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12 1937 3 2010

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( )


2011

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 2 #2


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51.009
22.1
A84

A84

. .
: ( ). 3- ., . .: , 2011. 144 .
ISBN 978-5-94057-744-7
5 15
. , ,
,
, .

, ,
,
( , ).

22.1


. .
. .


119002, , ., 11.
. (499) 241-74-83
03.03.2011 . 70100 1/16.
. . . . 9. 2000.
.
.
, 2- ., . 7.

, ., . 11.
. (499) 241-72-85. E-mail: biblio@mccme.ru

ISBN 978-5-94057-744-7

9 785940 577447 >

. ., 2009.
, 2009.

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 3 #3


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( . ) :
, .

( ), , (,
)
.
38
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, ,
, , .
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,
).
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, : . , ,
, ,
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, , ,
, .
. . , .

.
3 2010 . ,
, (
. 2728 4042) .

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 5 #5


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:
1 , 10 . .

p
1 (1/10)2

. , ,
(1 a)2 = 1 2a + a2 1 2a
( a a2 ),

1 A 1 A/2.

A = 1/100 1 1 , . . 99,5 :
200
, ,
( 6 ).
0,1. 1
, ,
. ?
.
, ( ) P Q .
2a.
1


, ,
:
, , ,
.

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 6 #6


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O ( ) OX OY
|OX| = a ( |PX| + |QX| = 2a);
|QY| = a ( |PY| = |QY|, |PY| + |YQ| = 2a).
|OQ| = ea ( e).

OYQ
p
p
p
|OY| = |QY|2 |OQ|2 = a2 a2 e2 = a 1 e2 a(1 e2 /2).

e = 0,1
10% , |OX| = a,
(
).

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 7 #7


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. ( ). ( l tg , l
).
2F
?

.
2F cos

a 2F(1 a2/2).

3
1/20 , . . 2 /2 1/800 , (
l tg l/20 ).

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 8 #8


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,
. ?

. 20%. ,
,
.

ABCDE (AE)
2 ,
. . 40%.
. ,
, AE ,
AE
2
1 +
1 + 2 /2 .
, 20 ,
(1/3)2 /2 1/20 (5%).
(A, C E) , ,
:

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 9 #9


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z = 0 ( (x, y, z))
, z =
= u(x, y) (
).
?

. () ,
grad u u (
|grad u|).
s, 2 ,
:
 2  2 
2
u + u
.
s = 1 2 |u|2 = e

,
()
 2  2 
2 ]]
u + u
S= e
dx dy + o( 2 ).

. ,
,
(. .
z = 0 z = u(x, y)).

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 10 #10


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()
, , . .
(, 1997,
. 6870). ( )
u u ( = div grad),

]]
]]
(u)2 dx dy = uu dx dy,
M

u = 0 M.
, u u, ( xi Rn )
2
2
u = u2 + . . . + u2 .

(*)

xn

x1


. ,
(r, ) (x1 = r cos , x2 = r sin )
u

2
2
u = u2 + 1r u + 12 u2 .
r
r
r f

u
: u = div grad u.
,
(
).
(*), ( ,
, ). , div, grad, rot,
, .

10

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 11 #11


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( ) y > 0 ( (x, y)) v,
y < 0 w = (3/4)v (
v = 1, w = 3/4).
ABC
A C
ABC B .

AB BC .

. B B : |BB | = . AB AB
B D, sin + O( 2 ).
, CB CB
BD , sin + O( 2 ).
AB C ABC

( ) =

e sin a e sin b + O(e2).


v

ABC ( , . . B B,

11

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 12 #12


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B B), , ( ) = 0
( ), . .

sin a = sin b .
v
w

(*)


( n = 1/v). (*)
n1 = 1/v n2 = 1/w
n1 sin

a1 = n2 sin a2.

. ,
(n1 = 1) (n2 = 4/3),

sin 1 = 4 sin 2 .

1 , 2
, (3/4) 1.
,
.

,
.
, (
),
, ( ).
, . ,
.

12

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 13 #13


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, , , ?

. BAC BAD ,

a1 = |AD| tg a2.
a1
|AB| = |AC| tg

|AD|
tg a1
sin a1
= n = 4,
=

tg
a
sin
a
3
|AC|
2
2

|AC|
|AD|.
. , ,
30% , .
, ,
,
( ).
. ,
13

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 14 #14


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, ( ).
: ,
,
: , , ,

.
, , , , , , .

(12 2008 , ),
.
(-): , , , , , .
:
,
:

.

,
, ,

, .

14

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 15 #15


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,
r x
OD?

a b

b a

. BOD ( ) = 2 .

(
OB): = 4 2 .
sin = n sin , r sin = x. = arcsin(x/r),
= arcsin(x/(nr)),

2 arcsin xr .
j(x) = 4 arcsin 3x
4r

,
. ,
,
.

15

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 16 #16


i




max ( )?

. 3x/(4r) u, x/r = nu,

j = 2 arcsin u arcsin nu.


2

/2 u
0 max :

4 =
n2
,
1 u2
1 n2 u2

2
= n
,
2
1u
1 n2 u2

u2max =

jmax = 2 arcsin u

4 n2
,
3n2

max

arcsin numax .

n = 4/3
u2max

= 5/12,

5/3
,
umax =
2

numax =

5/3 2/3.

5/3 1,666,
p
p
5/3 166,6/10 1,29.

umax 0,645,

numax 0,86.

sin( /6) = 0,5,

sin( /4) 0,707,

sin( /3) 0,86,


arcsin numax /3,

arcsin umax /4 /40,

jmax p p p ,
2
2
20
3

p,
jmax p3 10

. . 42 .
16

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 17 #17


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, 42 ?

. :

j e


+
, -

17

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 18 #18


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(
).

e jmax

,
. ,
,
max
. .
. ( ) ,
. 42 .

: ,
,
(
).


.
18

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 19 #19


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n(y) y
Y (
:
, ).
.

. y = f(x),
n sin = const,
.
()

C .
a(y) = arcsin n(y)

C .
, ( Y C) , n(y) > C
( ):

19

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 20 #20


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( C X).
X(C) ,
C
n: dn/dy 6= 0 ,
n(y) = C.
C n(Y) X(C)
, , y = Y.
,
,
(x = 0, y) , x.
a b,
(x = 0, y) .

(0, y) a, , b,
. .
. , , .
20

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 21 #21


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( )
, . ( : , ,
: , , , ,
.)

21

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 22 #22


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,
N .
?
. :
, (
, )
1 .
,
( ).
: , 24 , ( )
.

, ,
, .
,
,
.

22

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 23 #23


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, ( 28 ),
(),
, ( , ),
.
1/28 , . , , , ,
N,
1/28 .
24 , , N
, 24/28 ,
. . 50 .
, N 50
.
. , , ,
. (- ),
, . ( , ,
, ).
50 . ,
,
.

.
, .
(23

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 24 #24


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, ,
, ):
.
, , , . , . ( )
, , , (AB
A B 9%).

,
: .

24

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 25 #25


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(, ,

).
?
. , , z = f(r), r
, z .
, m r , m 2 r, mg.

R ,

mw2 r = cr,
mg

25

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 26 #26


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( c = 2 /g , ).
f , ( ):

df
= cr.
dr

f(r) = f(0) + c r2
2

,
.
. ,
: |OT| = |OX|/2, (cr2 /2)/(cr) = r/2.

a ( ) |TX| = |OX|/a: T
X, O.

26

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 27 #27


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?
.
?

. l (
),
r
, R .
x ( ).
( , )
y = x( /l).
, ,

 
 r  
R .
z=y R
=
x
r
r

,
R 10r.
l2 ,

, z

z 5x

(!).
27

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 28 #28


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, x , 4x
.
. , , 20% , .
. , ( ) .

, .

. : .
,
. 3 2010 .
,
. , ( )
, .

28

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 29 #29


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, ,
( , z = 2 z),

:

y = b sin( t)

x = a cos( t),

(*)

x y
.

(,
)
( ) , .
,
(z = x + iy)
z , .

29

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 30 #30


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. r
t,

w
z = reiwt = r cos(wt) + ir sin(wt).

r1 t:

z1 = r1 cos(wt) ir1 sin(wt).

,
Z=

z + z1 = (r + r1) cos(wt) + i(r r1) sin(wt)

,
a = r + r1 ,

b = r r1 .

, r > 1.
a b.

,
| | = r.


c2 = a2 b2 = 4,
2.

( r ). ( )
.
30

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 31 #31


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Z =
.
Z2 =

z2 + z1

z + z1

+ 2.


r,
= reiwt , 2 = r2 e2iwt
r2 .


W=

z2 + z1

= X + iY

0
2 ( c = 2):

X = A cos(2 t),

Y = B sin(2 t).

Z2 = W + 2. Z2 ()
0 4 (. . ),
.
1. ( Z = 0), Z2
0. (*) .
31

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 32 #32


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2.
, . , (
, ,


).
3. ,
, ,

.

a b

( + 3)( + 3) = 4.

. = 1, = 2.
,
-, -,
= ( + 3)/2.
,
= 1
= 2, . .
.

= 2
= 1/2, . .
.
, ( ) , ,
, :

32

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 33 #33


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( ).

4.


:
,
,
,
(R. Faure, 1953: Transformations conformes en
mecanique ondulatoire. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. T. 237.
P. 603605).
( ), , ,
(
).
,
|w/z|
|z/w| ( , ) w = z2
w = zg (
= ( + 3)/2

, ( + 3)( + 3) = 4),
= ,
w = ez , z = ln w. ( w0 = ln w
, . . 91102.)

b a

33

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 34 #34


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, z = a cos(t).
, (
= 0)
.

. () , ,
,
,
z = 2 a cos(t).
g () l,

f = (l/g) sin f.
(
)
(., , : . , . , 1967,
1999 34

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 35 #35


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, . 8790,
245263).
,

f = (l/g)f.

, ,
(0 6 t 6 T = 2 /) (
, , : .
, . 281289
, , 2000).

l = 20 1 = 0


30 .
, , , .
.
. (
).
. . , ,
. , .
, -

35

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 36 #36


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, .
. .
, . .
, ( ) , . .
, .
, . . ( )1 .

, l = 20
. () , .
10
( )
, . . ( 1961
,
).
1


(http://etudes.ru).

36

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 37 #37


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,


( , , ).

37

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 38 #38


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(,
10 /). ?
( ).
. r

(
- ).
, ,
2 .


r = r .
3
r

,
(r0 = 1, 0 = t).
(r = r0 + r1 ,
= 0 + 1 )
r1 1 , ,

f f

f 1 = 2r 1.

r1 = 3r1 + 2 1 ,

(r1 (0) = 1 (0) = 1 (0) = 0, r 1 (0) = 1/800,


, 1
, 8 /).

38

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 39 #39


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r1 = r1 , ,

2 cos t.
f1 = 800

r1 = 1 sin t,
800

,
32
16 , 16 .
( )

,

.
.
( . .
).
, , ,
: ,
( ) . :
,
.

39

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 40 #40


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- .
?
.
( ),

( 12 , 24 ).

( ,
, ).

(
).
- 60 ,

,
,

, (0, /2,
3/2).

( ) (0, 0, 2 ).

40

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 41 #41


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(0, /2, (4 3)/2): , ( - 60 ),


arctg((4 3)) 66 .
,
, .
. ( , ,
, !), , , , ,
.


,
, A, ,
, B,

:

, ,
(P
2
) I = mr ,
.
,

41

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 42 #42


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, ? ,
, ,
2 ( ,
). ,
-
, .

42

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 43 #43


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, (
) . , , ,
.
, ,

.
, , , 4 .
?

.
, , . ,
( ) ,
4 4 .
.
. .
, (, ,
: ).
43

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 44 #44


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( .) ,
( ).
, , ,
, .

, - ,
.
, ,
, .
, , : , .
, ,
,
,
, , .
, , , , ,
, ( )
.
. ,
,
( ), : 44

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 45 #45


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,
, (
, ,
, ,
).

45

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 46 #46


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( )

,
.
. ( ).
( 2 /3
).

.
,
( ).
,
( ) ,
.
, , ,
.
.
, .
, 8
. , 8
,
, , .
.
: ( ) .
. ( ): -

46

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 47 #47


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, ,
(, , ).

47

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 48 #48


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,
, ( ) .
x = f(t) ( f [0, T]
).
, ( (0) = , (d /dt)(0) = 0),
T .

().
= 0, (t) = 0 ,
= , (t) = t.
()
, ,
(0) = 0 (0) = (0) = , (t) 0 6 t 6 T
0 ,
.

f p

a
f
p

48

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 49 #49


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. () , ,
( , T),

,
=

0

, 0 < t < T.
, , ( , t) ( ( ,t)=0 ).
, .
.
(, , df/dt ).
.
:
?, .

. n :
, n .
n-
, . () , , .
. . .

af

af

49

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 50 #50


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(
n , , , ).

n-
, ,
n .
.

50

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 51 #51


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() , . , .

. f , . F , , F =
= 2f, ( ) f ( ).
,
, , f
( ). , , f = F (
, ).
, 2 ,
F = 2f F = f. , f = F = 0. , ,
, , g .
. (
) .
g
51

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 52 #52


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( ,
, ).

,
.

, ,
(, . ) .
.
. . ,
, M
v, M .
, M ( ) 10 : , ,
. M, ,
M .
, . , ( ) , , .
52

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 53 #53


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(, ) , ,
,
:


.
?
. ,
, .
, , ,
:


1 (, 100 ). 53

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 54 #54


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, , x.
( )
1 + x = 4x,
. . x = 1/3, .
. ,

(x = p/q).
, .

54

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 55 #55


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( ) ,
.
( ,
).

. , () , ,
.

r. ( , M) r3 .

, , r,
M/r2 = r.
, :

w2r,

r =

r = R cos( t).

R .
, . P
T = 2 / ( ).

pw

55

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 56 #56


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2 , , P .
R.
P ,
, (
).
T

(
).

: , ,
10 20 .
( ) , , , ,
:
.

,
. ,

20 () ( ),
.
10 ,
,
.
- , ( ,
, ).

56

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 57 #57


i

(. . )

()
dx = a(t)x2 + b(t)x + c(t).
dt

x = x2 ,
,
:
x(t) =

x(0)
.
1 tx(0)

(*)


( t = 1/x(0)
).
. .

( , , ) .
(a, b, c) t. N T
N(T)
= N.
T
T

lim

, ,
.
. {x} R, ,
. . RP1 S1x ( x = ).
, (*) ,
( x(0) x(t)) .
57

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 58 #58


i

{t} ,
R/(TZ) S1t ( ).
-
T2 = S1t S1x .

(., ,
), , N.
, ,
.

. . . . ,
. .
58

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 59 #59


i

,
. , :
R RP1 , .
(, , ),
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
: ( )
()
.


, , .
59

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 60 #60


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:
- .
( )
(

).

60

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 61 #61


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-
( 2007 ) , , .
1980 (. . .),
, , ,
.
,
( 3 ).
12 ?
. , .
,
. A
,

, , B.


, .
1. . . .
61

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 62 #62


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- . . (
).
. . .
(
) (). ,
. . . -
,
.

1980 (
, ),
:
2007 .
2. ,
, .
, ,
( ).
. ,
, . . ( , - ).
10, , , .
.
,
. (
)
15 (
,
62

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 63 #63


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,
).

,
-.
, ,
- , . ( )
.

,
, ,
.

63

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 64 #64


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( , . .
).
?
. , , ( ) .
, , .
, .

, .

,
( ).

64

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 65 #65


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6 , . .

,
: .

, , ,
, -
, 6 ,
.

, , , .
, . , ,
( ).
65

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 66 #66


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, , , ,
, -
,
, .

. , dx/dt = x
x(0) = 1 x(0) = 0
: t = 30 ( 10)
.
,
dx/dt, , ,
dx/dt = f(x).
f
( ),
, .

, ( 66

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 67 #67


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, , ).
. . . , , , . .
, 1960 , :

, ( , , ).
.
, , , .
. .

. , ,
(
) ( , ), , , .
67

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 68 #68


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80
, 4 ( ).

a
( )
( ).

(a 380 000 ).
, ( ,
6400 ).

68

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 69 #69


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n , z,
, n k ak (k = 1, . . . , n):

z=

n
X

ak eiwk t

k=1

( z
).
, |z|,
, (t) = arg z,
.
,

f(t)
= lim t ,

z(t)
, , 69

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 70 #70


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, . ,
.
, , ( - ) ,
.
.

P
(. . |aj | >
|ak |),
k6=j


, aj ().
, . , ,
|a1 |, |a2 |, |a3 | :

. ,

= p1

w1 + p2w2 + p3w3

(*)

, :
pj = j / .

a p

(
) ( )
j (, ,

70

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 71 #71


i

, . .
m1 1 + m2 2 + m3 3 = 0

m 6= 0).
, ( ).

P n |ak |) (. . |aj | <


k6=j

(*) ,
pk .
(n 1)- Tn1 k , k 6= j.

X
( )=
ak eifk .

xf

k6=j

j-
|aj |: | ( )| < |aj |.
pj j-
( ,

1).
n = 3
pj = j / , .
, p1 + . . . + pn 1
n , (
k , pj ).
. ,
.
, n = 3.

xf

a p
w

71

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 72 #72


i

T3 1 , 2 , 3 ,
1 , 2 , 3 :

f f f

w w w
f 2 = w2, f 3 = w3.

f 1 = w1,

w( ) = a1 eif1 + a2 eif2 + a3 eif3 .


( 2 ) ,
w( ) 6= 0.
, w( ) = 0,
, S,
w (
arg w( ) = 0).

( ). S ,

w = w1 f

w2 f

w3 f

3-
T3 (, ).
T3 f,


( f = 0
, , f = 1).

f
S

72

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 73 #73


i

(
2 ) f (t) = (0) +
+ t.

( ) , .
, f .


(,
S).
f
,


= / k ( ).
, , ,
, 0,
.
A3
,
, 3 .
( A1 A2 ) 1 2 , |A1 + A2 | <
< |A3 |, 3 / |A3 | = |a3 | |a1 |, |a2 | |a1 |
.

a p


. ,
73

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 74 #74


i

T3 7
7

+ t .
,
. . (
) ( )
, (
. ).
,
: ,
(
).

7
7 + t Tn (
k)
. (
) f : Tn R
1:
 T]
 ] ]
1
lim
f( + t) dt = . . . f( ) d .

f w

f
w

f w

f w

Tn

f f

. f ( ) X
(
f( ) = 1 X,
f( ) = 0 Tn \ X.

f
f

f
f

, 0 6 t 6 T 7 + t X.
, X
t > 0.

f f w

74

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 75 #75


i

X .
( Tn ) 1,

, X.
.
( X, ),
, .


( ) .
,
.

7 + t n
T .

f f w

g : Tn Tn ,

g( ) =

f + l.


Tn ,

:

m1

l1 + . . . + mnln + m0

0, m Zn+1
.
75

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 76 #76


i

. n = 1 g
, ,

( 2 ).

76

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 77 #77


i



2t , t = 0, 1, 2, . . .:
1, 2, 4, 8, 1, 3, 6, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2, . . .

?
3 , p1 = limT ( 1 2t T
).
.
: lg 2t = t , = lg 2.
z k,
z k10a 6 z < (k + 1)10a, a
. , a + lgk 6 lg z < a + lg(k + 1),
lg z
pk = lg(k + 1) lg k = lg(1 + 1/k).

= lg 2 (
10 p/q = 2, . . 10 p = 2q ,
p > 0 , 2q 5).
. {t }, t = 0, 1,
2, . . . R/Z . , [0, lg 2) ,
, - ,
: p1 = lg 2 0,30.
30% 2t .
. , p2 , ,
p3 , . .:


pk = lg(k + 1) lg k = lg 1 + 1 :

k
100pk

1
30

2
18

3
12

4
10

5
8

6
7

7
6

8
5

9
4

77

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 78 #78


i

2

, at (, a = 3) pk
, k,
, 2t . , a 10:
= lg a
, .
.
, , ( 1930 .), .
,
1,

,
.
: ,
,
.
:
,
, (, ).
. ,
: .
: (. . ).

78

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 79 #79


i


,
, k.
, pk =
= lg(1 + 1/k) ( 2t
, . 77).
. , ,
, .
, k, pk .
,
(
) (
).
. , , -
, ,
, .
1, 2, . . .
. . . , 9 p1 =
= p2 = . . . = p9 = 1/9 ( 1 - ,
9).
, , ,
pk = lg(1 + 1/k)
.
, (
, , ) ,
.
79

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 80 #80


i

, (
2 ), ( , ).

, 1 ,
(,
), pk = lg(1 + 1/k)
.

. () .
().

80

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 81 #81


i


N - (, In Rn ,
, ).

r , r
.
r ,
, 1,
.

, :
,
N ,
r, , , .

r , .
N, .
81

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 82 #82


i

, , , r

.
N

3
1/ N, N1/3 .

, : N In
N , , C/N1/n .
N I3 , , , , , C/N.
N , I3 , N : r C/N1/2 ( N k-
In
1/N1/k ).

82

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 83 #83


i

, ,
N , .
,
, .
, , : - ,

, N ?
.

, .
, -
, (, , ).
.
, ,
N . ,
, C/Na , 1/2 < < 1.

-, ,
, (dim = 2),

83

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 84 #84


i

(dim = 1),
, (

(dim = 0)).
( ,
).
,
, ,
(, ,
7 ,
).


,
.

84

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 85 #85


i


1
,
, 1.
(N ). N M
?

. :
2,
lim M = p

, ,
.
. , N
M(N) cN ( c, ).

1 .
( )
. ,
1, .
85

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 86 #86


i

,
1.
, 2 . ( ) ,
.

, , l,
N cNl .
, , 1.
l .
N cN .


.
, ,

cN = 2N,

. . c = 2/ , .
.
- ,
, , , .

.
,
86

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 87 #87


i

,
(
,
).

87

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 88 #88


i


.
. ,
,
() ,
.

,
.
1 ( 1) . 1 4 .
, 4
, 6. , 3/2.
. ( 1)
.
() .

, ,

: |PA PB | = |AB| = 2.
88

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 89 #89


i


OPA PD

|OPD | = 2(|PAPB |/2)/ 3 = 2/3 ( tg 60 = 3).



r
1 2
2 2

2=
1 .
3
2 3

P 6/(2 3) = 3.
, 1 1
2

( 1)
( 3) .
.
,
.
Rn k- Sk
k- .
, ( k-
, )
, R3
.
k- .
()
h-
V(h) = V0 + V1 h + V2 h2 + . . . + Vn hn
( , V0 , V1 (n 1)-
,
1, Vk Sk
k ).
89

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 90 #90


i

n = 3, . .
, k1 k2
k1 + k2 K = k1 k2 .
h-
V(h) = V0 + hS + h2 V2 + h3 V3 ,
V2
, V3 :
 ]]

V3 = 4
K dS .
3

, R

V(h) = 4 (R + h)3 = 4 R3 + h (4 R2 ) + h2 (4 R) + 4 h3 .
3

k1 = k2 = 1/R,
]]
]]

k1 + k2 = 2/R,

k1 k2 = 1/R2 ,

(k1 + k2 ) dS = 8 R,

(k1 k2 ) dS = 4

( ).

V3 , .
,
, V(h).

90

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 91 #91


i



-.
, (x) = 0 x 6= 0,

]

(x) dx = 1. ,

.
: -, ,
, -
e (x), e 0 -
0 ,
0.

. f .

f(x) (x y) dx.

. e (x y) x
-, 0 y.

f(x) e (x y) 0, |x y| > ,
- y x. f -

91

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 92 #92


i

f(y).
lim

e0

f(x) e (x y) dx = f(y)

de(x y) dx = f(y).

]
f(y) =
f(x) (x y) dx.

. ( ),
: () f y
- y, x
y ( y (x y)).

f(x) .
. |x|
x.

. sgn x 1 x > 0
1 x < 0. . , 0 x 6= 0
( a < 0 b > 0),
2 ( sgn x). ,

d2 |x|
= 2 (x).
dx2

. - ?
f k ,

f(cx) = ck f(x) c > 0.


. 1/x , k = 1.
92

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 93 #93


i

. (2x),
- x e ( x) :

de(2x).

, (2x)
0 x 6= 0, (
) , - ( 1).
,

d(2x) = 12 d(x),

d(cx) = 1c d(x),

- 1.
. - n ( , 0 Rn , 0
1).
. , n.
, n = 1.

d(x1, x2, . . . , xn) = d(x1)d(x2) . . . d(xn)


k
l k + l.
. f ( n). r x. f f(x)
, .
.
r 0?
93

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 94 #94


i

. n = 1
= f(x + r) + f(x r) .
f(r)
2

f f(x + r) = f(x) +
2
+ rf (x) + r f (x) + . . . ,

2
= f(x) + r f (x) + o(r2 ),
f(r)


2
f(x) = r f (x) + o(r2 )
f(r)

r.
n .
0,
.

r2 o(r2 ).
, :
f(x) = Kr2 + o(r2 ).
f(r)
K ( x) , f, .
. K f.
. ,
( ) r.

0, (x, y) ( n = 2).
x2 y2 () , xy
94

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 95 #95


i

0 ( x ).
x2 + y2 () {x2 + y2 = r2 } r2 . x2 , y2 xy r2 /2,
r2 /2, 0.
2 f x2
2 f y2
2f
+
+
xy
2
2
x y
x 2
y 2


2 f r2
2 f r2
+
,
x2 4
y2 4

( n = 2) :

 2
2f
f
K= 1
+
.
2
2
4 x

n (x1 , . . . , xn ) n-


 2
2f
2f
f
+
+
.
.
.
+
K= 1
2
2
2
2n x1

x2

xn

( x21 x21 + . . .
. . . + x2n = r2 r2 /n).
.
u = Rn .
. Rn \ 0 u

u(x1 , . . . , xn ) = f(r).
u = 0, f,
2- ; 2 . , ,
f 1.
u, u = .

95

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 96 #96


i

u k, u
, k 2.
- Rn n,
u 2 n.
, n 6= 2,

f(r) = cr 2n .
c . , u = div grad u. r 2n , 1 n:
grad r 2n = c1 xrn .
c1
x1 : r 2n = x12n ,
dx21n
= (2 n)x11n = (2 n)xrn ,
dx1

c1 = 2 n.
grad r 2n x21 + . . .
. . .+x2n =r2 r (2n)
r1n n 1 r,
. .
(2 n)

w(n 1)

w(n 1) (n 1)- 1:
n
(n 1)

1
2

2
2

3
4

p p

]
div grad rn2 dx1 . . . dxn = (2 n) (n 1).

Rn

96

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i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 97 #97


i

, Rn

rn2 = (2 n) (n 1) .

, u = Rn n 6= 2
u = cr 2n ,

c=

1
.
(2 n)w(n 1)


( ).
. (n = 3)
u = cr ,

c = 1 .
4p

.
n = 1 u =
= cr, c = 1/2 ( u = |x|/2).
. u = .
. ,
, u = cr 2n , n = 2,
n = 2 + , 0.

e e

r 2n = e(2n) ln r = ee ln r = 1 ln r + o( ).
1
(u = 0),
ln r, R2 r 6= 0.
, , ,

u = c ln 1r
( c ).
97

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 98 #98


i

.
, u = 0 ( u = f(r))
( 0) .
, Rn
( ).
(grad u) , ,
F r1n x n
|x|

n 6= 2, n = 2.
n 6= 2 0 ( ) .
n,
n = 2 : 0 ,
.
, ( n 6= 2 ), n 2 .

.
(ln r)
.
( ) , ,
( (x, y),
z).
, x = y = 0 R3 -

98

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 99 #99


i


.
,
(x, y, z) 7
7 (x, y, z), .


(
) r0 = ln(1/r).
- ,
. . 1916
:
, .

( ) , .

. ,
. ,
. . , -

99

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 100 #100


i

(
, ,
, ).
( )
. ,
, .
1965 , ,
.
,
.
: , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
: -, , (Comptes Rendus de
lAcademie des Sciences).
1966 , ,
(
), .
: ,
, : , , ,
, !

, ,
.
, . . -
() .
100

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 101 #101


i

, (
).
- 1930 .
, , ,
,
.
, - : - , , , .
:
, (+1/2 1/2),
.
:
, . . 1 (SO(3)) Z2 .
, 360
. , , 360 , 720.
.
( )
: ,
. ,

101

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 102 #102


i

n ( n ).

: ,
.


( 3 , ).
, ( ) .
, CP1
() . , ,

4
2
( y = x + ax + bx,
. . ). 4
Z2 .
, 4 ,
.
,
.

102

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 103 #103


i



,
.
,
, .
, , . , ?
( -, )
. . ?
. . , A
, r O, B,
,
O , A,

O,
A:
|OA| |OB| = r2 .

. 1. A B

103

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 104 #104


i

. 2. ,

. , A ,
(. 3).

. 3. AC CA (
a a )

, A ,
A* .
{A* A },
A A*
(. 4).
, ,
, 104

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 105 #105


i

. 4. AC CA A*

1 . ,
- , ,
A.
,
, ( ). (. 5). CD CD

. 5. CA

( C). .
1

, , , , .

105

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 106 #106


i

, (. 6).

. 6. ,
,

( . 6 ). , . ( )
. ,
( ).

(), (), ,
. 106

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 107 #107


i

, ,
, 1 .
,
, ,
A
, .
, , ,
( , , ).
,
6 :
S ( ,
).
()
,
2 . , ( ) A
, S ( ).
A , 1


: ,
, , . , ,
,
.
2
,
(
y2 = x3 ).
( )
( ), .

107

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 108 #108


i

S , .
, , , : , A, ,
,
A* A .
A* , S
A,
O ,
A. A
( , ,
A , A*
A).
A* OA
|OA| = XR . 7.

|OR| = |OC| = R.

OCP:

a -

|OP| = R cos ,

|CP| = R sin .

ACP :

tg

CP|
R sin a
f = ||AP
=
a ,
X1
R(X cos a)
|

f X a 1 .

OCP 2X 1
PCQ = ( /2) ( + 2 ), + 2
.

g p

a f

X1

108

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 109 #109


i

. 7. AR AC

CPQ

|PQ| = |CP| tg

f + 2a)
.
g = |CP| cos(
sin(f + 2a)

|CP| + 2
P Q
0

a R X1 .
|PQ| R2Xsin
1
X1

2X 1

Q S OR
X1
=
|QS| = |PS| |PQ| R R
2

2X 1

R
.
2(2X 1)

A S OR

|AS| = |AO| |SO| = R(X 1/2) =

2X 1
R.
2

109

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 110 #110


i

, S A Q :
|QS| |AS| = R2 /4.
()
.
,
( S R/2).

. 8. ()

, , (, ), .
, ( )

( ). , , ,
, .
110

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 111 #111


i


,

, (
).
A* ,
*
B , C* , D* , A, B, C, D (. 9)

. 9. A* B* C* D* ABCD

, .
,
.
.
, , , .
111

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 112 #112


i

. , , ,
(. 10).

. 10. c c* , C C*

,
C (. 11).

. 11. C, O ()

OB* A* OAB , |OB* |/|OA*| = |OA|/|OB|, |OA| |OA*| =


= |OB| |OB* |.
A = D |OB| |OB* | = R2 .
C 112

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 113 #113


i

C* (
C ).
, C ,
, ( O).
C , , O, a .
, , ( ).
c,
, , c
O (. 12).

. 12. c,
O

c
O . :
|OD| = |OE|. ( ) O, c
,
|OD| = |OE| = R R (
113

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 114 #114


i

D E
).
OA* A c
|OA*| |OA| = |OD|2 = R2 .
, A A* c
, .
, ,
() . , c* .
c O, . .
. .
. .
, ( ). , , . 13,
C, O, D ( DE).
OD ( ) OB ( C* )
D = DOB.

O D ,
DOM ODM /2 .

114

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 115 #115


i

. 13. ( )

DB D B OB C, BDO ( ) .
, BDN ( D) , DOB =
, C* (
/2 ( /2 ) = ).
, , , , D .
,
D
, ,
, D.
,
: , ,
( ).

p p

115

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 116 #116


i

() . ( O)
( R)
( O).
,

( O) , .
, , . , ( O), .
. f : C C , ( ) C R2 (x, y) z = x + iy.
, f (
f, . . ,
0).
. () .

f(z) = 1 ,
z

z = x iy, :
d(1/z)
= 12 .
dz
z

. ,
z C z2 , ?
.
{y = 0} {x = 0} C = {z} 116

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 117 #117


i

z2 , .

(. 14).

. 14.

, .
. ( ) ?
. ,
.
( ) .

( )
. -
f(z) =

az + b
,
cz + d

( f
a, b, c, d ad bc = 1 ).
Im z > 0, , ,
117

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 118 #118


i

, ,
Im z = 0 (. 15).

. 15.

,

.
,
:
.
. ,
.

118

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 119 #119


i


,
.
, , (
).


: (
) .


(, , ).
,
. ( .
, 20.)


x M:
dx = v(x, t),
dt

x M.

(1)

I(x, t) , ,

(1), , ,
x(t), ,
, (1) t.
119

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 120 #120


i


, (1)
( M),
( - ):

dx = v(x, ),
dt

x M,

l .

:
= f(t).


, , t, = t (
, 0).


,
= f(t) = F( ),
= t,

t e

t e

F .
I(x, )

|I(x(0), (0)) I(x(t), (t))| <

0 6 6 1, . . , 0 6 t 6 1/ ( |x(t) x(0)| 1),


:

l = F(et),
e (e < e0 (k)).

e < e0 (k)

,
-

120

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 121 #121


i

( ) I ( )
1/ .
, I , F (, F C2 ).
, .
, , t,
x(t) .
,
, . , F.
, ,
, I, .
, I(x, t) t 1/
, (. . x(0)
{x(t)} ).

,
F,
I 1/
.
1. .

121

i
i

arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 122 #122


i

l > 0.

d2 x = x,
dt2

(2)

q2
p2
+
=E
2
2

p2

lq

H(p, q; ) =
+
(,
2
2
, p = dx/dt, q = t H
(2): q = H/p, p = H/q).
(2) = 2 ,

l w

q = a sin( t),

p=

wa cos(wt).

(
(p, q)) S = a ( a) = ( a2 ). a
E = 2 a2
E = w
p S. ,

w p

I(p, q;

q)
w) = pH(p,
= pa2 w
w

(2).
I , , l (
2 = = l/g)
,

2 ,
a2 I = a2 2 .

w
w

p w

122

i
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.

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, (a l) .
.
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]]
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(
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)
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.
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v ,
.
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, ).

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,
,
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, ,
|v|x .
.
t 1/ , (x = F( ),

124

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t = et)



I(x(+), |v(+)|) I(x(), |v()|).

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( . . , 38,
2, 1960, 570578).
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B
v. v B .
,
, r ( B v ).
v2 /|B|.
,
, |v| 0,
|B| ( , 0 ). B .
, :
,
,
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()

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 126 #126


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( ).

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.
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.
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.
M (
> 0) , r = 1/ .
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.
M (
M B).
,
( , B , ,
|v| = |dx/dt|).

126

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 127 #127


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B ,

( |v|2 /|B|).
,
M B, .

B ,




, B : M R
K : M R.
, , ,

( B 6= const ).
| |,
( ).
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: , l,
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l
).

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l
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.
, 20,
.

128

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 129 #129


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l, , S. ,
?
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).
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)

:
l cSa ,

a 0,58 ( Hack).

,
, .


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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 130 #130


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). :

a ln l/ ln S

()

(2 )

502

17640

275

4640

0,66

99

1160

0,65

165

5474

0,56

112

2120

0,61

156

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0,65

129

2720

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40

265

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42

513

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41

452

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0,64

12
0,63.

130

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 131 #131


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,

1958 13- ,
,
, , :
u(P) = f(x) + g(y).

,
. , P u(P)
, f(x) + g(y). P g, f,
.
, , R3 , u
,
(x, y, z):
u(P) = f(x) + g(y) + h(z).
,
, . 131

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 132 #132


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( ) , P Q R S . . .

, (
):
,
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u,
.
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).
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.
.
132

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, , ,
.
.
( , . . , )
2 u = 0,
x y

u(x, y) = f(x) + g(y),

( ).
. . (1943 )
,
,
, .
,
,
, ( , 12%, ).
, . P PQ (
,
,
, ).
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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 134 #134


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Q
, ( R)
.

P R
T = P (
PQRST ).
( ).

, ,
(
,
, , , ,
).
. . . .
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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 135 #135


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. . ,
( ), .
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).
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1910
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.
!

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 136 #136


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, , ,
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.

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XVIII : ,
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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 139 #139


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A , ,

OA, A .

OA
OA , A, OA
, ,
, .
, C
O , ,
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,
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.
, B
O
. , |OB|,
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, B ( , B,
).
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,
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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 141 #141


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, 1965 ,
, .
,

,
( ) .
SO(3)
, , .
,
.

,
x 7 ax + b. (a > 0),
{a, b : a > 0}.
,
ds2 =

da2 + db2
,
a2

.
a > 0 (a, b),
, a = 0.

141

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 142 #142


i

SDiff M
M (. . M M,
M). () M.
,
.


,
SO(3) SDiff M () .

. ,
(
).
142

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 143 #143


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(
).

, .
, (
), ,
105
( ) .
,

, , , . ,
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),
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,
, ( SO(3) ),
.

143

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arnold 2011/3/3 16:34 page 144 #144


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3
5
7
8
9
11
13
15
16
17
19
22
25
27
29
34
38
40
43
46
48
51
53
55
57
61
64
66
69
77
79
81
85
88
91
103
119
129
131
137

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