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Definition of Instructional Planning

• Preparation for teaching and learning, including ;

– construction of goals, objectives, and
instructional and assessment methodology.
• Systematic planning, developing, evaluating,
and managing the instructional process based
on principles of learning and instruction.
• The big picture of “what to teach” and “how to
teach it.”
Functions of planning
Makes learning purposeful.
• Reduces the impact of intrusions.
• Economizes time.
• Provides documentation of instruction.
• Guides substituted teachers.
• Makes learner success more measurable, which assists in re-teaching.
• Gives an overview of instruction.

Key Principles

Identify Identify Plan

Instructional Instructional Instructional
Goals Objectives Activities

Develop Choose
Revise Instruction Instructional Instructional
Assessment Media
• Defi: general statements of intended student learning outcomes and the starting
point for all subsequent instructional planning. designed with student
characteristics in mind,including students’ ability, prior knowledge, and attitudes.

•Purpose : to provide an overarching focus on learning outcomes then

interpreted through the use of specific learning objectives.

Components :
1. Focuses on general learning outcomes
2. Focuses on student performance
3. Further defined by specific learning objectives
• Defi : identifies the specific learning outcomes that the student must
demonstrate so that the teacher may infer that they have or have
not learned a particular skill or knowledge set.

• Traditional (Mager 1984) :

condition Performance level behaviour

Given a map of the United States, the student will be able to write the
names of at least 40 states within the correct state’s boundaries.

• Short Forms of Objectives: focused on including only the “behaviour”


• Goal-Objectives: relates the broader goal to the defining objectives.

• Defi : the events, procedures, or steps designed and later
implemented during instruction whose purpose is to foster the
development and completion of the specific instructional objectives
• 3 Types of Strategies to maximize student learning given the instructional
objectives, content, and context.

1. Lesson Strategies: may take from an hour to several days to implement.

1.1. Direct Instruction
1.2. Cooperative / Group Instruction
1.3. Inquiry Instruction
• 2. Activity Strategies: specific aspect of instruction. May take minutes to an
hour to implement.
2.1. Problem-based Instruction
2.2. Questioning and Discussion Techniques
2.3. Concept Development Instruction
2.4. Reciprocal Teaching
2.5. Advance Organizer
2.6. Discovery Learning
2.7. Synectics
2.8. Graffiti

3. Task Strategies: used to supplement and provide active pauses in activity and
lesson strategies. May take only a couple of minutes to implement.
· Whip Around · 3-Minute Standing Conversation
· Outcome Sentences · Think-Pair-Share
· Minute Reflections · Sudden Brainstorm
· Think Aloud · Best Choice Debate
· Response Cards · Entry/Exit Slips
· Background Knowledge Probes
• Defi : encompasses all the materials and physical means an
instructor uses to implement instruction.

• Criteria :
1. Practicality : availability, cost, time, understood
2. Student Appropriateness : developmental and experiential
students level
3. Instructional Appropriateness : proposed lesson in an efficient
and effective manner?, achieve instructional objectives?

• Constraining Factors :
1. Availability of pre-existing materials
2. Production Constraints: costly, in both time and
money, enterprise.
3. Instructor Facilitation: Most instructional media involve teacher
modelling, demonstration, implementation, or more broadly, facilitation
may inhibit a teacher's ability to effectively utilize the particular media.
• Defi : term used to denote the systematic collection and interpretation of data that is to
be used in the making of educational decisions, including enhancing instruction.

• Reasons:
1. Diagnosing student's strengths and weaknesses : remediate
weaknesses and avoid (re)addressing
2. Monitoring students' progress : student is making adequate progress
3. Assigning grades : to assist in assigning grades.
4. Determining one's own instructional effectiveness.

• Necessities :
· Reliability : Eliminate error. Similar results across similar applications
and populations.
· Validity: Accuracy and appropriateness use of a measurement.
· Absence-of-Bias: The absence of any characteristic.
• Types :

1. Selected Response Testing: select the correct or best answer (e.g., multiple-
choice, true-false, matching questions).

2. Supply Response Testing: respond to a question with a word, phrase, or essay

answer (e.g., short answer, essay questions).

3. Restricted Performance Assessment: complete a limited task that is highly

structured (e.g., selecting the appropriate tool for a task, determining the area of
given rectangle, writing a brief paragraph on a given topic).

4. Extended Performance Assessment: comprehensive task that is less

structured (e.g., writing a research report, drawing the water cycle, creating a
structure out of Lego's that will support 10 pounds).
• Defi : collect of data relative to the performance of both the students and
the teacher/instruction. Instruction is then revised based on results from
this collection of data (e.g., tests, informal assessments, attitude surveys).
• Revising Instruction:
Revise/modify/discard :
· inappropriate specific learning objectives.
· ineffective/inaccurate test items.
· ineffective instructional activities.
· ineffective practice or feedback.
· ineffective remedial activities.