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INTRODUCTION Human being has built the world on its past knowledge and experience Initially, innovations and products were based on little scientific principles knowledge Gradually, indigenous engineering with better scientific understanding and mathematical analysis became tools for technological innovations

INTRODUCTION (CONT.) Then, the success stories continued with steam engine developed, telephone invented, electric bulbs lighted and motorcar built All these resulted from research & development (R&D) and industrialization activities In late 20th century, the advancement in electronic and communication technologies has shaped physical world and human beings lifestyle with internet and cellular telephone

INTRODUCTION (CONT.) Today, engineers come out with more sophisticated technologies to create new products that save people time and money as well as sustaining the environment fibre-optic technology, nano-technology, intelligent imaging and biomass Engineering improves and enhances the quality of human life. Engineers continuously contribute to national development and 4 economic well-being of society

WHAT IS AN ENGINEER? Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2006) defines an engineer as : A person whose job is designing and building engines, machines, roads, bridges, etc. Engineer is a person whose principal duty is to apply knowledge to create practical devices, structures and processes to serve mankind

WHAT IS AN ENGINEER? (CONT.) To be an engineer one need to meet certain requirements and to perform duties in accordance with certain codes of conduct set by the relevant authorities Engineers function and responsibility include design, planning, construction, operation, production, maintenance, management, procurement, research, sales or academician

ENGINEERS VERSUS SCIENTISTS Common ground between engineers and scientists is that both require understanding of the principles of sciences Scientists aim to seek knowledge to explain the natural phenomena. They deal with discovering new knowledge by conducting research by scientific methods They start with hypothesis that explanation of a natural phenomena suggest

ENGINEERS VERSUS SCIENTISTS (CONT.) Upon formulation of a hypothesis, scientist design and execute experiments to test the hypothesis They need to analyze the test results and determine if the hypothesis is true, false or partially correct Engineer takes scientist work one step ahead by applying the acquired knowledge to design and build new products to improve life

ENGINEERS VERSUS SCIENTISTS (CONT.) Scientists study how nature behaves and engineers make use of scientist findings to develop useful device Example, scientists study about the nature and behaviour of flames which : Resulted from chemical reaction between fuel and air Expansion of combustion gases occurs at high 9 pressure

ENGINEERS VERSUS SCIENTISTS (CONT.) Engineers apply this knowledge in automotive engine building by exploiting the fact that combustion pressure is powerful enough to move engine pistons


WHAT IS ENGINEERING? The word engineering probably originated in the middle ages around 1000 1200 AD Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2006) defines an engineering as : An activity of applying scientific knowledge to the design, building and control of machines, roads, bridges, electrical equipment, etc.

WHAT IS ENGINEERING? (CONT.) A more formal definition of engineering as given by the American Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET, 2009) is : The profession in which the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgement to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of 12 mankind

WHAT IS ENGINEERING? (CONT.) The Institute of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM) defines engineering as being a group that : Shares common heritage of knowledge, skill and art in the engineering discipline Renders a specialized service in the design and construction of structures and devices Involves a confidential relationship between the practitioner and client and/or employer

WHAT IS ENGINEERING? (CONT.) The Institute of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM) defines engineering as being a group that : (cont.) Is charged with a substantial degree of public obligation in ensuring quality and public safety Is bound by a distinctive ethical code, to maintain high standards of professionalism

THE EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING Until the Industrial Revolution in Europe in 18th century, only 2 branches of engineering existed namely military and civil engineering Military engineering construction of forts, catapults, etc. concerned with barracks, cannons,

Civil engineering devoted to building infrastucture for civilian such as roads, bridges, buildings, drainage and water supply system

THE EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING (CONT.) In Britain, civil engineers in 1818 banded together to form the world first professional body called the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) When more machineries invented, mechanical engineers form their own the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1847 Since then, other engineering branches form their respective engineering organization

THE EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING (CONT.) In USA, similar trend evolved in formation of professional body : The American Society of Civil Engineers (1852), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1880), American Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers predecessor of IEEE (1884) and Institute of Chemical Engineers (1908) In Malaysia, the Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) was formed in 1959 to 17 represent all engineering disciplines

THE EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING (CONT.) Today, there are 5 main branches of engineering evolved from the original civil engineering namely civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, chemical engineering and environmental engineering Civil Engineering is concerned with the planning, design, construction and maintenance of public works such as buildings, roads, 18 highways, railways, ports, airports, etc.

THE EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING (CONT.) Mechanical Engineering deals with the design, production/manufacture, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems such as engines and machines for transportation refrigeration and air conditioning, turbines and rockets, etc. Electrical and Electronic Engineering encompass all aspects of designing, producing and transmitting electricity, designing and 19 manufacturing electronic components, etc.

THE EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING (CONT.) Chemical Engineering related to the application of chemistry to convert raw materials and chemical into useful commercial and pharmaceutical products Environmental Engineering is the art of applying scientific and engineering principles to preserve the environment (air, water and land) and reduce pollution so that it fit human and animal habitation. Multi-disciplinary field encompassing civil, chemical and mechanical 20

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS Engineers play a crucial role in country development because they design and build the infrastructure, facilities and equipment for the public Developed nation is one that has transformed its society into a highly productive and a high income society. Developing nation is one that is still in process of this transformation like Malaysia

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) Nation development progress is measured by many indicator where the most important one is the standard of living of the people This is assessed by economic and social factors as gross domestic product (GDP - defined as the value of goods and services produced by a country divided by the average population per year), purchasing power of its currency, manufacturing productivity, employment rate, 22 literacy rate, life expectancy, etc.

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) Standard of living also indicates the country global competitiveness that is the degree of which a nation is able to produce goods and services under international market conditions while expanding or maintaining their standard of living Hence, engineers directly or indirectly involved in producing goods or provide services in various sectors development play a crucial role 23 in achieving development requirement

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) A country should formulate policies, short- term and long-term plans so that development can progress efficiently and in control manner In Malaysia, development program has been formulated and documented since 1996 with 3 major national development policies to steer and guide its development The first was New Economic Policy (NEP) implemented in 1971 aimed at eradicating 24 poverty and restructuring the society

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) The second policy was New Development Policy (NDP) launched in 1991 basically an extension and enhancement to NEP to correct social and economic imbalances The third is the present National Vision Policy (NVP) set forth in 2001 aim to establish a united, progressive and prosperous Bangsa Malaysia where it spells out the detail strategies for executing Vision 2020 plan to 25 transform Malaysia into developed nation

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) The thrusts of the policy are building a resilient nation, sustaining a high economic growth, enhancing competitiveness, developing a knowledge-based economy and creating an environmentally sustainable future Vision 2020 policy also upheld and pursue by 1 Malaysia policy launched in 2009 aimed at building one united Malaysian nation, with emphasis on equal rights and opportunities for 26 all citizens regardless of race and religion

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) National development policies are operationalized through a number of long-term Outline Perspective Plans lasting for 10 to 20 years The First Outline Perspective Plan (1971-1990) was formulated based on NEP, the Second Outline Perspective Plan (1991-2000) operated the NDP and the Third Outline Perspective Plan (2001-2020) addresses the objectives of NVP

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) Within each perspective plan, there are fiveyear plans called Malaysia Plan specifically designed to achieve the objectives of each perspective plan Development require more engineers and according to IEM in 2009 there are just over 15,000 engineers registered with them Statistics by BEM showed that the total number of engineers was 58,127 in 2009

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF ENGINEERS (CONT.) According to Third Outline Perspective Plan, the country will need about 201,615 engineers to implement the various development program by the year 2010 For R&D, the target is 50 research engineers and scientists per 10,000 work force or 60,000 by the year 2010 By 2020, the country need about 500,000 population of engineers and scientists

FACILITATING THE MODERN WAY OF LIVING Civil and structural engineers contribute to our modern way of living by planning, designing, constructing and maintaining public infrastructure works of all kinds buildings, roads, highways, railways, sewerage system, etc Mechanical engineers are responsible for design, production, operation and maintenance of mechanical system engines and machines for transportation, refrigeration and air 30 conditioning, etc

FACILITATING THE MODERN WAY OF LIVING (CONT.) Electrical and electronic engineers contribute to all aspects of designing, producing and transmitting electricity, designing and manufacturing electronic components, equipment electricity supply, computers, etc Chemical engineers design, operate and maintain chemical plants to convert raw materials into useful products making sure the processes are safely operated, sustainability and 31 economically oil & gas product, etc.

FACILITATING THE MODERN WAY OF LIVING (CONT.) Environmental engineers design treatment process to ensure that the environment we live in (air, water and land) is fit human and animal habitation. They also ensure all development projects are constructed and operated in a sustainable manner without destroying the natural environment sewerage plant, toxic waste plant, etc.