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LTE eRAN6.0 Access Fault Diagnosis

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Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Get deep understanding of UE initial access flow Describe the typical access fault scenarios Describe how to locate the access fault Typical methods for fault analysis

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Contents
1. EUTRAN Typical Signaling Procedure 2. Typical Access Fault Analysis and Process 3. Case Study

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UE Initialization Flow

UE power on

UE idle behavior phase

Invisible flow Partial visible flow

UE access phase

Visible flow

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UE Initial Attach Procedure


eNodeB
UE

MME

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Service Request Procedure


UE

eNodeB

MME

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TAU Update Procedure


UE

eNodeB

MME

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Random Access Procedure Overview


Purpose of random access
Get uplink synchronization Send schedule request if no PUCCH resource

Scenarios:
Case1: UE initial attach Case2: RRC reestablishment after RLF Case3: Handover in a new cell Case4: UE sends uplink data while RLF occurs Case5: UE notices that downlink data arrival while RLF occurs Case6: When UE trigger LCS(Location service)

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Classification of Random Access


UE

eNodeB

UE

eNodeB

Contention based

Non-contention based

UE randomly selects a preamble and sends it, conflict might occurs Can be used for all cases

Before random access, eNodeB assigns a dedicated preamble to UE, so there is no conflict.

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Preamble Index Configuration

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Preamble Format
0 ms 1 ms 2 ms 3 ms

CP 0.1

Sequence 0.8 CP 0.68

0.1 Format 0

Sequence 0.8 Sequence 1.6

Guard Period Format 1 0.52

CP 0.2 CP 0.68
5102 xTs

0.2

Format 2

Sequence 1.6

Guard Period 0.72

Format 3

Format 4

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Preamble Sending

In contention based case, UE randomly select a preamble based on RACH configuration and send it on the corresponding time slot Once the frequency and time is determined, the corresponding RA_RNTI is already known by the UE, where RA_RNTI= 1 + t_id+10*f_id (t_id indicates the start subframe number, f_id indicate the frequency offset of RACH)

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Random Access Response

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UL Data Sending (Msg 3)

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Contention Resolution

Case1: Detect C-RNTI on PDCCH

Case2: Detect temporary C-RNTI on PDCCH and decode the corresponding MAC PDU on PDSCH. In the MAC PDU, it contains the UE ID that send in Msg 3
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RRC Connection Setup Procedure

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RRC Cause
NAS Procedure Attach TAU Service Request RRC Cause MO signaling MO signaling MO - data MT access MO data (original CSFB) Extended Service Request Emergency (emergency CSFB) Type of call Original signaling Original signaling Original call Terminated call Original call Emergency call

MT access (terminated CSFB) Terminated call

According to different NAS procedure, the RRC cause can be MO-singling, MO-data, MT-access, and emergency

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Initial ERAB Setup


eNodeB
UE
MME

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S1 Initial UE Message

NAS PDU

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S1 Initial Context Setup Request

NAS PDU

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Security Mode Setup

Purpose:
Activated AS security algorithms, including integrity protect and ciphering Integrity protect: only for signaling, support AES, snow3G and Null Ciphering: both for signaling and data, support AES, snow3G and Null
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UE Capability Query
UE

eNodeB

MME

If no UE capability in MME, eNodeB will trigger UE capability query and store it and also inform MME If MME already stored UE capability, it will forward to eNode via S1 initial contexts setup request message
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SRB2 Setup

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Measurement Control

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Request RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Measurement Configuration - measObjectToRemoveList - measObjectToAddModList - reportConfigToRemoveList - reportConfigToAddModList - measIdToRemoveList - measIdToAddModList - quantityConfig - measGapConfig - s-Measure

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S1 Initial Context Setup Response

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NAS Procedure
eNodeB
UE
MME

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Contents
1. EUTRAN Typical Signaling Procedure 2. Typical Access Fault Analysis and Process 3. Case Study

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Access Performance Evaluation


From performance management
Access successful ratio = RRC setup successful ratio x ERAB setup successful ratio Random access and NAS failures are not considered in eNodeB performance management, but these factors also impact user experience

From drive test tools (probe)


It can identify access failure caused by random access failure and NAS failure

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General Process
Determine the scale of problem
From the performance statistic, we can determine the scale of the problem, is it global problem, or cell level problem or just some individual UE problem. Then we can select bottom N cell as optimization target Customer complain is an effective way to locate the individual UE problem

For large scale access failure


Check eNodeB alarm and basic configuration Check RF channel problem
Once RF channel is abnormal, such as high VSWR, low RSSI Too Low or RSSI is unbalanced, then the access performance should be significantly affected.

For individual UE problem, signaling analysis can be used to locate the detailed cause
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Handle eNodeB Generic Alarm


Tools: M2000 or LMT Procedure
Check the generic hardware fault alarm, such as hardware fault, board unusable , or any other alarms which are related with hardware failure or link failure.
Solution: Replace the faulty component.

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Check DL Power Configuration


To ensure the coverage, the DL power parameters should be properly set
RS power = Maximum RRU power/channel 10lg(total subcarriers ) + 10lg(Pb+1)
If the single antenna, Pb=0 If 2 or 4 antennas, Pb=1

PDSCH power = PA + RS power


If single antenna, PA=0 If 2 or 4 antennas, PA=-3

Related command:
LST PDSCHCFG: check Pb and RS power setting LST CELLDLPCPDSCHPA: check PA setting

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Check CRPI Rate

If the bandwidth is 10MHz or above, the CPRI rate should be equal or more than 2.5Gbps, otherwise, the cell cant be setup
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If the rate is not correct, change the CPRI module Page31

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Check S1 Interface Status


If SCTP link is faulty, check the SCTP configuration, such as peer IP address, SCTP port number If S1intrface state is faulty, check the PLMN and operator ID.

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Check Cell Barred Status

If cell is barred, use the following command to recover it

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Check RF Channel Problem


Due to the bad feeder quality, incorrect feeder connection or strong interference, it might affect RF channel performance which has impact on UE access. Relevant problem:
High VSWR: ALM-26529 RF Unit VSWR Threshold Crossed Low RSSI: ALM-26521 RF Unit RX Channel RSSI Too Low RSSI unbalance: ALM-26522 RF Unit RX Channel RSSI Unbalanced
RSSI of the main RX channel and the RSSI of the diversity RX channel exceeds 10 dB.

High RSSI: Caused by interference


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Cause of High VSWR


VSWR: Voltage Standard Wave Ratio, indicate the if feeder impedance is match or not. The normal VSWR range is 1~1.5. If current VSWR is more than a specified threshold, then eNodeB will generate relevant alarm. Alarm generation:
Cell is activated RF power is more than 34dBm/channel VSWR is more than a specified threshold

Possible cause:
Incorrect VSWR alarm threshold RF unit hardware fault RRU/RFU wrong connection Bad feeder quality or nonstandard feeder installation
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Solution for High VSWR


Step 1: Check if the VSWR alarm threshold is correct (default is 2dB).
Note: RRU TX channel will automatic closed if VSWR is extremely high (more than postprocessing threshold)

Threshold for TX shutdown

Threshold VSWR alarm generation

Step 2: If alarm threshold is correct, then check if relevant feeder installation and RRU connections are meet the standard. Step3: After the feeder tuning, if TX channel is closed, then activate TX channel again
MOD TXBRANCH

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Cause of Low RSSI


Alarm generation: If RSSI is less than a specified value Incorrect RX attenuation setting
If no TMA, the attenuation should be 0 If 12dB TMA is used, the attenuation should be 4 to 11dB If 24dB TMA is used, the attenuation should be 11 to 22dB

Feeder problem
Due to bad feeder quality, causing additional loss RRU fault

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Solutions for Low RSSI


Step 1: Check if RRU RX attenuation is correct

Step2: If attenuation is correct, then check the feeder installation and connection

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Cause of Imbalance of RSSI


Alarm generation: RSSI of the main RX channel and the RSSI of the diversity RX channel exceeds 10 dB. Possible causes
High interference RRU cross connections

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Solution of Imbalance of RSSI


UL interference check
From web-LMT: Perform spectrum detection to evaluate UL interference From M2000 client: Perform interference detect monitoring Find out interference source

Check RRU connections, avoid cross connections, show as below


A N T 1 A N T 2

RRU1

RRU2

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Classification of Interference
Passive inter-module interference:
Due to non-linearity of radio component ,the high phase harmonic wave might be generated and inter-modulated by RX signal, thus the new inter-module signal will arrive the receiver causing the interference.

External interference:
Interference from the other system, such as 2G, 3G, CDMA, radio, radar eg.

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How to Located Inter-modulated Interference


This kind of interference increases with eNodeB transmit power, so we can simulate the DL load, and check RSSI, if it obviously increases with the DL load incensement, then we can determine the interference Load simulation:

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How to Located External Interference


If we exclude inter-modulated interference, then it should be external interference
Shutdown the TX of RRU/RFU, if RSSI is still high, then we can conclude this is external interference

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Analysis of Tracing
Driver test tracing analysis
We can get all UU interface messages, internal UE message as well as RSRP value

eNdoeB tracing analysis


We can get UU interface message and S1 interface message

Form the above tracing analysis, we can locate the problem with the following causes:
Random access failure RRC setup failure NAS procedure failure ERAB setup failure

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Random Access Failure


Generic scenario: There is no RRC connect request message Possible cause:
UE doesnt support the band
Scenario: UE doesn't receive any system message Solution: Check if UE band is identical with eNdoeB configuration

Poor coverage
Scenario :Due to poor DL or UL coverage, UE or eNodeB miss receiving the relevant random access message Solution: Perform RF tuning. Use TMA on uplink

Cell is barred
Check the cell status, should be not barred.

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RRC Connection Failure


UE

eNodeB

Scenario 1: eNodeB directly send reject message


Possible cause: No radio resource due to no enough resource for PUCCH and SRS Solution: Check the cell load status, if it is very high, consider capacity extension
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RRC Connection Failure (Cont.)


UE

eNodeB

Scenario 2: UE doesnt receive RRC connection setup message, and repeat sending request message until timer is out Possible cause:
Poor DL coverage, check RSRP and RSRQ

Solution:
Perform RF tuning
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RRC Connection Failure (Cont.)


UE

eNodeB

Scenario 3: eNodeB send RRC setup message, but doesnt get complete message Possible cause
If UE doesnt reply RRC complete, it should be UE problem If UE already send RRC complete, then it should be poor UL coverage
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NAS Procedure Failure


eNodeB
UE
MME

Note: NAS failure is not counted in performance statistic


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ERAB Setup Failure


eNodeB
UE
MME

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ERAB Setup Failure Cause


If any failure occurs during ERAB setup, we can directly get the failure cause form performance statistic, the relevant counters are:

L.E-RAB.FailEst.NoReply (No response from UE) L.E-RAB.FailEst.MME (EPC fault) L.E-RAB.FailEst.TNL (Transport fault) L.E-RAB.FailEst.RNL (Radio network fault) L.E-RAB.FailEst.NoRadioRes (No radio resource) L.E-RAB.FailEst.SecurModeFail (Security mode setup fault)

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Faulty Signaling of No UE Response

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Fault Signaling of Other Cause

Scenario: eNodeB receives initial context setup request or E-RAB setup request message, after that, if failures happen, then eNB replies response message with failure cause

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Analysis of EPC Fault


Cause

S1 message validity check failure, including


Error exist in S1 message Duplicated ERAB ID Conflict with other procedures

Solution:
Contact EPC engineer to locate the problem

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Analysis of Transport Fault


Possible causes:
Transport admission failure S1 link failure during S1 message exchange Incorrect IP path configuration Wrong QoS configuration in EPC

Solutions:
Check transport admission algorithm, consider extend S1 bandwidth Check S1 interface Check IP path configuration Check relevant QoS configuration, AMBR should be more than 0, and for initial ERAB setup, the QCI must be 6~9

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Analysis of Radio Network Fault


Possible cause
UU message process failure due to UE capability (UE doesnt support relevant service) eNodeB failure during ERAB setup

Solutions:
Check UE capability Check eNodeB status

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Analysis of No Radio Resource


Possible cause
Radio admission failure for ERAB

Solution:
Check if admission parameters is correct Consider to enable load balance algorithm Consider capacity extension

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Analysis of Security Mode Failure


Possible cause:
UE security capability is not identical with eNodeB security capability

Solution:
Modify the eNB security algorithm to match it.

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Contents
1. EUTRAN Typical Signaling Procedure 2. Typical Access Fault Analysis and Process 3. Case Study

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Case 1 IP Path Configuration Leads to Low Access Ratio


Description: In one live network, ERAB setup ratio is very low, but its not zero. Alarm info: None Analysis:
Check the performance statistic of ERAB release, we found that most of failures are caused by transport resource not available From the message tracing, we can also confirm this result

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Case 1 IP Path Configuration Leads to Low Access Ratio (Cont.)


Now we can locate that the problem is due to IP path configuration. We check eNodeB configuration and find a valid IP path, the connection is valid. And it is also weird that this problem occurs with a probability Then we analyze the message again, and find that in the UE context setup request message delivers variable GTPU address, and these address is not identical with eNodeB configuration.

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Case 1 IP Path Configuration Leads to Low Access Ratio (Cont.)


Conclusion :As the SGW deliveries multiple GTUP address to eNodeB, but we only configure one IP path to SGW, so it causes the partly ERAB setup failure Solutions: We confirm this with EPC engineer, SGW pool function is used, so there are multiple IP addresses for SGW. Then we make up the IP path for all address, the problem is cleared.

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Case 2 Multi-mode UE Attach Failure


UU trace S1 trace

Description: During the commissioning of one live network, we found that UE attach fails. Alarm info: None Message Tracing: From the message tracing, we can see that most of access procedures are normal, after ERAB setup, MME release the connection with the cause normal release
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Case 2 Multi-mode UE Attach Failure (Cont.)

Analysis
Since the most of procedures are normal, and eNodeB consider that its a normal release, so we locate that the problem is due to NAS failure. So we continue to analyze the previous NAS message, and in the DL NAS message, we can see that MME response the attach with the cause MSC-temporatily-not-reachable, as show above. now we can confirm that this is root cause of attach failure

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Case 2 Multi-mode UE Attach Failure (Cont.)

Analysis (Cont.)
Why should UE need attach to MSC ? We check the UE model, it s Huawei E398, with multi-modes(GSM/UMTS/LTE). So we assume that this UE performs combined attach. From the attach request message we verify our assumption.

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Case 2 Multi-mode UE Attach Failure (Cont.)

Conclusion:
We check that there is no CS domain configuration in current EPS network, so MME only replies PS attach accept, and also inform that MSC cant reachable

Temporary solution:
Change UE attach mode with PS only Add CS domain configuration in EPC

Final solution:
Update MME to compatible with combined attach even there is no CS domain

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Thank you
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