nnn
ucpinnx ou uanm(an no(ouic cnyi. Mouo npc(nono-
nri, uro pcui n(cr o o(uox nnn uccioniinx xocioncinx
xpaxax: Cnxouon xouacripi, cnannnmnncn orunriaxn niy-
xcua Mapia, nnn Cnnro-Tponuian nanpa no( Mocinon, iy(a
raic crcianoci ucxano nanoxunion n nonciax ncucncunn.
ac n coipamcunn paccia: Toiapcioio :aunxacr uccioniio
crpaunu, rcx uc xcucc, n npnnc(y ni(cpiy n: ucio: Mo:umoi
uumoumcu onpe0e:ennie, ocee0o o0nu u me e c ne:nouume:ini+u
ocmooo+u, u:+enuumu+ucu coomoemcmoenno c:yuou+ .` me-
nue +o:umo npou:oo0umcu oo ope+u c:yi u:u noc:e nee o po:noe
ope+u, c+ompu no npunumo+y o 0onno+ +ecme oiuou, o0un, 0oo
u:u mpu po:o o 0eni .` 1oe0o nocmynoem ope+u omuumioonuu,
no o+oone cmooumcu ono:o npomuo uopcux opom, :uuo+ omo-
po+y cmonooumcu uumoumu. Heomopix o:inix no+emoum
oinooenno ye o nouo:e c:yi y no0nouu o+oono no no:y u:u
no oo-nuy0i no0cmu:e, npuue+ conpooo0oumue ux :uuo
opomoum onu+onue, umoi, :ooci no no: u:u no0ou oo ope+u
npuno0o, onu pocno:oeo:uci eo:ooo o:mopu. Hnoe0o o:inix
:o0ym no no: npu co+o+ nouo:e umenuu, y0epuoou ux o :eoue+
no:oenuu .` Menee c+e:ie u:u +enee npuou:eeupooonnie o:i-
nie no+emoumcu o0o:ee om o+oono u puuom u omoumcu no
no:y, +o:o opomou no ceu onu+onuu .` Bcope noc:e moeo o
npou:nocumcu nepoie c:ooo +o:umoi, o:inie nouunoum npuxo-
1
(16561660 .), XVII .
. .:
, ,
(. : [Kivelson 1991: 76]).
246 4
0umi o oo:nenue. Onu nepe+enuum no:oenue, :opiooum e:o:o
u:u :omioum yuu. 1me uepe: neomopoe ope+u po:0oumcu ocpu-
uoonuu, noo om0e:inie, +o:o :ooucu+ie 0pye om 0pyeo .`
Cnouo:o npou:nocumcu ooc:uuonuu o po0e ,nycmu, ocmooi" .`
Copo, onpoue+, uo:uemcu ooc:uuonue, onpe0e:enno om:uuoume-
ecu om npenux, nonp.: ,nepecmoni uumomi". Bo:e:oc icmpo
noomopuemcu 0pyeu+u, unoe0o mo e oopiupyuci: ,nepecmoni
uumomi, uui :ouumo:, 0opoo:cu, omnycmu" u np. .` To o
uy+ u pu +oem no ope+eno+ :oe:yuumi umenue, mo ono
npepiooemcu unoe0o 0:u oo0oopenuu no0:eomeeo cnoocmouu,
umo 0ocmueoemcu u:u umenue+ ooqucmoo u:u onyuume:ini+u
:o+euonuu+u coumennuo .` To, o0no0i, oe0o o0no o:inou,
no u+enu 1omepuno, cmo:o oipuuoomi o pe0y po:nie encue
u+eno, conpooo0ou ux +noeouuc:enni+u, ne ocee0o npu:uuni+u
+numemo+u .` +mo oi:oo:o co cmoponi coumennuo epo+oe
copocmuuecoe ooc:uuonue: ,1omepuno xopouo", :ocmoououee
1omepuny y+o:nymi. H:u oe0o mo u:u 0pyeou o:inou iemcu
ocoenno cu:ino, oipioouci u: py opyoumux, po:0oemcu npu-
o:onue: ,A no0ome-o +ne ee cu0o, nycmi-o ono :0eci nopu-
uum". H umenue npo0o:oemcu 0o:iue. Hnoe0o cpe0u ecnopu0ou-
nix c:oo u :oyoo, npou:nocu+ix o:ini+u, oo ope+u umenuu
po:0oumcu u pyeome:icmoo, opomennie 1oey, uepou, xy:o no
pecm. H cnooo epo+u+ onyuume:ini+ eo:oco+ npou:nocumcu:
,1pecm xponume:i oce:enno, pecm uepou pocomo, pecm uop-
cmoo 0epooo, pecm c+epmnix ymoep0enue, pecm onee:oo
c:ooo, pecm 0e+onoo u:oo" .` 1puoe0ennie c:ooo npe0cmoo:u-
um coou uocmi ooqucmo Xuoomoopume+y 1pecmy. B 0pyeux
c:yuoux uumoumcu ooqucmi Hucycy Xpucmy u:u 1pecoumo
1oeopo0uue .` Bnpoue+, ne ocee0o ooc:uuonuu coumennuo
opo0e ,ne c+e, :o+o:uu" u:u no0onix oiuenpuoe0enni+, oo:i-
ooum cooe 0ecmoue, u o:inie npo0o:oum puuomi u opox-
momicu. Toe0o npu+enuumcu cpe0cmoo 0pyeoeo xopomepo. H:u
nocmyuoonue Tpenuo+ no eo:ooe, u:u nocmyn:enue noeo no
o:inoeo, u:u :ou+onue eeo eo:ooi +e0y cmynnu+u noe uumo-
umeeo, 0:u ueeo o:inoeo momom o+oony, u:u y0opi uemo+u u
np. .` Ho unoe0o u +mo ne 0ecmoyem, u pu, nenue u eoo:m
npo0o:oumcu, cooepuenno :oe:yuou umenue, moe0o coumennu
npepomoem umenue .` Heomopie o:inie o npuno0e oo:y-
0enuu oipiooumcu u: py 0epomux u pocoumcu coumennuy,
+oem imi, c ue:iu y0opumi eeo. Toe0o on pocoem o nux umo-
nuy0i, nonpu+ep, :o:o0y u: Tpenuo, o no+ npuxo0u:oci +mo
ou0emi .` Hooneu umenue, npo0o:ooueecu oo:o uoco, unoe0o
o:iue, npuxo0um onuy .` Hocmynoem nooi om no+o-
:ioonue e:ee+ o:inix .` 1o+o:iooumcu po:nie +ecmo me:o
ne ocee0o o0unoooo. Heomopie cuumoum neoxo0u+i+ no+o:i-
oomi noeu +e0y oce+u no:iuo+u, mo o nepe0o ec yxo0um o
noeu. ,pyeue ne 0e:oum +moeo. Boome npucymcmoue eco o mo
247

u:u 0pyeo uocmu me:o y:noemcu no mo+y, umo o:inou nouunoem


puuomi, umo ee em o oene+, ec:u o no+o:onno+ +ecme
noxo0umcu ec, moe0o o o npomuono+ c:yuoe omnecemcu no+o-
:ioonuu cooepuenno cnoono .` Hnoe0o oo ope+u no+o:onuu
e:ee+ 0e:oumcu :o+euonuu, ono:oeuunie me+, omopie npuoe0eni
oiue, uocmo moe o omoem no oue-:uo ooc:uuonuu o:inix.
,O, omuuu, y0em, y0em, puuum, nonpu+ep, o0no oo,
:oompo y0y, :oompo y0y". ,Hem, ne o0un", 0e:oemcu oo:poe-
nue. ,,oo, 0oo, oo y0e+". ,Hem, o:iue". ,Ce+epo, ce+epo".
,Hoc ce+i po: ce+epo", puuum coce0o. ,Co:ono, u: ocex
cycmoooo oi:e:o", onyuume:ino :o+euoem coumennu, no+o-
:ioou o:eno mpemie o:ino, u m.0. :mu+ oonuuooemcu opu0~
|Toiapcinn 19O4: 41O].
Honropnmmnccn no xo(y nccio paccia:a nipacunn nuoi(a,
no npcxcuax, n (pyinx cnyuanx, ioucuuo, ni:naui rcx, uro
Toiapcinn oc(nuncr :(cci uanm(cunn uccioniinx orun-
roi. Hoia:arcniuo, uro ncc ucxuoinc onncaunn no(ouix
pnryanon crponrcn no roxy c npnuunny ncpcuncnnmrcn
no:xouic napnauri nonc(cunn cnnmcuunia n o(cpnxix.
Taian pnropnia paccia:on no xuoiox oycnonncua rcx, uro
uanm(ammnc concpmcunc opn(a crauonnnnci cnn(crcnnxn
uc roniio pa:uoopa:nn noianiuix napnauron pnryana, uo n cio
napnaunn n ncnonucunn o(uoio n roio c ucnoncia.
Pnryan i:opun:xa n onncaunn Toiapcioio nxccr qopxy no-
cronuuoio (nanoia cnnmcuunia n npnxoau iai ncpaniuo-
io, rai n ucncpaniuoio. cncrnnn :ainnuarcnn :auacrym oia-
:inamrcn ucnocpc(crncuuon pcaiuncn ua nonc(cunc ccuyc-
xix n uaoopor. B ucioropix cnyuanx cnnmcuuni, nn(nxo, :a-
paucc on(acr onpc(cncuuoio :uaia co cropoui o(cpnxon
(no npcxn noxa:aunn cnccx ou paccunrinacr ycnimari ipni o
rox, uro cumnuy cr iai oiucx), n (pyinx niop (cncrnnn
ocymccrnnncrcn npnxo no xo(y cnyi (ou in(acr :aina(iy n:
Tpcunia nnn icr oniuym Tpcuniox no iononc).
Xorn n onimnucrnc cnyuacn nanoxunin npnc:amr ua orunr-
in n: pa:uix xccr, pnryan i:opun:xa iai i no(no(nr no(
omnn :uaxcuarcni ncc xuoioopa:nc noianiuix oniron npn-
xoau n onir caxoio cnnmcuunia. Huixn cnonaxn, pnryan
crponrcn rainx opa:ox, uro uc xcmacr inniymax ncpnri n
ro, uro oun ncnopucui, nnn n ro, uro oun o(cpnxi cca-
xn, panuo iai uc rpcycr on:arcniuoio niopa xc(y rnxn
(nyxn oncunrcniuixn xo(cnnxn n or caxoio cnnmcuunia.
H Acuniu om no:oo, no 2 :em nocoennix, u om nouo:inuo
ux, ce0oeo cmopuo~, opamacrcn i o(uon n: oniuix
cnnmcuuni |Toiapcinn 19O4: 8]. Bonpoc o rox, ncpnn nnn uc
ncpnn npon:uocnnmnn rn cnona ncpcn n ro, uro y nocacuuix
248 4
ua 2O ncr ccon uauaniuni cc(on crapni, uc rai y nacu.
Pnryan i:opun:xa no:nonnn ynnaricn concpmcuuo nporn-
nononouix rouiax :pcunn.
Honyunnman mnpoioc pacnpocrpaucunc n iouuc XIX n. xc(n-
unucian xo(cni oncucunn inniymccrna uamna ccc cro-
pouunion n cpc(n npc(crannrcncn (yxoncucrna. Muoinc cnn-
mcuunin uauann paccxarpnnari inniymccrno nno iai npn-
rnopcrno n cycncpnc, c ioropix cnc(onano oporicn, nno iai
onc:ui, ncucncunc or ioropon npnxoauax cnc(onano nciari
n oniunuax, a uc n ucpinnx. O(uaio cicnrnuccinn n:inn( cnn-
mcuunion ua npnpo(y inniymccrna uc xcman ipccrinuax
opamaricn i unx :a orunrion. Tainc npnxcpi inn pac-
cxorpcui B.K. Maiaponon |2OO2: 13614O]. Cncunqnia no-
(ouix cnryaunn :ainmuanaci n rox, uro (cncrnnn cnnmcuunia
no-pa:uoxy oucunnannci caxnx ncpccx n npnxoauaxn. Cnn-
mcuuni crpoinx ionocox niunrinacr xunxix, no cio xuc-
unm, inniym, ncnnr ia(on n: cumnu no nnri pa: ncpcipc-
crnricn n (acr npnnonricn io ipccry |Tax c: 138]. Xorn cax
cnnmcuuni n rox cnyuac npcinacr n yncpcuuocrn, uro opcrcn
c cycncpncx, ipccrinuc pacucunnamr cio (cncrnnn iai cncun-
aniuoc :ainnuaunc. Hcuc:uoncunc ccuonarix n cnocx npn-
xo(c cnnmcuuni npnnncinacr noc(c ua( xacconix npnrnop-
crnox, ipccrinuc y(anmcxycn orunrinaunm |Tax c: 139].
Mouo npc(nononri, uro opn( n:iuaunn ccon co:(anan
ycnonnn (nn ucnocpc(crncuuoio iouraira (nyx rpa(nunn
cnnmcuunia n cio nacrni. Hpnucx i:opun:x in uyri nn uc
c(nucrncuuon qopxon opn(onon (paxi, i(c npnxoauc, uapn-
(y co cnnmcuuniox, ncnonunnn inanuic ponn.
Iy(yun (nyxn oncunrcniuixn xo(cnnxn o(uoio nnncunn,
inniymccrno/nopua n inniymccrno/ccuonarocri uc cxc-
unmr (pyi (pyia, iai nonaiacr A.C. uanpon, a cocymccrnymr,
craninnanci ia(in pa: npn n:anxo(cncrnnn cnnmcuunia n
npnxoau. Cnc(crnncx rnx croniuoncunn crauonnrcn pa:nnu-
uic qopxi a(anraunn n:xcucuuix cocronunn co:uaunn, n
pa:nnunn xc(y unxn uc xoiyr iri onncaui roniio n paxiax
npornnonocranncunn ccuonarocrn n nopun. B :anncnxoc-
rn or n:inn(on cnnmcuunia, ron crparcinn nonc(cunn, iaiym ou
n:npan npn omcunn c inniymaxn, a raic, ncponruo,
uannunn y ucio xapn:xi n cpc(c cio npnxoau uaunuana (oxn-
unponari ra nnn nuan nurcpnpcrarnnuan xo(cni roio nnncunn.
roi nponnnmcrpnponari ror rc:nc, ocrauonnxcn oncc no(-
pouo ua cnyuac, npon:omc(mcx n uauanc XX n. Pcui n(cr o rai
ua:inacxox anrciox ncnxo:c |Bioncuio 1911; Kouoncinn
1912]. Dro ua:naunc nonyunna cnocopa:uan nn(cxnn inniy-
mccrna, pacnpocrpaunnmancn n oipyic i. Ianri (Icccapann).
249

3(cci n xouacripc npononc(onan n orunrinan o(cpnxix


ncpoxouax Huuoicurnn. io npononc(i n caxix omnx ucprax
cno(nnaci i uccioniinx yrncp(cunnx: pc:ynirarox ucnoncucc-
inx nopoion, oxnarnnmnx nccx nm(cn, crano nx orcrynncunc or
Ioia n nccncunc n unx (innona; (innon nccnncrcn n nnor ucno-
ncia, naio(apn ucxy nponcxo(nr nioria, niipninnaunn, pno-
ra, cy(opoin n norcpn co:uaunn; ocnoo(nricn or (innona, co-
inacuo npononc(n Huuoicurnn, xouo, oria:anmnci or iypc-
unn, ninucrna, npncian i ycnncuuix xonnrnax, orunrinaunm,
xo(cunnx no xouacripnx n nocprnonaunnx n nx noni:y; (nn
ycrpaucunn rncnix cnxnroxon, ni:nauuix npcinauncx n uc-
noncic (innona, ucoxo(nxo concpmari ipccruoc :uaxcunc oco-
ix opa:ox (rpn ncpcra (onui iri npncranncui (pyi i (py-
iy, uroi (innon uc xoi npociounri xc(y unxn); ipccruoc :ua-
xcunc uyuo concpmari xc(ncuuo, uauocn rncp(ic y(api no
rcny |Kouoncinn 1912: 152].
Ianrcinn xouacripi cran ucurpox nanoxunuccrna nrcncn nn-
anmnx yc:(on, xuoinc n: ioropix no no:npamcunn n: xouac-
ripn uaunuann ipnuari, na(ari n cy(opoiax, ionopnri, uro n unx
cn(nr (innon. B nncixc i cnnciony Knmnucncioxy n Xornu-
cioxy Ccpaqnxy ipccrinuc c. Icnay:i Knmnucncioio yc:(a nn-
cann: Ho noc o uuc:e JJ ue:ooe opyuu:cu eneo 1ou: c neomo-
poeo ope+enu y noc nouou:uci npuno0u no0yue o:e:nu, npu omo-
pix +i ono0oe+ o ecno+umcmoo u +eue+cu no :e+:e~ |Tax c: 165].
B.C. Bioncuio, npono(nnmnn ocnc(onaunc n uccioniinx cc-
nax Auauicncioio n Tnpacnonicioio yc:(on Xcpcoucion onac-
rn, oriy(a raic pciynnpuo ycrpannannci nanoxunuccrna n Ian-
ri, ouapynn n (. opyun ipynny xono(ix nm(cn 1518 ncr,
ua:inammnx ccn xyucuniaxn, a npnna(in, nponcxo(nmnc c
unxn, xyucunnxn. Cnom onc:ui, iai nnmcr xc(ni, oun
uc cunramr onc:uim, a ua:inamr cc naio(arim Ioia, u:poo-
ueeo neomopix :u0e, o mo+ uuc:e u ux, ucynumi coou+ +yuenu-
e+ :0eci no :e+:e coou epexu u epex ux po0ume:e~ |Bioncuio 1911
Mapr: 196]. Oa ncnxnarpa no(ucpinnann poni, ioropym ciipa-
nn n qopxnponaunn ncnxo:a anrcinn ncpoxouax n uccioni-
io ncpccn, npononc(onanmnx n cocc(unx xouacripnx.
nn uac n (auuox cnyuac naui (na xoxcura. Bo-ncpnix,
cnnmcuuni npc(naiacr (ocrarouuo cncunqnucciym nurcpnpc-
raunm ccuonaunn, cymccrncuuo ornnuammymcn or opro-
(oicaniuon. Bo-nropix, cio xo(cni oncucunn npnna(ion
uamna orinni n cpc(c nanoxunion n, n cnom oucpc(i, cnpono-
unponana nx ua caxocronrcniuym i:cic:y nnncunn
1
.
1
.. , .
, , ,
[ 1912: 157].
250 4
Hpnxcpi nu(nnn(yaniuon nurcpnpcraunn cnnmcuuniaxn
o(cpnxocrn uco(uoiparuo ncrpcuamrcn n n xarcpnanax
XVIIIXIX nn. B cnyuac c anrcinx ncnxo:ox npononc(i
o. Huuoicurnn npnunxacr qopxy crpoioio yucunn
1
. Bo xuoinx
(pyinx cnyuanx y uac nno ucr cnc(cunn o raiox yucunn, nno,
uro ciopcc nccio, pcqncicnn cnnmcuunia ocracrcn n npc(cnax
niopa rcpxnuon (nn onncaunn nnncunn n crparcinn nonc(cunn
c npnxoauaxn.
Pnvyaa axsopunswa a cpeae upnxoau
Pa:uoopa:nc npairni i:opun:xa n (ocrynuocri no(ouoio (n-
anoia co cnnmcuuniox, no nccn nn(nxocrn, crann inanuixn
npnunuaxn ipanucn nonynnpuocrn pnryana n uapo(uon cpc(c.
Pa:(cncunc xc(y opamcuncx i ion(yuy n cnnmcuuniy (ncp-
noc n cnyuac nopun, nropoc ccoo(cpnxocrn), npc(-
nocuuoc A.C. uanponix |uanpon 2OOO: 37938O], npc(crannn-
crcn uc nnonuc rouuix. Ho xarcpnanax XIXXX nn., opamc-
unc i cnnmcuuniy ino uc ncinmunrcniuon xcpon, a o(uon n:
ucnoio pn(a no:xouix xcp no ycrpaucunm onc:un, cpc(n io-
ropix n nonci :uaxapn, n noc:(in i pa:nnuuix cnnriunx.
Ha ocuonaunn (cn Tcunmcncioio mpo I. Honon npnmcn i ni-
no(y, uro cu:ini+ cpe0cmoo+ pe:ueuo:noeo onyuenuu uo:uemcu om-
uumioonue, noc:e0nuu u co+ou ponuu +epo npu :uyuecmoe,
noc:e npu+enenuu omopo ocuoe 0o:ineuee :euenue :uyuu
oinooenno npu:noemcu ye ecn:o0ni+~ |Honon 19O3: 392].
Hpnxcpi nocnc(onarcniuoio opamcunn i (cpcncucinx :ua-
xapnx n cnnmcuuniax ncrpcuamrcn n n (pyinx onncaunnx |uax-
rnu 191O: 15O159; Kpanucinn 19OO: 1O2; Maiapona 2OO2: 136].
Hoxnxo opamcunn i ion(yuy n cnnmcuuniy, cymccrnonan cmc
o(nu nn( rcpannn inniymccrna orunrinaunc cncrcinx
nnuox. B Op:ooco eyepnuu 0:u u:enonuu u: :uyuu neuucmo-
eo 0yxo oinooenno nonu+oum ooeo-nuy0i cmopuo-epo+o-
meu, omopi u 0o:en uumomi no0 o:ino no :opu+ (sic)
po::uunie +o:umoi. Honumi cmopu uo:uemcu o 0o+, cmono-
oumcu nepe0 onuueu, ouepuuooem oopye ceu ye:e+ mpu po:o,
umoi :o +my uepmy ne nepeue: neuucmi, u nouunoem omuumi-
oomi, pocmueuoou c:ooo~ |Hpion 1996: 1O4]. B Bacnnicypciox
yc:(c Hnciopo(cion iy., no xarcpnanax Tcunmcncioio mpo,
omuumioonue cooepuoemcu u:u coou+u 0o+ounu+u cpe0cmoo+u,
u:u e, umo oceeo uome, nouemuuo+u, ocoenno c:ooumu+ucu
1
:
.
,
, [ 1911 :
232], .
251

o+ecme c nouumonnocmiu oecmoennix nue u npooe0nocmiu


cooe u:nu. 1 nu+ npue:oum c o:ini+u u nepe0o ocmoo:uum
ux no umie, umoi npomu ycmonoo:enni ypc :euenuu. On
:o:uuoemcu o mo+, umo nouemuu, no neco:io po: o 0eni u no
neco:io uocoo, uumoem no0 o:ini+ ycmonoo:ennie +o:umoi,
o0um :o0ono+, opi:euooem coumo oo0o u np. Omuumiooe+i
oo ope+u :euenuu oinooenno numoemcu o0no mo:io oo0o u
npocqopo+u, 0pyeo e numu e+y ne 0oemcu .` Hnoe0o no:yuuo-
uux u:oecmnocmi nouemuuoo, omuumiooumux ecnooomix u o0ep-
u+ix, npue:ououm u no 0o+~ |Honon 19O3: 269]. O(ua n:
nanoxunu n Caponcinn xouacripi, i(c xouaxn raic :aunxa-
nnci ncucncuncx o(cpnxix, uc opamanaci :a noxomim un
i :uaxapnx, un n oniunuy, paccia:an npn rox, uro cmopou
0eoo mo:io omuumioo:o +enu c 1co:mipe+ y noc, o 0epeone~
|Hninrnu 19O3 ^ 1O: 749]
1
. B ucioropix cnyuanx n ponn :ai-
nnuarcncn xoinn nicrynari n npninamacxic cncunaniuo cra-
poopn(ui |umnxon 18581859: 499].
auuic npnxcpi cnn(crcnicrnymr o npouniuoncunn opn(a
i:opun:xa n uapo(uym cpc(y. Ho cyrn, (cpcncucinc cncun-
anncri nnn crpaucrnymmnc oioxoniui pa:iipinamr (cn-
crnnn cnnmcuunia. umoniruo ro, uro, no nccn nn(nxocrn,
nxcuuo n raion, cciynnpuon, cpc(c pnryan nonyuacr cnoc cran-
mcc i ccpc(nuc XIX n. uanoncc pacnpocrpaucuuix ua:naunc
orunria.
Oucnn(uo, ror rcpxnu nxccr uapo(uoc nponcxo(cunc. Xorn
B.B. Bnuoipa(on cunran cio npnxcpox ioueeo npoqeccuono:i-
noeo ,uepoonopycu:+o"~ |Bnuoipa(on 1994: 426], ou, ncponruo,
omnancn
2
. nn raioio nino(a y uac ucr uniainx ocuonaunn.
Ho xonx uanm(cunnx, rcpxnu orunrinari n :uaucunn 'nc-
ucnnri urcuncx` uc ncrpcuacrcn n ucpionuon iunuocrn nnnori
(o ccpc(nui XIX n. B xarcpnanax cnonapn H.H. Cpc:ucncioio
|Cpc:ucncinn 19O2] n oncc no:(ucio cnonapn (pcnucpyccioio
n:iia XIXIV nn. |CB 2OOO] ucr nciccxi orunrinari. Cno-
napi pyccioio n:iia XIXVII nn. qnicnpycr roniio (na :uauc-
unn roio cnona: 'or(cnnri, onnnnri uynx, ucpo(crncuuix`
n 'orcunrari`, a n qopxc orunrarncn 'or(cnnricn, orpciari-
cn or po(crna c icx-nno` |CPB 1988: 66; KCOB]. B ucpionuo-
cnannuo-poccnnciox cnonapc 1834 i. orxcucuo :uaucunc 'ncpc-
cranari unrari, npnno(nri i iouuy urcunc` |Coionon 1834: 312].
Tc c :uaucunn cnona orunrinari ccri n n cnonapc ucpionuo-
1
,
, . [1893: 76].
2
, ,
( ..
. .. [1995]).
252 4
cnannucioio n pyccioio n:iia Hxncparopcion Aia(cxnn uayi
1847 i. Ho :(cci raic npnno(nrcn :uaucunc 'urcuncx nauic-
nnn, nnn :ainnuarcniuix xonnrn, ncucnnri ccuycxix` c npn-
xcpox: :mom :oeouecmuoi uepo+onox omuumo: ye +noeux ne-
cuocmnix |CHCPB 1847: 14O]. Ha xarcpnani roio cnonapn cci-
nacrcn n B.B. Bnuoipa(on. Hpnxcp raioio cnonoynorpcncunn
nnmcu n cnonapc iaion-nno apxcoipaqnuccion cnpanin, uo
xouo npc(nononri, uro :(cci ino npounrnponauo o(uo n:
nynnuncrnuccinx counucunn ccpc(nui ncia.
Tcpxnu orunrinaunc npnxcunrcniuo i opn(y n:iuaunn
ccon nonnnncrcn n XIX n. npc(c nccio n nynniaunnx cicn-
rnion ro xc(nunucinc paori, ncropnuccian nynnuncrn-
ia n paccia:i cnnmcuunion, rpairymmnx inniymccrno n
rcpxnuax onc:un, cycncpnn nnn npnrnopcrna. B ron cnn:n
xouo yrncp(ari, uro cnono orunrinaunc co :uaucuncx
'ncucnnri urcuncx` n pycciox nnrcparypuox n:iic yc n xo-
xcur cnocio nonnncunn nxcno uciarnnuym oipaciy. Hpc(crann-
rcnn (yxoncucrna, npairniymmnc n ro npcxn no(ouic pnry-
ani nnn paccxarpnnammnc nx iai nponnncunn ncrnuuoio na-
iouccrnn, rnx rcpxnuox uc noni:ymrcn, npc(nounran iono-
pnri o nnncunnx cca n opic c unx. Kai npc(crannncrcn,
raian cnryaunn cnn:aua c rcx, uro c no:nunn xuoinx cnnmcu-
union cocrncuuo opn(a n:iuaunn ccon uc cymccrnonano.
Toiapcinn, npornnonocrannnn xonnrny i cnnroxy n orunri-
naunc iai 0oo nymu opomenuu 1oey :o no+omiu o o:e:nu~,
nonaiacr, uro nocnc(unn nyri npc(crannncr coon noniriy
ycmonooumi onpe0e:ennie npue+i, c no+omiu omopix +oem
imi 0ocmuenymo u::euenue .` B +mo+ onopyuooemcu ye
cmpe+:enue co:0omi neumo opo0e oecmoenno meponuu, no:i:y-
uci omopo +ono, mo co:omi, :oponee poccuumioomi no
uy0o~ |Toiapcinn 19O4: 2]. Hpornnoccrccrncuuocri opn(a
ucpionuoxy npc(cranncunm o uy(c, ioropan iacrcn oucnn(uon
xc(niy uauana XX n., uc xoina iri nounrua conpcxcuuix cxy
cnnmcuuniax. H:iuaunc ccon (nn unx uc ino cnn:auo c
ycrauonncuncx onpc(cncuuix npncxon. Kai nnmcr niyxcu
Mapi, cax :aunxanmnncn ncucncuncx o(cpnxix, oo:+o-
nocmi e cymecmoooonuu ecnooomix o 0ecmoume:ino o0ep-
u+ix ::i+u 0yxo+u Hepooi npu:noem me+, umo u+eem ocoi
uun ,O u:oo:enuu om 0yxoo neuucmix~. :mo noc:e0ooonue o+ecme
c me+ ompiooem no+ u neco+nennyu oepy Hepou o cu:y u+enu
Xpucmo u uuuym Hm nucmopum Hepuou ,o:ucmo uu ueuucmomu
yxumu, umoo useouumo ux"~ |Mapi 1899: 24; ni(cncuo xuon.
1.M.]. Huixn cnonaxn, Hcpioni npn:uacr cymccrnonaunc c-
coo(cpnxix n cnocouocri cnnmcuunion n:iounri ccon. Ho
n:iounmrcn oun cnnon nxcun Xpncra nnn caxnx Hncycox
Xpncrox, omopi coou+ pecmo+ noe0um eco, o ee0neono
253

u noe0oem, u:eonuu eeo u: ecnooomix :uyu, umo +ono


ou0emi oo ocex +onocmipux~ |I.C. 1893: 594].
B iourcicrc ipccrinucion qoniinopuon rpa(nunn cnono or-
unrinari uc nxcno uciarnnuix iouuoraunn. Hpnxix (oia:a-
rcnicrn roxy, uro n ipccrinucion cpc(c ror rcpxnu (o ccpc(n-
ui XIX n. npnxcunncn i n:iuaunm ccon, y xcun ucr. Koc-
ncuuo o rox cnn(crcnicrnycr ror qair, uro xarcpnani co-
crncuuo XIX croncrnn qnicnpymr pn( npon:no(uix or ucio
qopx n uccioniio :uaucunn, cnn:auuix c urcuncx. B cnonapc
B. ann npnno(nrcn cnc(ymmnc :uaucunn: orunrari, orun-
rinari 'iouunri urcuic, ncpccrari unrari`; oeo, 'ncucnnri
urcuicx nauicnnn nnn :ainnuarcniuix xonnrn`, '(cnari :axc-
uaunc, niionop, npounrari uoraunm`; orunraricn, orunri-
naricn 'iri orunrauy; or(cnaricn or ucio, ocnoo(nricn
urcuicx` (Heuucmi npuou0e:cu, nocu:y omuumo:cu om neeo!) n
qopxi: orunrinarcni, orunrarcni, orunrinarcniunua, orun-
rarcniunua, oruoruni, oruorunua 'iro orunrinacr ioio, nnn
onc:un` |ani 1994 II: 1989, 199O]. B cnonapc pyccinx uapo(-
uix ionopon npnnc(cui :uaucunn cnona orunrinari, nnnm-
crpnpycxic npnxcpaxn XIX n.: 1) 'unrari xonnrny ua( yxnpam-
mnx`; 2) 'urcuncx xonnrn orno(nri ion(oncrno, cnacari ioio-,
uro-nno or :nix uap` |CPHI 1989: 366].
Ho nccn nn(nxocrn, naio(apn cnocxy mnpoioxy pacnpocrpa-
ucunm n XVIIIXIX nn. n ucnpcxcuuoxy ncnoni:onaunm n xo(c
opn(a urcunn pnryan n:iuaunn ccon, concpmacxin cnn-
mcuuniox, nonyunn n uapo(uon cpc(c ua:naunc orunrina-
unc, orunria, cxicn ioropoio nounxancn ipccrinuaxn iai
ncucncunc nocpc(crnox urcunn. Hxcuuo n urcunn npnxo-
auax nn(cncn inanuin +exonu:+ pnryana. Taioc nounxaunc
orunrin (cnano no:xouix (nn ipccrinu n caxocronrcniuoc
orunrinaunc |Ounucinn 189O: 361, Honon 19O3: 269], n opa-
mcunc :a noxomim n ncucncunn ccuonarix i xnpcinx uaucr-
uniax. B ro c npcxn orunrinaunc crano nounxaricn iai
cnoco opii uc roniio c ccoo(cpnxocrim, uo n c (py-
inxn nponcxaxn: ipccrinuc npocnnn cnnmcuunia orunrari
uonopo(cuuix xna(cuucn, (nn rcpannn (crcinx onc:ucn,
ninunu, cunran, uro cnnmcuuni :uacr cncunaniuoc :ainnuaunc
|Maiapona 2OO2: 135, 14O]. Cnnmcuunion raic npninamann
orunrinari :anoxi
1
ua nonnx |Honon 19O3: 267; Konancuio
1891: 141]. .H. Ymaion npnno(nr innuiy o raion orunric:
O0no o:0yniu ompi:o no 0yxy coumennuy, umo u+eem 0e:o c
uepmu+u u no:i:yemcu ux yc:yeo+u; coumennu no:ou: no nee
1
,
, . , ,
, .
254 4
+numu+uu u :uuu: npuuocmuu. 1o:0yniu 0o:eo ynpouuoo:o cnumi
c nee +numu+uu, no coumennu nocmou: no cooe+. Xe:ou omo-
+cmumi, o:0yniu :opo:oci o oeopo0 coumennuy u c0e:o:o no
onycme :o:o+i. 3o+emuo ux, coumennu npunec o oeopo0 nuey u
cmo: uumomi no0 onycmo; onuy umenuu uo:uemcu o oeopo0
o:0yniu u, pocuouuci o noeu coumennuy, +o:um o npomenuu.
Coumennu npocmu: c yc:ooue+ nuoe0o o:iue ne 0e:omi :o:o+oo.
Ho ocope coumennu :o+emu: :o:o+i no cooux u:onux. Tomuoc
e cxo0u: :o nueo u nouo: omuumioomi ux, oo ope+u umenuu
onooi npueeoem o:0yniu u npocum ne 0ouumioomi nuey u npo-
cmumi ee. Ho +mom po: coumennu 0ouumo: nuey 0o onuo u
oieno: u: co0o o:0yniu, ne npocmuo ee. Jnuumouo :ome+
:o:o+i, on ycnoou:cu. Bcope npueeoem ne+y cin o:0yniu u
npocum coumennuo npuomumi eeo y+upoumyu +omi. Tom 0o:eo
ne coe:ouo:cu, no :ome+ ucnooe0o: u npuomu: o:0yniu. Toe0o
o:0yniu cno:::o c nocme:u no nopoe u y+ep:o o cmpounix +yue-
nuux~
1
.
Hcropnn, ncpccia:auuan .H. Ymaionix, cnn(crcnicrnycr o
rox, uro orunrinaunc n (auuox iourcicrc uc cnyuanuin,
cnuounxnuuin :aionapnnaunm rcpxnu, a ua:naunc onpc(c-
ncuuoio xainuccioio (cncrnnn, cyri ioropoio nn(nrcn ipccri-
nuax n urcunn iai raionox.
Iinnuin o orunrinaunn inn mnpoio pacnpocrpaucui n n
XX n. B Hcioncion onacrn n 1946 i. in :anncau cnc(ymmnn
paccia:: Bom, o:0yni oopomum noe:0 oo:o+. Bom, u xo0u:
0pooo nu:u:, c omuo+ poomo:. To o0un .` On mpu eo0o eeo:
oo:o+, o nomo+ o uepou non omuumo:. To:o no mee uepcmi
ocmo:oci~ |HK].
Coinacuo xarcpnanax XX n., orunrinaunc npnopcracr nnon-
uc onpc(cncuuoc uonoc :uaucunc, crauonnci oxounxox orun-
rinaunm, oo:uauammcxy pnryan n:iuaunn ccon cnnmcuun-
iox. Orunrinaunc nounxacrcn iai xainuccioc (cncrnnc, i
ioropoxy xocr npnciuyri uc roniio cnnmcuuni n uc on:a-
rcniuo c ucnim n:iuaunn ccon n: o(cpnxix. Xy0ie :u0u
cnopmumi +oeym ue:ooeo, o 0e0i omuumiooum, no oo0y noeooo-
puooum, no oepo+no nuee uumoum u xy0o e:o: om ue:ooeo
omoo0um~ (Icnicinn y. Cxoncucion iy.) |CPHI 1989: 366].
Huqopmuum: H [o]om ee oo0u:u. Ono nouooo:o 0oe nouu o :ecy.
1omo+ [o]om oiu:o .` A +i omuumioo:u [o]om, eno cecmpo
u u. Ho Hoonee:u ompioo:u. H ompioo:u mo, umo ono npuy-
0umi. Hy, Hoonee:ue ompioo:u, uumo:u. H +ne [o]om mo oiu-
:o. moou :oe:oouu. mo ono cunemi coo epy: (umo y e i:u
1
. . [ 1896: 174].
255

pycnuui) npu0emi o coo 0o+. 1pu0emi, u y0em +noecmoo


nopo0y, u y0um ee on:ouoomi. H npoo0o. 1puu:o, nopo0 ee
ocmpeuo:. [B]om mo no Hoonee:u co:o:oci~.
Coupume:o: :mo npocmo ompiooum noyeo0 1oonee:ue u uumo-
um~.
Huqopmuum: ,o, uumoumi. H om ee ye omeonuumi ne0opu-
oo
1
, nonu+oeui 1o Hoonee:ue uumoumi. Om emix co+ix,
omopiu :ooe:u ee~
2
|T4HO 2OO1: 259, ^ 242; ni(cncuo xuon.
1.M.].
Hipa accounaunn xc(y n:iuauncx ccon cnnmcuuniox n
orunrinauncx iai xainuccinx (cncrnncx, cnocouix nc-
ucnnri n noxoui n pcmcunn pa:nnuuix nponcx, npnncna i
nonnncunm cmc o(uoio ipyia cmcron paccia:on o ococu-
uon iunic cnnmcuunia. O(nu n: rainx rcicron in :anncau n
Icaunuiox panouc Hcioncion onacrn n 8O-x ii. XX n.: Hi-
eon u oo:o+ :ou:, u :ouo0iu po:, u opono+ :eu:. mo-mo e+y
i:o c0e:onni. 1eo npuoe:u, umo no0numi uepny nuey no0 nu+.
1omuuo no0nu: nuey u 0epo: no0 [n]u+. 1oe0o cmo: omuumi-
oomi, on cooce+ :omux, ne cmo: puuomi~
3
|HK].
B rc c io(i auanoinuuan innuia ironana n Xonxciox
panouc Honiopo(cion onacrn. Toniio :(cci yc cnnmcuuni
unracr uc ucpuym iuniy, a Hpoincuuym. Hcni urcunn
n:annri n(ony or npnxo(nmcio i ucn noionuoio xya. 1po-
:ennou nueo, ionopnr paccia:unua, cnu+oem npo:umue.
umoemcu ne ocuo+y, o xy0o+y, xponumcu o uepou~
4
|T4HO
2OO1: 3O4, ^ 325].
Tainx opa:ox, yncnnunnacrcn norcuunan cmcra o orunri-
naunn. Hcpcuoc aiucura co cnnmcuunia ua cncrcioc nnuo, c
(cncrnnn ua unracxym iuniy (cnacr no:xouix, iai n
nonaiam, nonnncunc xornna orunrinaunn n ucpinn, xopomo
n:nccruoio n cia:ouuox qoniinopc. 3(cci n qoiycc nonccrno-
naunn oia:inacrcn uc cnnmcuuni, n:iounmmnn ccon, a iunia,
c noxomim ioropon ro xocr c(cnari icpon cia:in. Bpinn
npnxcp cia:ia Hnionan y(ornopcu n Hnau iyncuccinn
ciu |CYC 1979: 3O7]. Hnionan y(ornopcu (acr Hnauy, iync-
uccioxy ciuy, iuniy, c noxomim ioropon ror (oncu ninc-
unri ioponcnuy: ,Ho, eooopum, mee nuy, u mee 0o+ u
uumo +ou. 1mo one 0e:omi y0ym, o mi u+ omoumy ne 0ooo
oce uumo!". Bom, umo 0e0yuo oe:e:, on u noc:yuo:, u noue:
1
.
2
. . 1912 .. . 1988 .
3
. . . 1982 .
4
. . 1926 .. . 1987 .
256 4
nouu o uepooi. 1oo u :onep:u. Bom o co+yu no:noui u c0e:o:oci,
mo+ uy+, oepec (sic), nopo:oci no:nou uepoo. Bom one u
puuom: ,O! Ceoo0nu uci neueoo ninue ux coe0u+". A on oce
uumoem. Cu nuy npouumo: noc:e0nee c:ooo. ,A::u:yu,
o::u:yu o::u:yu, c:ooo mee 1oe!". One oce u cpi:uci~
|Coiononi 1999: 373, ^ 77]
1
.
pyion ipyi rcicron, pa:nnnammnx xornn ococuuon iun-
in, innuin o ucpuoiununic. Bna(cunc ucpuon iun-
ion uacro onncinacrcn paccia:uniaxn iai ynnia, cnn(crcni-
crnymman o rox, uro ucnonci ion(yu n :uacrcn c ucuncron
cnnon. Paccia:inan o cnocn cocc(ic, nonnan (axa, ncpcnnan
conparcnn, coomacr: J nee e:o: i: 0ypno, u ono y+e:o
o:0ooomi, y nee i:o uepnou nuo~. Coupume:o: 1o ee
:oo:u~. 1oo 1:ooo, oo 1:ooo. epnou nuo c uepni+
pecmo+, ono y+e:o mo oom :u0u+ 0e:omi ::o .` Hy, ono, oom,
uepny nuy u+e:o, :noouu i:o c neuucmo cu:o, ou0u+o, e
no0o mo i:o 0e:omi~
2
|AHH Y Iarcui99 H46]. Ho noc-
noxnuaunnx .H. Pa:yxoncion, n uccioniinx (cpcnunx Kyui-
nucioio p-ua Hcioncion on. pocco:ioo:u o mouncmoenno
1pucooo nuee
3
, xponumecu y +ecmnix o:0ynoo~ |Pa:yxoncian
1993: 258, npnx. 3].
K rnx paccia:ax npnxiiamr innuin o urcunn iunin ion-
(yua (nncraurox. B CYC yurcu roniio o(nu napnaur roio
cmcra, ninmucuuoio n yia:arcni no( ua:nauncx cpuoiun-
1
. 38, , .. [
1990: 78, . 11]. XIX .
, , ;
[ 1884: 247, 76]. ,
( ,
). , ,
, : ,
, .
, , . , ,
, , . , ,
, (
) ,
[ 1890: 112].
2
. . 1927 .. . 1999 . .:
. , . : .
, . , , ,
. . ,
, (. . .
1990 .) [ 1996: 84, 320].
3

, 1762 .
(. [ 1874]). ,
,
.
.
257

uni n ucprn
1
(1199C*). Cpanucunc uccioniinx napnauron no-
:nonncr ynn(cri inanuym ococuuocri rcicron roio rnna. Bcc
oun crponrcn no cnc(ymmcn cmcruon cxcxc: uciro, cnam-
mnn ncrpcrnricn c ucprnxn, unracr iuniy, npnua(ncamym
ion(yuy; n pc:ynirarc nonnnnmrcn ucprn, c ioropixn unram-
mnn uc yxccr ynpannnricn; iai npannno, cio cnacamr nno
cocc(n, nno cax ion(yu. Bo nccx n:nccruix xuc paccia:ax
2
iuniy unracr uc ion(yu, a cnyuanuin, nocropouunn ucnonci,
(nncraur, uro n npnno(nr i nonnncunm ucprcn. Bcrpcrn-
naci roniio o(ua innuia o urcunn iunin co+u+ ion(yuox:
O0un pecmiunun o Jcmi-1ouoe, e:ou noc+ompemi no uepme,
opomu:cu c npocio o:0yny, y omopoeo ecoo i:o +noeo.
1ou:u o onu. 1o:0yn, noeooopuouu, umo no0o, u npouumoouu o
uepno nuee, eooopum: ,1oc+ompu uepe: +oe :eooe n:euo o o:epo
no oo0y". 1oc+ompe: mom u you0e: po:nie oeoniu :e:enie,
e:mie, pocnie. mo i:o 0o:iue, on ne +oe ooucnumi,
nomo+y umo cu:ino ucnyeo:cu u yeo: 0o+o~ |Bnacona 2OOO:
551]. Dra innuia, c:ycnonuo, npc(cranncua n opaorauuox
napnaurc, i roxy c cnn:i xc(y urcuncx iunin n nonnncuncx
ucprcn :(cci uc nnonuc oucnn(ua. Tcx uc xcucc n rox rcicrc
qniypnpymr (na ncpcouaa, o(nu n: ioropix npocro nmo-
niruin ipccrinunu.
Dra cmcruan :aiouoxcpuocri xocr nxcri oncucunc. cn-
crnnc ion(yua nnn cnacnrcncn uccuacruix, oia:anmnxcn no
nnacrn ucprcn, uacro onncinacrcn iai orunrinaunc, i(c i
omcxy :uaucunm rcpxnua npnannncrcn cmc o(uo opar-
uoc urcunc: ,o+ooie, 0oopooie, no:uoie, xy0ou cu:o npunu-
coni 0iuoo:y. Hieono pocco:ioo:o: i:o y nee uepnou +oeuu,
nueo, no0 :o+o+. A peumo ompi:u u nouumo:u. Ono npuu:o,
o y nux neuucmuoo ue:i 0o+! Ono 0oeo0o:oci, neuucmuoo u
omuumu:u opumuo~
3
.
Taioc nounxaunc orunrinaunn ncrpcuacrcn n n (pyinx iou-
rcicrax. Hanpnxcp, n Hcioncion onacrn ipccrinuia ionopnna:
Ho:o0 uumoum. 1oe0o c:yuuuuo po0u+eu. Bocpecnu 1oe +o-
:umoo. Hoo Cmenoniu omuumioo: no:o0~ |HK]. yxacrcn, uro
n npornnonocranncunn uaunrari orunrari nuoni pcann:y-
1
.. : .
.
. , ,
[ 1864: 26].
2
:
[ 1884: 116 (), 1996: 271, 320; 2001: 387].
[Tubach 1969: 737; Christiansen
1992: 3020].
3
. . 1937 .. . 1987 . [ 2001: 345,
387].
258 4
crcn ionnn:nn pnryana n:iuaunn ccon: yxcunc ion(yua, no
auanoinn c innuiaxn o orunrinaunn cnnmcuuniox, onnci-
nacrcn :(cci iai cnocouocri u:oo:umicu or ucprcn, a uc ni-
:inari nx.
Paccxorpcuuic nimc cmcri uapo(uon npo:i nnnnmrcn npn-
xcpaxn qoniinopn:aunn ucpionuon npairnin n ipccrinu-
cion iynirypc. Ococuuocrn cc ncnonucunn n nounxaunn npc(-
crannrcnnxn (yxoncucrna no xuoiox onpc(cnnnn cc rpaironiy
ipccrinuaxn. Pa:nnuuic uc cnn:auuic, ua ncpnin n:inn(,
innuin oia:inamrcn cnn(crcnicrnaxn pa:uix cnocoon nu-
rcpnpcraunn o(uoio n roio c nnncunn. B uc cinouua paccxar-
pnnari n:anxo(cncrnnc rnx cmcron n rcpxnuax (naxpounn,
nocioniiy ocuonuon iopnyc paccia:on oruocnrcn i XIXXX nn.,
a nx uncno uc no:nonncr (cnari nino(i o (nuaxnic ironaunn.
Pcui n(cr o npocrpaucrnc cocymccrnymmnx rcicron, ia(in n:
ioropix no:nonncr iri cqopxynnponauuix (pyioxy n, n cnom
oucpc(i, onpc(cnncr oruomcunc i cnnmcuuniy noomc n npai-
rnic n:iuaunn ccon n uacruocrn.
Cuncox coxpameun
AHH Apxnn Honcnoio ucurpa qaiynircra ruonoinn YCH.
HPIO Hxncparopcioc Pyccioc icoipaqnuccioc omccrno.
KCOB Kaprorcia cnonapn onxo(uoio n:iia XVIXVII nn.
OuAD Omccrno nmnrcncn ccrccrno:uaunn, apxconoinn n
ruoipaqnn.
HK Hcioncian iaprorcia.
HC3P Honuoc copaunc :aiouon Poccnncion Hxncpnn.
CB Cnonapi (pcnucpyccioio n:iia (XIXIV nn).
CPHI Cnonapi pyccinx uapo(uix ionopon.
CPB Cnonapi pyccioio n:iia XIXVII nn.
CYC Cpanunrcniuin yia:arcni cmcron.
CHCPB Cnonapi ucpionuo-cnannucioio n pyccioio n:iia,
cocranncuuin nropix or(cncuncx Hxn. Aia(cxnn
uayi.
T4HO Tpa(nunouuin qoniinop Honiopo(cion onacrn.
MM Bcnninc Mnucn-crin, copauuic nccpoccnncinx
xnrpononnrox Maiapncx.
MP Xnrnn cnnrix ua pycciox n:iic, n:nocuuic no
pyiono(crny crinx-Mnucn Cn. nxnrpnn
Pocroncioio.
IIC Iolkloic Icllows` Communications.
259

Bnanorpaqna
A:+o:oo A.H. Bpaucnarcniuic xonnrni. K xarcpnanax n nccnc(ona-
unnx no ncropnn pyionncuoio Tpcunia. O(ccca, 19OO.
A:+o:oo A.H. nu ua( ccuonarix. (Haxnruni ipcuccion nncixcuuo-
crn XVII n.). O(ccca, 19O1.
Apxuo Honcnoio ucurpa qaiynircra ruonoinn Y n CH.
|Aqonocieo A.H.] Hapo(uic pyccinc ncicu(i A.H. Aqauacicna. Hono-
cnnpci, 199O.
1e:po0ni A.B. Hpomnin nci n cio upanax, oiuanx n ncponaunnx //
Pyccian crapnua. 1897. Man. C. 283298.
1upuoouu B. Hapo(uan xc(nunua // Pyccian xicni. M., 1893. An-
pcni. C. 6782.
1o:omoo B.B. uciunn no ncropnn pcnucn Hcpinn: B 3 r. M., 1994
(pcnp. CH., 19O7).
Benuo+un, opxuen. Honan cipnani, nnn (ononunrcniuoc oncucunc
o ucpinn, o nnrypinn n o nccx cnyax n yrnapnx ucpionuix.
CH., 1853.
Bunoepo0oo B.B. Hcropnn cnon: oiono 15OO cnon n nipacunn n oncc
5OOO cnon, c unxn cnn:auuix / Orn. pc(. H.K. Hnc(ona. M.,
1994.
Bunoepo0ooo ..H. Hapo(uan (cxouonoinn n xnqopnryaniuan rpa(n-
unn cnannu. M., 2OOO.
B:o0u+upoo 1.B. Bcnnioc :cpuano (n: ncropnn pyccion ncpcno(uon
nnrcparypi XVII ncia). M., 1884.
B:ocooo M. Pyccinc cycncpnn: Duuninonc(nuccinn cnonapi. CH.,
2OOO.
,o:i B. Tonionin cnonapi nnoio ncnniopyccioio n:iia: B 4 r. M.,
1994.
,opo0o+oo H.1. Pcucu:nn ua Hcropnm cnon B.B. Bnuoipa(ona //
Plilologica. 1995. T. 2. ^ 34. C. 26728O.
,peonepyccue narcpnin: Kncno-Hcucpcinn narcpni, Bonoionaxcinn
narcpni / Ho(ior. n:(. u.A. Onimcncion, C.H. Tpanunionix.
M., 1999.
Xumue Aoooy+o n (pyinc cio counucunn / Cocr, ncryn. cr. n ioxxcur.
A.H. Ponuocoua. M., 1991.
3no+encu 1.B. Hcropnn Pyccion Hcpinn (yucuoc pyiono(crno).
Hapn; M., 1996. (Marcpnani no ncropnn ucpinn. Ku. 1O.)
1.C. yxonuin n:inn( ua xancnaumnuy n inniymccrno. Ho nono(y cra-
rin npoqcccopa H. Cniopcioio Hcnxonarnuccian nn(cxnn
1892 i. // ymcnonc:uoc rcunc. 1893. Aniycr. C. 589595.
Hoonuuu H.A. Marcpnani no ruoipaqnn Bonoio(cion iy. // Cop-
uni cnc(cunn (nn n:yucunn ira ipccrinucioio uaccncunn
Poccnn / Ho( pc(. H. Xapy:nua (H:nccrnn OuAD. T. IXIX.
Tpy(i ruoipaqnuccioio or(. T. XI. Bin. 1). M., 189O.
Hoonoo C.A. Bn:aurnncioc mpo(crno. M., 1999.
Honoepoquu pocroncinx cnnrix: Karanoi nicranin. Pocron, 1998.
260 4
Honi Bpocnannn XIIIXVI ncion. M., 2OO2.
Hoonn 3:omoycm. Iccc(a XII. Bmc( c n couxnmc, (cp:amc, uc
onuycn rpn xccnui ccc(yn n yncpnn nc o uapcrnnn Ionn
(cnu. 19, 8) // Tnopcunn cnnroio orua uamcio Hoauua 3naro-
ycra, apxncnnciona Koucraurnuononicioio, n pycciox ncpc-
no(c. CH., 19O3. T. 9. Ku. 1. C. 358368.
Hoonn 1occuon 1u+:unun. 7-c coccc(onaunc Anni Ccpcua // Hn-
caunn npcno(ouoio orua Hoauua Kaccnaua Pnxnnunua / Hcp.
c nar. cn. Hcrpa. M., 1892. C. 2793O5.
Hcmopuuecoe oo:pcunc oiocnycuix iuni ipcio-poccnncion ucpi-
nn. H:(-c 3-c, ncnpanncuuoc. Kncn, 1857.
.oopoo A.C. Kon(oncrno n pcnninn n Poccnn. 17OO174O ii. M., 2OOO.
Mo:ypuncou iopxuan. Haxnruni xccnannucinx iynirypuix cnn:cn
XIVXVI nn. Hccnc(onaunc. Tcicri. M., 2OO2.
1epencu V. pcnucpyccinc orpcucuuic ncponaunn n iancu(api
Ipmca // Xypuan xnuncrcpcrna uapo(uoio npocncmcunn. 1874.
Mapr. C. 5279; Anpcni. C. 278342.
1nueo Hpannn Cnnrix Anocron, Cnnrix Coopon nccncucinx n noxc-
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1ooo:eno 1. O uapo(uon xc(nunuc n Hcpcncnanciox yc:(c Honranc-
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1ouoocu A.,. O rai ua:inacxox Ianrciox (nncunn n Icccapa-
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C. 14718O.
1pouncu H.B. Hopua, inniymn n ccuonaric iai nnncunn pyccion
uapo(uon n:un. Honiopo(, 19OO.
1opmomeo cnonapn onxo(uoio n:iia XVIXVII nn. // Apxnn xc-
iaqc(paniuoio cnonapuoio ianucra nx. uapnua qnnonoin-
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.oxmun M. Iccoo(cpnxocri n conpcxcuuon (cpcnuc. Hcropnio-
ncnxonoinuccioc nccnc(onaunc // Bonpoci qnnocoqnn n ncn-
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|.ecmouuo] Hpcno(ouoio orua uamcio Hoauua Cnuancion iopi
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.uu+oo 1.,. Mc(nio-ronoipaqnuccioc onncaunc Ky:ucuioio yc:(a
Caparoncion iy. // Hporoioni :acc(aunn Omccrna pyccinx
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Hcmopuu Pyccion Hcpinn Maiapnn, xnrpononnra Mocioncioio. CH.,
19O9. T. 11. Ku. 2.
Moopooo B.1. Cnnmcuuni n oniuon (no xarcpnanax nropon nono-
nnui XIX uauana XX ncion) // Aurpononoinn. 4oniinopnc-
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Mop, uey+en. 3nic (yxn n nx nnnnunc ua nm(cn. CH., 1899.
Muxo:ooo T.B. Kon(oncinc npouccci n Poccnn: Oqnunaniuan n(c-
261

onoinn n npairnin uapo(uon pcnnino:uocrn. Kouqnniri


n(cn n nm(cn. (174O18O1). 2OO1. (pyionnci).
Mopo:oo 1. Ho nono(y ronion o ypciynnponaunn oruomcunn xc(y
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Huumun M.1. K nonpocy o inniymccrnc // Oo:pcunc ncnxnarpnn,
ucnponoinn n icncpnxcuraniuon ncnxonoinn. CH., 19O3.
^ 9. C. 656668; ^ 1O. C. 746756.
Huumuno C.1. Ycruan uapo(uan iynirypa n n:iionoc co:uaunc. M.,
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Hu: Cunocu. O nocixn nyianix (yxax // Tnopcunn npcno(ouoio
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Onuncu 1.H. B onacrn cycncpnn n npc(paccy(ion (Oucpi n: ira
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Honpi. C. 358381.
Ocmpoocou ..B. Mnpono::pcuuccinc acnciri uapo(uon xc(nunui
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1onueno A.A. Pcnnino:uic npairnin: i n:yucunm uapo(uon pcnn-
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1onueno A.A. Xpncronmnua n cionuccrno: qoniinop n rpa(nunouuan
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1ueun A.B. pcnucpyccinc uy(cca o ncucncunn ccuonarix n ua-
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1coocou iaprorcia // Apxnn xciaqc(paniuoio cnonapuoio ian-
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1o:noe copaunc :aiouon Poccnncion Hxncpnn. CH., 183O. T. 145.
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1o:onoo H. Hcropnn xocioncioio cnapxnaniuoio ynpanncunn co npc-
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262 4
1o:oo H.H. Pyccinc cnycunin n Tpcunin // Mcro(nuccinc pcio-
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Bin. 2. . 2. C. 314334.
1yccue nrnnuic nioui XVI uauana XX ncia. CH., 1999.
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|Co0oonuoo ,.H.]. Cia:in n npc(aunn Caxapcioio ipan. Copaui n
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C:ooo nncauo cnnrix 4co(ocncx xunxox // Counucunn npcno(ouo-
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C+u:uncou 1.1. oucccunc 1754 i. n Cnuo( Cy:(anicioio cnnciona
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Coo:oo 1. Omnn ucpionuo-cnannuo-poccnncinn cnonapi: B 2 u.
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|Coo:ooi]. Cia:in n nccun Icno:cpcioio ipan. Copuni I. n K. Co-
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Cpe:neocu H.H. Marcpnani (nn cnonapn (pcnucpyccioio n:iia no
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T. 2.
C:ooopi (pcnucpyccioio n:iia (XIXIV nn) / In. pc(. H.C. Ynyxauon:
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C:ooopi pyccinx uapo(uix ionopon. u., 1989. Bin. 24.
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Toopcu A.A. Orunrinaunc oniuix n uacronmcc npcxn // Xypuan
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Tpo0uuuonni qoniinop Honiopo(cion onacrn. (Haxnrunin pyccio-
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263

Be:uue Mnucn-crin, copauuic nccpoccnncinx xnrpononnrox


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1913.
Xumuu cnnrix ua pycciox n:iic, n:nocuuic no pyiono(crny cri-
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|M,1 199J] Xnrnn cnnrix ua pycciox n:iic, n:nocuuic no
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